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   A phrase is a group of words without a
    subject and a verb, that functions in a
    sentence as one part of speech.

   A group of words that includes a
    preposition and a noun or a pronoun that
    is the object of the preposition.
    ◦ Examples:
      Outside my window
      Below the counter

Prepositional Phrase
   A prepositional phrase that modifies a
    noun or pronoun by telling what kind or
    which one.
    ◦ Example
      The wooden gates of that lane stood open.

Adjective Phrase
   A prepositional phrase that modifies a
    verb, an adjective, or an adverb by
    pointing out where, when, in what way, or
    to what extent.
    ◦ Example:
      I could sleep without closing my eyes.

Adverb Phrase
   A noun or pronoun with modifiers, placed
    next to a noun or pronoun to add
    information and details.
    ◦ Example:
      It was a pleasure to see Mr. White, the city’s
       sheriff, at the Christmas party.

Appositive Phrase
   A participle with its modifiers or complements.
   A participle is a verbal that is used as an
    adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The
    term verbal is based on a verb and therefore
    expresses action or a state of being. However,
    since they function as adjectives, participles
    modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types
    of participles: present participles and past
    participles. Present participles end in -ing. Past
    participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n, as in the
    words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen.
   Examples of Phrase:
    ◦ Katie noticed her friend walking along the shoreline.
    ◦ Children introduced to music early develop strong
      intellectual skills.

Participial and Participial Phrase
 A gerund with modifiers or a complement,
  all acting together as a noun.
 A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and
  functions as a noun. Since a gerund
  functions as a noun, it occupies some
  positions in a sentence that a noun
  ordinarily would, for example: subject,
  direct object, subject complement, and
  object of preposition.
    ◦ Examples of each will follow.

Gerund Phrase
   Gerund as subject:
    ◦ Traveling might satisfy your desire for new
   Gerund as direct object:
    ◦ They do not appreciate my singing.
   Gerund as subject complement:
    ◦ My cat's favorite activity is sleeping.
   Gerund as object of preposition:
    ◦ The police arrested him for speeding.

Gerund use
   The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the
     ◦ Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what
       we're trying to do.
   The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of
    the verb appreciate.
     ◦ I hope that you appreciate my offering you this
   The gerund phrase functions as the subject
    ◦ Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents.
   The gerund phrase functions as the object of the
    preposition for.
    ◦ You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid

Gerund Phrase Examples
   Infinitive with modifiers, complements, or a
    subject, all acting together as a single part of
    speech- usually a noun, adjective, or adverb.
    ◦ Infinitive= to and a verb
   Examples of Phrases
    ◦ We intended to leave early.
    ◦ Phil agreed to give me a ride.
   Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal
    consisting of to plus a verb—with a prepositional
    phrase beginning with to, which consists of to
    plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.
    ◦ Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to
      stand, to catch, to belong
    ◦ Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to
      my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address

Infinitive Phrase

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