Policing by xiuliliaofz


Chapters 5 & 6 In Your Textbook

           John Massey
          Criminal Justice
                  History of Policing
•   Early days – very little crime control
•   Directed towards specific groups of people
•   Delivering goods
•   Regulating activities, maintaining
•   Managing animals
•   Usually performed by volunteers

•   As populations grew, so did the need for public
            11th Century England
• The Tithing System
• 1 male per group of 10 families – tithing
• 10 tithings (100 families) – formed larger community group – top law
  official – reeve
• The hundreds were put into established counties known as shires –
  top law enforcement official – shire reeve (sheriff)

• 1326 – office of the justice of the peace established
• Oversaw various law enforcement activities
• Remained in place for a number of centuries
                         Mid 1700’s
•   London did not have an organized system of law enforcement
•   Military would deal with crime
•   Disorder and public unrest
•   Great hostility between citizens and soldiers

•   1829 – Sir Robert Peel – Metropolitan Police Act
•   Act formed the London Metropolitan Police
•   1000 members
•   Uniforms with blue coats and top hats
•   “bobbies”
•   Goals: reduce tension and conflict between law enforcement and
    public, use non-violent means, relieve the military, and be judged on
    the absence of crime.
                More Early Policing
•   The London Police – very successful
•   Eventually spread to the U.S.

•   1801 – Boston – first formal night watch in the U.S.
•   Watchmen were paid 50 cents each night

•   1833 – Philadelphia – first city with both day and night
•   1838 – Boston – first organized police dept – 6 officers

•   By Civil War in the U.S., many large cities had fully
    developed departments modeled after the London Police

•   Early forms of corruption
           Political Era of Policing
• 1840-1930
• Spoils System
• Low salaries for police officers
• Officers could make extra money through a variety of illegal
• Political victors hired the men they wanted to run the towns

•   Modernizing Policing:
•   1929 – Herbert Hoover – Wickersham Commission
•   -focused on police brutality and corrupting influence of politics
•   -called for higher standards for personnel, increased technology and
    centralized police administrations – led to a Reform Era
    Reform Era/Professional Model
•   Administrative reforms:
•   New positions (middle men)
•   Police chiefs brought large areas under
    their control
•   Special units and squads
•   Technology innovations
•   Some negative impacts (police officers
    seen as intruders)

•   This led to turmoil in the 1960’s.
                     1960’s – 1980’s
•   1960’s
•   Civil rights movement, civil unrest, race riots
•   Police brutality, anti-war demonstrations
•   Riots were in response to social conditions of the time

•   1968
•   Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
•   Federal government provided state and local PDs with funds to create
    police/community programs

•   1970’s
•   Crime wave began
•   Agencies forced to improve community relations
•   Move from reactive patrol to proactive
      Law Enforcement Agencies
•   Sometimes agencies work together
•   13500 agencies in the U.S., 1 million people
•   3,088 sheriff departments
•   1332 special policing agencies
•   49 state police departments (all but Hawaii)
•   50 federal law enforcement agencies

•   2.5 state/local police officers for every 1,000
                  Types of Agencies
•   Municipal/Local
•   -the broadest authority

•   Sheriff and County
•   -sheriff is the primary law enforcement officer in a county
•   -elected by vote
•   -vary in size, primary responsibility is to investigate violent crimes
•   -the coroner – medical examiner

•   State/Highway Patrols
•   -formed to assist local agencies
•   -23 state police agencies, 26 highway patrols
•   -state police have statewide jurisdiction, perform variety of tasks
•   -highway patrols have limited authority, primary focus is regulating traffic
                 Types of Agencies
•   Limited Purpose Agencies
•   -deal with areas needing specific attention
•   -ex: ABC Commission

•   Federal Agencies
•   -authorized to enforce specific laws

•   Department of Justice (1870)
•   -primary federal law enforcement agency in the country
•   -headed by attorney general

•   FBI (1908)
•   -primary investigative agency of the fed. Govt.
•   Combats worldwide criminal activity
                   Federal Agencies
•   DEA (1973)
•   -4000 special agents, enforce domestic drug laws/regulations

•   US Marshalls (1789 – the oldest)
•   -provide security at federal courts, control property that has been seized by
    fed. Govt, protect government witnesses, transport federal prisoners, etc.

•   Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
•   -monitor and police flow of immigrants into the country
•   -border patrol
•   -7000 border agents
•   -$4.2 billion budget annually
•   -arrest 1.2-2 million illegal aliens each year
                     Federal Agencies
•   Department of Treasury (1789)
•   -responsible for financial matters of the fed. Govt.

•   ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms)
•   -concerned w/ illegal sale, possession and use of firearms and control of untaxed
    tobacco and liquor products

•   US Secret Service (1865)
•   -investigates counterfeiters and forgers of govt. bonds, protects President, politicians
    and candidates

•   IRS (Internal Revenue Service)
•   -concerned with violations of tax laws and regulations

•   US Customs Service
•   -policies the flow of people and goods into and out of country
•   -prevents smuggling of contraband
                     Federal Agencies
•   Department of Homeland Security
•   -created post-9/11
•   -combines 22 federal agencies
•   -$40 billion annual budget

•   Private Security
•   -emerged recently
•   -60,000 private security firms in the U.S.
•   -$90 billion a year industry
•   -due to a number of reasons:
     –   Increase in fear on part of public
     –   Crime in workplace
     –   Budget cuts in states
     –   Rising awareness of private security as cost-effective
     –   Jurisdiction and authority varies from state to state
         Police Responsibilities
• A lot of police work – paperwork
• Community Work
• Four primary responsibilities
   – Enforce Laws
      • Seek out and apprehend those who
        have violated the law
   – Provide Services
      • Direct traffic, help people, answer
        questions (public servant role)
   – Prevent Crime
      • Presence alone can be a deterrent
   – Preserve Peace
      • Handle situations, use discretion, calm
        down disputes, deal with small crimes to
        prevent larger crimes
  How are departments organized?
• 4 criteria
• 1) environment, 2) size of area, 3) types of crimes dealt with, 4)
  demographics of population
• Departments vary in size, face different challenges

• Goal of any department: Maximum efficiency using limited resources

• How can departments be efficient?
• 1) response time and 2) arrest rates

• Response time: time elapsed between the instant a call for service
  is received and the moment the police arrest on the scene

• Arrest rates: idea is that the more arrests made, the less criminals
  are on the street
                   Police Strategies
• Incident Driven Policing
    – Helps officers get to the scene of a crime quickly w/out any problems
• Differential Response Strategy
    – Distinguishing between calls for service
• Clearance Rate
    – Percentage of crimes solved over any given time
• Citizen Satisfaction
    – Treat the community like customers who pay for a service
    – Ask for their feedback

    – Patrol officers:
        • The heart of any police force
        • Most officers are not making arrests all the time
        • Deal with paperwork, breaks, patrolling to prevent crime
                     Patrol Officers
• Three purposes of patrol:
• 1) deterrence of crime by maintaining visible
  police presence
• 2) maintenance of public order and a sense
  of security in the community
• 3) 24 hour provision of services that are not
  crime related

•   Categories of Patrol Activities
•   -preventive patrol
•   -calls for service
•   -administrative duties
•   -officer-initiated activities
   Common Patrol Officer Duties
Four basic duties
   1) control traffic
   2) preliminary investigations
   3) make arrests
   4) patrol public events/community services

Types of Patrol
   directed, general, foot, auto, motorcycle,
   mounted, bike, boat, K-9
     The Kansas City Experiment
•   Conducted in 1972-1973
•   One of the most influential studies in CJ history

•   Control beats, proactive beats, reactive beats

•   Results: increasing or decreasing preventive patrol had little or no impact
    on crime rates, fear of crime, public opinion on the effectiveness of the
    police, reports of crime to the police, traffic accidents and police response

•   Study showed nothing about other types of patrol such as bike or foot

•   Why influential?
     – Departments can assign officers to random preventive patrols when needed
     – Departments can experiment with other strategies
               Police Investigations
•   Investigation is the 2nd main function of the
•   Reactive rather than proactive
•   Led by the detective
•   Myths

•   Preliminary Investigation:
•   Begins as soon as police are notified
•   First officer on the scene
•   Secure the crime scene, interview victims
    and witnesses, gather evidence, follow-up
Aggressive Investigative Strategies
•   Undercover operations
•   Confidential informant

•   Community Policing:
•   Community Oriented Policing (COP)
     –   Less centralized, more proactive police role
     –   Promotes relations between community and the police
     –   Working together
     –   You are out there talking to and meeting people

•   Problem Oriented Policing (POP)
     – Identify potential criminal activity and develop strategies to prevent or respond to
     – Look at patterns of arrests, interview people, etc. – get to the root of the problem
Police Surveillance
        Hotspots and Crackdowns
•   Hot spots:
•   Areas of high criminal activity that draw a
    directed police response
•   Officers and resources
•   Murder problem?

•   Crack downs:
•   Focus on a particular crime or set of crimes
•   -aggressive form of patrol
•   -arrest every single person engaging in that
    particular behavior for a set period of time
          Broken Windows Theory
•   Another influential study
•   Wilson and Kelling

•   The idea is that a neighborhood in trouble
    signals that criminal activity is tolerated in the
     – Crackdown on quality of life crimes
     – Reclaim the neighborhood
     – Encourage law abiding citizens to live and work
     – Order maintenance
     – Ex: building, car

     – Crime Mapping:
          • Emerging
          • Geographically pinpoints hot spots where large
            numbers of crimes are occurring
    Challenges to Effective Policing
•   How to be a police officer?
     –   U.S. citizen
     –   No felony conviction
     –   Eligible driver’s license
     –   21 years of age           -some places
         (residency requirement)

     –   Extensive background checks, drug tests,
         interviews, physical tests, written test, polygraph,
         the academy

•   Education:
     –   More and more agencies want associate or
         bachelor’s degree
     –   Smarter cops on the street

•   Training:
     –   Ran by state or other police agency
     –   Trains officers for street as well as the rule of law
                    Police Subculture
•   Us versus Them mentality
•   4 elements: danger, stress, boredom, violence

•   Officer works with senior officer when rookie
•   -the “first time”
•   “no one understands our job”
•   “police officer is the only real true crime fighter”
•   “courts have tied down our hands” – too many

•   Police cynicism
•   -officer rejects values, behaves in ways learned
    through subculture
•   -this can increase police misconduct, corruption
    and brutality
 Dangers of Police Work/Force
• Dangers of Police Work
   –   No such thing as a routine traffic stop
   –   Face dangers every day
   –   Stress – question oneself
   –   Alcoholism, social isolation
   –   Question everything

• Use of Force
   – Non-deadly and deadly force
   – Most officer action is non-deadly
   – Deadly force: force that an officer
     realizes will place the subject in a direct
     threat of serious injury or death
   – discretion
                   Police Corruption
•   Grass Eaters v. Meat Eaters

•   Types of Corruption
•   -bribery
•   -shakedowns
•   -mooching

•   Police Ethics:
•   Rules and standards of behavior governing
•   Aimed to ensure fairness of actions
•   The police “code of conduct” – the do’s and
Police Brutality
   Ethical Situations & Holding Officers Accountable

• Ethical dilemmas:
• Do not know what to do,
  difficulty doing what they
  consider to be right, find wrong
  choices tempting
• How do you deal with this?
    – Discretion, duty, honesty and
      loyalty (four aspects)

• Holding Officers Accountable
    – Internal affairs division
    – Citizen oversight

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