Types of macronutrients
Where is carbohydrate
Sugar sources: sucrose (found in table sugar), lactose
(found in milk), and fructose (found in fruit).
Food sources for starchy carbohydrates: bread, pasta,
What is the function of
Carbohydrate provides an important source of energy
for the body.
Sugar is needed to keep the brain functioning, but
only in very small amounts.
Sugar causes dental caries and obesity.
Bread and potatoes fill you up and give you slow
release energy to prevent you becoming tired.
Where is protein found?
Protein is found in meat, fish, eggs, and dairy foods.
Protein is also found in non-animal sources, e.g.
cereals, nuts and pulses.
What is the function of
Protein is needed by the body for growth,
development and repair.
Protein can also provide energy.
Some people have extra protein needs.
teenagers pregnant women
Where is fat found?
Saturated fat can be found in meat, butter, cheese,
cakes and biscuits.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat can be
found in olive oil, oily fish, avocado and some
margarines and low fat spreads.
What is the function of fat?
Fat provides a store of energy for the body.
Fat also provides protection for the organs in the
Fat carries important fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and
K) and is important for their absorption.
Fat is needed for health, but only in moderate
If you eat too much fatty, fried foods, the extra
calories will make you obese!
Too much fat, especially saturated fat, is also bad
for you. It can provoke cancer, diabetes and heart
Types of micronutrients
Where is vitamin A found?
Vitamin A is found in liver, whole milk, cheese, butter,
dark green leafy vegetables and orange coloured
fruits, e.g. carrots and apricots.
What is the function of vitamin A?
Vitamin A is needed for functioning of the skin and
body linings, e.g. in lungs.
It also helps with vision in dim light, as well as keeping
the immune system healthy.
Where is vitamin D found?
The sources of vitamin D include oily fish, eggs, fortified
cereals and margarine.
What is the function of vitamin D?
Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium and
phosphorus from foods, to keep bones healthy.
Where are B vitamins found?
The B vitamins can be found in a variety of foods, such
as bread, cereals, milk, meat, potatoes, and
fortified breakfast cereals.
What are the functions of B vitamins?
B vitamins play an important role in cell metabolism.
They help maintain healthy skin and muscle tone.
There are many different B vitamins and each has a
specific function in the body.
Where is vitamin C found?
Sources of vitamin C include fresh fruits, especially
citrus fruits and berries, green vegetables, peppers and
Vitamin C is also found in potatoes (especially in new
What is the function of vitamin C?
Vitamin C is needed for the normal structure and function
of body tissues, e.g. collagen.
Vitamin C also helps the body to absorb the iron from
non meat sources such as vegetables.
It also assists the healing process.
The main source of vitamins are raw vegetables.
Remember to eat your five portions of fruit and
vegetables a day!
The body can make vitamin D when the skin is
exposed to sunlight. In the winter, the diet must
provide the vitamin D needed.
Minerals have many uses in the body:
• to form bones and teeth;
• to help nerves work.
Where is calcium found?
The sources of calcium are milk, cheese and other
dairy products, some leafy green vegetables such as
broccoli, fortified soya bean products and bread.
Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium.
What is the function of calcium?
Calcium is very important when the bones are
Calcium is an important mineral needed by the
• to form, strengthen and maintain bones and teeth;
• for normal functioning of muscles;
• for blood clotting.
Where is iron found?
Sources high in iron include liver, red meat, pulses, nuts,
eggs, dried fruits, chicken, fish, whole grains and dark
green leafy vegetables.
Iron from meat sources is easier for the body to absorb.
What is the function of iron?
Iron is used by the body to form haemoglobin in red
blood cells. These transport oxygen around the body.
Iron is also required for normal metabolism and
removing waste substances from the body.
Adolescent girls and women need more iron than boys
because they lose blood each month through
A lack of iron leads to anaemia.
Where is sodium found?
Sodium is found in very small amounts in raw foods.
Sodium is often added as salt to processed food.
What is the function of sodium?
Sodium helps to regulate body water content.
An excess is bad for you. High intakes of sodium are
linked to high blood pressure which increases the risk of
stroke and coronary heart disease.
Macro and micronutrients
• Vitamin A • Calcium
• Vitamin D • Iron
• Vitamin B • Sodium
• Vitamin C