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Wake County

VIEWS: 37 PAGES: 216

									      Wake County
EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
              For

     MULTI-HAZARDS




         First Revision
           June 1998
                                          FOREWORD


This document is a product of the collective efforts of the Wake County Emergency Services. It
also reflects the many comments and suggestions received on earlier drafts from municipal
governments, emergency managers, as well as many organizations actively concerned with
emergency preparedness, response and prevention.

This plan fulfills a congressional requirement that counties provide unified guidance for
multi-hazards emergency planning and presents a consensus upon which implementing
procedures, future guidance and technical assistance will be based. It also furnishes the
foundation for organization design, material acquisition, professional education and individual/unit
training. It applies to emergency response agencies countywide, but must be
tailored to specific strategic and operational requirements of each municipality and response
organization.

This document is to be utilized in conjunction with established procedures including the
Emergency Operations Center SOP, Harris Nuclear Power Plant SOPs, and The Wake County
Incident Command Master Plan.

This plan may be modified as necessary to effectively manage emergency operations.

Users of this publication are encouraged to recommend changes which will improve the clarity
and utility of this plan. Changes and comments should be forwarded to Wake County Emergency
Management, Post Office Box 550, Raleigh, North Carolina 27602,
Phone - 856-6480.
e-mail - mchriscoe@co.wake.nc.us




                                                 1
                                           REVISIONS


In order to maintain an acceptable level of multi-hazard preparedness, it is necessary to review
and update this plan on a regular basis. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency
(WCEMA) shall coordinate all plan review/revision efforts. WCEMA shall also be responsible for
incorporating all changes to the plan. Such revisions will be prepared based upon an annual
review process or, as the result of periodic drills, tests and/or functional exercise evaluations.

A form, entitled "Record of Revisions" (Figure 1), is provided in this section to assist plan holders
with documenting appropriate plan changes. As revisions are incorporated into this
plan, each plan holder will be forwarded a revision package containing the following information:
1) Detailed instructions for inserting plan revisions, 2) the appropriate plan changes, and 3) a
summary of effective plan revisions referencing the plan section affected, the current revision
number and date.

First Revision: June 1998




                                                 2
                               RECORD OF REVISIONS


Revision Number   Revision Date   Section and Page   Signature     Department
                                     Reference
     001            06/12/98      Manual Revised                 Major Response




           WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                                         3
                               FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                   LIST OF APPENDIXES


SECTION

Basic Plan:

Appendix 1 - Wake County Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - County Base Map
Appendix 3 - Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance
Appendix 4 - Organizational Matrix for the Incident Command System
Appendix 5 - Incident Command System

Common Function 1 - Transportation:

Appendix 1 - Organizational Matrix
Appendix 2 - Estimated Vehicle Capacities For Major Evacuation Routes

Common Function 2 - Communications:

Appendix 1 - Organizational Matrix
Appendix 2 - Communications Network Matrix
Appendix 3 - Priority Telephone Systems
Appendix 4 - Communications Capability Charts

Common Function 3 - Public Works and Engineering:

Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix

Common Function 4 - Fire Services/Rescue:

Appendix 1 - Fire Services Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - County Map of Fire Districts
Appendix 3 - EMS/Rescue Organization Matrix
Appendix 4 - EMS/Rescue Districts Map
Appendix 5 - Mass Casualty/Triage Diagram
Appendix 6 - Disaster Response Plan for EMS/Rescue Personnel


Common Function 5 - Information and Planning:


                                             4
Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - Federal Disaster Assistance Program

Common Function 6 - Mass Care:

Appendix 1 - Location of Various Supporting Documents

Common Function 7 - Resource Support:

Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - Resources Summary Chart

Common Function 8 - Public Health:

Common Function 9 - Search:

Appendix 1 - Checklist for Lost/Missing Persons Searches

Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials:

Appendix 1 - Emergency Action Checklist for Hazardous Material Incidents
Appendix 2 - Commodity Flow
Appendix 3 - Hazardous Materials Transportation Corridors
Appendix 3A - Wake County Pipeline Map
Appendix 4 - Notification Chart for Hazardous Materials Incidents
Appendix 5 - Information Flow Chart for Tracking Hazardous Materials
Appendix 6 - Radiological Protection Organizational Matrix
Appendix 7 - Radiological Emergency Equipment
Appendix 8 - Radiological Monitoring and Decontamination
Appendix 9 - Reporting Procedures for Nuclear Attack Hazards
Appendix 10 - Emergency Action Checklist for Nuclear Threat/Attack Hazard

Common Function 11 - Disaster Medical Services:

Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - Listing of Medical Facilities

Common Function 13 - Public Information:

Appendix 1 - Notification and Warning Flowchart
Appendix 2 - NAWAS System
Appendix 3 - NOAA/NWS System
Appendix 4 - Public Information Organization Matrix

                                              5
Appendix 5 - Media Contacts

Common Function 14 - Volunteers and Donations:

Common Function 15 - Military Support:

Common Function 16 - Law Enforcement:

Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix
Appendix 2 - Sample Access Passes

Common Function 17 - Animal Protection:

Appendix 1 - Planning Tips for Pets, Livestock, and Wildlife
Appendix 2 - Organizational Matrix




                                                6
                                GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS

ARC - American Red Cross

Attack Warning Signal - A three to five minute varying siren tone or horn blast, repeated as
required, which warns of an actual attack on the nation, and that protective action should be taken
immediately.

Attention or Alert Signal - A three to five minute steady tone, warning of probable imminent
danger other than enemy attack, and that the public should listen for essential emergency
information.

Civil Air Patrol - Volunteer pilots who offer their time and aircraft for emergency use in search
and rescue, messenger service, light transport flights, airborne communications and
reconnaissance support.

Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) - Is operated by the Chemical
Manufacturers Association. Provides information and/or assistance to emergency responders.
CHEMTREC contacts the shipper or producer of the material for more detailed information,
including on-scene assistance when feasible. Can be reached 24-hours a day by calling
800-424-9300.

Command Post (CP) - The location where field commands are given. The incident commander
directs the on-scene response from this location.

Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) - Is a concept that applies mitigation,
preparedness, response and recovery activities to all hazards in a local/state/federal partnership.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) -
Regarding hazardous substance releases into the environment and cleanup of inactive hazardous
waste disposal sites.

Congregate Care Facilities (CCF) - Public or private buildings in the host areas planned for use
to lodge and care for evacuees. Generally, assigned space is approximately 40 square feet per
person.

Continuity of Government (COG) - Plans and procedures for ensuring the survival and
operational capabilities of governmental processes and lines of succession. This includes the
protection and maintenance of agency and departmental vital records.
                                                  7
Damage Assessment/Estimation - The conduct of on-scene surveys following any disaster to
determine the amount of loss or damage caused by the incident. Extent of damage is assessed in
all types of disasters such as flash flood, tornado, winter storm, hurricane, nuclear power incident
and chemical incidents.

Disaster Application Center (DAC) - A "one-stop" center for disaster victims where they can
get information and make application for all available assistance from federal, state, local and
volunteer agencies.

Disaster/Emergency - Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind driven water, tidal
wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire,
explosion or other catastrophe in any part of the United States which, in the determination of the
President, caused damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster
assistance under P.L. 93-288, above and beyond emergency services by the federal government,
to supplement the efforts and available resources of the state, local government and disaster relief
organization in alleviating damage, loss, hardship or suffering.

Department of Crime Control & Public Safety (CCPS) - The North Carolina agency
responsible for state crime control and disaster preparation and response.

Division of Emergency Management (EM) - The North Carolina state agency tasked with
protecting the general public from the effects of natural or man-made disasters.

Emergency Alert System (EAS) - EAS is made up of AM, FM, and television broadcast stations
and non-governmental electronic communications operating in a voluntary organized manner
during natural/man-made emergencies or disasters at national, state or local levels. This system
keeps the public informed.

Emergency Management Director (EMD) - The emergency response person responsible to the
direction and control group for coordinating the response activities of the combined government,
industry and public forces at work in the disaster.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) - Local medical response teams, usually rescue squads or
local ambulance services which provide medical services during a disaster.

Emergency Operations Center (EOC) - A protected site from which government officials and
emergency response personnel exercise direction and control in an emergency. The Emergency
Communications Center (ECC) is normally an essential part of the EOC.


                                                 8
Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) - A brief, clear and concise description of action to be taken
or instruction to be given to those concerned during a specific emergency. The plan will state the
method or scheme for coordinated action based on pre-determined assumptions, objectives and
capabilities.

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (Title III) - Specifies
requirements for organizing the planning process at the state and local levels for specified
extremely hazardous substances; minimum plan content; requirements for fixed facility
owners and operators to inform officials about extremely hazardous substances present at the
facilities; and mechanisms for making information about extremely hazardous substances available
to citizens.

Emergency Public Information (EPI) - Information disseminated during an emergency to
provide general information, direct actions, instruct the public and transmit general orders.

Emergency Worker - Workers employed during an emergency to work specifically in disaster
roles such as debris removal, engineering services, dike construction, water removal, etc. Also
any person engaged in operations required to minimize the effects of a fixed nuclear facility
emergency.

EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Evacuation - Relocation of population to safe areas when disaster, emergencies or threats thereof
necessitate such action.

Evacuee - That individual which is moved to an area of less risk.

Expenditure/Obligation Report - Used for documentation of local funds expended and
obligated during response to a disaster.

Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) - The 366 substances on EPA list (40CFR Part 355,
issued April 22, 1987).

Fallout Shelter - A habitable structure, facility or space used to protect occupants form
radioactive fallout. Criteria includes a protection factor (PF) of 40 or greater, a minimum of 10
cubic feet of fresh air per minute per person. In unventilated underground space, 500 cubic feet
of space per occupant is required.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - A federal agency tasked with national
disaster or emergency preparedness and response. It also deals in temporary emergency housing,
training of state and local emergency response personnel and funding of preparedness projects and
functions.


                                                 9
Fixed Nuclear Facility (FNF) - Nuclear power plants, reactor fuel fabrication or processing
plants, test and research reactors or any other facility using or producing large quantities of
radioactive material.

Flash Flood Watch - Indicates that a flash flood is possible or probable within an area. Stay
alert.

Flash Flood Warning - Means a flash flood is imminent within an area. Take immediate action.

General Statute (G.S.) - The specific form of state law, codified and recorded for reference.

Green Book - A North Carolina county document listing all available resources of fire fighting
equipment in the county.

Hazard - Any situation that has the potential for causing damage to life, property and the
environment.

Hazard Analysis - A process used by emergency managers to identify and analyze crisis potential
and consequences.

Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) - Any element, compound, mixture, solution or substance
which, when spilled or released into the environment, may present a substantial threat or danger
to human life or health and/or the environment.

Hazard/Risk Area - Areas designated by the federal government that are considered relatively
more likely to experience the direct weapons effects of a nuclear attack.

Hazardous Waste - An unuseable hazardous material.

Host/Reception Area - A specified area relatively unlikely to experience direct weapons effects
from a nuclear attack and designated for reception and care of risk area evacuees.

Host Area Allocation - The process of designating non-risk counties as hosting areas for a
specific risk area.

Hurricane - Pronounced rotary circulation, constant wind speed of 74 miles per hour (64 knots)
or more.

Incident - Any event that results in a spill or release of hazardous materials. Actions by
emergency services personnel will be required to prevent or minimize loss of life or damage to
property and/or material resources.

Incident Command System (ICS) - The combination of facilities, equipment, personnel,
                                                10
procedures and communications operating within an established command structure (e.g.,
on-scene command post).

Incident Coordinator (IC) - The individual in charge at any given time of an incident.

Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) - A system which allows improved
capability by all levels of government to mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from all
disasters or emergencies.

Joint Information Center (JIC) - A combined public information office which serves two or
more levels of government or federal, state and local agencies.

Local Government - Political subdivision of the state.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Compilation of health, flammability and reactive hazards
of a chemical. It is a legal document, required by OSHA l9l0.l200 Hazard Communication
Standard.

Mitigation - Is an activity that actually eliminates or reduces the probability of a disaster
occurrence, or reduces the effects of a disaster. Mitigation includes such actions as zoning and
land use management, safety and building codes, flood proofing of buildings and public education.

Mutual Aid Agreements - Formal or informal understanding between jurisdictions or
organizations that pledge exchange of emergency or disaster assistance.

National Fire Academy (NFA) - Is a component of FEMA's National Emergency Training
Center located in Emmitsburg, Maryland. It provides fire prevention and control training for the
fire service and allied services.

National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) - (40 CFR Part
300), prepared by EPA to put into effect the response powers and responsibilities created by
CERCLA and the authorities established by Section 311 of the Clean Water Act.

National Response Center (NRC) - A communications center for activities related to response
actions, is located at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, DC. The toll-free number
(800-424-8802, or 202-426-2675 or 202-267-2675 in the Washington, DC area) can be reached
24-hours a day for reporting actual or potential pollution incidents.

National Response Team (NRT) - Consisting of representatives of 14
government agencies (DOD, DOI, DOT/RSPA, DOT/USCG, EPA, DOC, FEMA,
DOS, USDA, DOJ, HHS, DOL, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE),
it is the principal organization for implementing the NCP.


                                                11
National Warning System (NAWAS) - The federal warning system, used to disseminate
warnings of imminent natural disaster or enemy attack into a regional warning system which
passes it to the state warning points for action.

National Weather Service (NWS) - A federal agency tasked with forecasting weather and
providing appropriate warning of imminent natural disaster such as hurricane, tornados, tropical
storms, etc.

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Public Information Officer (PIO) - Responsible for the preparation and dissemination of public
and emergency information and also for advising government on appropriate news releases for
keeping the public informed of instructional emergency information.

Population Protection Plan (PPP) - Plans which provide population protection from nuclear
threat or enemy attack. This protection can be in-place shelters, orderly relocations and
provisions for feeding.

Protection Factor - Theoretical values defining the ratio of exposure rates from gamma radiation
fallout expected in protected locations contrasted with exposure rates expected with the same
radiation in unprotected locations. Protection factor values are determined from building design,
building materials and location of shelter space within the building. Protection factor values are
only used for planning.

Reception Centers - Strategically located control points in the host area where relocatees report
and are assigned to congregate care facilities.

Recovery - Activities which involve assistance to enhance the return of the community to normal
or near-normal conditions. Short-term recovery returns vital life-support systems to minimum
operating standards. Long-term recovery may continue for a number of years after a disaster and
seeks to return life to normal or improved levels. Recovery activities include temporary housing,
loans or grants, disaster unemployment insurance, reconstruction and counseling programs.

Regional Response Teams (RRT) - Composed of representatives of federal agencies and a
representative from each state in the federal region. During a response to a major hazardous
materials incident involving transportation or a fixed facility, the OSC may request that the RRT
be convened to provide advice or recommendations in specific issues requiring resolution.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) - Established a framework for the proper
management and disposal of all wastes. RCRA directed EPA to identify hazardous wastes, both
generically and by listing specific wastes and industrial process waste management practices and
to track the movement of wastes with a manifest system. Owners and operators of treatment,
storage, and disposal facilities also must comply with standards, which are generally implemented
                                                12
through permits issued by EPA or authorized states.


Response - Activities occur immediately before, during, and directly after an emergency or
disaster. They involve lifesaving actions such as, the activation of warning systems, manning the
EOCs, implementation of shelter or evacuation plans and search and rescue.

Risk - The probability that damage to life, property and the environment will occur.

SARA - The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

Shelter Manager - An individual who provides for internal organization, administration and
operation of a shelter facility.

Staging Area - A pre-selected location having large parking areas such as a major shopping area,
schools, etc. The area is a base for the assembly of persons to be moved by public transportation
to host jurisdictions and a debarking area for returning evacuees. Several of these areas should be
designated to each evacuating jurisdiction.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's) - A set of instructions covering those features of
operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of
effectiveness.

State Emergency Response Team (SERT) - A team of emergency response personnel from the
Department of Crime Control and Public Safety who are dispatched to the scene of a disaster in
order to evaluate conditions, offer advice and coordinate all recovery activities.

State Warning Point (SWP) - The state facility (State Highway Patrol Communications Center)
that receives warnings and other emergency information over NAWAS and relays this information
in accordance with current directives.

Superfund - The trust fund established under CERCLA to provide money the OSC can use
during a cleanup.

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) - Title III of SARA
includes detailed provisions for community planning.

Tier I/Tier II - Emergency and hazardous chemical inventory forms used for Title III hazardous
chemical reporting.

Title III - Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986.

Tornadoes - Spawned by hurricanes, sometimes producing severe damage and casualties. If a
                                                13
tornado is reported in your area, a warning will be issued.


Traffic Control Points - Places along evacuation routes that are manned to direct and control
movement to and from the area being evacuated.

Tropical Disturbance - A moving area of thunderstorms in the tropics that maintains its identity
for 24-hours or more. A common phenomenon in the tropics.

Tropical Depression - Rotary circulation at surface, highest constant wind 38 miles per hour (33
knots).

Tropical Storm - Distinct rotary circulation, constant wind speed ranges 39-73 miles per hour
(34-63 knots).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -

Vulnerability - The susceptibility to life, property, and the environment to damage if a hazard
manifests its potential.

Wake County Standard Operations Procedures (WCSOP) -

Warning - The alerting of emergency response personnel and the public to the threat of
extraordinary danger and the related effects of natural disasters and acts of civil disturbance or
war.

Warning Point - A facility that receives warning and other information and disseminates or relays
this information in accordance with a pre-arranged plan.

Warning Signal - An audible signal, sounded on public outdoor warning devices.




                                                 14
             WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                       FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                          BASIC PLAN

I. PURPOSE

This plan establishes a mechanism to pre-determine actions to be taken by government agencies
and private organizations of Wake County to reduce the vulnerabilities of people and property to
disaster, and establish capabilities to respond effectively to the actual occurrence of a disaster.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

       1. General description of area - Wake County is located in the North Carolina
          Emergency Management Central Branch, and FEMA Region IV. Its geographic
          location is the Piedmont section of the state. It is bounded on the east by Franklin
          County, on the south by Harnett and Johnston Counties, on the north by Franklin and
          Granville Counties, and on the west by Durham and Chatham Counties (Reference:
          Appendix 2,County Base Map). The current population of the county and the
          municipalities within the county is 540,787. The estimated peak population of Wake
          County is 600,000, which represents population densities during weekly employment
          hours (e.g. county and state seat of government), colleges/universities in session, the
          N. C. State Fair and peak RDU airport passengers.

       2.   The major motor vehicle traffic arteries:

            a.   I-40            h.   NC-54
            b.   US-1            i.   NC-42
            c.   US-401          j.   NC-96
            d.   US-64           k.   NC-97
            e.   US-70           l.   NC-231
            f.   NC-55           m.   NC-98
            g.   NC-50           n.   I- 440

       3.   Railroads:

            a. Norfolk-Southern Railway
            b. CSX Transportation, Inc. (Seaboard Railway)

       4.   Major pipelines:

            a. Colonial Pipeline Company
            b. Dixie Pipeline Company



                                                 15
    c. Public Service Company of N.C., Inc.
    d. Apex Terminal

5. The county contains the following general aviation commercial airport(s):

    a. Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU); located on Airport Road (SR-1002), off
       I-40 West.
    b. Raleigh East Airport; located on US-64 East, at Wendell exit.
    c. Triple-W Airpark; located on Hilton Road (SR- 2752), off US-401 South.
    d. Fuquay Angier Airport at Kennebec (2 miles N. of Angier - (2,800 ft.).

6. The county is exposed to many hazards, all of which have the potential to disrupt local
   communities, cause damage, and create casualties. Potential hazards (natural, man-made,
   technological and national security), as identified in the hazards analysis for Wake County
   include:

    a. Nuclear Threat/Attack - There is a low threat for nuclear attack against the United States
       by enemy forces; however, no jurisdiction can be considered safe from the effects of an
       attack. In the event of an attack, Wake County may be a likely target due to its
       geographic location within the state, its governmental infrastructure (state capitol),
       population density and industrial base. (Reference: North Carolina Emergency
       Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection, Wake County Population Protection Plan
       for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985 and Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials
       within this plan).

    b. Fixed/Licensed Nuclear Facilities - Fixed and licensed nuclear facilities within Wake
       County consist of: 1) Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP), 2) Research reactors located
       at universities, and 3) Numerous facilities (e.g., hospital, medical, laboratory, business
       and industrial firms, etc.) licensed to utilize various radioactive isotopes. HNPP utilizes
       large amounts of radioactive materials in the reactor core of the nuclear power plant for
       production of electricity. Should an emergency incident occur, the primary risk is the
       accidental release of radioactive material into the environment.

       According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), both on-site and off-site
       emergency preparedness capabilities are "considered necessary and prudent for large
       power reactor facilities", to ensure that adequate capabilities exist for the protection of
       the public.

       The area around HNPP for which off-site emergency planning efforts are required is
       defined as the Planning Zone. This zone is further subdivided into two specific
       planning areas: 1) the plume exposure pathway (an area representing
       approximately a 10-mile radius surrounding HNPP), and 2) The ingestion exposure
       pathway (approximately a 50-mile radius surrounding HNPP). In the plume
       exposure pathway, the primary radiation hazards are whole body exposures to
       gamma radiation from the plume, or from deposited material and inhalation exposures.




                                         16
    The ingestion of radiologically contaminated food and water represents the primary
    threat within the 50-mile ingestion exposure pathway.

     Due to the complexity of off-site emergency planning requirements for nuclear power
     plants, Wake County, in conjunction with the State of North Carolina (Division of
Emergency Management), maintains a separate, in-depth emergency response plan and
standard operating procedures in support of Harris Nuclear Power Plant.
     (Reference: N C Emergency Response Plan for HNPP; Part V, and Wake County
     SOPs).

 c. Hazardous Materials - Hazardous materials are those substances which, because of their
    characteristics, may pose a danger to the environment or the inhabitants of that
    environment when inappropriately introduced in sufficient quantity. They may be in the
    physical form of a useable product or as unusable waste. These substances include
    chemicals and other allied products, both of organic and inorganic nature. Organic
    products are used primarily in the manufacture of textiles, petroleum products, and
    pesticides. Inorganic products are used primarily in the manufacturer of paints, dyes,
    metal plating, electrical components and fertilizers. To a lesser extent, some materials
    are used in the manufacture of man-made products, such as pharmaceuticals and other
    specialty items.

    Petroleum products are found in the form of liquid fuels and lubricants. The majority of
    concern from petroleum products results from the bulk storage and extensive
    transportation of materials. From the processors, these products (e.g., natural gas, oil,
    etc.) are moved by pipeline to bulk storage facilities (tank farms) for distribution by
    vehicle to area wholesale distributors and retailers.

    Hazardous Waste - Hazardous waste is generated as a by-product during the use of
    hazardous substances usually resulting in diluted mixtures or concentrations. The
    storage and disposal of hazardous waste is an ever growing problem.

    Hazardous materials incidents are the indirect result of advanced technology and
    increased personal use, combined with an ever growing demand for development and
    manufacture of products. Such incidents frequently occur as a result of transportation
    and/or facility related events, posing an inherent risk to human life, property and the
    environment. (Reference: Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials).

 d. Transportation Accidents - The potential exists for a major transportation accident to
    occur within Wake County. Major mass casualty incidents may result from the
    transportation of passengers via commercial aircraft, railway, or highway carriers.

 e. Flooding and Dam Failures - Flooding is best described as the inundation of normally
    dry land or property resulting from an act of nature or from the failure of man-made
    structures.




                                        17
  Initial effects from flooding are inundation and swift currents (flash floods) carrying
  debris that cause structural damage to homes, buildings, roadways, bridges, farmland
  and public utilities. Agricultural losses may result to crops, livestock, stored feeds, or
  valuable soil base. Flooding may occur during any season, but is most frequent from
  early spring through late fall.

  The primary cause of flooding in Wake County is heavy precipitation, usually
  associated with major storm systems. Urban flooding situations result from the inability
  of existing storm sewers to compensate for excessive run-off from natural watersheds.

  However, downstream flooding/flash flooding may develop as the result of the failure
  of hydraulic structures (dam failure), geophysical occurrences, or the concurrent crest
  from major tributaries. During the winter season, significant run-off from abnormal
  snow melt conditions may pose a relative threat to the county.

f. Hurricanes/Tropical Storms - Strong tropical storms may result in hurricanes which
   form in the warm tropical atmosphere of the ocean. Hurricane winds begin at speeds of
   74 miles per hour. Most of the death and destruction associated with hurricanes
   is caused by wind, rain and the storm surge. Direct effects from hurricanes primarily
   affect the coastal counties of North Carolina. However, significant secondary effects
   from hurricanes (e.g., severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, heavy rains, etc.), have the
   potential for causing death and destruction within Wake County.

  The peak period for hurricane danger is during the months from June through
  November. August, September and October are the months when the greatest number
  of hurricanes affecting North Carolina have occurred.

g. Tornadoes - Tornadoes are severe storms of short duration formed by strong winds
   rotating at very high speeds which descend to the ground in the familiar funnel shape
   from severe thunderstorm clouds. The vortex of the tornado can be from several
   hundred yards in diameter to as much as a mile or more, and can produce destructive
   winds in excess of 300 miles per hour. Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year and
   at any hour of the day. The most likely period for tornadoes in North Carolina is from
   late March through June.

  Avoidance of tornadoes is virtually impossible and all of Wake County is vulnerable to
  their occurrence. While tornadoes are not a common occurrence in Wake County, the
  county has experienced tornadoes in the past. With the rapid increases in both
  population and development within the county, any tornado of significant proportion
  would pose a maximum threat to both lives and property.

h. Winter Storms - Because severe winter storms include frigid temperatures, heavy snow,
   ice and gusting winds in all combinations, the severity is usually determined by
   duration, temperature extremes and accumulation of precipitation. The primary threat is
   the ability of such storms to completely immobilize large areas, disrupt services and




                                       18
            cause injury or death. In Wake County, snow and/or sleet occur on an average of once
            or      twice annually. In North Carolina, snowfall ranges from one inch to about nine
            inches across the state.

          i. Civil Disorders - Wake County may be subject to various civil disorders due to terrorist
             actions, riots, protests/demonstrations, labor disputes and/or illegal assembly
             (Reference: Common Function 16 - Law Enforcement).

  B. Assumptions:

     1. It is necessary for the county to plan for and be prepared to carry out disaster response and
        short-term recovery operations, utilizing local resources. In addition, it is likely that outside
        assistance would be available in most major disaster situations affecting the county, but most
        likely only after about 72 hours of disaster onset.

     2. Officials of the county are aware of the possible occurrence of an emergency or major
        disaster and their responsibilities in the execution of this plan.

     3. Implementation of this plan may reduce or prevent the loss of lives and damage to property.


III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION

  A. General:

     1. As required by General Statute 166A-2, it is the responsibility of county government to
        protect life and property from the effects of hazardous events.

     2. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, in cooperation with the County
        Manager, Director of Public Safety and county Emergency Management Director, will
        coordinate and manage county resources and advise municipalities of needs or progress. If
        necessary, state assistance will be requested.

     3. The primary Emergency Alert System (EAS) station is WQDR-FM radio located in
        Raleigh. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or his representative, may
       utilize WQDR-FM during times of emergency.

     4. The County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) will be staffed and operated as the
        situation dictates.

     5. If the emergency situation warrants, the senior elected official or the designee of the
        jurisdiction may declare a State of Emergency to exist within the jurisdiction (or a part
        thereof) and begin implementing emergency procedures (Reference: Appendix 3,
        Attachment A, County Proclamation, Declaration).




                                                  19
      6. The senior elected official or the designee of the jurisdiction will order evacuation and
      ensure coordination of shelter activation as necessary.

      7. Termination of a State of Emergency shall be declared by the authority by whom it was
         proclaimed. (Reference: Appendix 3, Attachment B, County Proclamation, Termination).

 B.   Phases of Comprehensive Emergency Management:

      1. Mitigation - Mitigation activities are those designed to either prevent the occurrence of an
         emergency or minimize the potentially adverse effects thereof. Some mitigation activities
         include development of public health and zoning/building code ordinances and enforcement
         of those regulations on a day-to-day basis.

      2. Preparedness - Preparedness activities, programs, and systems are those that exist prior to an
         emergency and are used to support and enhance response to an emergency or disaster.
         Planning, training, and exercising are among the activities conducted under this phase.

      3. Response - Response activities and programs are designed to address the immediate effects
         of the onset of an emergency or disaster, help to reduce casualties and damage and to speed
         recovery. Response activities include direction and control, warning, evacuation, mass care,
         and other similar operations.

      4. Recovery - Recovery activities involve restoring systems to normal. Short term recovery
         actions are taken to assess damage and return vital life support systems to minimum
         operating standards; long-term recovery actions may continue for many years.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

 A. Organization:

      All departments within local government have emergency functions in addition to their
      day-to-day activities. Each department is responsible for developing and maintaining their own
      emergency procedures.

      Specific responsibilities are outlined below under the section entitled "Responsibilities", as well
      as in the common functions and the Wake County Standard Operating Procedure for the
      Emergency Operations Center. Responsibilities for certain organizations which are not a part of
      local government are also included.

      When on-scene command posts are established, the Incident Command System (ICS) will be
      implemented. When the EOC is operational Wake County Standard Operating Procedures for
      the Emergency Operations Center (WCSOP100A) will be implemented. (Reference: Wake
      County Incident Command Master Plan and WCSOP100A).

 B. Responsibilities:




                                                  20
1. Chief Executive:

  The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners is responsible for policies, operational
  guidelines for emergency operations and key decisions relating to survival and recovery
  efforts. When appropriate he issues an emergency proclamation declaring a
  State-of-Emergency or terminating the State-of-Emergency and an evacuation order. In
  conjunction with the Public Safety Director, he authorizes the activation of the EOC.

2. County Manager:

   In addition to serving as the liaison between the Chairman and operations group, the County
   Manager assures that the members of the executive group are kept abreast of the situation by
   providing information and recommendations as he deems appropriate. In addition, the
   County Manager appoints the EOC Manager who is responsible for the overall effectiveness
  of the EOC's operations.

3. Wake County Attorney:

  a.   Serves as legal advisor to the Board of County Commissioners and the County Manager.

  b. Develops rules and regulations and laws required for acquisition and/or control of
     critical resources.

  c. Develops the necessary ordinances and regulations to provide legal basis for evacuation
     and/or population control.

  d. In cooperation with the Wake County District Attorney, commences civil and criminal
     proceedings as necessary and appropriate to implement and enforce emergency actions.

4. Director of Public Safety:

  a.   Upon activation of the EOC, serves as the EOC Manager or appoints the EOC Manager.

  b.   Evaluates incoming information and directs response efforts.

  c.   Keeps the County Manager and the EOC staff updated.

5. Emergency Management Director (EMD):

  a.   Unless designated otherwise, acts as the EOC Manager in the absence of the
       Director of Public Safety.

  b.   Responsible for implementing applicable federal, state and county emergency
       preparation/response guidelines within Wake County's jurisdiction and for translating




                                           21
       such guidelines into updated plans, operation procedures, emergency response assets
       and training, including exercising and testing to determine the county's state of
       readiness.

  c.   When appropriate, activates, supports or employs emergency response assets under
       Wake County's jurisdiction.

  d.   Maintains liaison with appropriate governmental, public, and private enterprises to
       assure their cooperative support in the event of need.

  e.   Ensures necessary narratives/operations journals and essential records are maintained
       during emergencies and that appropriate information/reports are provided to higher,
       adjacent, and support jurisdictions.

  f.   Develops and maintains a primary county EOC and an alternate EOC.

  g.    Develops/maintains EOC SOPs and staffing rosters.

  h.   Develops/maintains an Emergency Management computer system to manage
       information and resources required for emergency operations and dissemination of
       information to other levels of government, the public and private sector.

 i.    Coordinates termination of EOC operations and close-out activities. Schedules EOC
       staff critique and debriefing. Files necessary after action reports

6. Public Information Officer:

  a. Prepares the Emergency Alert System (EAS) messages for approval by the EOC
     Manager. Preceding the release, all EAS messages should be verified by EOC
     operations as reflecting the most current situation.

  b.   Serves as county government's representative to the news media.

  c.   Responsible for formation and dissemination of public information and news releases to
       the media.

  d.   Establishes procedures for rumor control and emergency instructions.

  e. Works with other media representatives through a Joint Information Center (JIC).

  f. Arranges meetings between the media and EOC personnel.

  g. Assists in issuing warnings about unsafe areas, structures and facilities; transportation
     routes, closures and shelter openings; and recovery efforts.




                                           22
7. Wake County Sheriff:

  a.    Coordinates law enforcement activities.

  b.    Executes evacuation, re-entry and security plans for designated areas.

   c.   Provides EOC security. Provides security for command posts, staging areas, reception
        centers, shelters, lodging and feeding facilities during emergency operations.

  d.    As required, assists in notification of county officials.

  e     Coordinates traffic control and security access activities during emergency responses.

  f.    Provides backup communications for EOC through mobile units.

  g.     Provides transportation for EOC personnel under emergency conditions.

  h.    Develops and maintains updated law enforcement plans and SOPs.

   i.    Maintains viable mutual aid agreements with appropriate law enforcement
         agencies.

  j.    Coordinates search and recovery operations for missing or lost persons.

8. Communications:

  When the EOC is activated, the Sheriff's Communications Supervisor, as the Message
  Center Supervisor, will:

  a.    Ensure notification of EOC communication personnel. Coordinate communications
        activities.

  b.    Implement EOC message system upon activation.

  c.    Supervise signal operations.

  d.    Support communications requirements between the EOC staff and field emergency
        response forces.

  e.    Coordinate communications capabilities between the county EOC, the county warning
        point and supporting communications centers.

  f.    Coordinate communications support with amateur radio personnel.

9. Fire/Rescue Director:




                                              23
  Wake County Fire/Rescue Director coordinates the missions assigned to the respective fire
  departments.

10. County Emergency Medical Services Director:

  The county Emergency Medical Services Director coordinates the missions of all rescue
  squads and Emergency Medical Services.

11. Transportation Coordinator:

   The Wake County Transportation Coordinator will coordinate and provide available
   transportation, on request.

12. Human Services Administrator:

   a. Coordinates social services operations.

   b. Opens and operates special needs shelters, as needed.

   c. Assists the Red Cross in the operation of public shelters.

   d. Coordinates emergency activities during response and recovery with American Red
      Cross, Salvation Army, Council on Aging, and other volunteer organizations to include
      shelter, feeding and clothing.

   e. Maintains updated listing of county nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes.

   f. Coordinates with medical/health care facilities (e.g. nursing homes, rest homes, etc.) to
      insure development of emergency procedures in conjunction with appropriate agencies.

   g. Develops procedures for emergency public health operations.

   h. Plans for inspection of food and water in shelters. Issues instructions for
      decontamination, distribution and usage of food/water supplies as needed.

   i. Conducts sanitation inspections of shelters.

   j. Responsible for administration/issuance of potassium iodide (KI), when needed and
      coordinates distribution of other mitigating drugs, vaccines or preventatives.

   k. Provides available medical staffing of shelters if requested.

   l. Provides for crisis counseling to disaster victims and emergency workers.




                                           24
   m. Manages animal control issues and carries out the Wake County Animal Protection Plan.

   n. Activates the Wake County Family Center to receive family members in the event of
      mass casualties or fatalities.

13. Superintendent of Public Schools:

    a. Upon notification from the Red Cross, the Department of Human Services, or other
       appropriately designated official, opens designated schools as shelters.

    b. Provides school staff to support shelter operations.

    c. Provides available transportation assets upon request.

14. Medical Examiner (designated by the State Medical Examiner):

    a. Responds to notification of fatalities from local authorities and establishes an adequate
       local morgue.

    b. Supervises the disposition and transportation of the remains of the deceased.

    c. Certifies causes of death of deceased victims and issues death certificates.

    d. Notifies next-of-kin. Releases the remains and personal effects to proper
       representatives.

    e. Issues press releases in conjunction with the Public Information Officer.

   f. Identifies the availability of necessary resources (e.g., refrigerated trucks,
       body bags, etc.).

15. Finance Director:

    a. Assists in the procurement of needed supplies, equipment, etc., from public vendors.

    b. Develops financial accounting record procedures for agencies to report their emergency
       expenses.

    c. Acts as the county fiscal agent in matters affecting applications by municipalities for
       financial assistance.

    d. Prepares applications and claims for federal and state financial assistance.

    e. Tracks documentation for compensation and claims for injury. Provides information on




                                            25
       insurance coverage. Ensures the investigation of all accidents and prepares all
       necessary claims.

16. Cooperative Extension Service Director:

   Assists the USDA (Wake County Emergency Board) in the performance of duties
   associated with -

   a. Providing food for mass feeding.

   b. Locating sources of uncontaminated feed for livestock.

   c. Restricting sale of livestock and distribution of processed or unprocessed food products
      if contamination is suspected.

   d. Sampling and monitoring activities including areas accessible by fish.

   e. Assisting Damage Assessment Officer in matters related to farm land, commodities,
      livestock and structures.

17. Damage Assessment Officer (Tax Assessor):

   a. Assesses structural damage through utilization of the county and other municipal
      governments' inspection personnel.

   b. Assists in consolidating damage assessment reports.

   c. Provides advice and information on damage assessment to the EOC staff.

18. Community Development Administrator:

   a. Temporary Housing -

       (l) Maintains a current list of suitable housing accommodations available for thirty (30)
           continuous days (motel rooms, private or commercial apartments, rental units in
           mobile home parks, etc.).

       (2) Identifies additional sites for mobile homes, as needed.

       (3) Where necessary and available, facilitates erection of pre-fabricated
           dwellings or tentage.

   b. Ensures compliance with the applicable state and local laws, and ordinances.
      Assists in the preparation of agreements or contracts with other municipalities toward
      the furnishing of building, electrical, plumbing, mechanical, housing and other




                                            26
         inspections.

    c. Upon request, identifies additional resources to assist with emergency repair and
       restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities.

    d. Assists with the disposal of debris and landfill operations.

    e. Assists with planning for shelter markings and upgrading.

19. General Services Administrator:

    a. Assists the Emergency Management Director in the Wake County Emergency
       Operations Center's general upgrading and maintenance services to include emergency
       power and water supply.

    b. On call, provides transportation for and maintenance of needed support services for the
       EOC staff and emergency response elements.

    c. Assists with debris removal activities.

    d. Coordinates emergency repairs and restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities.

    e. Plans for shelter marking and shelter upgrading capabilities.

    f. Develops and maintains resource lists with source, location and availability
       of equipment, fuel and operational personnel to support response/recovery operations.

    g. Assists with support services for field emergency response units including
       potable water, food, lights, tentage, portable toilets, vehicular refueling, etc.

    h. Provides containers and/or vehicles for removal of contaminated materials.

    i. During nuclear threat, organizes available personnel and equipment for
       shelter marking and upgrading.

    j.    Provides Central Services support with office supplies and materials as needed.

20. American Red Cross:

    a. Initiates opening and effective operation of emergency public shelters.

   b. Consistent with internal policies and capabilities, assists in other activities such as
  damage assessment, mass feeding, individual case assistance, etc.

    c. Upon request, provides canteen services for emergency responders.




                                             27
       d. Answers inquiries and informs families on status of individuals displaced,
          injured or missing.

       e. Provides blood through blood donor program.

       f. Assists in other activities such as damage assessment, mass feeding, individual case
          assistance, etc. . .

    21. Emergency Operations Center Staff will:

        a. Ensure appropriate staffing and operations capabilities in a timely manner.

        b. Coordinate all missions assigned to their respective function and response elements.

        c. Ensure multi-shift capabilities, as necessary.

        d. Maintain documentation of activities related to the emergency.

        e. Upon request, assist with procurement of necessary supplies, equipment, personnel, etc.
           to support field operations.

        f. When necessary, initiate duly authorized mutual aid agreements.

        g. Provide advice and information to the EOC manager on the status of response and
           recovery efforts.

    These are general duties and responsibilities. Upon activation of the EOC, they may be
    amended as necessary by the EOC Manager.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

 A. EOC Assumptions:

    Direction and control provides for an efficient response to an emergency by coordinating all
    response and recovery activities through one central location. When activated, the Emergency
    Operations Center (EOC) acts as the base of operations for all emergency management activities
    for the county. Members of emergency management services must remain familiar with
    supporting plans and procedures. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or the
    designee decides whether to activate the EOC. The overall direction and control of emergency
    activities in a crisis situation is vested in the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners
    and his representatives.

    Upon declaration of an emergency or attack warning, the Chairman of the Board of County
    Commissioners, County Manager, Director of Public Safety, EMD and other designated




                                                28
   personnel will operate from the EOC. (Reference: WCSOP 100A: Wake County Standard
   Operating Procedure for Emergency Operations Center). In most instances, emergency
   operations will be conducted locally with little or no outside assistance or coordination.

   The county EOC can be activated in a timely manner upon the imminent threat, or actual
   occurrence of a significant emergency. The county EOC has communication capabilities with
   emergency services organizations.

   Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been developed to implement appropriate
   and effective direction and control measures. They may be used to supplement this plan.

   Coordination of Wake County emergency operations, at all levels of government, will be
   formulated and effected in accordance with the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan for
   Multi-Hazards.

B. General:

   1. The primary responsibility for direction and control of emergency operations and response
      efforts, rests with county/local government. The North Carolina Division of Emergency
      Management (NCEM) will augment county/local emergency resources, upon request by
      those agencies.

   2. Emergency operations shall include all activities which are directed toward the preservation
      of life and property, mitigation of the hazard or threat, establishing situation control,
      recovery and the restoration of critical services.

   3. Subject to the guidance of the Director of Public Safety (Emergency Operations), the
      Emergency Management Director (EMD) will organize and coordinate EOC activities
      to provide for timely, effective and flexible response efforts.

   4. The EOC will be activated and staffed in accordance with the nature and severity of the
      incident or threat, the agencies or jurisdictions involved, operational objectives and strategies
      selected, and visualized response/support requirements.

   5. The EMD will notify county administration when it is deemed advisable to activate
      the EOC.

C. EOC Staffing:

   1. Staffing of the EOC will consist of personnel assigned to two (2) primary groups, and six (6)
      functional sections in accordance with the Wake County Standard Operating Procedures for
      the Emergency Operations Center (WCSOP-100).

   2. The EMD will provide appropriate means for the training and exercising of the EOC staff.
      Such training and exercising will be administered in conjunction with WCSOP-100.




                                                29
     3. EOC staff is responsible for ensuring that adequate clerical/administrative assistance is
        provided to support their respective needs.

     4. Each agency representative is responsible for ensuring that alternate personnel are
        designated and properly trained for EOC operations and shift changes.

     5. The county EMD shall assign additional EOC staff (e.g., technical/support), as may be
        required.

     6. EOC security is coordinated by the county Sheriff's Department. Access to the EOC (other
        than pre-designated staff) must be authorized by the County Manager, EOC Operations
        Manager, or the county EMD.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

 A. General:

     The possibility that emergency and disaster occurrences could disrupt government functions
     necessitates that all levels of local government and their departments develop and maintain
     procedures to ensure continuity of governmental services. These procedures will designate who
     will be the decision-makers if an elected official or department head is not available.

 B. Line of Succession:

     1. The line of succession of the Board of County Commissioners proceeds from the Chairman
        to the Vice-Chairman to members of the Board in accordance with county policy.

     2. Department/agency heads with emergency responsibilities are required to establish a line of
      succession (Reference: Wake County Emergency Telephone Directory).

 C. EOC Staffing:

     EOC Staffing assignments allow for continuous operations. Selection and assignment of
     primary EOC staff is the responsibility of the county EOC Manager. Primary EOC staff are
     responsible for ensuring that alternate (backup) EOC staff and administrative (clerical) support
     are trained and available.

 D. Preservation of Vital Records:

     1. It is the responsibility of each governmental agency to insure that all legal documents of both
        a public and private nature be protected and preserved in accordance within existing laws,
        statutes, and ordinances.




                                                 30
     2. Each department/agency is responsible for the preservation of essential records to ensure
        continued operational capabilities.

 E. Relocation of Government:

     1. If necessary, the county will relocate elements of the governing body to the EOC.

     2. If the primary EOC is determined inoperable, the governing body will relocate to an
        alternate EOC.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

 A. General:

     1. The emergency services dispatching/communications center operates continuously 24-hours
        per day and is administered jointly by Wake County and the City of Raleigh. Also,
        around-the-clock dispatching capabilities exist in several municipalities within the county.

     2. The operational readiness of the EOC is the responsibility of the Emergency Management
        Director.

 B. EOC Facilities:

     1. Facilities to be used as an EOC are provided by the Board of County Commissioners. This
        includes all furnishings, supplies, equipment and communications necessary to sustain
        operations and to support the operations staff. Expendable supplies and displays will be
        provided and maintained through the county Emergency Management office.

     2. The mechanics of EOC notification, activation, staffing and internal operations are
        contained in WCSOP-100.

 C. Communications:

     The EOC Signal Officer (Sheriff's Communications Coordinator) will develop procedures to
     activate additional EOC communications support personnel and to expand the EOC
     communications capability, as required. These procedures will address the provisions for EOC
     message handling to include record keeping/documentation, distribution/internal message flow
     and coordination of incoming/outgoing information.

 D. Records and Reports:

     1. Expenditures and obligations of public funds during emergency operations must be recorded
        by the responsible agencies in a manner acceptable for payment, reimbursement and audit
        purposes.




                                                31
      2. Narratives and operational journals of response actions will be kept by all agencies with
         emergency responsibilities.

 E. Consumer Protection:

      Consumer complaints concerning alleged unfair or illegal business practices during emergencies
      will be referred through the Wake County Attorney's Office.

 F.   Non-Discrimination:

      There will be no discrimination on grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, or
      economic status in the execution of emergency preparedness, response, or relief and assistance
      functions.

 G. Agreements and Contracts:

      1. Agreements and contracts must be entered into by duly authorized officials and, where
         practicable, will be formalized in writing prior to performance.

      2. Should local government resources prove to be inadequate during emergency operations,
         requests for assistance may be made to other governmental jurisdictions, volunteer agencies
         and the private sector in accordance with existing or emergency negotiated agreements, i.e.
         mutual aid agreements.

      3. Organizations responsible for implementing this plan must provide for their own
         administrative and logistical needs, and for preparation and maintenance of a resource list for
         use in carrying out their emergency responsibilities.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

 A. Primary responsibility for coordinating the plan development and maintenance process rests with
    the county EMD.

 B. Operational plans and supporting SOPs will be developed in conjunction with department heads,
    emergency services representatives and various supporting organizations.

 C. Periodic revisions to this plan will be identified by appropriate signatures and approval dates.
    The county EMD is responsible for performing periodic reviews of all plans and SOPs with
    appropriate agencies and departments. The revision process will include incorporation of
    necessary changes based upon periodic tests, drills and exercises or actual events.

 D. As a minimum, this plan shall be exercised in accordance with the Federal Emergency
    Management Agency's (FEMA) four-year exercise plan.




                                                  32
 E. Wake County Emergency Management office, in cooperation with emergency services agencies,
    will schedule and conduct required training activities to insure emergency response capabilities
    and certification. Training calendars will be provided periodically to inform interested
    personnel.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

 A. The following listed authorities and references were consulted to support this plan:

     1. Public Law 93-288.

     2. National Security Decision Directive #259, U.S. Civil Defense, February 4, 1987.

     3. Nuclear Attack Planning Base, 1990 (NAPB 90) April, 1987.

     4. N.C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A.

     5. N.C. Executive Order 72.

     6. N.C. General Statutes 115C-242 (6).

     7. N.C. General Statutes Article 36A of Chapter 14.

     8. State of North Carolina Executive Order 43, North Carolina Emergency Response
        Commission, April 7, 1987.

     9. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.

    10. Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985.

    11. Civil Preparedness Guide (CPG) 1-8/1-8a; "Guide For The Development of State and
        Local Emergency Operations Plans", FEMA - October 1985.




                                         BASIC PLAN



                                                 33
                             APPENDIX 1
           WAKE COUNTY GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE




                            Clerk to the Board              Board of Commissioners                     County Attorney




                                                                                                       Deputy County
                                                                 County Manager
                                                                                                         Manager




                                                                                   PIO




                                                                 Community                                       Budget and
               General Services             Planning                                       Personnel                                 Human Services
                                                                  Services                                       Management




 Environmental                                                               Information                                 Facilities Design
                            Public Safety              Finance                                         Revenue
    Service                                                                    Services                                  and Construction




     Sheriff




   Register of
    Deeds




Board of Election




  WC Public
School System




                                                                       34
BASIC PLAN

 APPENDIX 2
COUNTY MAP




    35
                                             BASIC PLAN

                                   APPENDIX 3
                     COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORDINANCE


                                                Chapter 2-5

                                    EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT


Art. I. In General, §§ 2-5-1--2-5-15
Art. II. Emergency Management Agency, §§ 2-5-16--2-5-35
Art. III. State of Emergency, §§ 2-5-36--2-5-49


                                       ARTICLE I. IN GENERAL


Secs. 2-5-1--2-5-15. Reserved


                      ARTICLE II. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY


Sec. 2-5-16. Short title

This article shall be known and may be cited and referred to as the Emergency Management Ordinance
for the County of Wake, including its municipalities.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 1)

Sec. 2-5-17. Purposes

  (a)      It is the intent and purpose of this article to establish an office of emergency management to
        ensure the complete and efficient utilization of all resources of the county and its municipalities
        in the event of disaster as defined herein.

  (b) The office of emergency management shall be the coordinating agency for all activity in
      connection with emergency management within Wake County; it will be the agency through
      which the board of commissioners and the city (or town) council will exercise the authority and
      discharge the responsibilities vested in them during states of disaster or local emergency.

_______
*State law references--Ordinances dealing with states of emergency, G.S. § 14-288.13 et seq.; civil
preparedness functions under state department of crime control and public safety, G.S. § 143B-475;




                                                     36
property taxes for civil preparedness programs, G.S. § 153A-149(c)(9); continuity of local government
in emergency, G.S. Ch. 162B; emergency management, G.S. Ch. 166A.

   (c) This article does not relieve any county department or agency of the responsibilities or
       authority given to it by state law or by local ordinance, nor will it adversely affect the work of
       any volunteer agency organized for relief in disaster situations.

   (d) This article shall not abridge or modify the authority of the governor or his delegates to
       implement emergency measures during declared states of disaster.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 2)

Sec. 2-5-18. Definitions

The following definitions shall apply in the interpretation of this article:

Attack shall mean direct or indirect assault against the county, its government or its environs, or against
the state or nation, by the forces of a hostile nation or the agents thereof, including but not limited to
assault by bombing, conventional or nuclear, chemical or biological warfare, or sabotage.

Director shall mean the coordinator of the emergency management agency, appointed as prescribed in
this article.

Disaster is an occurrence or imminent threat of widespread or severe damage, injury or loss of life or
property resulting from any natural or man-made accidental, military or paramilitary cause.

Emergency management shall be broadly defined to mean the basic government functions of
maintaining the public peace, health and safety during an emergency. This shall include plans and
preparations for minimizing the adverse effect of any kind of disaster, as defined herein, and shall
include prevention, mitigation, warning, movement, shelter, emergency assistance and recovery. It shall
not, however, include any activity that is the primary responsibility of the military forces of the United
States.

Emergency management forces shall mean the employees, equipment and facilities of all county and
city (town) departments, boards, councils, institutions, acting in furtherance of the purposes of this
article; and, in addition, it shall include all volunteer personnel, equipment and facilities contributed by
or obtained from volunteer persons or agencies while acting in the capacity of emergency management
volunteers.

Emergency management volunteer shall mean any person or agency contributing a service, equipment
or facilities to the emergency management agency without remuneration and assigned to participate in
the emergency management activity.

Regulations shall mean plans, programs and other emergency procedures deemed essential to
emergency management. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 3)

Sec. 2-5-19. Violation of regulations




                                                      37
It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any of the provisions of this article or of the regulations or
plans promulgated pursuant to the authority contained herein, or to willfully obstruct, hinder or delay
any member of the emergency management forces as herein defined in the enforcement of the provisions
of this article or any regulations or plan issued thereunder. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 9)

Sec. 2-5-20. Organization and appointments

  (a) The organization shall consist of the following:

       (1) An agency of emergency management within the executive department of county
           government under the direction of the board of commissioners, through the County
           Manager, as authorized by G.S. Chapter 166A-7. The coordinator of emergency
           management shall be its director. Such assistants and other employees as are deemed
        necessary by the board of commissioners for the proper functioning of the agency shall be
           appointed.

       (2) The employees and resources of all county and city (town)departments, boards, institutions
           and councils. The same shall participate in the emergency management activities. Duties
           assigned to county or city (town) departments shall be the same as or similar to the normal
           duties of the department, where possible.

       (3) Volunteer personnel and agencies offering service to and accepted by the county or city
           (town).

  (b) A coordinator of the emergency management agency will be appointed. The coordinator of the
      emergency management agency will be a person well versed and trained in planning operations
      involving the activities of various agencies which operate to protect the public health, safety
      and welfare in the event of disaster as defined in this article.

  (c) The coordinator shall designate and appoint deputy coordinators to assume the emergency
      duties of the coordinator in the event of his absence or disability.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 4)

Sec. 2-5-21. Emergency powers and duties

  (a) The coordinator shall promulgate local emergency management plans which shall be approved
     by the board of commissioners and which shall be activated whenever a local state of
      emergency is declared by the board of commissioners pursuant to local ordinance and G.S.
      166A or when the Governor of North Carolina declares a state of disaster in all or any part of
      Wake County. Such local programs and plans shall be in accordance with the policies and
      standards set by the state.

  (b) During states of declared disaster or local emergency, the board of commissioners may delegate
      to the coordinator the power to implement such additional plans as are necessary for the




                                                     38
       efficient administration of state or federal disaster plans and for the preservation of the public
       safety, health and welfare.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 5)

Sec. 2-5-22. Day-to-day duties and responsibilities of the coordinator

The coordinator shall be responsible to the board of commissioners, through the County Manager, in
regard to all phases of the emergency management activities. The coordinator shall be responsible for
the planning, coordination and operation of emergency management activities in the county. The
coordinator shall maintain communication with state and federal authorities and authorities of nearby
political subdivisions to ensure the most effective operation of the emergency management plans. The
coordinator's duties shall include but not be limited to the following:

  (a) Coordinating the recruitment of volunteer personnel and agencies to augment the personnel and
      facilities of the county and its municipalities for emergency management purposes.

  (b) Development and coordination of plans for the immediate use of all facilities, equipment,
      manpower and resources of the county for the purpose of minimizing or preventing damage to
      persons and property; and protecting or restoring governmental services and public utilities
      necessary for the public health, safety and welfare.

  (c) Negotiating and entering into agreements with owners or persons in control of real property for
      the use of buildings and properties for emergency management purposes; pursuant to such
      agreements designating suitable buildings as public shelters.

  (d) Educating the populace through public information programs about procedures required for the
      protection of their persons and property in case of disaster as defined herein.

  (e) Conducting public practice alerts to ensure efficient operation of the emergency management
      forces and to familiarize residents with emergency management plans, procedures and
      operations.

  (f) Coordinating the activity of other public and private agencies engaged in any emergency
      management activities, and implementing state disaster procedures.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 6)

Sec. 2-5-23. Emergency management plans

  (a) Comprehensive emergency management plans shall be adopted and maintained by resolution of
      the board of commissioners and the city (town) councils. In the preparation of these plans, the
      services, equipment, facilities and personnel of all existing departments and agencies shall be
      utilized to the fullest extent. When comprehensive emergency management plans are approved,
      each municipal department or agency shall perform those functions assigned to it by these plans
      and shall maintain a current state of readiness at all times. The basic emergency operation plan
      and disaster operations plan shall have the full effect of local law whenever disaster, as defined
      in this article, has been proclaimed.




                                                    39
  (b) The coordinator shall describe in emergency plans those positions within the disaster
      organization, in addition to his own, for which lines of succession are necessary. In each
      instance, the responsible person shall designate and file with the coordinator a current list of
      three (3) persons to be successors to his position. The list shall be in order of succession and
      shall designate persons most capable of carrying out all duties and functions assigned to the
      position.

  (c) Each service chief and department head designated in the basic plan shall be responsible for
      carrying out all designated duties and functions. Duties will include organization and training
      of assigned employees and volunteers. Each chief shall formulate operating procedures to
      implement the plan for his service.

  (d) Amendments to the basic plan shall be submitted to the coordinator. The coordinator may
      submit proposed amendments to the board of commissioners and the city (town) councils, with
      his recommendation. Such amendments shall take effect thirty (30) days from the date of
  approval by the board of commissioners.

  (e) When a skill required for a disaster relief function is not available within local government, the
       coordinator shall be authorized to seek assistance beyond local government resources. Duties
       of a supervisory nature shall also include an implicit authority to carry out such ancillary duties
       as are necessary and proper before and after the occurrence of a disaster for the fulfillment of
       functions authorized by this article. Services from persons other than government employees
       may be accepted by local government on a volunteer basis. Such citizens shall be enrolled as
       emergency management volunteers with the approval of the local government department
  chiefs affected. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 7)

Sec. 2-5-24. Municipal or private liability

  (a) All functions hereunder and all other actions related to emergency management by the county
      and its municipalities are governmental functions for the protection of the public peace, health
      and safety. Neither the county nor its municipalities, nor agents and representatives of same,
      nor any individual, receiver, firm, partnership, corporation, association, or trustee, nor any of
      the agents thereof, in good faith complying with or attempting to comply with this article or
      rule, or regulation promulgated pursuant to the provisions of this article, shall be liable for the
      death of or injury to persons, or for damage to property as a result of such activity.

  (b) Any person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who voluntarily and without
       compensation grants to the county and its municipalities the right to inspect, designate and use
       the whole or any part or parts of such real estate for the purpose of sheltering persons during an
       actual, impending or practice disaster situation shall not be civilly liable for the death of or
  injury to any persons on or about such real estate under such license, privilege or permission, or
       for loss of or damage to the property of such persons.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 8)

Sec. 2-5-25. Severability




                                                    40
Should any provisions of this ordinance be declared invalid for any reason, by any court of competent
jurisdiction, such declaration of invalidity shall not affect the validity of the provisions or of this
ordinance as a whole.

Sec. 2-5-26. Conflicting Ordinances, Orders, Rules and Regulations Suspended

Whenever a declared state of emergency or disaster exists, the provisions of this ordinance shall
supersede all local rules and ordinances inconsistent herewith.



Secs. 2-5-27--2-5-35. Reserved

                               ARTICLE III. STATE OF EMERGENCY*

Sec. 2-5-36. Territorial applicability

This article shall not apply within the corporate limits of any municipality, or within any area of the
county over which a municipality has jurisdiction to enact general police-power ordinances, unless the
municipality by resolution consents to its application, in which event it shall apply to such areas as fully
and to the same extent as elsewhere in the county. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 14)


Sec. 2-5-37. Violations

Any person violating any prohibition or restriction imposed by a proclamation authorized by this article
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 12)
Cross reference--General penalty for Code violations, § 2-1-13.

Sec. 2-5-38. Definition; restrictions authorized

  (a) A state of emergency shall be deemed to exist whenever during times of public crisis, disaster,
      rioting, catastrophe or similar public emergency, for any reason, public safety authorities are
      unable to maintain public order or afford adequate protection for lives, safety or property, or
      whenever the occurrence of any such condition is imminent.

  (b) In the event of an existing or threatened state of emergency endangering the lives, safety, health
        and welfare of the people within the county or any part thereof, or threatening damage to or
        destruction of property, the chairman of the board of commissioners is hereby authorized and
        empowered under G.S. Sections 14-288.13 and 166A.8 to issue a public proclamation declaring
        to all persons the existence of such a state of emergency, and, in order to more effectively
  protect the lives and property of people within the county, to place in effect any or all of the
        restrictions authorized in this article.
_____________
*State law reference--Riots and civil disorders, G.S. § 14-288.1 et seq.




                                                     41
  (c) The chairman is hereby authorized and empowered to limit by the proclamation the application
      of all or any part of such restrictions to any area specifically designated or described within the
      county and to specific hours of the day or night, and to exempt from all or any part of such
      restrictions, while acting in the line of and within the scope of their respective duties, law
      enforcement officers, firemen and other public employees, rescue squad members, doctors,
      nurses, employees of hospitals and other medical facilities; on-duty military personnel whether
      state or federal; on-duty employees of public utilities, public transportation companies, and
      newspaper, magazine, radio broadcasting, and television broadcasting corporations operated for
      profit; and such other classes of persons as may be essential to the preservation of public order
      and immediately necessary to serve the safety, health and welfare needs of the people within
      the county. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 1)

Sec. 2-5-39. Proclamation--Generally

  (a) The chairman of the board of commissioners by proclamation may impose the prohibitions and
      restrictions specified in sections 2-5-42 and 2-5-43 in the manner described in those sections.
      The chairman may impose as many of those specified prohibitions and restrictions as he finds
      necessary, because of an emergency, to maintain an acceptable level of public order and
      services, and to protect lives, safety and property. The chairman shall recite the findings in the
      proclamation.

  (b) The proclamation shall be in writing. The chairman shall take reasonable steps to give notice
      of the terms of the proclamation to those affected by it and shall post a copy of it in the county
      courthouse. The chairman shall retain a text of the proclamation and furnish upon request
      certified copies of it for use as evidence.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 2)

Sec. 2-5-40. Same--Amendments

The chairman may amend or extend the proclamation from time to time, making such modifications as
he would have been authorized to include in the original proclamation. The proclamation shall expire
five (5) days after its last imposition unless sooner terminated.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 8)

Sec. 2-5-41. Evacuation

A proclamation may direct and compel the evacuation of all or part of the population of the County of
Wake by prescribed routes, modes of transportation and destination in connection with evacuation, and
may control ingress and egress of a disaster area, and the occupancy of premises therein.

Sec. 2-5-42. Curfew

  (a) The proclamation may impose a curfew prohibiting in certain areas and during certain periods
      the appearance in public of anyone who is not a member of an exempted class. The
      proclamation shall specify the geographical area or areas and the period during each 24-hour
      day to which the curfew applies. The chairman may exempt from some or all of the curfew




                                                   42
       restrictions classes of people whose exemption the chairman finds necessary for the
       preservation of the public health, safety and welfare. The proclamation shall state the exempted
       classes and the restrictions from which each is exempted.

  (b) Unless otherwise specified in the proclamation, the curfew shall apply during the specified
  period each day until the chairman by proclamation removes the curfew.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 3)

Sec. 2-5-43. Restrictions

  (a) Intoxicating Liquor. The proclamation may prohibit the possession or consumption of any
      intoxicating liquor, including beer and wine, other than on one's own premises, and may
      prohibit the transfer, transportation, sale or purchase of any intoxicating liquor
      within the area of the county described in the proclamation. The prohibition, if imposed, may
      apply to transfers of intoxicating liquor by employees of alcoholic beverage control stores as
      well as by anyone else within the geographic area described.

  (b) Dangerous Weapons and Substances.

       (1) The proclamation may prohibit the transportation or possession off one's own premises, or
           the sale or purchase of any dangerous weapon or substance. The chairman may exempt,
           from some or all of the restrictions, classes of people whose possession, transfer or
           transportation of certain dangerous weapons or substances is necessary to the preservation
           of the public health, safety or welfare. The proclamation shall state the exempted classes
           and the restrictions from which each is exempted.

       (2) "Dangerous weapon or substance" means:

         (i) Any deadly weapon, ammunition, incendiary device, radioactive materials or devices,
               explosive, gasoline, or other instrument or substance designed for a use that carries a
               threat of serious bodily injury or destruction of property.
         (ii) Any other instrument or substance that is capable of being used to inflict serious bodily
               injury or destruction of property, when the circumstances indicate that there is some
               probability that such instrument or substance will be so destructively used.
         (iii) Any part or ingredient in any instrument or substance included above.

       (3) If imposed, the restrictions shall apply throughout the jurisdiction of the county or such
           part thereof as designated in the proclamation.

       (4) A violation of this section shall be punishable as provided in G.S. 14-288.7.

  (c) Access to Areas.

       (1) The proclamation may prohibit obtaining access or attempting to obtain access to any area,
           designated in the manner described in this subsection, in violation of any order, clearly
           posted notice, or barricade indicating that access is denied or restricted.




                                                   43
       (2) Areas to which access is denied or restricted shall be designated by the sheriff and his
           subordinates when directed in the proclamation to do so by the chairman. When acting
           under this authority, the sheriff and his subordinates may restrict or deny access to any
           area, street, highway or location within the county if that restriction or denial of access or
           use is reasonably necessary to promote efforts being made to overcome the emergency or
           to prevent further aggravation of the emergency.

  (d) Other Restrictions. The proclamation may prohibit or restrict:

       (1) Movements of people in public places;

       (2) The operation of offices, business establishments and other places to or from which people
           may travel or at which they may congregate; and

       (3) Other activities or conditions the control of which may be reasonably necessary to
           maintain order and protect lives or property during the state of emergency, within the area
           designated in the proclamation. (Ord. of 1-5-81, §§ 4--7)

Sec. 2-5-44. Removal of prohibitions and restrictions

The chairman shall by proclamation remove the prohibitions and restrictions as the emergency no longer
requires them, or when directed to do so by the board of commissioners.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 9)

Sec. 2-5-45. Separate and superseding proclamations

The chairman in his discretion may invoke the restrictions authorized by this article in separate
proclamations, and may amend any proclamation by means of a superseding proclamation.(Ord. of
1-5-81, § 10)

Sec. 2-5-46. Absence or disability of chairman

In case of the absence or disability of the chairman, the vice-chairman of the board of commissioners, or
such other person as maybe designated by the board of commissioners, shall have and exercise all of the
powers herein given the chairman.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 11)

Sec. 2-5-47. Penalty for Violation

Except as provided in Sec. 2-5-43, any person violating any prohibition or restriction imposed by a
proclamation authorized by this ordinance shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable upon conviction
by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars ($50.00) or imprisonment not exceeding 30 days.

Sec. 2-5-48. Repeal of Conflicting Ordinances

All ordinances in conflict with the provisions of this ordinance are hereby repealed.




                                                    44
Sec. 2-5-49. Validity

If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is for any reason held to be
invalid by any court of competent jurisdiction, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining
portions of this ordinance.




                                                     45
                               APPENDIX 3
                             ATTACHMENT A
           PROCLAMATION DECLARING A COUNTY STATE OF EMERGENCY

Section 1. Pursuant to County Ordinance _____________ and chapter 166A of the General Statutes
and Article 36A Chapter 14 of the General Statutes, I have determined that a State of emergency as
defined in County Ordinance ____________ exists in the County of Wake.

Section 2. I, therefore, proclaim the existence of a State of Emergency in the County of Wake.

Section 3. I hereby order all county law enforcement officers and employees and all other emergency
management personnel subject to my control to cooperate in the enforcement and implementation of the
provisions of the county emergency ordinances which are set forth below.

Section 4. Evacuation. I have determined that, in the best interest of public safety and protection, it is
necessary to evacuate the civilian population from the County of Wake.Citizens are free to use any type
of transportation, but they are to use only ________________________ in leaving the county.
Evacuation is to occur as soon as possible. Further proclamation concerning evacuation will be issued
as needed.

Section 5. Curfew. Unless a member of the County's law enforcement agency or the emergency
management program, every person who is located within a ____________ radius
of___________________ is to be inside a house dwelling from the hours of ______________ (am/pm)
to _____________ (am/pm).

Section 6. No Alcoholic Beverages. There shall be no sale, consumption, transportation, or possession
of alcoholic beverages during the State of Emergency in the County of Wake except that possession or
consumption is allowed on a person's own premises.

Section 7. No firearms, ammunition, or explosives. During the State of Emergency, there shall be no
sale or purchase of any type of firearm or ammunition, or any possession of such items along with any
type of explosive off owner's own premises.

Section 8. Execution of Emergency Plan. All civilians and emergency management personnel are
ordered to comply with the emergency reaction plan.

Section 9. This proclamation shall become effective immediately. Proclaimed this the ____ day of
_____ 19__, at_____ (a.m.) (p.m.)




                                         _______________________________________________
                                         CHAIRMAN BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS




                                                    46
                              APPENDIX 3
                            ATTACHMENT B
         PROCLAMATION TERMINATING A COUNTY STATE OF EMERGENCY


Section 1. On ____________________________________, at__________(am/pm), I determined and
proclaimed a local State of emergency for the County of Wake.

Section 2. On ____________________________________, at__________(am/pm), I ordered the
evacuation of all civilians from the area, imposed a curfew, prohibited alcoholic beverages, firearms,
ammunition and explosives, and ordered the execution of the emergency reaction plan.

Section 3. I have determined that a State of Emergency no longer exists in the County of Wake.

Section 4. I thereby terminate the proclamation of a local State of Emergency and all of the restrictions
and orders therein.

Section 5. This proclamation is effective immediately. Proclaimed this the _______day of
_____________________________,at _____________ (am/pm).




                                         ________________________________________________
                                         CHAIRMAN, BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS




                                                    47
                        BASIC PLAN

                          APPENDIX 4
                ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX FOR THE
                INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)


        Command Staff

- Incident Commander
- Command Post
- Staging Area(s)

                                          Operations Section
                                  - Mass Care
                                  - Public Works
                                  - Law Enforcement
                                  - Fire Service
                                  - EMS/Rescue Service
                                  - Health & Medical
                                  - Evacuation
                                  - Transportation




                                       Planning Section (Disaster Analysis)

                                  Collection, Evaluation & Dissemination of Info:
                                  - Radiation Protection / Hazmat
                                  - Damage Assessment
                                  - Technical Specialists: Assist in forecasting of
                                    resource needs
                                  - Action Plans
                                  - Maintain status of resources




                                  Logistics Section (Resources)

                                  Service Branch
                                  - Communications Support
                                    Branch
                                  - Supply Unit
                                  - Facilities Unit
                                  - Ground Support Unit




                                      Financial/Fiscal Section

                                  - Procurement of Resources
                                  - Cost Analysis
                                  - Accounting of Emergency
                                    Expenditures




                             48
                                            BASIC PLAN

                                        APPENDIX 5
                              INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)

General:

The Incident Command System, hereafter referred to as "ICS", provides a basis for a standardized
system to be utilized in combating emergencies. The ICS encompasses methodologies enabling
agencies to work together towards the common objective of effective and efficient management of
emergencies. It is a responsive system, capable of incorporating new technology, ideas and the
individual needs of the agencies comprising the system. In addition, the ICS provides an umbrella
concept which municipalities may find effective in addressing emergencies within their
respective jurisdictions.

I. PURPOSE

   The purpose of the ICS is to provide guidance to all emergency response agencies in Wake County
   necessary to effectively orchestrate inter-agency management of an emergency incident. The goal
   of an effective command organization is to eliminate confusion and the unnecessary loss of life.
   Command of an incident must not be left to chance. The ICS provides methods for the management
   team to manage any incident, whether routine or a major disaster.

   The ICS will provide an umbrella system through which multi-agency responses will be effectively
   pre-planned, organized, and coordinated across response jurisdictions. Through a unified command
   system, agencies will develop common terminology, compatible communication systems,
   coordinated planning procedures, and efficient standard operating techniques.

   The ICS will provide a system to process information to support incident management, planning
    and decision making. The ICS is based upon basic business management principles. Just
    as in business, the incident commander must utilize the tasks of planning, directing, organizing,
    coordinating, communication, delegation and evaluating. In brief, the ICS is a management tool
    consisting of procedures for organizing personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications at the
   scene of an emergency.

   The ICS can be used for every type of emergency situation (e.g., fires, floods, hazardous material
   incidents, hurricanes, radiological incidents, tornadoes, transportation accidents, etc).

   ICS can be expanded to support the following types of operations:

   -   Single jurisdiction/single agency.
   -   Single jurisdiction/multi-agency.
   -   Multi-jurisdiction/multi-agency.

   ICS incorporates the following principles:




                                                   49
  -   Use of common terminology.
  -   Implementation of pre-established role responsibilities and operational strategies.
  -   Integrated communications.
  -   Unified command structures (combined with a flexible span of control).
  -   Comprehensive resources management.
  -   Training standards.


II. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS:

  A. General:

      1. The primary responsibility for implementation of the ICS, rests with the local emergency
         services organizations (e.g., fire, EMS/rescue, law enforcement).

      2. Once implemented, management and coordination of emergency operations becomes the
         responsibility of the Incident Commander/On-Scene Coordinator.

      3. Selection of the Incident Commander/On-Scene Coordinator will depend upon three
         primary factors:

           a. Nature of incident.
           b. Location of the incident.
           c. Magnitude of incident.

      4. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) will support local response
         efforts through:

          a. Coordination of necessary county, state, federal and private resources.
          b. Provide for technical assistance and support, as required.
          c. Activation of the county Emergency Operations Center (EOC), as required.


Reference: The Wake County Incident Command Master Plan


Attachments:

 1. Organizational Chart for ICS Unified Command Post (Large Scale)
 2. Organizational Chart for ICS Unified Command Post (Small Scale)


                                           BASIC PLAN




                                                   50
                           APPENDIX 5 - ATTACHMENT 1
                 UNIFIED COMMAND POST (LARGE SCALE OPERATION)


                                       911Communications Centers



                             EOC (s)                               Liaison with State/Federal Agencies




                     Fire Marshal              Coordinator              Emergency Management



                         Plans                                          *Public Information Officer



                       Logistics                                              *Safety Officer



                        Finance                                            *Technical Advisors


                                                                            Support Agencies
                      **Recorder
                                                                             (as necessary)


                                         Communication Officer




                   EMS Command               Fire Command                 Law Enfor. Command




                    Staging Officer          Affected Agency              On-Scene Operations



                   Planning Section         Logistics Section             On-Scene Operations

             Documentation Unit        Food Unit                       Sector Officers
             Technical Specialist      Supply Unit                     Staging Officer
             Time Keeper               Facilities                      Strike Team Leaders
             Situation Unit                                            Task Force Leaders
             Demobilization Unit                                       Air Operations Director




* May be mobile due to nature of their assignment
** May report to plans or coordinator

                                        BASIC PLAN




                                                     51
               APPENDIX 5 - ATTACHMENT 2
                SINGLE AGENCY COMMAND
      (FIRE, LAW ENFORCEMENT OR EMS OPERATION)



            Fire Marshal             Command                            Emergency Mgt.




         Technical Advisor                                         Public Information Officer



      Support Agency Liaison                                             Safety Officer



      Communications Officer                                                Recorder




                               On Scene Operations
                                (Operations Officer)




Staging Officer

                                                       Sector I



                                                       Sector II



                                                   Sector III



                                                   Sector IV



                                                   Sector V



                                                   Sector VI




                                        52
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 1:
                              TRANSPORTATION


I. PURPOSE

  This common function provides overall coordination of transportation assistance to
  county departments, other governmental and private agencies and voluntary
  organizations requiring transportation to perform emergency missions. A primary
  priority of the transportation function will be the coordination of evacuation
  transportation and to support the transportation needs of other common functions.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      1. Emergency situations may require the evacuation of a significant segment of
         the population within Wake County. Small-scale, localized evacuations may be
         necessary as a result of a hazardous materials incident, major fire, or other
         incident. Large-scale evacuation may be needed in the event of a nuclear event
         or other county-wide disaster.

      2. An evacuation may require substantial physical resources for transportation,
         communication and traffic control.

      3. As per N. C. General Statutes, county school buses may be used for emergency
         transportation.

      4. In the event of nuclear threat attack, mass evacuation of Wake County
         population may be necessary to designated host areas. In such an event, public
         transportation will be required to evacuate a main segment of projected
         evacuees from the Wake County hazard area to the host areas of Wake,
         Johnston, Franklin, Vance, Wilson, Nash and Orange Counties. There will be
         a need to maintain a continuous flow of essential goods and services to support
         the evacuees in the host areas (Reference Wake County Populations Plan for
         Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985).

  B. Assumptions:

      1. A hazard analysis is on-going which identifies the types of threats and the
         areas and population in the county that are most vulnerable to these threats
         (See Basic Plan, Section II).


                                          53
     2. Sufficient warning time will normally be available to evacuate the threatened
        population.

     3. The principal mode of transportation will be private vehicles.

     4. Certain areas of the county, or special populations within the county will need
        additional time to accomplish an evacuation.

     5. The public will both receive and understand official information related to
        evacuation. The public will act in its own interest and will evacuate dangerous
        areas promptly when advised to do so.

     6. If there is sufficient advanced warning, some residents will evacuate prior to
        being advised to do so by public officials.

     7. Most evacuees will seek shelter with relatives or friends rather than accept
        public shelter.

     8. Some residents may refuse to evacuate regardless of warnings.

     9. Some people will lack transportation. Others who are ill or disabled may
        require vehicles with special transportation capabilities.

    10. For nuclear attack hazard, evacuation and movement will occur over a period
        not to exceed three days.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. General:

     1. The ultimate responsibility for ordering an evacuation rests with local
        government. If a municipality is to be evacuated, the mayor will issue the
        order. If the evacuation involves more than one jurisdiction, or an area outside
        of a municipality, the order will be issued on a county level by the Chairman of
        the Board of County Commissioners, or his designated representative.

     2. In coordination with the county Transportation Coordinator, the Wake County
        school system will provide an augmentation of available buses and drivers to
        support emergency transportation needs.


     3. During a nuclear threat, the order to evacuate the risk area will be given by the
        governor.




                                          54
   4. By monitoring the progress of the evacuation, any impediments to the
      evacuation can be recognized and contingency options can be implemented.

B. Specific:

   1. Movement Control and Guidance

       a. The size of the threatened area to be evacuated will be determined by
          conditions at the time of the emergency.

       b. Traffic movement during evacuation will be controlled by use of pre-
          designated routes and traffic control points. Whenever practical, the
          evacuation area will identify at least two routes of egress. One lane of each
          route will be kept open to permit ingress of emergency vehicles.

       c. The progress of the evacuation will be closely monitored. Any
          impediments to the evacuation will be identified and contingency options
          will be implemented, immediately and effectively.

       d. Estimated vehicle capacity for the major evacuation routes are shown at
          Function 1, Appendix 2, Estimated Vehicle Capacities for Major
          Evacuation Routes.

       e. Traffic movements are to be directed to pre-designated reception areas and
          shelters within Wake County and in adjacent counties.

       f. Vehicles experiencing mechanical problems during the evacuation will be
          moved off the roads. Stranded evacuees will be picked up by other
          evacuating vehicles or by emergency response personnel.

       g. As necessary, service areas will be identified to assist evacuees with fuel,
          medical aid, information, etc.

   2. Staging Areas and Pick-Up Points and Routes

       a. The designation of staging areas as mobilization points to organize the
          emergency response personnel and equipment entering from areas outside
          the county will be effected as needed.

       b. Pick-up points and routes will be established as needed. Evacuees without
          vehicles will be instructed to go to the nearest pick-up point or route.
          Time permitting, emergency vehicles will travel these routes at least twice
          during the evacuation to assist evacuees without vehicles.




                                        55
3. Evacuation of Special Populations

   a. Institutions, Facilities and Special Care Individuals:

       (1) Institutions within the county are to maintain updated procedures for
           evacuation.

       (2) Many of the patients and staff of the county's medical facilities will be
           evacuated by on-site transportation. Ambulances and vans will be
           mobilized for the evacuation of non-ambulatory patients. Procedures
           for rapid (no notice) evacuation or in-place sheltering should be
           included in emergency planning by all special needs facilities.

       (3) Schools will maintain updated tested evacuation procedures. Pre-
           designated buses will be utilized for students without their own
           transportation. Procedures for rapid (no notice) evacuation or in-place
           sheltering must be considered by all educational facilities. Where
           appropriate, parents will be notified of the location of reception centers
           (shelters).

       (4) The public will be provided telephone number(s), via the Emergency
            Alert System (EAS) to request otherwise non-available transportation
            for handicapped or disabled persons. To the extent of available assets,
            the Emergency Management Director (EMD) will arrange pick-up of
            these individuals. The county Department of Human Services will
            provide the EMD an updated roster of individuals known to need
            transportation assistance.

       (5) Each prison and detention center within the county will maintain
           updated procedures for expedient relocation of prisoners.

       (6) Evacuation from county parks and recreation areas will be planned for
           and coordinated by the county Parks and Recreation Department and
           the Municipal Parks Department. Evacuation of state parks and
           recreation areas within the county will be planned for and coordinated
           by the local field staff of the Parks and Recreation Division,
           Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources. County
           and state parks representatives will advise the EMD of the scheduled
           special events which may draw crowds to the parks or recreation areas.

       (7) Large employers within the county are responsible for the
           development and maintenance of procedures for an evacuation of their
           employees. These procedures include, if needed, a controlled
           equipment "shut-down". Assistance in the development of such
           procedures is available from the county EMD.


                                     56
     4. Emergency Public Information

         a. For nuclear attack and fixed nuclear facility emergencies, emergency
            public information relative to evacuation zones, movement guidance,
            shelter locations, and other protective information will be provided by a
            crisis relocation emergency public information newspaper supplement
            and/or EAS.

         b. For other emergencies, warning to the public and information concerning
            evacuation will be broadcast over the EAS network and/or by emergency
            vehicles equipped with sirens, warning lights, and/or loud-speakers moving
            through the threatened areas. For localized evacuations, warning and
            evacuation instructions may also be given door-to-door.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

 A. Organization:

     1. The Director of Public Safety, or in his absence the EMD, is responsible for
        implementing the county transportation common function.

     2. During an evacuation, county emergency operations will be directed by the
        Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners and coordinated by the
        office of Emergency Management. The Transportation Coordinator will
        provide coordination of all available transportation resources.

     3. The organizational chart for the evacuation and transportation annex is
        contained at Function 1, Appendix 1, Organization Matrix.

  B. Responsibilities:

     1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

     2. In the EOC the Transportation Common Function’s specific responsibilities
        include:

         a. Identifying potential evacuation areas.

         b. Developing evacuation procedures.

         c. Identifying population groups requiring special assistance during
            evacuation (e.g. senior citizens, the very ill and disabled, nursing homes,
            prison populations, etc.).




                                          57
         d. Assisting institutions and facilities within the county in the development
            of evacuation procedures.

         e. Selecting pick-up points and routes for assisting persons without
            transportation.

         f. Coordinating with private industry for use of privately owned vehicles,
            communication, or other resources needed for evacuation management.

          g. Coordinating the evacuation movement, including the relocation into other
             jurisdictions.

         h. Assuring, as required, the transportation of emergency workers into and
            out of the hazard areas.

         i. Assisting in the evacuation of identified handicapped, elderly and other
            special population groups.

         j. Coordinating with the Department of Human Services to identify reception
            and shelter areas within the county. Coordinating with governments from
            adjoining counties to ensure that reception areas and shelters will be
            designated in their counties and activated to receive the relocatees.

         k. Monitoring the progress of the evacuation and modify evacuation
            procedures when needed.

         l. Briefing Emergency Operations Center (EOC) staff and executive groups
            on evacuation status.

         m. At the direction of the Chairman, Board of County Commissioners, or his
            designee, initiating the return of the population.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

 A. Direction and control of evacuation is the responsibility of the Chairman, County
    Board of Commissioners or his designee.

  B. During large scale evacuations involving the relocation of the populations from an
     entire municipality, county, or several counties, the governor may declare a State
     of Disaster. At that point, the governor assumes direction and control of
     emergency operations.

  C. When an emergency situation requires an immediate evacuation and necessary
     authority is temporarily unavailable, the "on-scene" coordinator can call for
     evacuation in accordance with Wake County's State of Emergency ordinance.


                                          58
VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. Evacuation:

      The line of succession is:

      1. Chairman, County Board of Commissioners

      2. Vice-Chairman, County Board of Commissioners

      3. Commissioners in order of seniority

  B. As necessary, continuity of government will be maintained by relocating
     government operations. Lines of succession to all key positions will be established
     through internal published protocol and all essential records will be protected.

  C. When evacuees are relocated outside the county, a representative will be
     appointed by EOC operations to act as liaison between Wake county and the
     reception area government. The evacuees will be subject to the laws of the
     reception area for the duration of their stay.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Informational materials relative to evacuation zones, routes, parking facilities and
     shelters will be developed, both preceding and during an emergency.

  B. In concert with the Public Information Officer, emergency public information
     instructions (EPIs) will be prepared and retained by the office of Emergency
     Management.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Periodically, the EMD will update the county hazard analysis, resources lists and
     demographic studies.

  B. Emergency response forces which are to support an evacuation effort are
     responsible for development and maintenance of departmental SOPs, mutual aid
     agreements, equipment inventories and personnel rosters including 24-hour
     emergency notification telephones numbers.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. General Statutes, Chapter 166A



                                           59
B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance

C. Wake County Population Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985

D. Nuclear Attack Planning Base (NAPB), 1990 Final Project Report, April, 1987.

E. North Carolina Emergency Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection, Rev. 1,
   April 1989.




                                       60
COMMON FUNCTION 1 - TRANSPORTATION

                  APPENDIX 1
              ORGANIZATION MATRIX




                      Chairman Board of
                           County
                       Commissioners



                                            Municipalities

        PIO



                       Director of Public
                            Safety
                     _________________

                            EMD




                        Transportation
                         Coordinator



    EMS Director                               Sheriff




    Local Rescue
      Squads                                Fire Marshal




                                             Local VFD



                      Superintendent Of
                          Schools




      Coordination




                           61
               COMMON FUNCTION 1 - TRANSPORTATION

                         APPENDIX 2
  ESTIMATED VEHICLE CAPACITIES OR MAJOR EVACUATION ROUTES




Major Evacuation Route                                                            Estimated Capacity *

       I-40 ....................................................................................... 3000
       US 1 North ............................................................................ 3000
       US 1 South ............................................................................ 1500
       US 64 East ............................................................................ 3000
       US 64 West ........................................................................... 1500
       US 401 North ........................................................................ 1500
       US 401 South ........................................................................ 1500
       US 70 East ............................................................................ 3000
       US 70 West ........................................................................... 3000
       NC 50 North .......................................................................... 1500
       NC 50 South .......................................................................... 1500
       NC 55 North .......................................................................... 1500
       NC 55 South .......................................................................... 1500


* Capacity is in vehicles per hour for points on routes outside of neighborhoods and city
streets. Capacity is only a general estimate and actual capacity will vary with roadway and
weather conditions and utilization.

The minimum time required for evacuation is the total number of vehicles, divided by the
total capacity of the most critical point in the evacuation roadway network through which
those vehicles must travel. Generally, highways have a capacity for 1,500 vehicles per
hour, per lane; city streets, 500 vehicles per hour; and rural roads, 850 vehicles per hour.

(Source: North Carolina Department of Transportation Planning and Research Branch)




                                                           62
          WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                    FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                COMMON FUNCTION 2:
                                 COMMUNICATIONS


I. PURPOSE

     This common function will assure the provision of required telecommunications and
     emergency radio support to operations and will provide technical assistance in the
     assessment and reconstruction of the communications infrastructure.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

     1. Communications play a critical role in emergency operations. Communications
        networks and facilities exist and operate throughout the county. Properly
        coordinated, these facilities provide for reasonably effective and efficient response
        activities.

        a. The Raleigh-Wake County Emergency Communications Center is located in the
           municipal building (222 West Hargett St, Raleigh). The county Sheriff's
           Communications is also located at that facility.

        b. The Cary Communications Center is located in the municipal building in Cary
            (316 N. Academy St.).

        c. The Apex Communications Center is located in the police department of Apex
            (205 Saunders St.).

        d. The Fuquay Varina Communications Center is located in the police department of
           Fuquay Varina (1300 E. Academy).

        e. The Holly Springs Communications Center is located in the public safety center of
           Holly Springs (501 Kinderson Dr.).

        f. The Wake Forest Communications Center is located in the police department of
           Wake Forest (401 Owen Ave).

        g. The Wendell Communications Center is located in the police department of
            Wendell (15 E. 4th St.).

                                              63
         h. The county Emergency Operations Center (EOC) (316 Fayetteville St. Mall,
            Raleigh) has communications capabilities with most of the principal emergency
            response agencies.

 B. Assumptions:

     1. It is likely that a significant portion of the communications system will withstand
        most effects of a disaster.

     2. The coordination of communication assets during an emergency situation will
        facilitate timely response activities.


III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. General:

     Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center (911)

     1. The principal emergency communications systems and services used by the county
        are located at the Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center, which also serves as
        the county warning point.

     2. The Communications Center must effect, maintain and implement updated
        emergency communications procedures.

  B. Specifics:

     1. Telephone Service

         a. Telephone service in the county is provided by BellSouth Telephone and
            Telegraph Company; Sprint Mid-Atlantic; General Telephone Company (GTE).

         b. The telephone companies will be provided with a list of priority users of
            telephone service (Reference: Function 2, Appendix 3, List of Priority Telephone
            Service Users and Restoration).

         c. If telephone service is disrupted or damaged, the priority user list is applicable for
            restoration.

     2. Two-Way Radio Systems

         a. The two-way radio system is designated as a principal system to be used


                                              64
   for operational direction and control activities. It provides voice communications
   between mobile, portable and fixed stations with the county Emergency
   Communication Centers.

b. Wake County departments, agencies and organizations which operate two-way
   radio systems include:

   (1) Sheriff's Department

   (2) County School Administration/Transportation

   (3) County Volunteer Fire Departments

   (4) Municipal Police Departments

   (5) Municipal Fire Departments

   (6) Municipal Public Works Departments

   (7) County Rescue Squads/EMS Radio Systems

   (8) The major hospitals

   (9) County Health/Inspections Departments

   (10) Capital Area Transit (CAT)

   (11) Wake County transportation contractor

c. Wake County volunteer organizations which operate two-way radio systems
   include:

   (1) Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)

   (2) American Red Cross

   (3) Civil Air Patrol (CAP)

d. Other two-way communication systems which may be used to communicate with
   the state EOC during emergencies include:

   (1) Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)

   (2) Civil Air Patrol Radio Systems

                                    65
      (3) National Warning System (NAWAS)

      (4) State Emergency Management Area B

      (5) Commercial Telephone

      (6) State Highway Patrol

      (7) State Emergency Medical Services (EMS)

3. Systems Accessible To Communications Centers

   a. The following communications systems can be accessed from the Wake County
      EOC (See Function 2, Appendix 4-A):

      (1) Raleigh/Wake County Communications Command Post (Automatic Ring-
          down)

      (2) Sheriff's Department Radio System

      (3) Raleigh Police, Cary Police and Apex Police Department

      (4) Raleigh, Cary and County Fire

      (5) County Rescue/EMS (RESCOM)

      (6) County School System

      (7) County Health Inspections

      (8) Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant Selective Signaling

      (9) Area B Emergency Management

      (10) State Emergency Management

      (11) Amateur Radio

      (12) Raleigh Durham International Airport

      (13) WQDR Radio Link



                                      66
         b. Other Communications Systems

            The following communications systems are available but not operated from the
            Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center or the EOC:

            (1) Triangle Area Chapter of American Red Cross

            (2) Citizens Band Radio System (REACT)

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     1. The Communications Coordinators are the principals for planning and developing of
        the emergency communications system (Reference Function 2, Appendix 1 -
        Communications Organizational Structure Matrix).

     2. The county warning point serves as the central control point for coordinating 911
        communications and dispatching.

     3. When the Wake County EOC is activated, related emergency communications will be
        coordinated through the Message Center at the EOC.

  B. Responsibilities:

     1. General:

         The Communications Coordinators of Raleigh/ Wake Communications Center,
         Sheriff's Communications, Cary, Apex, Holly Springs, Wendell, Wake Forest, and
         Fuquay-Varina Communications Centers will:

         a. Develop Communications SOPs with recall list and coordinate procedures with
            other communications centers.

         b. Staff, equip, test, operate, and maintain emergency communications facilities and
            systems in a readiness posture.

         c. Ensure that their personnel maintain their technical and operational proficiency
            through training, exercises and demonstrated ability.

         d. Identify or develop potential resources of additional equipment and supplies.

         e. Coordinate intra-county communication networks with surrounding counties and
            the state during disasters.

                                              67
    f. Provide for emergency radio repair capabilities and maintenance operations under
       both short duration and prolonged emergency conditions.

2. In addition to the above, the Raleigh/Wake Communications Director will:

    a. Serve as county warning point coordinator.

    b. As appropriate, activate, flood warning sirens and county fire sirens.

    c. Activate the Emergency Alert System (EAS), NOAA, and CCTV, as
       appropriate.

    d. Monitor the NAWAS, NOAA weather radio or any other emergency notification
       system.

    e. Make initial notification to county administration, Emergency Management staff
       and the emergency services authorities in accordance with published procedures.

3. In addition to the responsibilities listed in Para. IV, B.1, the Sheriff's
   Communications Supervisor will:

    a. Activate EAS and NOAA or any other emergency notification system, as
       appropriate.

    b. Act as Message Officer in the county EOC. In this capacity they will:

        (1) Operate the EOC Message Center.

        (2) Supervise signal operations.

    c. Provide backup communications (mobile), as needed.

    d. Insure telecommunicators are trained in procedures to:

        (1) Receive messages from the Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP).

        (2) In the absence of EOC control, activate the Harris Nuclear Power Plant
            Sirens.

        (3) Activate EAS and NOAA weather radios in support of HNPP siren
            activation.

        (4) Make initial notification to county administration, Emergency Management

                                           68
                 staff and emergency services authorities in accordance with published
                 procedures.


      4. Telecommunicators

         a. Provide radio communications as instructed by their respective Communications
            Coordinator.

         b. Establish and maintain message logs.

         c. Route messages in accordance with written guidelines/procedures or as instructed
            by their Communications Coordinator.

      5. Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES)

         Provide communications between the EOC and command posts, shelters, and sites
         when needed.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. The county EMD will be notified when a major emergency has occurred or is imminent.
     The county EMD will then inform county officials in accordance with county procedures.

  B. During normal operations, authority to direct and control use of communications systems
     and services available to county departments and agencies is delegated to the
     Communications Coordinators listed in this Common Function. (Reference: Para. IV,
     B.1).

  C. When the EOC is activated, direction and control of the county emergency
     communications system will be the responsibility of the EOC Operations Manager.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. The lines of succession for the primary communications centers are:

      1. Raleigh/Wake County Communications:

          a. Communications Director

          b. Assistant Communications Director

          c. Shift Supervisor


                                             69
     2. Sheriff's Communications:

          a. Communications Supervisor


          b. Assistant Communications Supervisor

          c. Team Leader

 B. Lines of succession for other communications centers are in accordance with their
    established policies.

 C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Signal Officer is:

     1. Sheriff's Communication Supervisor

     2. Assistant Supervisor

     3. Team Leader

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. General

     The organizations involved in emergency communications will follow the administrative
     and logistical procedures established by their individual agencies.

  B. Training and Exercises:

     Radio operators of Communication Centers and emergency response organizations are to
     gain and maintain their technical proficiency through a combination of adequately designed
     training and exercise programs. These programs will be under the auspices of the
     respective communications director or senior official.

  C. Security:

     1. Communications equipment will be vulnerable during times of emergency,
        particularly during periods of national emergency. Therefore, security measures must
        be effected to reduce vulnerability.

     2. To reduce security risk, communications personnel will have undergone a background
        investigation prior to such assignments.



                                              70
VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Reference Paragraph VIII.C., Basic Plan.

  B. All departments/organizations within the county providing emergency communications
    will develop and maintain updated communications SOP's, mutual aid agreements,
     personnel rosters, including 24-hour emergency telephone numbers and communications
     equipment inventories.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations.

  B. N.C. General Statutes, 166A.

  C. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.




                                            71
  COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS

                            APPENDIX 1
                      ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX

                                                 EOC




                                  Raleigh/Wake Communications
                                              Center
    Sheriff                                                                          City of Raleigh

                                  Sheriff              City/County




          Sheriff's Communications                                   City/County
                   Supervisor                                   Communications Director



              Telecommunicators                                      Telecommunicators




 Apex           Wendell           Wake Forest           Cary             Holly Sp.        Fuquay-Var.
Comm.           Comm.               Comm.              Comm.              Comm.             Comm.




                    Direction



                   Coordination




                                                72
                    COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS

                                APPENDIX 2
                  EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MATRIX


                                                            EOC




                                               Raleigh/Wake Communications
                                                          Center
                                                                                           Amateur Radio
                                                Sheriff's          City
                                            Communication     Communication
                                              Supervisor        Supervisor



                Sheriff's Department                                                     Fire Departments



                      NCDCI                                                                   NAWAS



           SHNPP Selective Signalling                                                       Rescue/EMS



                                                                                         Law Enforcement



                                                                                               NCDCI



                                                                                            Public Works




                      Apex Communications                                    Cary Communications
                                                                                                           Morrisville
                            Center                                               Center (911)




Fuquay-Varina         Wake Forest            Zebulon               Wendell            Rolesville            Garner
   Police               Police                Police                Police             Police               Police




                                Direction

                                Coordination
                                                             73
                COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS

                                     APPENDIX 3
                            PRIORITY TELEPHONE SYSTEMS


I. PURPOSE

  In case of a partial or complete telephone outage in Wake County, certain critical telephone
  circuits MUST to be restored as soon as possible. An updated listing of these circuits, in the
  order of their priority, must be maintained. In addition, a current edition of this information
  must be on file at the concerned telephone company.

II. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. Emergency Management will:

      1. Keep current the priority telephone systems lists.

      2. Maintain an updated copy of priority list at each of the affected telephone companies.

  B. Each telephone company will:

      1. Keep the updated copy of the priority telephone list accessible.

      2. When there is a partial or complete telephone outage, at the request of the Emergency
         Management Director or the EOC, the telephone company is to restore the identified
         circuits.

  C. Telephone companies that service Wake County:

      1. BellSouth Telephone

      2. Sprint Mid Atlantic

      3. General Telephone Company (GTE)


      •   NOTE:       Wake County maintains a controlled copy listing of all priority telephone
                      numbers, circuit numbers and account numbers. Such information will be
                      made available on a need-to-know basis only.




                                                74
    COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS

                   APPENDIX 4
         COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY CHART

RALEIGH/WAKE COUNTY COMMUNICATIONS CENTER




                        Raleigh Police               Raleigh Fire



    Sheriff
                                                                     Raleigh Public
                                                                     Works/Utilities


 County Fire
                                                                    Other Municipal
                                                                         Police

County EMS/
   Rescue                             Raleigh/Wake
 (RESCOM)                            Communciations                     Hospitals
                                         Center
                                      (County 911)
                                                                        County
Amateur Radio
                                                                       Emergency
(Phone Patch)
                                                                      Management



                                                                        State EM
                                                                    Conference Tele.
   NAWAS                                                                Network



    Inter-City Police                    Selective                  NCDCI
                                         Signaling
                                         (SHNPP)




                                           75
       COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS

                            APPENDIX 4-A
                   COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY CHART

                    EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER (EOC)




                                          Cary Police



Raleigh Police                Cary Fire                 Raleigh Fire                 Apex Police



                 Sheriff
                                                                        Raleigh Public
                                                                        Works/Utilities


            County Fire
                                                                             CAP




           EMS/Rescue
                                                                        County Health/
            (RESCOM)
                                                                         Inspections
                                            EOC

                                                                            Area B
          Amateur Radio                                                   Emergency
                                                                         Management



                                                                           State EM
                                                                       Conference Tele.
            Raleigh CP                                                     Network



                 County Schools            Selective               Telecopiers
                                           Signaling
                                           (SHNPP)




                                           76
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                           COMMON FUNCTION 3:
                      PUBLIC WORKS AND ENGINEERING

I. PURPOSE

  The purpose of this common function is to provide for essential public works/utility
  services during and following an emergency. This function has two primary
  responsibilities: debris clearance and removal, and restoration of public facilities.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. During non-emergency periods, the role of the county and municipal governments
     is supportive of such public work functions as trash collection, landfill operations,
     building-grounds-road maintenance, water and sewage utility services and fleet
     operations.

  B. During and following emergencies, these and other public work functions are
     likely to expand, take on a degree of criticality and have little regard for
     jurisdictions. Therefore, immediate capabilities--local, private, county or state--
     will need to be a coordinated effort to reduce the impact of the emergency and
     provide for essential restoration of services.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. The Wake County Facilities Design and Construction department manages the
     planning, design and construction of capital projects undertaken by the County.
     In this capacity, the staff works with municipalities, state agencies, public/private
     sectors within Wake County and can provide guidance for essential public works
     and utility services emergency restoration efforts.

  B. The Wake County General Services Administration (GSA) has limited in-house
     capabilities for such services as the removal of debris and obstructions, emergency
     repair of facilities, utilities, etc., and support services for emergency response
     elements. However, by the nature of the agency's day-to-day activities, GSA can
     identify critical needs, established appropriate priorities, identify resources and
     effect a general coordination of restitution efforts.

  C. The Wake County Community Development Services (CDS) capabilities will be
     utilized during emergency situations to assist in coordination of the restitution
     efforts. Additionally, CDS responsibilities will include, but are not be limited to,
     temporary housing, emergency inspections and permits, and landfill operations.



                                            78
  D. Local municipal public works departments resources, equipment and personnel
     will be utilized to reduce the impact of the emergency.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

      The Wake County Facilities Design and Construction department serves as lead
      agency for this function.

      The Wake County General Services Administration consists of the following
      divisions: Physical Plant, Fleet Operations, Central Services and Field Services.
      The Wake County Community Development Services Department consists of the
      following divisions: Administration, Engineering, Inspections, Land Use and
      Permits, Soil and Water Conservation, Parks and Recreation and Solid Waste.

  B. Responsibilities:

       1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

       2. Disaster responsibilities for municipalities will be determined by the
          respective jurisdictions according to their capabilities. However, all
          restitution efforts should be coordinated with adjoining jurisdictions,
          including Wake County.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. The Facilities/Design Director will coordinate essential public work
     activities during emergencies in cooperation with the EOC operations and other
     response forces.

  B. The Facilities/Design Director will effect appropriate coordination of efforts
     with representatives of municipalities, the public/private sectors, and/or the
     state/federal agencies.

  C. When notified of an emergency, the General Services Administrator will
     determine the county resources to be committed, alert appropriate personnel and
     designate an individual for on-site control.

  D. Activities related to temporary housing will be under the direction and control of
     the Community Development Services Administrator in cooperation with EOC
     operations.




                                           79
VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

 A. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Facilities Design and
    Construction is:

      1. Facilities/Design Director
      2. Project Managers

 B. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for General Services is:

      1. Wake County General Services Administrator
      2. Director of Business/Technology
      3. Central Services Director

  C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Community Services is:

      1. The Wake County Community Services Administrator.
      2. Chief Engineer.
      3. Projects Officer

  D. Lines of succession for municipal public works will be in accordance with their
     established internal procedures.

  E. Each department/municipality is responsible for the preservation of essential
     records to ensure continued operational capabilities.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Updated data and maps pertaining to municipal and Wake County facilities,
     streets, roads and utility systems must be accessible to Facilities/Design and
     municipal public works (on a need-to-know basis).

  B. Documentation regarding personnel, resources, and expenditures incurred during
     emergency response activities must be maintained by respective resource
     managers.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. This common function will be reviewed periodically by Wake County
     Facilities/Design Director, General Services Administrator, Community Services
     Administrator, and municipal authority, both as to content, clarity, and accuracy,
     reporting recommended changes to Wake County Emergency Management for
     consideration.




                                            80
  B. The Wake County Facilities/Design Director, the Community Services
     Administrator, the General Services Administrator and municipal public works
     coordinators will develop and maintain necessary implementing procedures and
     personnel notification rosters.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinances.




                                         81
COMMON FUNCITON 3 - PUBLIC WORKS AND ENGINEERING

                                        APPENDIX 1
                                    ORGANIZATION MATRIX




                                                 EOC




                                        Facilities Design and
                                            Construction




  Community Development
                                                                           General Services
        Services




                                                                Municipal Utilities (Water &
       Municipal Public Works
                                                                          Sewer)




        Public Utilities (Gas,            State Department of
                                                                Private Sector Resources
        Electric, Telephone)                 Transportation




                      Direction



                     Coordination




                                                 82
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                              COMMON FUNCTION 4:
                              FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

I. PURPOSE

  This common function provides for the coordination of fire service and Emergency
  Medical Services/rescue activities to ensure the safety of life and property within the
  county during actual or imminent emergency situations.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      Fire prevention, suppression and control operations are daily problems faced by
      fire service personnel. Several hazards become more significant during emergency
      situations.

      EMS/rescue operations which provide adequate response, assessment, treatment,
      and safe transportation of sick/injured people are problems faced daily by local
      EMS/rescue squads within Wake County. Life saving activities become more
      significant during extraordinary disaster/emergency situations (e.g., natural
      disasters, hazardous materials, nuclear incidents, etc.). Such occurrences may
      cause need for specialized emergency medical activities, including provisions for
      extended mass care/triage operations.

  B. Assumptions:

      Existing fire and EMS/rescue personnel and equipment will be available to cope
      with most emergency situations through the use of mutual aid agreements. When
      additional support is required, assistance will be obtained through Wake County
      Emergency Management from state and federal agencies.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. The primary mission of fire departments is the preservation of life and property,
     and includes capabilities for fire prevention and suppression. During emergencies,
     local fire department operations may be expanded to include additional tasks.
     Mutual aid agreements between fire departments are a necessity and must be
     effected before the fact.




                                            83
      Emergency operations for EMS/rescue squads will be an extension of their normal
      duties. Utilizing mutual aid agreements, local EMS/rescue squads are prepared to
      support one another by utilizing available manpower and equipment.

  B. The EMS/rescue chief (or designee) of the district where an incident occurs shall
     coordinate EMS/rescue activities. Coordination of such activities shall include
     cooperation with other emergency authorities on the scene, as specified in the
     Wake County Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel.

  C. During situations which require significant resource commitments, all emergency
     departments (e.g., fire, EMS/rescue, law enforcement, etc.) will coordinate their
     operational efforts through implementation of the Wake County Incident
     Command System (ICS).

  D. Under the North Carolina Hazardous Materials Right-To-Know Act of 1985 and
     the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986
     (Title III of SARA), facilities within fire districts are to provide information on
     type and quantities of hazardous materials located on site, identify a facility
     emergency coordinator and provide an on-site emergency plan. This information
     will be incorporated into emergency response action pre-plans and SOPs by each
     fire department.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

      1. Fire Services:

          a. Fire departments in Wake County are made up of organized and trained
             units, utilizing paid or volunteer personnel, which serve specific
             geographical areas known as fire districts (Reference: Function 4,
             Appendix 2 - County Fire District Map).

          b. The control and prevention of forest/wild land fires is the responsibility of
             the State Division of Forest Resources. Through mutual aid agreements,
             local fire departments and the state Division of Forest Resources provide
             mutual support in this endeavor.

      2. EMS/Rescue:

          a. EMS/rescue squads within Wake County are made up of organized and
             trained units, consisting of paid and volunteer personnel.




                                            84
       b. EMS/rescue squads serve specific geographic areas known as EMS/rescue
          districts (Reference: Function 4, Appendix 4 - County Map of EMS/Rescue
          Districts).

B. Responsibilities:

   1. County Fire Marshal

       a. Coordinate fire service requirements as to fire protection, fire suppression
          and hazard abatement.

       b. Support fire related training and provide necessary technical assistance to
          local fire departments.

       c. As appropriate, respond to the county Emergency Operations Center
          (EOC) or local command post, providing necessary support.

       d. Assist in the development of necessary mutual aid agreements.

       e. Maintain updated inventories of all available fire equipment and personnel
          resources.

       f. Coordinate fire protection for emergency shelters.

       g. Assist in notification of all fire services personnel as to known dangers
          associated with a technological hazard (e.g. HAZMAT, radiological
          incidents, etc.) and recommended protective actions.

       h. Support fire services activities for warning and notification of the
          population at risk from an existing or impending emergency.

       i. Provide support personnel to assist damage assessment operations.

   2. Fire Departments (Fire Chiefs)

       a. Provide fire protection services within their fire districts.

       b. Arrange for appropriate training for members of the fire department.

       c. Initiate and maintain updated reports, leading to the preservation of
          historical records and the evidencing of expenditures.

       d. Support rescue operations, as necessary.




                                          85
   e. Support warning and evacuation of the public within threatened or
      contaminated areas.

   f. Coordinate efforts for training fire personnel to perform necessary
      radiological functions.

3. County EMS Director

   a. Plan for emergency medical services requirements, mass casualty/triage
      operations, evacuation support and transportation.

   b. Prepare or assist in the preparation of plans and SOPs in support of
      EMS/rescue operations during emergencies and provide for coordination
      with other emergency services (e.g., fire, law enforcement, hospital, etc.)
      including private support groups.

   c. Coordinate EMS/rescue related training and provide technical assistance to
      local EMS/rescue departments.

   d. Assist in the development and maintenance of a viable EMS/rescue
      communications system.

   e. Assist in maintenance of appropriate mutual aid agreements.

   f. Prepare and maintain inventories of all EMS/rescue equipment and
      personnel resources.

   g. Provide necessary rescue and ambulance support to local staging area
      operations.

   h. Coordinate EMS/rescue activities for public warning, notification and
      evacuation operations (e.g., route/door-to-door alerting), as needed.

   i. Coordinate EMS/rescue services to emergency shelters for transport of
      injured/sick evacuees.

   j. Support radiological monitoring/decontamination activities related to
      EMS/rescue operations.

   k. Assist in the notification of all EMS/rescue services as to known dangers
      associated with technological hazards (e.g., HAZMAT, radiological
      incidents, etc.) during emergency operations.

   l. Assist in the recommendation of protective clothing/equipment to support
      assigned tasks of EMS/rescue activities.


                                    86
         m. Provide training of EMS/rescue personnel relative to the proper recording
            and maintenance of exposure/decontamination records.

      4. Chief of Rescue Squad

         a. Provide adequate response, patient assessment, treatment, and safe
            transportation of sick/injured people.

          b. Provide mutual aid assistance as requested.

          c. Support search and recovery activities.

         d. Provide support for emergency operations as needed (public warning,
            traffic control, etc.).

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

 A. Fire Services

      1. Coordination of local fire departments is exercised by the executive branch of
         government through the county Fire Marshal, and the local Fire Chief.

      2. Volunteer fire departments are chartered as private, non-profit corporations
         and provide fire service to local government, as well as to the designated fire
         districts.

      3. As the situation dictates, the Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a
         joint, coordinated endeavor, serving to effect inter and intra-agency
         cooperation between all authorities having responsibilities for public safety and
         protection during emergency operations.

 B.   EMS/Rescue

      1. Direction and control of local EMS/rescue departments is exercised by the
         executive branch of government through the county EMS Director, in
         coordination with local EMS/rescue squad chiefs.

      2. EMS/rescue squads are chartered as private, non-profit organizations,
         providing service to local government through established EMS/rescue
         districts.

      3. Coordination of EMS/rescue activities during an emergency is accomplished
         through the county EMS Director, utilizing mutual aid agreements with local
         rescue squads.


                                           87
VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. The line of succession within local fire departments is in accordance with
     statutory requirements or established internal procedures.

  B.          The line of succession within the EOC for the Wake County Fire Marshal's
       department is:

       1. County Fire Marshal

       2. Assistant Fire Marshal (Training)

       3. Assistant Fire Marshal (Prevention)

       4. President, Wake County Fire Association

 C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the county EMS Director
    is:

       1. County EMS Director

       2. County EMS Operations Officer

       3. EMS Shift Supervisor

       4. Training Officer

  D. Records vital to the functioning of the local fire departments and EMS/rescue
     units, including facility pre-plans, resource information, training records, mutual
     aid agreements, and SOP’s will be maintained in a secure, confidential, need-to-
     know basis.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. A listing of the personnel and emergency response resources available to the
     respective county fire departments and rescue units will be maintained by the Fire
     Marshal's department and the county EMS Director in conjunction with the Wake
     County Emergency Management Agency.

  B. North Carolina Incidents Reports (Form ID-SFC-2) will be collected,
     consolidated, and maintained by the county Fire Marshal.




                                            88
      Necessary reports and records of EMS/rescue activities during disaster/emergency
      operations, will be collected from local rescue units consolidated and maintained
      by the Wake County EMS Director.

  C. Communications network between local fire departments, the county, and mutual
     aid fire departments will be structured to obtain maximum benefit of radio
     communication resources.

  D. Copies of existing emergency response mutual aid agreements will be maintained
     on file by the county Fire Marshal.

  E. The county Fire Marshal and EMS Director will maintain updated fire and
     EMS/rescue district maps for distribution as necessary.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Each fire department and rescue unit will develop and maintain procedures that
     reflect their operational capabilities. Such information will be coordinated with the
     county Fire Marshal and EMS Director and the Wake County Emergency
     Management Agency.

  B. Periodic revisions to this plan will be identified by appropriate signatures and
     approval dates. The county Emergency Management Director (EMD) is
     responsible for coordinating a periodic review of all plans and SOPs. Such efforts
     will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and departments. The revision
     process will include incorporation of necessary changes based upon periodic tests,
     drills and exercises.

  C. Records/catalogues of resources will be updated periodically, to include trained
     personnel, equipment, supplies and other related items.

IX.   AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statute 58-9; 118-38; 143-166.1, 143-507 through 517, 153-A and
     160-A.

  B. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A.

  C. The Hazardous Chemical Right-To-Know Act, Article (8), Chapter 95 of N. C.
     General Statutes.

  D. Title III of Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

  E. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.



                                           89
F. County and State EMS/rescue Mutual Aid Agreements.

G. Wake County Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel; dated
   April 1985.

H. N. C. Board of Medical Examiners Administrative Code - T21; 32H.




                                     90
COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

                      APPENDIX 1
          FIRE SERVICES ORGANIZATION MATRIX

                                                              N. C. Division of Forest
                                 County Fire Marshal
                                                                     Resources



                                Local Fire Departments


      Apex FD                                                Bayleaf FD



 Cary Municipal FD                                       Durham Highway FD



   Fairgrounds FD                                            Fairview FD



      Falls FD                                            Fuquay-Varina FD



     Garner FD                                            Holly Springs FD



    Hopkins FD                                             Knightdale FD



   Morrisville FD                                            Raleigh FD



    Rolesville FD                                        Raleigh-Durham FD



    Six Forks FD                                            Stony Hill FD



   Swift Creek FD                                         Wake Forest FD



 Wake-New Hope FD                                            Wendell FD



     YRAC FD                                                 Zebulon FD




                 Coordination




                                           91
COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

                APPENDIX 2
        COUNTY MAP OF FIRE DISTRICTS




                     92
COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

                            APPENDIX 3
                 EMS/RESCUE ORGANIZATION MATRIX



                                      County EOC




                                  County EMS Director



Transportation                                                      Area Hospitals


                                 Local Command Post(s)
                                    (Rescue Services)



                                     Staging Area(s)



                                 Local Fire Departments




       Apex Rescue                                           Six Forks Rescue



    Cary Area Rescue                                        Wake County EMS



  Fuquay-Varina Rescue                                       Wendell Rescue



      Garner Rescue                                          Zebulon Rescue



    Knightdale Rescue                                     Raleigh-Durham Airport
                                                               Authority CFR


 Northern Wake Rescue




                  Coordination




                                           93
COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

                APPENDIX 4
         EMS/RESCUE DISTRICTS MAP




                    94
COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRES SERVICES/RESCUE

                APPENDIX 5
       MASS CASUALTY/TRIAGE DIAGRAM




                (To Be Added)




                     95
        COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE

                          APPENDIX 6
       DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN FOR EMS/RESCUE PERSONNEL


I. INTRODUCTION

  This plan is intended to define the responsibilities of emergency medical personnel in
  response to incidents requiring coordination with other agencies. This plan includes
  terminology, assignments, and responsibilities to be studied carefully. This document
  is condensed on the premise that emergency medical personnel apply similar practices
  during daily routines, and the efforts described herein will simply be an expansion of
  those services.

  In the reality of a disaster response becoming necessary, it shall be the responsibilities
  of the primary provider (host area EMS/rescue squad) in whose jurisdiction the disaster
  to direct, coordinate an implement the disaster/emergency response.

  Two major complications that emergency medical personnel encounter during disaster
  situations are:

  A. The limited number of trained EMS/rescue personnel available.

  B. Individuals or groups working without authority and/or independently from
     organized efforts.

      These problems should be addressed early on, by narrowing the assignments of
      responsibilities and expectation of emergency medical personnel at the disaster/
      emergency scene. Such efforts should include:

      1. Implementation of the Wake County Incident Command System (ICS).

      2. Coordination of efforts to ensure maximum use of emergency medical
         personnel, equipment and supplies.

      3. Effective mass casualty/triage strategies to include concentration on victims
         most likely to be saved.

      4. Rapid transport to hospitals and medical facilities, having priority over
         Advanced Life Support (ALS) on the scene.

      5. Providing ALS while en-route to hospitals and medical facilities.

  C. The first unit to arrive on the scene must not blindly rush to individual victims,


                                            96
       but must first perform a rapid assessment of the situation and ensure that proper
       personnel, equipment and supplies are dispatched to provide essential lifesaving
       efforts. These actions and initial decisions (in the first few minutes) will influence
       the entire response and management of the incident. Proper actions and decisions
       will avoid confusion, chaos and inefficiency.

  D. It is essential that emergency response personnel familiarize themselves with
     the Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel, the EMS guides of
     SOPs for Disaster Response and the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan
     for Multi-Hazards.

II. RESPONSE

  The incident scene should provide for the following:

  A. Command Post: (See EMS SOPs); the EMS person in charge of coordinating
     EMS/rescue activities at the command post shall be called the "EMS Command
     Post Officer". Responsibilities of this individual shall be:

      1. Coordination of overall EMS/rescue operations.

      2.   Coordination with other emergency service command post representatives
           (e.g., fire, law enforcement, emergency management, etc.).

      3. Appointment of and coordination with:

           a. EMS Control Officer

           b. EMS Extrication Officer

           c. EMS Staging Area Officer

      4. Coordination with the Medical Director.

      5. Coordination of communications capabilities and related on-scene
         requirements.

  B. Extrication: is the actual rescue and removal of victims from buildings, aircraft,
     trains, vehicles, etc. Once the decision is made that a disaster response is
     required, the responsibility for rescue and/or extrication should be conducted by
     emergency personnel qualified to perform necessary tasks. The EMS Command
     Post Officer shall designate an individual to be responsible for coordinating this
     activity. This individual shall be called the "EMS Extrication Officer". Only
     personnel requested by the EMS Extrication Officer should enter the sector to
     assist with this effort. Victim treatment in this area should be limited to only those


                                            97
    efforts necessary to save lives (triage), until such time that victims may be removed
    to established on-scene treatment area(s). If entrapped victims require advanced
    life support (ALS) prior to, or during removal efforts, qualified personnel, as
    available, will be requested to assist in the extracation sector. Other personnel will
    be needed to support triage, treatment and transportation of victims. The EMS
    Extrication Officer must keep other primary EMS personnel (e.g., Command Post
    Officer, Control Officer, Triage Officer, etc.) informed of the total number of
    victims found.

C. Triage, Treatment and Transportation: These sector activities should be
   established close to, but a safe distance from the actual incident scene. Triage
   efforts (initial victim assessment/life-saving treatment and tagging will usually be
   performed at the incident scene. Continued assessment, treatment and
   transportation of victims will be performed at the established treatment area(s).

    The following individuals must coordinate their efforts:

    1. EMS Control Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Command Post Officer);
       responsibilities include:

        a. Appointment of EMS Triage Officer(s).

        b. Appointment of EMS Transportation Officer.

        c. Request for adequate numbers of EMS personnel, equipment and supplies.

        d. Ensuring continuous movement of victims from triage to treatment areas,
           then from treatment areas to transportation units.

        e. Determination of hospital/medical facility capabilities, based upon the
           number of victims, seriousness of injuries and available transportation
           modes.

        f. Coordination of communications with other EMS sectors and the Incident
           Command Post (EMS Command Post Officer).

    2. EMS Triage Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Control Officer);
       responsibilities include:

        a. Request blanket standing orders for treatment if number of victims exceeds
           capability for individual requests.

        b. Request adequate number of personnel, equipment and supplies.

        c. Tag all victims (METTAG) to be brought to the treatment area, according


                                          98
       to priority for further treatment/transport. Where possible, note location of
       victims prior to movement.

   d. Ensure that EMS Control Officer and EMS Command Post Officer is
      informed of situation information.

    e. Keep EMS Treatment Officer informed of number of victims.

   f. Designate EMS personnel to enter the extrication sector for lifesaving
      treatment of victims, if required.

3. Transportation Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Control Officer);
   responsibilities include:

    a. Assist with the loading of victims.

   b. Maintain a written log of victims transported to area hospitals/medical
      facilities (including the unit transporting, hospital taken to, victims name,
      tag number and general condition).

    c. Notify hospitals of victims en-route.

    d. Maintain status of hospital loading and victim treatment capabilities.

    e. Coordinate with other primary EMS personnel.

   f. Coordinate with EMS Staging Area Officer for necessary transportation
      units.

4. Medical Director - The Wake County EMS Medical Director or his designee is
   responsible for the following:

   a. Oversee medical control at the triage and treatment sector of the incident
      scene.

    b. Issue treatment orders.

    c. Assist EMS Control Officer is selecting hospital destination for victims.

   d. Supervise and coordinate with any other physicians or nurses that may be
      on-scene.

5. Staging Area Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Command Post Officer); is
   responsible for:




                                     99
            a. Ensuring access into and out of the incident scene, for EMS personnel,
               equipment and supplies.

            b. Coordination with primary EMS personnel, especially supporting the EMS
               transportation section.

            c. Maintaining an adequate status log of all personnel, equipment and/or
               supplies available from the staging area. Coordination of such information
               with command post staff.

            d. Maintaining communications necessary to support operational activities
               between field units, staging are and command post.

III.   STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs)

       This SOP is intended for use as a guide in support of EMS operational strategies
       when conditions dictate the coordination and mutual support of various agencies
       during extraordinary disaster/emergency situations:

       A. PERSON IN CHARGE:

          The person in charge of the first arriving EMS unit shall be considered in charge
          and will assess the incident situation, report conditions, request necessary
          mutual aid and remain in charge until properly relieved by an appropriate
          individual of authority.

       B. COMMAND POST:*

          An incident command post* should be established and should handle all
          communications to and from the incident scene, including any related news
          releases for public information.

       C. STAGING AREA:

          The senior EMS individual in charge of the incident scene will determine the
          best place for staging area(s), and direct that all responding resources report to
          the staging area, unless otherwise determined.


* An incident command post simply means a control point, strategically established by
emergency authorities for the purpose of directing, controlling and/or coordinating
emergency response activities. Each primary emergency service and/or support element
should have a representative at the command post.




                                            100
D. MEDICAL TREATMENT/TRIAGE:

  The EMS individual in charge of the first responding unit shall:

  1. Assess the need for additional emergency medical response.

  2. In cooperation with the Incident Commander of the scene, establish a triage
      area if necessary.

  3. Notify hospitals of the situation at hand.

E. SCENE CONTROL:

  Law enforcement personnel, in cooperation with the Incident Commander and
  command post staff, shall be responsible for:

  1. Access/crowd control.

  2. Traffic control.

  3. Coordinate and support evacuation.

F. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS:

  Fire department personnel shall be considered as the primary authorities
  responsible for managing hazardous material incidents which pose a threat to life
  and/or property.

G. NON-COMMITTED EMERGENCY PERSONNEL:

  It is understood and expected that all emergency personnel and equipment
  responding to an incident are to assist as needed, in whatever role, and in
  coordination with the Incident Commander, command post staff and other
  responsible authorities on-scene.




                                    101
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                            COMMON FUNCTION 5:
                         INFORMATION AND PLANNING

I. PURPOSE

  This common function collects, processes, and disseminates information about a
  potential or actual emergency to facilitate response and planning processes. This
  function includes recovery operations, situation unit, damage assessment, weather
  information, demobilization activities, expedient training, technical specialist, family
  center operations, planning for dislocated populations, re-entry inspections and permits
  and Geographic Information System (GIS).

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      1. Most hazardous events which may affect the county have the potential for
         causing damage. A planned damage assessment program is essential for
         effective response and recovery operations.

      2. An initial damage assessment will provide a descriptive measure of the
         severity and magnitude of the disaster. Recovery capabilities and requirements
         for supplemental assistance can be determined from initial damage assessments.

      3. If a disaster occurs of such magnitude that it could result in a Declaration of
         Disaster or Emergency, a damage assessment of public and private property is
         required for the county and affected political subdivisions. This information
         will provide a basis for the determination and justification of actions needed,
         the establishment of priorities, the allocation of local government resources in
         the disaster area, and what, if any, outside assistance will be required to restore
         the affected area to pre-disaster condition.

  B. Assumptions:

      1. The county will continue to be exposed to various hazards resulting in damage
         to property both public and private.

      2. Damage will be assessed by trained teams of local resource personnel.

      3. Implementing damage assessment procedures will expedite relief and
         assistance for those adversely affected.



                                           102
III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. During emergency operations, responders will conduct an assessment of damages
     impacting their jurisdictions. That assessment will direct response and recovery
     operational activities. Initially, a generalized assessment will identify the
     geographical boundaries of the event, type and magnitude of the damages, and the
     impact to critical facilities. As the life of the event progresses, information will
     become more specific, almost anecdotal in nature.

  B. Information, to be useful, must be organized into major and subgroups. This
     information must accurately describe the impacted area and the affect to the
     infrastructure. At a minimum, the following information is required to describe
     the emergency/disaster event:

      1. Deaths
      2. Injuries
      3. Boundaries of the disaster area
      4. Political boundaries
      5. Status of transportation infrastructure
      6. Status of communications infrastructure
      7. Status of electrical infrastructure
      8. Status of medical infrastructure
      9. Hazard specific information
     10. Weather data affecting the impacted area
     11. Activated Emergency Management facilities
     12. Shelter information
     13. Mass feeding information
     14. Immediate or life threatening needs
     15. Fires reported in the impacted area
     16. Missing persons

     C. Informational displays will be developed based on the intensity and impact of
        the disaster and will reflect the overall emergency operation of the event.
        Specific information will be displayed on an as needed basis.

     D. Situation reports will be developed using statistical, narrative, and graphical
        information from response and recovery operations that describe periodically
        the progress of the emergency workers and future operational strategies.




                                          103
IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     This section is responsible for gathering, analyzing, evaluating and disseminating
     technical information and forwarding recommendation(s) to the EOC Manager.
     While the Operations Chief is involved with immediate response to the emergency,
     this Section is planning ahead and looking at possible contingencies and alternate
     means of actions.

 B. Responsibilities:

     1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities

     2. Specific Responsibilities (Reference WCSOP-100A)

     Cooperative Extension Director will assist the USDA (Wake County
     Emergency Board) in the performance of duties associated with:

      a. Locating and providing food for feeding of animals.

      b. Restricting sale, production, distribution, and warehousing of livestock,
         produce, processed and unprocessed food products, if contamination is
         suspected.

      c. Locating sources of uncontaminated feed for livestock and the feeding of
         livestock.

     d. Assisting Damage Assessment Officer in matters related to farm land,
        commodities, livestock and structures.

     e. Assisting with sampling and monitoring activities associated with Ingestion
        Pathway.

     f. Providing support activities for agricultural needs within Wake County.

     Damage Assessment Officer (Tax Supervisor) will coordinate public and private
     damage assessments used to determine the County’s eligibility for a disaster
     declaration. This assessment will be the basis for relief efforts.

     Responsibilities will include:

     a. Assessing structural damage through utilization of the County and other
        municipal governments’ inspections capabilities.


                                          104
     b. Assisting in consolidating damage assessment reports.

     c. Providing advice and information on damage assessment to the EOC staff.

     Community Recovery Services Coordinator (Community Development
     Services Administrator) will:

     a. Maintain a current list of suitable housing accommodations available for
        possibly thirty (30) continuous days (motel rooms, private or commercial
        apartments, rental units in mobile home parks, etc.).

     b. Identify additional sites for mobile homes, as needed.

     c. Where necessary and available, facilitate the erection of pre-fabricated
        dwellings or tents.

     d. Insure compliance with State and local laws, and ordinances.

     e. Assist in the preparation of agreements or contracts with other municipalities
        toward the furnishing of building, electrical plumbing, mechanical, housing
        and other inspections.

     Recovery Team - The activities of the Recovery Team will continue for an
     extended time frame. Strategies will be developed for short term and long term
     recovery. Short term recovery phase activities will be simultaneous with the post
     impact response phase. Critical Incident Stress Management will be a function of
     the Recovery Team.

     Hazard Mitigation - The Hazard Mitigation Officer (HMO) is responsible for
     identifying potential improvements that would reduce or remove the hazard
     vulnerability. The HMO may be a member of the State Hazards Mitigation Team
     and may assist in the preparation of the Disaster Hazard Mitigation Plan.

     Additional County Agencies/Department will be identified to perform
     task/responsibilities as the need requires.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

 A. The Director of Public Safety will coordinate planning and recovery activities. In
    his absence, unless otherwise designated, the duties will be assumed by the Wake
    County Emergency Management Director.

 B. The county Damage Assessment Officer as a member of the EOC staff is
    responsible for the coordination of damage assessment teams.


                                         105
  C. County departments will provide available personnel and resources to support
     the planning and recovery effort, as requested. Personnel from operating
     departments assigned to planning and recovery responsibilities will remain under
     the control of their own departments, but will function under the technical
     supervision of the planning and recovery chief.

  D. The municipalities within Wake County should exercise their full authority in the
     execution of locally designed emergency plans and procedures. However, such
     activities should be coordinated with the Wake County Emergency Management
     Agency.

  E. Major emergency situations affecting the unincorporated sections of the county
     will be supported by Wake County government. Situations affecting multi-
     jurisdictional areas, the county and municipalities, will be managed in a cooperative
     effort, each providing mutual support as needed. Unless the EOC is activated, the
     Wake County Emergency Management Agency shall serve as the lead agency.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. Upon activation of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) lines of succession
     for agencies supporting the planning and recovery section are in accordance with
     the agencies' established policies.

  B. County Government Line of Succession

     1. The line of succession for the Chairman, Board of County Commissioners is
        from Chairperson to the Vice Chairperson, continuing on through the board
        members in order of seniority. In the absence of the aforesaid officials, the line
        of succession would proceed to the County Manager.

     2. Administration and Operations

        The line of succession for county management is from the County Manager to
        the Director of Public Safety/Emergency Operations.

     3. Preparedness and Coordination

        The line of succession for preparedness and coordination is from the Emergency
        Management Director to the designated Emergency Management staff
        representative(s).




                                           106
      4. Departmental Support

         The line of succession within each county department or agency is according to
         their respective SOP.

 C. Documentation and Preservation of Records

      Measures to maintain documentation and accountability of operations, including
      preservation of records, will be taken to ensure continued operation and/or
      reconstitution, if necessary, of county government (See Basic Plan: Part VI -
      Continuity of Government).

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Reporting forms and necessary federal disaster reporting forms and guidance
     will be maintained in the Emergency Management office and made available for
     distribution when necessary. Copies of all documentation are retained for record
     purposes.

  B. Survey teams for damage assessment will consist primarily of local government
     employees. When necessary, non-profit organizations and non-government
     personnel may supplement the teams. Radiological and/or hazardous materials
     specialists will be added to teams when needed.

 C.    Records and Reports

      1. Records of personnel and equipment will be kept.

      2. Records regarding expenditures incurred during emergency response activities
         will be kept.

  D. Communications

      1. Primary communications will be emergency services, radios and public
         telephone.

      2. Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES) will augment communications
         and provide as backup.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Responsibility

      1. This common function is developed and maintained by Wake County
         Emergency Management Agency.


                                          107
    2. This common function will be reviewed annually by Wake County Emergency
       Management Agency. Revisions will be coordinated with appropriate agencies
       having attending responsibilities.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. Authorities:

     1. Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Public Law 93.288, as amended. Disaster Relief
        and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988 (P. L. 100-707).

     2. 44CFR, Part 206.

     3. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A.

     4. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.

     5. Flood Hazard Information for Crabtree Creek, U.S. Corps of Engineers,
        December 1977.

  B. References:

     1. Handbook for Applicants Pursuant to P. L. 93.288, DR & R1 FEMA, 3-81.

     2. Digest of Federal Disaster Assistance Programs: DR & R21, FEMA, June
        1985.

     3. Federal Disaster Assistance Program, DR & R18, January 1987.

     4. Disaster Assistance Program, DAP 19, March 1987.

     5. Wake County Standard Operation Procedures for Damage
        Assessment/Recovery

     6. Wake County EOC Standard Operating Procedure (WCSOP - 100).




                                         108
   COMMON FUNCTION 5 - INFORMATION AND PLANNING

                                     APPENDIX 1
                                 ORGANIZATION MATRIX




                                                             EOC




                                                                                               NCDEM Area "B"
                                                  Director of Public Safety
                                                                                                 Coordinator




                                                                              Non-Government
County Agencies                  Municipalities
                                                                                 Agencies




                                                   Damage Assessment
                                                         Officer




                                                   Damage Assessment
                                                         Teams




                  Coordination




                                                  109
   COMMON FUNCTION 5 - INFORMATION AND PLANNING

                             APPENDIX 2
                FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM


I. PURPOSE

  The purpose of this summary is to provide a brief description of Federal programs and
  voluntary agency assistance which may be available to Wake County, municipal
  governments and the populace under a Presidential Declaration following a major
  disaster or an emergency. It also describes Federal programs available under their own
  authority without a major disaster or emergency declaration.

II. ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

  A. Major Disaster Declaration:

      1. Clearance of debris, when in the public interest, on public or private lands or
         waters.

      2. Emergency protective measures for the preservation of life and property.

      3. Repair or replacement of roads, streets, and bridges.

      4. Repair or replacement of water control facilities (dikes, levees, irrigation
         works, and drainage facilities).

      5. Repair or replacement of public buildings and related equipment.

      6. Repair or replacement of public utilities.

      7. Repair or restoration to pre-disaster condition of essential public facilities
         damaged.

      8. Repair or restoration of recreational facilities and parks.

      9. Repair or replacement of private non-profit educational, utility, emergency,
         medical, and custodial care facilities, including those for the aged or disabled,
         and facilities on Indian reservations.

     10. Disaster loans from FEMA to those communities that may suffer a substantial
         loss of tax and other revenues and have demonstrated a need for financial
         assistance in order to perform their governmental functions.



                                           110
     11. Repairs and operating assistance to public elementary and secondary schools
         by the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

     12. Use of federal equipment, supplies, facilities, personnel, and other resources
         (other than the extension of credit) from various federal agencies.

     13. Certain forms of hazard mitigation assistance from FEMA under its own
         authorities and with other federal agencies through the inter-agency hazard
         mitigation team process.

     14. Repairs to federal aid system roads when authorized by the Department of
         Transportation.

  B. Emergency Declaration:

      1. Emergency mass care, such as emergency shelter, emergency provision of
         food, water and medicine, and emergency medical care.

      2. Clearance of debris to save lives and protect property and public health and
         safety.

      3. Emergency protective measures, including search and rescue, demolition of
         unsafe structures, warning of further risks and hazards, public information on
         health and safety measures, and other actions necessary to remove or to reduce
         immediate threats to public health and safety, to public property, or to private
         property when in the public interest.

      4. Emergency repairs to essential utilities and facilities as necessary to provide
         for their continued operation.

III. ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS (Major Disaster Declaration)

      1. Temporary housing in the form of government, private and commercial
         resources or grants for minor repairs to owner-occupied damaged structures is
         provided. Temporary assistance with mortgage or rental payments for persons
         faced with loss of their residence because of disaster-created financial hardship.

      2. Disaster unemployment assistance and job placement assistance for those
         unemployed as a result of a major disaster.

      3. Individual and family grants to meet disaster related expenses or serious needs
         when those affected are unable to meet such expenses or needs through other
         programs or other means.

      4. Legal services to low income families and individuals.


                                           111
     5. Crisis counseling and referrals to appropriate mental health agencies to relieve
        disaster-caused mental health problems.

     6. Loans to individuals, businesses, and farmers for repair, rehabilitation, or
        replacement of damaged real and personal property and some production
        losses not fully covered by insurance.

     7. Agricultural assistance, including technical assistance, payments covering a
        major portion of the cost to eligible farmers who perform emergency
        conservation actions on farm land damaged by the disaster, and provision of
        federally owned feed grain for livestock and herd preservation.

     8. Veterans' assistance, such as death benefits, pensions, insurance settlements,
        and adjustments to home mortgages held by the Veterans Administration, if a
        VA-insured home has been damaged.

     9. Tax relief, including help from the Internal Revenue Service, in claiming
        casualty losses resulting from the disaster and state tax assistance.

     10. Waiver of penalty for early withdrawal of funds from certain time deposits.

     11. Cora Brown Fund, to assist victims of natural disasters for those disaster-
         related needs that have not been or will not be met by government agencies or
         other organizations that have programs to address such needs.

IV. ASSISTANCE WITHOUT A PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION

  A. Search and Rescue:

     The Coast Guard or U.S. Armed Forces units can assist in search and rescue
     operations, evacuate disaster victims, and transport supplies and equipment.

  B. Flood Protection:

     The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has the authority to assist in flood fighting and
     rescue operations and to protect, repair, and restore federally constructed flood-
     control works threatened, damaged, or destroyed by a flood.

  C. Fire Suppression Assistance:

     The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 authorized the President to provide assistance,
     including grants, equipment, supplies, and personnel to a state for the suppression
     of a forest or grassland fire on public or private lands that threatens to become a
     major disaster.


                                          112
D. Health and Welfare:

     The Department of Health, Education and Human Services can provide assistance
     to state and local welfare agencies and to state vocational rehabilitation agencies.
     The Public Health Service can aid states and local communities in emergency
     health and sanitation measures. The Food and Drug Administration can work with
     state and local governments in establishing public health controls through the
     decontamination or condemnation of contaminated food and drugs.

E. Emergency Conservation Measures:

     The state director may designate areas eligible for the Emergency Conservation
     Measures Program of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service,
     U.S. Department of Agriculture. This program provides for cost-sharing grants to
     rehabilitate farm lands damaged by natural disasters.

F. Emergency Loans for Agriculture:

     The Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), may make emergency loans to
     farmers, ranchers and aquaculturists in areas designated as eligible by the Secretary
     of Agriculture or the Administrator of FmHA.

G. Disaster Loans for Homeowners and Businesses:

     The Small Business Administration can provide both direct and bank-participation
     disaster loans to qualified homeowners and businesses to repair or replace
     damaged or destroyed private property when the SBA Administrator declares a
     "disaster loan area" under his own statutory authority. Economic injury loans can
     help small firms suffering economic loses as a result of a disaster.

H. Tax Refund:

     The Internal Revenue Service can assist individuals in applying for casualty losses
     resulting from natural disasters.

I.   Repairs to Federal Aid System Roads:

     The Federal Highway Administration, DOT, can provide assistance to restore
     roads and bridges on the Federal Aid System.

J. Voluntary Agency Assistance

     An essential element of almost any disaster relief effort is the assistance provided
     by private relief organizations (i.e., distribution of food, medicine, supplies,


                                          113
provisions for emergency shelter, and restoration of community services). The
American Red Cross, which operates under a federal charter (as provided by public
law 58-4, approved January 5, 1905), provides grants and other types of assistance
to individuals and families affected by disasters to meet emergency needs. The
Salvation Army, Mennonite Disaster Service and other charitable organizations
and church groups also provide assistance to those in need.




                                   114
           WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                     FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                 COMMON FUNCTION 6:
                                    MASS CARE


I. PURPOSE

     This common function provides for the protection of the population from the effects of
     hazards through the identification of shelters and provision of mass care and social
     services in shelters. It also provides for emergency assistance to the residents in
     nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes located in Wake County.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

     A. Situation:

         1. Based upon the county's hazard analysis, there are several emergencies for
            which shelters may be required including severe storms, tornadoes, floods,
            hazardous materials accidents, fires and nuclear crisis.

         2. Regularly, Wake County Human Services provides oversight of the
            nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes in Wake County. It is Human
            Services' responsibility to assist in the protection of the interests, welfare, and
            human dignities of patients in these facilities.

         3. The county public school system has buildings throughout Wake County
            suitable for utilization as public shelters in times of stress and displacement of
            significant segments of populace.

B.       Assumptions:

         1. With the possible exception of a nuclear crisis, sufficient in-county sheltering
            exists to meet the needs of an evacuation during emergencies or a disaster.

         2. For out-of-county evacuation, sufficient shelter capacity exists in adjacent
            counties and can be made available.

         3. Under most circumstances, a high percentage of evacuees will seek shelter
            with friends or relatives.

         4. During an emergency, Human Services would continue the protection of
            residents in nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes. When necessary,
            special shelters will be opened and operated by Wake County Human Services,


                                               115
          assisted by other agencies. If local capabilities become overtaxed, support will
          be available from State agencies.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. In-county public shelter operations will be coordinated by the American Red
     Cross (ARC) liaison, assisted by the county Department of Human Services.

  B. In an emergency situation Human Services may, out of necessity, expand their
     day-to-day operations.

  C. Human Services will be appropriately assisted by Wake County Emergency
     Management and other county agencies, as necessary.

  D. During nuclear emergencies, the director of county Human Services will operate
     reception centers and allocate citizens to shelters.

  E. The director of county Human Services will open and operate the special needs
     shelters to care for the patients of the nursing/rest homes and the domiciliary
     homes in Wake County.

  F.   When utilized as a special needs shelter, Dorothea Dix Hospital has agreed to
       furnish the facility, meals, and available bedding.

  G. By prior agreement, the staff of the evacuated nursing/rest homes and domiciliary
     homes are to assist in the operation of special care shelter facilities.

  H. The Wake County school system will cooperate with Human Services and Red
     Cross in the operation of school facilities activated as public emergency shelters,
     including the furnishing of kitchen staff and custodial personnel.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

       1. The Wake County Human Services Department acts as the lead agency in the
          development and implementation of a comprehensive shelter program for
          Wake County.

       2. ARC (Triangle Chapter) is designated as the primary agency for shelter
          activation and management.

       3. The coordination of the comprehensive shelter program and the staffing of
          shelters is established through letters of understanding between the ARC,
          Human Services and the school system.


                                           116
      4. The Wake County Human Services Director will coordinate with necessary
         agencies in the operation of special shelters for evacuated patients of
         nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes and reception centers for the general
         public.

  B. Responsibilities:

      1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

      2. Specific responsibilities:

          (Reference ARC Mass Care Standard Operating Procedures and Wake
          County Department of Human Services Reception/Registration Center
          Procedures.)

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. The ARC will act as the lead agency in public shelter/mass care operations for the
     county.

  B. The Director of Human Services will lend all possible assistance in shelter and
     mass care operations and coordinate the opening of shelters and special needs
     shelters if needed.

  C. During a nuclear threat/attack, the Director of Human Services will direct and
     control the operations of the reception centers.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Wake County Social Services is:

  1. Wake County Human Services Director

  2. Assistant Human Services Directors

  Lines of succession for agencies which have been designated to support the shelter and
  mass care operations will be in accordance with their established policies.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Records and Reports

      1. Shelter kits containing appropriate forms, handbooks and identification will be
         provided by the ARC/Human Services, as appropriate. The shelter kits will


                                          117
          contain, but not be limited to, shelter registration forms, shelter occupancy
          reports, inventory reports and event log forms.

      2. Necessary agreements, records and reports relating to special shelter
         operations will be maintained by Wake County Human Services.

      3. Security of evacuated patients records and medical supplies will be provided
         for by the shelter manager.

  B. The primary communications link between shelters and the EOC will be
     telephone. Amateur radio operators or law enforcement personnel may be
     assigned to the shelters to provide additional communication capabilities.
     Request for these services will flow through the EOC.

  C. The emergency stocking of shelters with essential supplies (i.e. food, bedding,
     sanitation needs, etc.) will be initiated and made available through appropriate
     agencies with identified resources.

  D. Shelter safety and security will be provided on an as need basis by law
     enforcement, fire and EMS/rescue.

  E. Public shelters will follow a non-discrimination policy.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Under the guidance of the EMD, this common function will be reviewed and
     updated on a periodic basis.

  B. Involved agencies will develop and maintain updated departmental SOPs,
     letters of agreement, personnel rosters and resource inventories.

  C. The Human Services Director will assist nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes
     in the county in their development and maintenance of emergency plans and
     procedures.

  D. ARC will provide shelter management training upon request.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. Authorities:

      1. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A.

      2. N. C. General Statutes 115C-242(6).



                                           118
   3. County Emergency Management Ordinances.

   4. Executive Order, March 31, 1966, Dan K. Moore, Governor, as amended
      August 29, 1968.

   5. Statement of Understanding between FEMA and American Red Cross.

   6. Agreement between Wake County School System and the American Red
      Cross.

B. References:

   1. Shelter Management Handbook (FEMA-59).

   2. Wake County Department of Human Services Standard Operating Procedures
      for Reception/Registration Centers.

   3. American Red Cross Mass Care Procedures.




                                   119
                  COMMON FUNCTION 6 - MASS CARE

                            APPENDIX 1
            LOCATION OF VARIOUS SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS

Copies of the following documents are held at the Wake County Office of Emergency
Management.

•   Statement of understanding between ARC and Board of Education Wake County
    Public School System.

•   Statement of understanding between ARC and Wake County Office of Emergency
    Management.

•   Mutual Aid Agreement between ARC and Wake County Department of Human
    Services.

•   The National Shelter Survey (NSS).




                                         120
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                              COMMON FUNCTION 7:
                               RESOURCE SUPPORT

I. PURPOSE

  This common function provides a system of identifying and locating resources within
  the county and a method of activating those resources during an emergency. The
  preservation, conservation and replenishment of these resources is also included.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  Subject to their availability, the county is responsible for identifying and acquiring
  resources necessary to cope with hazards posing a potential threat to Wake County.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. County departments and agencies will use their resources and equipment during
     emergencies and, generally speaking, will maintain control over the management of
     these resources when such resources are needed to respond to the emergency
     situation.

  B. The county Purchasing Director will provide routine procurement procedures to
     acquire/replenish critical resources during emergency operations.

  C. A resource directory identifying the resource, the control agency and the
     procedures needed to activate the resource at any time will be developed and
     maintained by the Wake County Emergency Management Agency (EMA).

  D. The EMA will also identify those resources and capabilities that are available from
     local businesses, industry and other contributing organizations and develop
     agreements as necessary to acquire those resources to support the county under
     emergency conditions.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

      1. The Director of Public Safety will have overall responsibility for coordination
         of resources. In his absence, the Emergency Management Director (EMD) will
         assume this responsibility.

      2. Generally, the agency having primary control of a resource will continue to


                                           121
       control that resource during emergencies.

   3. The acquisition or replacement of a resource will follow routine procurement
      procedures exercised by the county Purchasing Director. In emergency
      situations, he will develop the means and the authority for the immediate
      procurement of expendable supplies.

   4. An organizational chart for resource management is contained at Appendix 1,
      Resource Management Organization Matrix.

B. Responsibilities:

   1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

   2. In the EOC the Resource Management Common Function’s specific
      responsibilities include:

       a. Analyze personnel and equipment requirements to meet potential hazards
          and maintain a resource directory.

       b. In concert with the County Attorney, develop mutual aid agreements for
          use of resources, as necessary.

       c. Assist the Director of Public Safety in the control and coordination of
          resources used under emergency conditions (including nuclear attack) and
          provide a system to protect those resources.

       d. Request additional resources from outside the county structure where
          needed.

       e. Identify additional emergency resources from local business and industry
          and other agencies.

       f. Provide for the storage, maintenance, and replenishment of radiological
          instruments, equipment for radiation hazard evaluation and exposure
          control.

       g. Identify available county owned resources.

       h. Assist in the development of procedures for the storage, maintenance and
          expeditious procurement of essential equipment, materials, food, water,
          etc.

       i. Assist the Community Development Services Administrator in the design
          of procedures leading to the restoration of essential public services.


                                       122
V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. Utilization of resources under the operational control of local government response
     forces will be coordinated by the Director of Public Safety or, in his absence, by the
     Emergency Management Director.

  B. The commitment of resources from outside county government will be initiated by
     the Director of Public Safety or, in his absence, by the Emergency Management
     Director with operational control being exercised by the on-site commander of the
     service requiring that resource.

  C. Mutual aid agreements must specify who will move, operate, maintain and bear
     the cost of operation for equipment used under emergency conditions.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. Resource management does not fall under a centralized control element, but is
     coordinated by the EOC during emergency situations.

  B. Lines of successions for agencies supporting resource management activities will
     be in accordance with statutory requirements or established internal procedures.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Documentation regarding personnel, resources and expenditures occurring during
     emergency activities must be maintained by the respective response units.

  B. The EMD will maintain a record of equipment usage and supply consumption
     from feeder reports provided by the user units during emergency operations.

  C. The Budget Director and the Purchasing Director will develop procedures to
     expedite the acquisition of supplies in emergencies and to account for all funds
     expended during emergency response and recovery operations.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. The development and maintenance of a resource directory and mutual aid
     agreements are the responsibility of the EMD. The resource directory must
     identify the resource as a physical asset or a capability, the location of the resource
     and who controls it as well as how it can be activated when needed and by whom.

  B. Accountability, use, maintenance and operational cost for resources outside




                                           123
     government control will be pre-determined by mutual aid agreements. These
     documents should be reviewed following each emergency event in which they are
     used and amended or corrected as needed.

  C. Development and implementation of procedures for the acquisition and
     replenishment of government resources are the responsibility of the Budget
     Director and Purchasing Director.

  D. Periodically, the Emergency Management Director will review, update, and
     modify this guidance, as necessary.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.




                                         124
                        FUNCTION 7 - RESOURCE SUPPORT

                                       APPENDIX 1
                                   ORGANIZATION MATRIX




                                                EOC




                                      Director of Public Safety




 General Services
                                          Finance Director        Purchasing Director
  Administrator




                                         County Resources




                                                                   Business/Industry
Municipal Resources
                                                                      Resources




Mutual Aid Counties'
                                                                   State Resources
    Resources




                    Coordination




                                                 125
                    FUNCTION 7 - RESOURCE SUPPORT

                            APPENDIX 2
                     RESOURCES SUMMARY CHART



Resources Ordered     Resource       ETA    On     Location/Assignment
                    Identification         Scene
                                            4




  ICS 201
    5-94




                                     126
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 8:
                               PUBLIC HEALTH

I. PURPOSE

  This common function provides a coordinated response to public health and medical
  needs following an emergency; provides a structure to receive assistance from field
  medical teams and volunteer medical personnel to assist persons with special needs;
  and provides staffing and supplies for Assisted Care Shelters.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      1. Most emergency situations have the potential to aggravate health problems.
         Depending on the nature of the incident, complications may include, but not
         necessarily be limited to, general health problems, communicable disease,
         contamination of food and water, and mental health ailments.

      2. A well-planned health support network is essential during emergency
         situations.

      3. The release of toxic or hazardous materials may result in human and
         environmental contamination.

  B. Assumptions:

      1. A large-scale emergency may result in increased demands on health personnel
         services.

      2. Existing mutual aid agreements will provide additional health and mortuary
         services.

      3. When local resources can no longer meet the demand of the situation, state
         agencies will provide assistance appropriate to the needs.

      4. Catastrophic disasters involving large areas of the county may adversely affect
         response capabilities of local resources.

      5. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to relocate hospital facilities
         and patients.



                                          127
III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION

  A. General:

     1. Emergency operations for health and mental health services will be an
        extension of normal agency and facility responsibilities.

     2. Coordination between health and mental health providers is necessary to
        ensure emergency operational readiness.

  B. Human Services:

     1. The primary concern of public health is disease control. The Human Services
        Department will implement effective environmental health, nursing and health
        education practices to minimize the incidence of disease.

     2. Frequent inspections of damaged housing, emergency shelters, and public
        facilities may be necessary to determine the need for emergency repairs, pest
        control, sanitation, or other health related protective procedures.

     3. The day to day activities of mental health include planned programs in mental
        health services, mental retardation and developmental disabilities services, and
        substance abuse services.

     4. During an emergency, services will be extended as necessary for crisis
        counseling and supporting mental health services.

  C. Mortuary:

     The county Medical Examiner will identify and take charge of the proper recovery
     of human remains.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     1. The county Human Services Administrator will organize, coordinate, and
        supervise emergency public health operations.

     2. The county Medical Examiner will coordinate activities relating to the
        identification of the dead and mortuary services.

     3. Emergency health teams will be provided with safety equipment and
        associated training for response to hazardous materials incidents.


                                         128
B. Assignment of Responsibilities:

   1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

   2. In the EOC the Public Health Common Function’s specific responsibilities
      include:

      a. Assist the Emergency Management Director (EMD) in the development
         and implementation of appropriate health awareness and public
         information programs relating to personal actions preceding, during and
         following emergencies.

      b. On call, report to the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and provide
         direction and control for emergency public health operations.

      c. Assist in providing public health care at emergency facilities, to include
         shelters and congregate care/reception centers.

      d. Provide continuous health inspections and immunizations when
         appropriate; evaluate, detect, prevent and control communicable disease.

      e. Coordinate environmental health activities for waste disposal, refuse, food,
         water control, vector/vermin control and sanitation.

      f.    Supervise health related laboratory activities. Provide for the monitoring
            and evaluation of environmental health hazards and arrange for corrective
            measures.

      g. Assist in the re-supply of health related response access.

       h. In conjunction with medical authorities, identify sites for temporary
          hospitals/clinics.

       i. Arrange for debriefings or psychological support for emergency workers
          and disaster victims.

       j. Provide crisis intervention training for personnel assigned to mental health
          service teams.

       k. Assist in the identification of evacuees in reception centers and shelters
          who have evidence of mental stress, providing them with appropriate
          mental health services.

       l.   In appropriate incidences, provide for the continuity of mental health


                                         129
             treatment services for relocatees.

         m. Provide crisis counseling to professionals and support staff working with
            the relocated population.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. Emergency health operations will be coordinated by the Human Services Director.

  B. The Medical Examiner will assume responsibility of all activities connected with
     identification of the dead and mortuary services.

  C. The Human Services Director will maintain communications with their field forces
     and will keep the EOC informed of activities, including personnel and equipment
     needed to maintain adequate response and recovery efforts.

  D. Support agencies/departments will follow established internal procedures for
     direction and control.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  Lines of succession within each agency are established either by statutory
  requirements or by the agencies' internal procedures. Upon activation of the EOC,
  line of succession is as follows:

  Human Services:

     1. Emergency and Adult Health Services Director

     2. Community Health Director

     3. Resource Management Director

     4. Human Services Director

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. General:

     1. Departments with responsibilities related to health services will arrange for
        the collection, processing and security of vital records, statistics and other
        documentation.

     2. Data related to disease outbreaks will be collected and forwarded to
        appropriate state and federal officials.


                                          130
      3. Health inspections may be required with increased frequency.

  B. Logistical Support:

      The Human Services Director and supporting agencies will:

      1. Assist in the effecting of mutual aid agreements leading to availability of
         additional medical response teams.

      2. Prepare for the emergency requisition of medical/health equipment and
         supplies.

      3. Determine the availability of and arrange for support assets, such as:

          a. Aircraft, helicopters, trucks, four wheel vehicles;

          b. Private and public ambulance companies;

          c. Mortuaries.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. The county Human Services Director and Medical Examiner will maintain updated
     procedures to support this common function.

  B. Involved agencies will maintain current internal notification rosters.

  C. Periodically supporting agencies will review and update the public health
     common function.


IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.




                                           131
              WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                        FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                    COMMON FUNCTION 9:
                                        SEARCH

I. PURPOSE

  This common function’s activities include developing search patterns and procedures to locate
  emergency victims in damaged areas; and locating, extricating and providing for the immediate
  medical treatment of victims trapped in collapsed structures.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation

      1. Search is an action likely performed under emergency conditions.

      2. The primary objective when searching for lost or missing persons is to find the lost person
         in the best possible condition, expeditiously, while expending resources wisely.

      3. This procedure is designed for use by Wake County Sheriff's Department, CCBI, and Wake
         County Emergency Management in cooperation with local emergency response agencies
         such as municipal law enforcement, fire departments, and EMS/rescue units.

  B. Assumptions

      1. Utilization of this procedure of action will result in an improved Search and Rescue (SAR),
         management awareness, accurate expenditure of resources, coordination between agencies,
         good communication and accurate planning techniques.

      2. Prompt execution of the Wake County SAR Procedure will be accomplished by
         pre-designated individual(s) specially trained in directing and coordinating SAR operations.

      3. SAR response capabilities will be improved by the rapid identification of essential resources
         and the prompt provision of the resources by municipalities, counties, state, federal
         government or the private sector.

      4. A pre-designated individual will provide verified and factual information concerning the
         operation to the media and the public.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. Upon receipt of a report by a communications center of any of the following incidents within
     the jurisdiction of the Wake County Sheriff's Department, the center shall notify the Wake
     County Sheriff's Department shift patrol supervisor(s).

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         1. Reports of lost or missing institutionalized persons (other than felons)

         2. Reports of lost or missing children or elderly

         3. Situations which require a missing persons report or entry into law enforcement records

         4. Mentally retarded/despondents who have been reported lost or displaced

         5. Overdue persons such as hikers, hunters, fishermen, etc.

         6. Missing persons with medical problems

     B. Upon determination that a need exists to initiate a SAR mission, the patrol supervisor shall
        notify the WC Sheriff's Department Communications Center who, in turn, will promptly
        activate the following:

         1. The Wake County Sheriff's Department senior supervisor on duty with both the patrol and
            Criminal Investigation Division (CID)

         2. The Wake County Emergency Management staff duty officer

     C. Other resources will be called in, on an "as needed" basis by the Incident Coordinator (IC) or
        his designee (such as CCBI and other specialized resources).

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

The Wake County Sheriff’s Department shall have overall responsibility for direction and control of
Wake County SAR missions outside of a municipality’s jurisdiction. The senior Wake county Sheriff’s
Department Duty Officer shall appoint the SAR IC. The IC shall in turn appoint

         1. SAR Command Group

         2. Support Functions

         3. SAR Supervisor(s)

Specific responsibilities for the IC and support agencies and individuals are detailed in sections IV and
V of the Wake County Standard Operating Procedures: Ground, Water & Air Searches for Lost
Persons.

V.    DIRECTION AND CONTROL

         1. Direction and control will be established through the Wake County Incident Command
            System and SOP's as defined and designated within this procedure.

         2. SAR operations, which traverse from one political subdivision to another, will require the
            use of the Unified Command System.

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      3. The SAR operations officer, under the supervision of the IC, is responsible for SAR
         operations involving ground and water areas within his political jurisdiction.

      4. Direct coordination between agencies is authorized as designated within this procedure or as
         negotiated in mutual aid agreements between contiguous municipalities and counties.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

     Generally speaking, the line of succession during an SAR mission will be:

      1. The law enforcement agency representative with territorial jurisdiction

      2. Wake County Emergency Management Agency Staff Duty Officer

      3. The SAR team supervisor

      4. Other duly appointed emergency services personnel

VII. ADMINISTRATIVE AND LOGISTICS

  A. Maintenance of journals and records relating to SAR missions are the responsibility of the
     agency with territorial jurisdiction.

  B. While not necessarily all inclusive, SAR forms are found as attachments to the Wake County
     SAR SOP and are on file at the Wake County Emergency Management Agency.

  C. A list of identified SAR resources will be maintained by the Wake County Emergency
     Management Agency.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. As appropriate, affected departments shall periodically review the Wake County SAR
     procedure and other relevant procedures and resources lists, and make recommendations they
     deem appropriate to the Wake County Emergency Management Agency.

  B. Emergency response agencies, which plan to participate in the SAR program, are responsible
     for the development and maintenance of their departmental SOPs, mutual aid agreements,
     training, equipment inventories and personnel rosters.

  C. SAR team(s) shall develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to address
     how the search function will be operationally conducted.

  D. Periodic exercises shall be conducted to provide an opportunity for testing the effectiveness of
     training and updating of supporting procedures.



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IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance, 1990

  C. Burke County Search Plan

  D. "Search Is An Emergency", Emergency Response Institute

  E. Minutes of the Wake County Board of Commissioners' Meeting on January 30, 1984




                                             135
                           COMMON FUNCTION 9 - SEARCH

                                    APPENDIX 1
                         EMERGENCY ACTIONS CHECKLIST FOR
                         SEARCHES FOR LOST/MISSING PERSONS


Case Number                            Date                  Time

Name of Person(s)


                      SECTION I...SEARCH ASSESSMENT INFORMATION


o Has departmental missing persons report been completed?
o Has lost person questionnaire (SAR-2) been completed?
o Has BOLO Message been broadcast, as appropriate?
o Has appropriate information been entered into NCIC?
o Has photo/articles of clothing been obtained from family?
o Has an investigator been assigned to gather background data (SAR 41) and subject data (SAR 43)?
o Has information been gathered on the incident? (SAR 46)
o Has long range weather forecast been obtained?
o Has topo map or person familiar with area been obtained?
o Has urgency of search been established (SAR 17)?

                         SECTION II...PRE-SEARCH INFORMATION

o Have actions taken by others, prior to law enforcement intervention, been noted and evaluated?
o Have initial information and sources been noted and evaluated?
o Has subject behavior: Evaluation of circumstances (SAR 19), detectability (SAR 20), and general
   characteristics of lost persons (SAR 21), been computed for comparability?
o Has a strategy and tactics session been conducted to determine search objectives?
o Have resources (personnel, equipment and money) which will be needed to accomplish objectives
   been identified?
o Have assist agencies been notified, such as, fire departments, rescue/EMS, emergency management,
  etc.?
o Has a "HASTY TEAM" search been completed as a preliminary survey of the immediate area to
 eliminate obvious areas of concealment?
o Has a supervisor been contacted who can authorize the initiation of a search and appropriate
  resources?




                                                 136
                              SECTION III...THE SEARCH BEGINS


o Has ICS established, including the appointments of an incident coordinator, plans chief and
  operations chief, other functions as immediately as necessary?
o Has a command post, staging area, and incident base been established? (SAR 66)
o Has a tactical communication channel been established?
o Has a search action plan been established? (SAR 30)
o Has an incident action plan been established? (SAR 35)
o Are confinement measures being put in place? (SAR 18)
o Have resources been organized into teams, task forces, strike teams, as appropriate? (SAR 62)
o Are effective search techniques being utilized? (SAR 53)
o Have special functions, such as, a media coordinator, technical assistance, safety and inter-agency
   liaison coordinator been appointed?
o Have operational periods (SAR 34) been established?
o Have shifts been planned?
o Has the criminal investigation been separated from the search and recovery operation?
o Has a realistic search area been established, based on one of the four indicated methods (theoretical,
 statistical, subjective or deductive reasoning)? (SAR 48)
o Are briefings being conducted to keep command staff aware of situations as they occur? (SAR 58)
o Are adequate records being maintained, including maps? (SAR 40) and (SAR 39)
o Are returning field units being debriefed? (SAR 64)


               SECTION IV...PREPARATION OR OPERATION CLOSE-DOWN


o If subject was not located, is discontinuing the search warranted? (SAR 68)
o Has a demobilization plan been put into effect? (SAR 69)
o Has legal advisor/DA been contacted prior to close down?
o Has the assigned criminal investigator been notified of the intent to close down?
o Have records been preserved?




                                                   137
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 10:
                             HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

I. PURPOSE

  This common function provides basic information and concepts for coping with
  potential hazardous material incidents (chemical and radiological) within Wake County.
  This document establishes a plan of action for coordination and support of emergency
  response operations, as required pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and
  Reauthorization Act (SARA); Title III - "The Emergency Planning and Community
  Right-To-Know Act of 1986", Sec. 303(c). This common function is designed to be an
  integral part of the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan for Multi-Hazards.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      1. The threat of a major incident involving hazardous materials has increased
         because of growth in the manufacturing, transportation and use of chemical
         and radioactive material.

      2. Hazardous material incidents could result in accidental releases of hazardous
         materials in varying degrees throughout Wake County. Such situations could
         pose significant health and safety concerns to the population at risk, property
         and the environment.

      3. Initial emergency response efforts would focus on protecting human health,
         the environment, and property. Such measures could involve parallel efforts to
         include: command and control, evacuation, fire suppression, rescue, mass
         casualty/triage operations, containment/control, and cleanup.

      4. The primary sources of radiological hazards within Wake County are (See
         Appendix 2 Commodity Flow):

           a. Fixed-Site Facilities.

          b. Transportation spills.

          c. The Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP), at New Hill.

          d. Illegal/intentional spill or releases.



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B. Assumptions:

   1. Major hazardous materials incidents could threaten a significant number of
      people within the county, with little or no warning.

   2. Emergency response personnel (e.g., Fire, EMS/rescue, Law Enforcement,
      Emergency Management) and qualified technical experts will be available with
      equipment and resources to detect, analyze, evaluate and cope with most
      hazardous material incidents.

   3. Planning, training, and coordination of emergency response personnel will
      serve to reduce hazards and associated risks. Proper development and
      execution of a radiological protection system will significantly reduce the
      number of casualties from a nuclear attack or peacetime radiological incident.
      Warning, detection, prevention and remedial measures will reduce the effect of
      nuclear radiation.

   4. Most jurisdictions (emergency services) can effectively cope with minor
      situations. However, should an incident escalate into a major emergency
      situation, additional emergency resources could be rapidly deployed through
      existing mutual aid agreements, and further augmented, if necessary, by
      resources of the county, state and federal government and private industry.

   5. A combination of trained personnel and operational equipment can be
      positioned to detect, measure, report, analyze, evaluate and conduct counter-
      measure operations. Trained local emergency response organizations can
      effectively manage an accident scene with technical assistance from the
      N. C. Radiation Protection Division, Department of Human Resources.

   6. Hazardous substances involved in an incident can be identified within a
      reasonable period of time from many sources of information. These sources
      include:

       - U.S. DOT Emergency Response Guidebook
       - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
       - SARA Tier II Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventories
       - SARA designated Facility Emergency Coordinators
       - Shipping papers
       - Placards and product labels
       - Product containers
       - Emergency Support Information Services (e.g., CHEMTREC, etc).

   7. Emergency planning efforts will assume that most of the population(s)
      potentially affected (including designated evacuees), will cooperate with local
      officials and follow recommended protective actions. Such measures could


                                       139
          include evacuation instructions for relocation to designated reception/shelter
          areas.

      8. Private automobiles will be the primary means of transportation for
         evacuation movement. Available alternate transportation resources would be
         coordinated to support evacuation of the public without transportation, special
         needs individuals (e.g., handicapped, mobility impaired, developmentally
         disabled, etc. . .), and the elderly.

      9. The initial movement of population(s) at risk may occur immediately
         following the on-scene assessment of the situation by emergency response
         authorities, or by the issuance of an evacuation order by county public officials.

      10. Evacuees could be isolated from their homes for extended periods of time.

      11. The calculated initiation of strategic nuclear war by any nation is considered a
          remote possibility. Nevertheless, nuclear war could occur through accident,
          miscalculation, an irrational act, or the unplanned escalation of a general
          limited war. Also, terrorist activities could include the threat of, or the use of,
          explosive nuclear devices. Therefore, contingency plans must provide for
          these types of events.

      12. In the event of a terrorist nuclear attack direction or request for relocation will
          come from the President of the United States to the Governor of North
          Carolina, who could then order relocation. Relocation may be selective for
          certain hazard areas, or may be general to all hazard areas.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  There are three basic types of hazardous material situations which could affect Wake
  County: 1) Fixed facility, 2) Transportation, and 3) Illegal/intentional spill or release.
  Each incident may present a unique situation, requiring a somewhat different but
  interrelated response by various emergency personnel.

  A. The Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a joint, coordinated endeavor,
     serving to effect intra-agency cooperation between all authorities having
     responsibilities for public safety and environmental protection during emergency
     operations.

      The local fire chief (or his designee) shall be considered as the On-Scene Incident
      Coordinator (OIC), responsible for managing emergency responses to a hazardous
      material incident in accordance with the Wake County Incident Command System
      (ICS). (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan).




                                             140
B. The initial action of the OIC will be to determine the extent of the emergency
   condition of the hazardous materials incident and establish emergency response
   actions accordingly. (Reference: Appendix 1: Emergency Action Checklist for
   Hazardous Materials Incidents and Published Standard Operating Procedures).

    The basic types of emergency conditions are as follows:

    1. Potential Emergency Condition:
       An incident which can be controlled by the first response agencies and does not
       require evacuation of other than the involved structure or immediate outdoor
       area. The incident is confined to a small area and does not pose an immediate
       threat to human health, the environment, or property.

    2. Limited Emergency Condition:
        An incident involving a greater hazard or larger area which poses a potential
       threat to human health, the environment or property and which may require
       protective action including limited evacuation or in-place sheltering.

    3. Full Emergency Condition:
       An incident involving a severe hazard or a large area which poses an extreme
       threat to human health, the environment and property and will probably require
       a large-scale evacuation; or an incident requiring the expertise or resources of
       county, state, federal and/or private agencies/organizations.

C. In all probability, little if any advance warning of a hazardous materials
   incident will occur. When notified of an incident, applicable portions of this plan
   will be implemented by appropriate authorities. The level of emergency response
   and necessary protective actions will be determined by many factors associated
   with a hazardous material incident (e.g., when responding to a fire at a facility
   where hazardous materials are known to exist, emergency responders will assume
   the involvement of hazardous substances unless otherwise advised or determined).

D. A very important part of an effective radiological protection system is detection
   and monitoring (Reference: Appendix 7, Radiological Emergency Equipment and
   Appendix 8, Radiological Monitoring and Decontamination).

E. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) will develop,
   organize and maintain a Radiological Protection (RADPRO) System to include the
   county EOC staff.


    The RADPRO System will provide:

    1. A shelter capability for monitoring and assessing the radiation environment
       for shelterees.


                                        141
     2. A capability for monitoring and assessing the radiation environment to control
        for limit the exposure of emergency response personnel.

     3. A monitoring, reporting and assessment capability for determining the extent
        and magnitude of the radiological hazard.

     4. A decontamination capability to include an inventory of equipment and listing
        by priority of facilities and industries to be returned to an operational status.

     5. A peacetime response capability for managing radiological emergencies.

  F. Harris Nuclear Power Plant:

     The emergency response plan for the Harris Nuclear Power Plant is published
     under separate cover:

     North Carolina Emergency Response Plan:
     Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP)

  G. Nuclear Threat/Attack:

     The emergency response plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack is published under
     separate cover:

     Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     1. In accordance with SARA Title III, Sec. 301(c), the Board of Wake County
        Commissioners submitted nominations to the North Carolina Emergency
        Response Commission (NCERC) for appointment to the Wake County Local
        Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). These nominations were confirmed
        by the NCERC in 1987 and, with minor modifications to the original
        committee, continues in operation.

     2. County agencies involved in hazardous materials emergency response are
        responsible for the safety of their personnel, including training in the dangers of
        hazardous materials, emergency response techniques and procedures,
        protective measures, the provision of protective clothing and equipment, and
        medical monitoring of personnel as required by 29 Code of Federal
        Regulations 1910.120, effective March 6, 1990.




                                          142
   3. The Emergency Management Director will coordinate and maintain the
      RADPRO system.

   4. The Wake County RADPRO Officer will conduct radiological protection
      operations and will coordinate with other departments to ensure radiological
      protection operational readiness (Reference: Appendix 6, Radiological
      Protection (RADPRO) Organizational Structure).

   5. Upon request of the county RADPRO Officer, selected county agencies and
      other support organizations will ensure the availability of personnel and
      equipment for training support and operations as radiological monitors, during
      radiological emergencies.

   6. The county RADPRO Officer will contact the North Carolina Division of
      Radiation Protection for technical assistance in support of control and
      disposition of radioactive materials.

B. Responsibilities:

   1. Board of County Commissioners (Chairman):

      a.   Bring about the appointment of a Local Emergency Planning Committee
           (LEPC) in accordance with SARA, Title III, and ensure appropriate
           coordination of such efforts with Wake County's Emergency Management
           Agency.

       b. Provide fiscal support and administrative resources.

   2. Director of Public Safety:

       Ensure active coordination between the LEPC and County Emergency
       Management Agency.

   3. County Emergency Management Director:

       a. Serve as community emergency coordinator, the primary county point of
          contact for hazardous material planning and response coordination.

       b. Make every reasonable effort to ensure that county/municipal facilities
          with hazardous materials are identified and appropriately catalogued.
          Seek the appointment of facility emergency coordinators.

       c. Ensure that related training concerns are being addressed and that every
          reasonable effort is made to provide appropriate training for emergency
          responders as required by CFR 1910.120.


                                       143
   d. Develop capabilities for the timely notification and, as necessary, the
      activation of the county emergency response system.

   e. Establish a comprehensive radiological protection program.

   f. Establish a Wake County RADPRO System.

   g. Identify and catalogue available resources and equipment which may be
      assembled to support hazardous material emergency response operations.

   h.     Ensure documentation and coordination of necessary records and reports.

   i.    Conduct periodic inventories of radiological equipment and coordinate
         maintenance, service-ability and exchange with the N. C. Division of
         Emergency Management (NCDEM).

   j.    Ensure continuity of the Local Emergency Planning Committee activities
         with government, industry and local emergency services, pursuant to
         SARA, Title III, and the county's emergency management objectives.

   k.    Ensure exercises and tests of the emergency response system for
         hazardous materials are conducted, as required (Reference: Para. VIII,
         Basic Plan ).

    l.   Ensure that critiques are conducted following exercises, tests or actual
         emergency responses. Identify deficiencies and implement necessary
         corrective actions.

   m. Responsible for insuring that operational procedures and other
      tasks for the emergency public information and radiological defense are
      accomplished as stated under the Normal Readiness Phase of these areas.

4. County RADPRO System (Environmental Health Dept.)

    a. In conjunction with the Emergency Management Director, develop county
       radiological protection procedures.

    b. Develop method to exchange radiological data and provide support
       radiological capability with neighboring jurisdictions.

   c. Maintain a current notification roster.

    d. Ensure that appropriate training is provided for radiological protection
       response personnel.


                                     144
   e. Establish a distribution system for radiological protection equipment.

   f.    Develop and maintain a radiological decontamination capability for
         personnel, vehicles, equipment and facilities.

   g. Report to EOC upon request to coordinate and support the radiological
      emergency response.

    h. Coordinate with EOC communications personnel to establish and
       maintain necessary communications capabilities for reception of
       radiological data to include radiation levels and population exposure.

    i.   Provide for the maintenance of exposure records for emergency workers
         and ensure that dosimeters are read at appropriate intervals.

    j. Coordinate special monitoring functions with the state EOC (e.g. ground
       and aerial surveys during recovery actions).

     k. Coordinate with the EPI to prepare pre-scripted announcements for
        radiological emergencies.

    l.   In concert with the EPI, prepare and distribute public educational
         programs relating to radiation safety.

    m. Conduct damage assessment following radiological emergencies.

    n. Support specialized radiological teams as needed (e.g. Radiological
       Emergency Response Teams).

5. County Environmental Health Department:

   In addition to other responsibilities required by this plan and agency directives
   will:

   a. Provide technical support to emergency response officials regarding
      environmental health concerns.

   b. Develop and implement, on an as-needed basis, capabilities for
      coordination of support from state and federal health resources.

   c. Monitor and coordinate environmental health functions, as required.

   d. Provide technical assistance to N. C. Division of Radiation Protection
      when requested.


                                    145
6. On-Scene Incident Coordinator (OIC):

   a. Implement necessary actions to safeguard human health, the environment
      and property. (Reference: Appendix 1, Emergency Action Checklist for
      Hazardous Materials Incidents).

   b. Where appropriate, assist in the identification of the hazardous materials
      involved.

   c. Develop strategy and provide guidance during the implementation of the
      emergency plan and supporting actions. (Reference: Wake County
      Incident Command System, published standard operating procedures and
      hazardous materials training documents).

7. Facility Emergency Coordinator(s):

   a. Ensure that the facility information required under provisions of Title III
      of SARA is submitted to the LEPC, designated fire department, and N. C.
      Emergency Response Commission (NCERC), and maintained in a current
      status.

   b. Ensure that the facility emergency response capabilities are effective,
      including provisions for the immediate and follow-up notification of the
      jurisdiction and state authorities in the event of a hazardous material
      incident, under provisions of Sec. 304, Title III of SARA.

   c. Make every reasonable effort to ensure that facility personnel are
      knowledgable of and adequately trained in on-site emergency response
      actions, including recognition of release and notification procedures.

   d. Ensure that the facility maintains a current inventory of available
      equipment and resources for response to a hazardous material emergency.

   e. When requested, provide a qualified technical representative to the On-
      Scene Incident Coordinator and the Wake County EOC.

8. Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC):

   a. The LEPC is tasked with fulfillment of responsibilities regarding local
      emergency planning for extremely hazardous substances (EHS) pursuant
      to Title III of SARA, Sec 303, under the guidance of both the North
      Carolina Emergency Response Commission and the Wake County Board of
      Commissioners.




                                   146
         b. Identify and assess the current level of prevention, preparedness, and
            response of existing programs, both as to capabilities and shortfalls.

         c. Ensure an active chemical hazard identification program within the
            jurisdiction, as well as a vulnerability assessment and risk analysis.

         d. Ensure the development of plans to protect the public (to include
            notification, sheltering-in-place, evacuation, etc.).

         e. Ensure the public is educated through Public Awareness Programs for
            possible emergencies in their area, kept informed during a hazardous
            material accident, and permitted access to the county emergency operations
            plan, including information regarding chemical hazards within the
            community.

         f. Assist in the identification of resources needed for response to a hazardous
            material incident from public and private sources.

         g. As needed, make recommendations to the county officials about
            emergency response matters related to hazardous material.

      9. State Responsibilities:

         a. In accordance with state statutes, upon request by local jurisdictions, the
            State Division of Emergency Management is responsible for providing
            augmentation of necessary emergency response capabilities. Most state
            agencies (especially those with a response role such as Environmental
            Management, Solid and Hazardous Waste, State Highway Patrol, National
            Guard, etc.) are available to assist local jurisdictions upon application to
            the State Emergency Response Team (SERT).

         b. The Central Branch Area Coordinator has been empowered by the
            Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety to act on his behalf as
            prescribed in G.S. 166A, and, when requested by local government, is
            responsible to provide state assistance during an emergency.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. Within the county, there are four (4) primary categories of response agencies that
     generally respond to HAZMAT incidents 24 hours per day. They are: 1) Sheriff's
     Department/Municipal Law Enforcement and State Highway Patrol, 2)
     Municipal/Volunteer Fire Departments and County Fire Marshal, 3) County
     EMS/Rescue Squads and, 4) the County Emergency Management Agency. The
     initial response efforts, combined with on-scene incident management, will be
     provided by appropriate emergency response agencies. The first dispatched


                                          147
      agency arriving on scene will establish direction and control based on the size and
      complexity of the incident. They will call in additional resources, as required
      (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan).

  B. When appropriate, the county RADPRO System will coordinate radiological
     emergency response activities and decontamination operations, as needed.
     Environmental Health will effect the collection and evaluation of information and
     make recommendations for protective measures.

  C. The county Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is located in the basement of the
     Wake County Courthouse in Raleigh. Engineering survey has determined that 542
     category 4+ spaces exist in this facility.

  D. The Chairman, County Board of Commissioners, with support from heads of
     municipal governments, key county and municipal officials, and non-government
     personnel staff, has overall responsibility, and will exercise direction and control
     from the EOC, or the alternate EOC, during shelter and relocation operations.

  E. The Wake County Manager, Director of Public Safety and the county Emergency
     Management Director will act as the chairman's principal advisors during nuclear
     related emergencies.

  F. EOC staffing and internal operations will be in accordance with the WCSOP-
     100A. A current roster of the EOC staff, with positions, names and telephone
     numbers will be maintained as part of this SOP.

  G. EOC communications will include all systems now in use by county and
     municipal governments on a day-to-day basis as well as NOAA and the Emergency
     Alert System (EAS), if activated.

  H. In the event of relocation to adjacent counties, Wake County will provide a local
     government liaison team in the host areas EOC's to assist in the coordination
     between the relocatees and the host county's officials.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. Should the Chairman, County Board of County Commissioners, be unable to
     perform the duties of his office, the Vice Chairman, as duly elected by the board,
     will assume the powers and discharge the duties of the Chairman. Further, the
     board shall specify the rank in the order of succession of the other board members.

 B. Lines of succession for agencies and officials involved in a hazardous material
    incident will be in accordance with either statutory requirements or internal
    organizational design.



                                           148
 C. RADPRO continuation/coordination of activities will be established by the Wake
    County Environmental Health Department line of succession.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. The agencies that may become involved in a hazardous material incident will
     develop and maintain emergency procedures and response capabilities as
     appropriate to address such incidences. Such capabilities will include appropriate
     hazardous materials training, coordination of the Wake County Incident Command
     System (ICS) and maintenance of mutual aid agreements.

  B. Specific Fixed Facility Information: Information about each facility identified
     under SARA, Title III, as having extremely hazardous substances exceeding the
     threshold planning quantities, will be collected, catalogued and maintained by the
     Wake County Emergency Management office and made available to emergency
     responders and the public as required.

  C. The county RADPRO System will develop a roster of radiological response
     agencies and organizations to include names, addresses, telephone numbers, and
     training status and assignments.

  D. The North Carolina Division of Emergency Management is responsible for
      maintenance and calibration of RADPRO instruments.

  E. Training/Logistics:

      1. Each agency and organization assigned RADPRO responsibilities will be
         trained in the employment of assigned radiological emergency equipment.

      2. Equipment and expendable supplies for hazmat operations will be coordinated
         by the Wake County Emergency Management Agency.

      3. Radiological emergency equipment which is not issued to emergency response
         organizations, will be stockpiled and maintained in reserve at the county
         Emergency Management Agency's storage facility.

      4. The computation of radiological data from a nuclear attack or peacetime
         incident is vital for emergency workers. These records will be kept current as
         to exposure levels and will be supplied by the Emergency Management
         Director (Reference: WCSOP -101, Radiation Exposure Control and
         Dosimetry).

      5. Transportation, as required by shelter operations, relocation operations, or as
         required for securing supplies and equipment will be coordinated by the Wake
         County EOC.


                                          149
  F. Reporting:

      Reporting for hazardous material incidents will be in accordance with reporting
      requirements and procedures (See Appendix 9: Reporting Procedures for Nuclear
      Attack Hazards).

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency will ensure overall
     coordination of hazardous materials planning and training efforts within Wake
     County and adjoining jurisdictions.

  B. The county LEPC and RADPRO Officer will assist with the review and revision of
     plans on a periodic basis. Such efforts will be coordinated through the county
     Emergency Management Agency with local government, local emergency services,
     business/industry and the public.

  C. County agencies/municipalities involved in hazardous materials emergency
     response should develop procedures to implement this annex in coordination with
     county Emergency Management.

  D. The Emergency Management Director will coordinate efforts by the county
     RADPRO Officer, county agencies, and emergency response/support
     organizations, in the development of the county RADPRO system.

  E. Appendices to this common function include references to Wake County standard
     operating procedures which, in turn, provides lists of emergency equipment and
     details for radiation control, dosimetry, record keeping, sheltering, and radiological
     monitoring and decontamination.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); Title III - "The
     Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986".

  B. N. C. Executive Order #43; North Carolina Emergency Response Commission,
     dated April 7, 1987.

  C. N. C. Hazardous Chemicals Right-To-Know Act; General Statutes 95-173/95-
     218.

  D. North Carolina Emergency Response Plan in support of the Harris Nuclear Power
     Plant.



                                           150
E. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166-A.

F. N. C. General Statutes, 104 E.

G. National Response Team Guidance; NRT-1, dated March 1987, "Hazardous
   Materials Emergency Planning Guide".

H. FEMA Planning Guidance; CPG 1-8/1-8a.

I. FEMA/REP 2 - "Guidance On Off-Site Emergency Radiation
   Measurement Systems".

J. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.

K. Wake County Incident Command Master Plan, February 1990.

L. Wake County Standard Operating Procedures.

M. North Carolina Emergency Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection (NC
   EOP for NCP).

N. Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985.

O. FEMA CPG 2-10 Series, June 1978.

P. Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended, Public Law 920 - 81st Congress.

Q. Readiness During Periods of International Crisis, April 1979.

R. Nuclear Attack Planning Base (NAPB), 1990. Final Project Report, April,
   1987.




     COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZERDOUS MATERIAL

                           APPENDIX 1
                   EMERGENCY ACTION CHECKLIST


                                       151
                 FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS


A. INITIAL RESPONDERS

  1. Size-Up/Identification
     o Approach from upwind and upgrade
     o Observe from safe distance
     o Use binoculars if necessary
     o Examine placards/labels
     o Interview driver, conductors, facility operator, dock manager, etc.
     o Examine shipping papers or I.D. numbers
     o Refer to DOT Guidebook or Fire Fighter's Handbook of Hazardous
        Materials

  2. Isolate Area
     o Avoid contact with materials, fumes, dust, etc.
     o Establish control line at safe distance
     o Eliminate or avoid ignition sources
     o Determine if larger evacuation necessary to keep people away from
        chemicals

  3. Provide for Personnel Safety
     o Use appropriate personal protective equipment
     o Consciously avoid committing personnel and equipment to an unsafe
        situation

  4. Rescue injured persons if possible to do so in safe manner
     o Identify all people who might have been injured or exposed
  5. Notification and Technical Assistance
     o Alert 911
     o State Agencies 919-733-3861 (State Warning Point)
     o Federal agencies: NRC (1-800-452-8802)
     o Industry: CHEMTREC (1-800-424-9300)
     o Emergency Medical Advice: Poison Control Center (1-800-672-1697)




                                        152
PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IF POSSIBLE:
- your name, agency, location and call back number
- type of material involved, characteristics, physical state, physical effects
- amount of material released, duration of release, total amount that may be released
  whether significant amounts of substance appear to be entering the atmosphere, nearby
  water, storm drains
- direction, height, color, odor of vapor clouds or plume, weather conditions, local terrain
   conditions, wind direction
- Injuries, contamination, exposure
- responsible party
- personnel on scene


   6. Establish Incident Command System
      o Determine who is the On-Scene Incident Coordinator
      o Set up field command post at same location
      o Advise dispatcher exact location of command post
      o Establish communications with off-scene help
      o Brief commander(s)
*(This is a suggested format. Actual implementation should be based upon training and
the ability to perform the identified tasks. Source: Right-To-Know Guide, the Bureau of
National Affairs, Inc.)

B. ON-SCENE INCIDENT COORDINATOR (OIC)

   1. Determine the On-Scene Incident Coordinator
      o Clearly identify yourself as OIC
      o Make sure Command Post is at a safe location
      o Establish unified command, if appropriate, with agencies on scene
      o Identify lead state agency, if any
      o Establish staging areas for equipment, medical treatment
      o Assure notifications made
      o Determine assistance needed from other agencies
   2. Determine the Hazard
      o Check placards, shipping, etc.
      o Use reference books and off-scene help (i.e. Emergency Management, Fire
         Marshal, CHEMTREC, etc.
      o Identify hazardous material, estimate threat to the population and
         environment
      o Determine wind speed and direction
      o Determine downwind, downstream, and downslope exposures
      o Identify ignition sources

                                            153
   o   Use available detection equipment

3. Provide for Personnel Safety
   o Ensure the use of proper personal protective equipment
   o Evaluate need for further evacuation
   o Document personnel exposure
   o Appoint a Safety Officer
4. Assign Personnel Responsibilities (as appropriate)
   o Staging __________________________________________
   o Evacuation________________________________________
   o Rescue___________________________________________
   o Traffic and crowd control____________________________
   o Containment_______________________________________
   o Fire suppression____________________________________
   o Public information__________________________________
   o Communications___________________________________
   o Safety____________________________________________
   o Emergency Medical_________________________________
   o Documentation_____________________________________
5. Evaluate Control Line and Revise (if necessary)
   o Use tape, rope, fire-hose, etc.
   o Leave a margin of error
6. Incident Management
   o Develop incident action plan
   o Oversee incident operations
   o Coordinate activities with EOC, Communications Center, etc. as
      appropriate

7. Decontamination
   o Assign decontamination area officer and team
   o Identify people and equipment possible exposed
   o Set up decontamination area procedures




                                       154
EVACUATION/SHELTER ACTIVITIES: (COMMAND POST)

1. Determine Danger Area
   o Determine size of spill
   o Determine plume direction
   o Identify people and facilities in danger area
2. Decide between evacuation or shelter. (What will best reduce exposure.)

3. Begin warning and/or evacuation procedures for those nearest the accident site.
   Work outwards from the accident site

4. Notify necessary support agencies:
   o Law enforcement agencies
   o Local T.V., Radio, Cable and Newspaper through the PIO
   o Dispatchers
   o Emergency Management (Red Cross, County Public Health Department,
     Transportation Coordinator, County Social Services when rest homes, family
      care homes, or special needs groups are involved)

C. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES (EMS)
    o Be aware of dangers
    o Take proper precautions to protect yourself when handling casualties
    o Coordinate actions with OIC (Command Post)
    o Identify medical risk to victims and emergency responders
    o Establish medical triage area, if necessary
    o Determine and establish appropriate treatment
    o Coordinate emergency transportation
    o Coordinate with hospital and medical personnel
    o Coordinate with Red Cross Mass Care Coordinator and/or EOC logistics
       regarding medical services required by evacuees
    o Decontaminate personnel - victims and equipment as needed
    o Help question/examine responding personnel on state of health and treat as
       required
    o Provide medical monitoring of emergency personnel as needed
D. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
    o Identify yourself to OIC as representing public health
    o Coordinate with medical services
    o Confirm health hazard
    o Investigate toxic levels of materials involved
    o Confirm evacuation area perimeters
    o Insure no biological agents involved (contact N. C. Division of Health if


                                           155
          biological agents involved)
      o   Work with State and Federal agencies to address environmental
          health/sanitation impacts

E. LAW ENFORCEMENT
    o Determine with the OIC on the need for an exclusion perimeter, and the
      distances to establish traffic control
    o Establish perimeter, using rope, barricades, vehicles, etc. (Note: avoid flares
      if any indication that combustible or flammable chemicals are present)
    o Reroute pedestrians and vehicles around perimeter - keep onlookers, news
      media and others from excluded area
    o Request additional assistance as needed
    o Be prepared, at the request of the OIC, to remove persons hindering
      emergency operations
    o Reopen evacuated areas at the determination of Command Post
F. PUBLIC WORKS/UTILITIES OPERATIONS
     o Coordinate activities with OIC
     o Be prepared to assist with traffic control, providing barricades, etc.
     o Be prepared to provide sand for absorption and diking
     o Be prepared to cut off power, gas, water, etc., as required
G. PUBLIC INFORMATION
  1. Initial Actions
     o Work with OIC on press releases
     o If necessary, contact local media and inform them of nature of the
         emergency and other pertinent information as appropriate
     o Set up press briefing area as close to the command post as possible, but in
             such a way that it does not interfere with the command post.
     o Establish both incoming and outgoing telephone communications at the
             press briefing area if possible.
     o Be available to supply information to press on request
     o Periodically get status summary from OIC
   2. Long Term Actions (if required)
      o Coordinate press releases with involved agencies
      o Coordinate with State and Federal PIOs
      o Be the direct liaison with all the news media
      o Do follow-up after emergency is over for evaluation purposes
      o Offer on-going contact with media for wrap-up stories.




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        COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                                    APPENDIX 2
                                 COMMODITY FLOW

In 1995 the Wake County Emergency Management office conducted a commodity flow
study. This study was designed to identify the kinds and amounts of chemicals being
transported throughout the major transportation systems in Wake County and
characterizes the movement of hazardous materials through the County. The study
analyzes commodity flow from three distinct perspectives:

Historical
The historical research encompassed all data from 1987-1994. The intention behind the
historical research was to document the past in order to better anticipate the probabilities
of future HAZMAT incidents. Further, all historical information is now stored in a user-
friendly computerized database for easy accessibility and for further documentation of
HAZMAT problems.

Field Site Survey
The Field Site Survey was a study of placarded vehicles traveling along major
transportation routes in Wake County. This is a representative sample of what is being
transported throughout the Wake County system at any given time.

Fixed Site Survey
The Fixed Site Survey was conducted to identify the major chemicals shipped and received
by Wake County businesses. The difference between this survey and the Field Site Survey
is that trucks observed in the Field Site Survey may not have had a Wake County
destination. Thus, the Fixed Site Survey’s purpose was to identify the consumption of
hazardous materials by the County exclusive of the flow of materials traveling through the
County.

Although trucks were the major focus for this study, rail transportation was also
examined. Wake County is serviced by two rail companies, Norfolk-Southern and CSX.
Shipment reports were obtained from the companies, each providing information on the
number of cars in the train; the number of tons being transported; the products being
transported; and, when and what route was being taken by the train. Estimates of the
amounts of each chemical being transported were based on DOT requirements and tanker
capacity which is usually 80% full.

In 1993, industry and retail in the County reported a total quantity of chemicals in excess
of 3.7 billion pounds; Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) exceeded 53 million
pounds. In 1994, 2,874 businesses in Wake County reported having chemicals, of which
215 have EHSs. Along with having this large industry base comes the need to transport
large volumes of chemicals and raw materials, and to transport the waste products


                                             157
including hazardous waste. With 305.53 miles of road (the largest in the state), 460,492
people (the second largest in the state), a total area of 833.9 square miles, and a
population density of 507.66 persons per square mile – the danger to people, property,
and the environment is ever present. The County averages 111 HAZMAT incidents per
year.

Wake County’s most heavily traveled route is Interstate 40. This is a major route between
the East and West Coasts of the United States. I-40 is also a major route between the
Triangle and the Triad communities; it is a link between communities in the Triangle area;
and it feeds into the I-440 Beltline passing through Raleigh, as do all of the County’s
major highways. This, in turn, brings most hazardous materials within range of the largest
population center in the county.

US Highway 64 North connects traffic between Raleigh and eastern Wake communities
and North Carolina industrial centers like Wilson and Rocky Mount. This route is also an
important connection with the coast, especially the Outer Banks and Southern Virginia
coastal areas.

US Highway 1 North connects northern Wake County to I-85 and also routes to I-95. US
1 North is also a major traffic connection between northern Wake communities and
Raleigh. US 1 South is in close proximity to the Harris Nuclear Power Plant and connects
southern Wake communities with Raleigh.

This study enables emergency responders to prepare for several types of hazardous
material transportation incidents involving railroad, pipeline, and road transportation.
Firefighters and HAZMAT personnel can use the top ten chemicals listed in the study as a
basis for their training




                                           158
COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                 APPENDIX 3
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS




                     159
COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

               APPENDIX 3-A
         WAKE COUNTY PIPELINE MAP




                    160
          COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                          APPENDIX 4
     NOTIFICATION CHART FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS
                                                           Incident Occurs



                 Spiller                                       Public                                 Emergency Responders




   EPA                                            911 Communications Center                        SHP Communications




  Clean-up Company
                                                    Fire Department Responds

                                                        Options upon arrival

                                                    1. FD Will handle
                                                       notification only
                                                    2. Request hazmat
                                                    3. Need resources from
                                                       Wake Co. (specify)




                                                    Notifies 911 of intenetions/
                                                     actions. All spills to be
                                                          reported to 911




                                                       911 Notifies appropriate
                                                             agencies



                                                                               If requested, notify Hazmat

                            County only notify FM

                                                                                   Others as required by
                                                                                    departmental SOP


                           City of Raleigh Notify FD
                                 Safety Officer



                                  LEPC                 Wake Co. Emerg. Mngt.               State EM            SERC          FEMA



                                                       Wake Co. Env. Health                 State Env.              EPA
                                                                                           Management




Notes:

Sewage spills should be reported directly to the Wake County Department of
Environmental Health.

Wake County Agencies will respond upon request.


                                                                  161
         COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                       APPENDIX 5
INFORMATION FLOW CHART FOR TRACKING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS




                SERC State Emergency                    LEPC Wake Co.                      Local Fire Department or
                   Management                        Emergency Management                        Fire District




                                                                                                  Employees
                                                         SARA Industry
                                                                                                (Right-To-Know)




                                                             Fire Marshal                Affected Fire Department or
                                                             (Inspectors)                        Fire District


            Purpose of Information
          Risk Assessment
          Plans/Procedures
          Training                                                                         General Public Inquiries
          Local Government Input
          Public Awareness                            Wake Co. Emergency
          Emergency Response                        Management Computerized
          Exercises                                    Information Center.
          Recovery Operations                                                              County Departments and
          Computerized Information                                                             GIS Computer




                                     Hazmat Teams Raleigh/
911 Comm Center "CAD"                                                       Env. Health Dept.                Affected Fire Department
                                           Wendell




                                                                 162
         COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                            APPENDIX 6
          RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX




                               Board of Wake County
                             Commissioners (Chairman)




                                  County Manager




                              Director of Public Safety




                              Emergency Management
                                     Director




                             County RADPRO System




        County PIO                                            Fire Services




     Law Enforcement                                          EMS/Rescue




NC Radiological Protection                                County Environmental
         Division                                          Health Department




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      COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                             APPENDIX 7
                 RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT


I. PRE-EMERGENCY PHASE

  The Emergency Management Director will ensure that radiological emergency
  equipment is issued to the appropriate emergency response agencies and organizations
  for use in responding to incidents involving radiological materials.

  The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) maintains up-to-date
  listings of radiological emergency equipment, both distributed (field deployed) and
  available in reserve storage. The locations of radiological emergency equipment which
  have been pre-positioned (field deployed) and detailed listings of the equipment
  inventory are maintained in the WCEMA office.

  Training (e.g., role responsibility and equipment proficiency) will be provided to
  appropriate WCEMA staff and emergency response personnel of those organizations
  issued radiological emergency equipment. Training records are maintained in the
  WCEMA office.

II. DURING INCREASED READINESS

  Radiological survey equipment kits are retained in storage, located at Wake County
  Emergency Management Agency's storage facility. This equipment can be used for self
  protection and reporting stations. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency
  will coordinate the strategic deployment and distribution of this equipment during
  periods of increased readiness.




                                         164
     COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                        APPENDIX 8
       RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND DECONTAMINATION



I. RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING, DECONTAMINATION AND EXPOSURE
   CONTROL

 A. Radiological monitoring/decontamination will be conducted by radiological
    monitoring and decontamination (RM&D) teams, dispatched to an emergency
    scene, to designated shelter facilities and/or decontamination stations. Wake
    County Emergency Management Agency shall coordinate radiological emergency
    response activities with appropriate emergency response/support organizations.

   1. Specific instructions for radiological monitoring and decontamination
      operations, along with a listing of the pre-designated facilities and sites for
      RM&D activities, are provided for in WCSOP-102 "Radiological Monitoring
      and Decontamination".

   2. Instructions for radiation protection of emergency response personnel are
      provided for in:

       WCSOP-101, "Radiation Exposure Control and Dosimetry".

      This procedure includes details for tracking radiation exposures during
      emergency response activities, and also provides instructions for record keeping
      and communication with the county EOC.




                                        165
        COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                                 APPENDIX 8
                           ATTACHMENT 1 - SUPPLIES


Some of the recommended supplies and equipment necessary for personnel monitoring
and decontamination operations at shelters/RM&D locations are:

 1. Signs to designate monitoring and decontamination areas, entrances, exits, etc.
 2. Paper, plastic or drop cloths to cover the floor in monitoring/decontamination areas
 3. Barricade tape for traffic flow control in the shelter
 4. Forms, paper supplies, pencils, etc. for recording, addresses and survey information
 5. Two low-range GM survey meters (CDV-700) with headsets
 6. Two low-range self-reading dosimeters (0-200mR)
 7. One dosimeter charger (CDV-750)
 8. Baggies or disposable gloves
 9. Plastic bags or containers for suspected contaminated articles
10. Labels for tagging personal belongings
11. Masking Tape
12. Fixed or improvised shower facilities
13. Non-abrasive soap/shampoo
14. Q-tips or similar swabs for ear and nose cleaning and wipe testing
15. Clean clothing
16. "CAUTION RADIATION AREA" signs for designation of contaminated areas

Some of the recommended supplies and equipment necessary for vehicular monitoring/
decontamination are:

1.   Two low-range GM survey meters (CDV-700) with headsets
2.   One medium-range self-reading dosimeter (0-20 R)
3.   One low-range, self-reading dosimeters (0-200mR)
4.   One dosimeter charger
5.   Equipment for vehicle wash down
6.   Baggies and disposable gloves




                                           166
        COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                              APPENDIX 8
                    ATTACHMENT 2 - ESSENTIAL FACILITIES


Among others, the state of and criticality of the facilities listed should be constantly
monitored and evaluated during emergency situations in order to return to operational
status as soon as possible.

          1. Water supply

          2. Food supply

          3. Hospitals

          4. Electric power supply

          5. Public works

          6. Fire departments

          7. Telephone services

          8. Natural gas pump stations

          9. Gas service bulk storage tanks

         10. Law enforcement




                                            167
      COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                       APPENDIX 9
     REPORTING PROCEDURES FOR NUCLEAR ATTACK HAZARDS


I. GENERAL

 A. When nuclear attack occurs, information on effects is initially reported by a
    network of local Weapons Effect Reporting Stations (WERS). Reports are made
    to the Emergency Operations Center (EOC).

 B. The EOC immediately relays damage reports (which include nuclear detonations
    [NUDET] sightings) to the state EOC, which establishes the location of NUDETS
    by analysis of the local reports. If reports are received of fallout occurring in
    downwind areas, the NUDET is assessed as a surface burst; whereas lack of fallout
    reports would lead to assessment as an air burst. The state EOC sends reports on
    NUDETS to Region IV, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

 C. Similarly, reports on fallout are received by EOC's from WERS and are
    transmitted to the state EOC. The state EOC reports fallout conditions to the
    FEMA radiological control using the following color code:

     1. "Red" means over 50 R/hr.;

     2. "Yellow" means between .5 and 50 R/hr.; and

     3. "White" means under .5 R/hr.

 D. On the basis of damage information, the state develops fallout alert reports. These
    provide initial warning to downwind localities and states that fallout may occur,
    and include an estimated time of arrival.

 E. Fallout warning reports are a follow-on to the fallout alert and contain information
    as to fallout intensity and accurate arrival times. A fallout warning report will be
    developed and disseminated by the state EOC after confirmation of a surface burst.
    The report identifies areas which will be subjected to fallout, as well as expected
    exposure rates and arrival times.

  Additional reporting procedures are found in Civil Preparedness Guidance (GPG) 2-10
  series.




                                         168
         COMMON FUNCTION 10 -HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

                                APPENDIX 10
                        EMERGENCY ACTION CHECKLIST
                     FOR NUCLEAR THREAT/ATTACK HAZARD


Chairman, County Commissioners

Increase Readiness

o Assess initial intelligence.
o Ascertain if additional resources are needed.
Response

o Provide operational guidance relative to survival and recovery efforts.
o Authorize media releases.
Recovery

o Oversee recovery activities.
Director of Public Safety/Emergency Management Director

Increase Readiness

o Review in-place and evacuation plans.
o Determine readiness of communication and warning systems.
o Equip key worker shelters.
o Relocate unassigned radiological instruments to host areas.
o As appropriate, initiate upgrading, marking and stocking of shelter facilities.
Response

o On order, effect the appropriate phase of the sheltering plan.
o Continue essential services including public information announcements.
o Resolve conflicting demands for resources.
o Initiate the detailing of plans to effect the return of shelters and foster an orderly return
   to normalcy.




                                              169
Recovery

o Coordinate the recovery of essential service and governmental functions.
Communications Center

Increase Readiness

o Determine operational status of communication and warning systems.
o Assure the availability of necessary personnel assets, for round the clock operations.
o Review applicable procedures.
Response

o On call, activate appropriate siren warning systems.
o Within available assets, maintain maximum operation efficiency throughout the
    emergency response system.

Recovery

o Maintain a continued state of effectiveness throughout recovery phase.
Emergency Public Information

Increase Readiness

o Prepare to distribute Emergency Public Information.
o Initiate actions to assure the prompt and accurate issuance of information updates and
    guidance announcements to the general public.

Response

o Continue the issuance and monitoring of appropriate public service announcements,
    updates and general instruction.
o Stress resource conservation.
o Deal effectively with disquieting and unconfirmed rumors (rumor control).
Recovery

o Provide public guidance relative to re-entry into evacuated areas and recovery
    operations.
o   Advise public on resource locations.
o   Instruct public on contaminated areas.
o   Inform public on economic stabilization activities.


                                             170
Sheriff

Increase Readiness

o Review/update evacuation security and traffic control plans.
o Augment law enforcement assets where needed.
o Plan for prison inmate movement and execute where deemed advisable.
o Establish a pass system for entering evacuation areas (Ref. Appendix 1, Annex E).
o Arrange for availability of wrecker services.
Response

o On order, assist in the implementation of the evacuation order.
o Control access, prevent looting.
o Secure vital facilities.
o Plan recovery action.
Recovery

o Maintain essential communications.
o Maintain adjacent jurisdictions contact.
o Oversee public movement home.
o Ensure traffic control surveillance, and wrecker service.
o Continue vital security for facilities and resources.
o Return inmates to original facility.
Fire Marshal

Increase Readiness

o Alert and brief all fire departments.
Response

o Fix fire watches.
o Assist in the safe movement of public.
o Oversee fire prevention in shelters.
o Place mobile units in key staging areas.
Recovery

o Continue fire services.
o Maintain fire support of communications capabilities.
o On request, assist the law enforcement authorities with traffic control/security.

                                             171
EMS Director

Increase Readiness

o Bring into a readiness state all emergency medical/rescue assets under Wake County's
    jurisdiction.

Response

o Place emergency response assets at key staging areas.
o Assist in the movement of all non-ambulatory personnel.
o On call, assist in medical services at the reception areas and shelters.
Recovery

o Continue emergency medical/rescue services throughout recovery stage.
o Assist in the movement of non-ambulatory personnel.
o Maintain EMS and Rescue support of communications.
o Assist the law enforcement authorities with traffic control/security.
Community Services Administrator

Increase Readiness

o Assist with emergency shelters marking and upgrading.
o Identify non-essential public services to be discontinued in the event of a general
    evacuation.

Response

o Assist with the identification of resources to construct and upgrade necessary
    emergency shelters within Wake County.
o   Provide support for upgrading shelters in host areas.

Recovery

o Assist with emergency repair and restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities.
o Assist with debris removal and landfill operations.
o Assist in damage assessment.




                                             172
General Services Administrator

Increase Readiness

o Assist in location of vehicular refueling and supply point.
o Assist in the identification and placement of emergency services, similar to the
    following-potable water; portable lights, heat, tentage, and toilets; garbage disposal
    and wrecker support.
o   Plan for emergency shelter marking and upgrading

Response

o Continue identification and placement of emergency services.
o On call, provide emergency maintenance, fuel and wrecker support.
o Supervise the construction and upgrading of emergency shelters.
Recovery

o Coordinate the reactivation of critical facilities and services.
o Assist in the identification and availability of essential supplies and support services.
o Assist with debris removal.
Environmental Health Director

Increase Readiness

o Review evacuation and sheltering plans.
o Project special health and medical needs.
o Alert appropriate medical personnel.
o Inventory medical resources.
o Plan for shelter care of aged and medically dependent citizens.
Response

o Assist in medical evacuation and consolidation.
o Identify suitable medical facilities in the host areas and assist in the assignments.
o Wake County medical personnel, supplies, and equipment.
o Furnish medical care, sanitation and vector controls at the reception areas and within
    the shelters.
o   Plan recovery activities to include resupply of necessary supplies and medicines.




                                             173
Recovery

o Assist in the return of medically dependent citizens.
o Monitor all sanitation interests.
Transportation Coordinator

Increase Readiness

o Review evacuation and transportation plans.
o Identify all available transportation assets and place them in a standby status.
Response

o On call, subject to availability, assist in the transportation of evacuees.
Recovery

o On call, provide available transportation assets in the support of necessary efforts.
American Red Cross Representative

Increase Readiness

o Maintain liaison with Wake County Emergency Management for coordination of
   response planning and operations.
o Participate in planning, preparedness and operational meetings.
o Alert available personnel.
Response

o Assist with mass care and emergency operations activities.
o Provide available blood and blood products when needed.
Recovery

o Continue to address needs appropriate to mission and assets.
Damage Assessment Officer

Increase Readiness

o Review SOP.
o Alert damage assessment personnel and place on standby status.


                                             174
Response

o Activate damage assessment procedures.
o Compile casualty and damage reports.
o Following review by County authorities, submit damage assessment report to
    designated State agencies.

Recovery

o As appropriate, continue damage assessments and effect submissions of updated
    reports to the State.

RADPRO System

Increase Readiness

o Inventory equipment and supplies and prepare distribution.
o Alert monitors into a standby status.
o Report or verify previously reported shortages to the NCDEM and request fulfillment
    of needs.
o   Tentatively assign resources and effect necessary refresher training of monitors.

Response

o Distribute available radiation detection equipment.
o Assign radiation monitors to check radiation levels at predetermined sites within and
    outside the affected area.
o   Compile and maintain records as to verified radiation exposure levels.

Recovery

o Coordinate decontamination procedures.
Budget and Management/Finance Department Directors

Increase Readiness

o Effect centralized fiscal and requisitioning/procurement procedures.
Response

o Assist in the procurement of essential supplies, materials, and services.
o Maintain fiscal accountability of all identified expenditures.


                                             175
Recovery

o Continue necessary fiscal support during recovery stage.
o Support Economic Stabilization Board activities.
o Consolidate records of related expenditures.

NOTE: The emergency services required may not be confined to the above agencies.




                                          176
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                           COMMON FUNCTION 11:
                        DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES

I. PURPOSE

  This common function involves coordination of assistance to local residents and
  municipalities in identifying and meeting the medical needs of victims of a major
  emergency. This function includes assessment of medical needs, management of
  medical care personnel, mental health and crisis counseling, and emergency medical
  services. This function also provides care for large numbers of casualties from an
  overseas war.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      1. Earthquakes, tidal waves, volcanic eruptions, storms, fires, industrial accidents
         and many other disasters have struck the United States. These have not caused
         the massive casualties of similar incidents in other parts of the world. No
         single city, county or state can be fully prepared for such catastrophic events.
         Although many cities of the nation are well provided with health resources,
         those resources would be overwhelmed by a sudden surge of disaster injuries
         proportional to the population.

      2. In the event of a conventional overseas war involving American forces, the
         military medical system could be overwhelmed by casualties returning to the
         United States for hospitalization. To meet the need, military casualties would
         need to be distributed among Department of Defense (DOD), Department of
         Veterans Affairs (VA) and United States non-federal hospitals for treatment.

  B. Assumptions:

      1. A large-scale emergency may result in increased demands on hospitals,
         Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/rescue, and medical personnel services.

      2. Many of the injured will be transported to medical facilities by people other
         than medical personnel.

      3. EMS/rescue is most critical within the first 30 minutes of the emergency.

      4. Existing mutual aid agreements will provide additional medical services.



                                          177
      5. When local resources can no longer meet the demand of the situation, state
         agencies will provide assistance appropriate to the needs.

      6. Catastrophic disasters involving large areas of the county may adversely affect
         response capabilities of local medical resources.

      7. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to relocate hospital facilities
         and patients.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION

  A. Wake County government will provide direction and control of National
     Disaster Medical System (NDMS) activities within Wake County.

  B. On-scene management organization will be in accordance with the Wake County
     Incident Command Master Plan and this procedure.

  C. NDMS may compensate participation hospitals and medical care providers.
     Participating NDMS hospitals, physicians and other providers of care and services
     may be reimbursed on the basis of billed charges.

  D. Military and civilian aircraft will be utilized to transport injured persons to
     Raleigh-Durham International Airport. Coordination of arrival of these flights will
     be in accordance with NDMS procedures.

  E. EMS/Rescue will provide field medical care as needed and coordinate necessary
     medical transportation. EMS/Rescue capabilities will be expanded by available
     volunteer rescue squads services. During mass casualty incidents, EMS/Rescue
     will establish necessary patient triage, holding, treatment and transportation areas.

  F. When appropriate, an EMS or rescue squad official will be located at established
     command posts and staging areas to coordinate responding medical units and
     establish communication links with hospitals, the county communications center
     and the Emergency Operations Center (EOC).

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

      1. The initial and primary responsibility for the protection of health, safety and
         property in the event of an NDMS natural disaster operation, rests locally with
         Wake County government. In some cases, assistance must be obtained from
         out-of-county resources. Wake County Emergency Management will have the
         lead role in working with various state agencies to obtain all necessary
         assistance.


                                           178
      2. The EMS director will coordinate emergency field medical service operations.

      3. Emergency medical teams will be provided with safety equipment and
         associated training for response to hazardous materials incidents.

      4. An organizational chart for Medical Services is found at Appendix 1, Medical
         Services Organization Matrix.

  B. Assignment of Responsibilities:

      1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

      2. See National Disaster Medical System Operations Procedure for specific
         responsibilities.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. Overall direction and control will be the primary responsibility of the Director of
     Public Safety or his designee.

  B. The EMS director will coordinate EMS/rescue operations. For on-scene
     incidents, the senior representative will assume direction and control over such
     activities. (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan.)

  C. The EMS Director will maintain communications with his field forces and will
     keep the EOC informed of activities, including personnel and equipment needed to
     maintain adequate response and recovery efforts.

  D. Support agencies/departments will follow established internal procedures for
     direction and control.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

   Lines of succession within each agency are established either by statutory
   requirements or by the agencies' internal procedures. Upon activation of the EOC,
   lines of succession for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are as follows:

     1. County EMS Director

     2. County EMS Operations Officer

     3. EMS Shift Supervisor (On Duty)




                                           179
VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. General:

       All departments with responsibilities related to medical services will arrange
       for the collection, processing and security of vital records, statistics and other
       documentation.

  B. Logistical Support:

       The county EMS Director and supporting agencies will:

       1. Assist in the effecting of mutual aid agreements leading to availability of
          additional medical response teams.

       2. Prepare for the emergency requisition of medical equipment and supplies.

       3. Determine the availability of and arrange for support assets, such as:

           a. Aircraft, helicopters, trucks, four wheel vehicles;

           b. Private and public ambulance companies;

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  A. Under the guidance of the Emergency Management Director, this common
     function will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis.

  B. Involved agencies will maintain current internal notification rosters and updated
     departmental SOPs.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.

  C.   National Disaster Medical System Operations Procedure




   COMMON FUNCTION 11 - DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES


                                             180
                                APPENDIX 1
                            ORGANIZATION MATRIX



                                        NDMS




        Wake Medical Center                          State Emergency Mgt.



           Area Hospitals


                                                       Wake County EM



    Out of County EMS/
          Rescue                                       Public Safety Dir.




        State OEMS             Area Rescue Squads         Wake EMS




                                 Area Fire Depts.      Wake County FM



  Wake County Sheriff
   Highway Patrol              RDU Law Enforcement    RDU Airport Auth.
         SBI
         FBI
     Raleigh PD
      Cary PD
    Morrisville PD                                   American Red Cross




                                                        Triangle Transit




COMMON FUNCTION 11 - DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES


                                         181
                                 APPENDIX 2
                       LISTING OF MEDICAL FACILITIES


     Hospitals

1.   Wake Medical Center, 3000 New Bern Avenue, Raleigh
2.   Rex Health Care, 4420 Lake Boone Trail, Raleigh
3.   Raleigh Community Hospital, 3400 Wake Forest Road, Raleigh
4.   Southern Wake Day Hospital, 400 Ransom Street, Fuquay-Varina
5.   Eastern Wake Hospital, 320 Hospital Drive, Zebulon
6.   Western Wake Medical Center, 1900 Kildaire Farm Rd., Cary




                                         182
         WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                   FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 12:
                                  ENERGY

This function will facilitate restoration of energy systems following an emergency;
coordinate the provision of emergency power and fuel to support response operations, as
well as provide power and fuel to normalize community function. This function includes
assessing energy system damage, energy supply demand and requirements for restoration
of such systems and will be coordinated and staffed by Common Function 3 personnel. As
appropriate, this function will provide emergency information education and conservation
guidance to the public. This function is to be further developed.

Information on the Harris Nuclear Power Plant can be found in “Common Function 10 -
Hazardous Materials” in this plan and under separate cover in North Carolina Emergency
Response Plan: Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP).




                                          183
       WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                 FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 13:
                             PUBLIC INFORMATION


I. PURPOSE

 This common function will provide emergency information to the general public in the
 event of an emergency. This function will develop, maintain, and conduct a program
 for dissemination of information to the media and the public related to specific
 emergency actions and recommendations for protective measures.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

     1. Notification and Warning

         a. The county warning point will normally initiate notification and warning.

         b. Broadcast media will be relied upon to assist in the dissemination of
            warning and general instructions to the public.

         c. Operational telephone and/or radio communication systems will be utilized
            to notify public officials, Emergency Operations Center (EOC) staff,
            emergency personnel and others as required.

         d. A limited number of emergency vehicles are available for warning
            purposes.

         e. Special care groups or persons in group quarters may have to be provided
            special warning notification.

     2. Public information

         a. Wake County is vulnerable to a variety of hazards. Media resources exist
            which, if effectively utilized, can inform the population of the events that
            are occurring and how they may best respond to them.

         b. During periods of emergency, the public needs detailed information
            regarding protective action to be taken for minimizing loss of life and
            property. There are times, however, when disaster strikes without warning
            and the public information system cannot respond rapidly enough to


                                          184
           properly alert/inform the public about the hazard. For this reason, it is
           important that prior to the occurrence of an emergency, that every
           reasonable action is taken to ensure that the public is made aware of
           potential hazards and the protective measures that can be taken.

        c. When a disaster/emergency situation occurs, hearsay could develop which
           may cause unnecessary fear, confusion and undesired public reactions.

  B. Assumptions:

     1. Local print and broadcast media will cooperate to provide accurate
        information. Such efforts will serve to inform the public of the presence and
        nature of emergencies and serve to provide disaster related instructions,
        minimizing fear and rumor circulation.

     2. Due to the emergency, current warning and information capabilities may
        require augmentation to provide sufficient warning and information to the
        general public and special populations.

     3. Use of mobile public address systems and/or house to house alert warning
        may be desirable when the hazard requires immediate evacuation actions.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. General:

     1. Emergency Public Information (EPI) efforts should focus on specific, event-
        related information.

     2. The information generally will be of an instructional or advisory nature,
        focusing on such things as warning, evacuation, shelter and recovery. It is
        equally important to keep the public informed of the general progress of
        events. A special effort must be made to report the facts as accurately as
        possible and provide advice concerning necessary protective actions. Rumor
        control will be a major aspect of the information program and will be
        coordinated by the County PIO.

  B. Emergency Warning Origin

     Emergency warning may originate at the national, state or local level of
     government. Timely warning requires dissemination to the public by all available
     means:

     1. National Warning System (NAWAS)




                                         185
   2. National Weather Service (NWS)

   3. Emergency Alert System (EAS)

   4. State Operated Two Way Radio Systems

   5. N. C. Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) [Formerly PIN]

   6. Local Government Radios

   7. Sirens, horns, or mobile public address systems

   8. Telephone

C. Receipt and Dissemination of Warning:

   1. The N. C. Department of Crime Control and Public Safety operates the state
      warning point in Raleigh.

   2. Warning received from the site of an emergency is normally reported to the
      county warning point. Raleigh/Wake County Communications Center (911) is
      designated as the county warning point.

   3. Notification of governmental officials and emergency response personnel
      from the county warning point will follow established procedures.

D. Dissemination of Warning to the General Public:

   The general public will be notified of major emergencies by one or more of the
   following:

   1. Fixed Sirens

   2. Emergency Alert System (EAS)

   3. Weather alert radios (NWS)

   4. Mobile public address systems

   5. House to house alert




E. Dissemination of Warning to Special Populations:


                                      186
     1. Wherever possible, identified hearing impaired, special care groups, persons
        in group quarters and non-english speaking groups are to be notified by means
        consistent with their needs.

     2. When necessary, public schools, hospitals and other similar facilities are
        notified through the county warning point or the EOC.

  F. EPI documents speaking to major hazards will be maintained during normal
     periods of readiness, for immediate publication and dissemination. When
     evacuation is imminent, public information capabilities must be expanded to
     answer public inquiries and prepare new or modified public
     announcements.

  G. For Nuclear threat/attack hazards, information about relocation will be distributed
     to the population via the print and electronic media. Maps and emergency
     instructions will also be used. A camera-ready EPI supplement is on file at the
     Emergency Management office.

  H. Public Education:

     1. Ongoing public education programs will be conducted to increase public
        awareness of potential hazards and preparedness measures.

     2. The Emergency Management Director (EMD) and Public Information Director
        will coordinate with county media to provide information and education
        programs relating to emergency management.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     1. The county warning point serves on a continuous 24 hour basis from which
        key officials and the public can be alerted. The county warning point has the
        capability to simultaneously activate multiple warning systems. (Reference
        Appendix 1, Notification and Warning Flow Chart).

     2. The Emergency Alert System (EAS) provides an operational public
        warning capability to national, state and local governments. (Reference State
        Emergency Alert System Plan (EAS)).

     3. Upon activation of the Wake County EOC, responsibilities for emergency
        public information (EPI) efforts are delegated to the Public Information
        Director who serves as the county PIO.




                                          187
    4. When appropriate to the occasion, Wake County will establish an emergency
       information center as a point of contact for the media during an emergency.
       The County Public Information Officer (PIO) is to designate and will train
       additional staff to support such needs.

    5. An organizational matrix for emergency public information (EPI) appears at
       Appendix 4 - Public Information Organizational Matrix.

B. Responsibilities:

    1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

    2. In the EOC the Public Information Common Function’s specific
       responsibilities include:

        a. Continually evaluate the effectiveness of the county emergency
           alert/warning system.

        b. Coordinate county warning resources.

        c. Upgrade procedures to warn areas not covered by fixed warning systems.

        d. Develop procedures which define agency responsibilities, describe
           activation procedures and detail the warning systems for notifying
           both emergency response personnel and the general public.

        e. Provide for periodic testing and exercising of the county warning and
           alerting systems.

        f. Develop procedures for activation of the EAS and the NOAA systems.
           (Weather alert)

        g. Upgrade warning procedures for special locations such as schools,
           hospitals, nursing homes, major industries and institutions.

        h. Arrange with appropriate governmental and public service agencies to
           augment county warning capabilities.

        i. Coordinate with and assist the EPI efforts in dissemination of public
           information.

         j. Maintain an ongoing public information/education program.

        k. Establish and maintain a working relationship with the media.




                                        188
          l.   Prepare procedures for the coordination of emergency public information
               (EPI).

          m. Establish procedures for the flow of information to the public, which
             includes support for activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) and
             NOAA weather radio.

          n. Prepare and distribute appropriate pre-scripted EPI material to the media
             (e.g. newspapers, radio and television).

          o. Ensure statements of agreement with the media to provide for
             dissemination of essential emergency information and warning to the
             public.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or designee, has overall
     jurisdiction over the county warning system.

  B. The Raleigh/Wake Communications Director and Sheriff's Communications
     Supervisor are designated as the county warning point coordinators and will follow
     established county warning procedures.

  C. The Public Information Director, under the direction of the County Manager, is
     responsible for all public education and information programs relating to emergency
     oriented concerns.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Signal Officer is:

      1. Sheriff's Communication Supervisor

      2. Assistant Supervisor

      3. Shift Supervisor

  B. Lines of succession for agencies that support the warning operation are in
     accordance with their respective policies.




  C. Line of succession for the county emergency public information:


                                          189
      1. Public Information Director

      2. Administrative Services Coordinator

      3. Deputy County Manager

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. The county has the following warning systems available for use in an emergency:

      1. Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP) Siren System

      2. Raleigh Flood Warning Sirens

      3. County Fire Sirens

      4. Emergency Alert System (EAS)

      5. National Weather Service (NOAA)

      6. National Warning System (NAWAS)

  B. As feasible, special needs populations in the county (e.g. handicapped, hearing
     impaired, non-english speaking) will be identified for the purpose of providing
     alert/warning notifications consistent with their needs.

  C. Media Organizations:

     A current list of media organizations involved in county/local emergency public
     information programs must be maintained by the Public Information Director.

  D. Audio Visual Aids and Publications:

      Numerous films, slides, video tapes and informational brochures concerning
      various aspects of emergency preparedness are available from federal, state and
      local sources, through the county Emergency Management agency.

  E. Pre-scripted News Releases:

      Sample EPI materials (news releases) for nuclear threat attack and
      natural/technological hazards are maintained by the county Emergency
      Management agency.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE


                                          190
  A. The county EMD is responsible for coordinating a periodic review of all plans and
     SOPs. Such efforts will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and departments.
     The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes based upon
     periodic tests, drills and exercises.

  B. Emergency response agencies with designated warning assignments will develop
     and maintain supportive SOPs, mutual aid agreements, personnel rosters and
     emergency telephone lists suitable to their mission.

  C. The siren systems will be tested and maintained in accordance with an
     established procedure.

  D. Development and Coordination:

     The Public Information Director will develop and coordinate EPI programs to
     support this plan.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. Emergency Management Act of 1977, N. C. General Statutes 166-A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.

  C. Part 73, Sub-part G and H, Federal Communications Commissions Rules and
     Regulations.

  D. North Carolina General Statutes, 166A.




        COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION


                                         191
             APPENDIX 1
NOTIFICATION AND WARNING FLOWCHART




 Incident Scene
                    State Warning
                                        State EOC
                         Point
 NAWAS/NWS




                                      Central Region
                                          Office



   On-Scene
                    County Warning       County             Designated
     Incident
                         Point       Emergency Mgt.       County Officials
Coordinator (OIC)




                     Emergency         Designated
                     Responders        County Staff




                                     Warning to Public


                                     Special Facilities




                        192
     COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION

                               APPENDIX 2
                     NATIONAL WARNING SYSTEM (NAWAS)



                                                       NORAD

                                               Colorado Springs, CO
                                                      (24 hour)




                                                Federal Emergency
                                                   Management

                                                  Washington D.C.
                                                     (24 hour)




                                                Federal Emergency
                                                   Management
                                                    Region IV

                                                     Atlanta, GA




North Carolina Division of
                                                State Warning Point   National Weather Service
Emergency Management
                                                     Raleigh, NC               Raleigh
       Raleigh, NC
                                                      (24 hour)               (24 hour)
         (24 hr.)




                                               County Warning Point

                                                     Raleigh, NC
                                                      (24 hour)




                             Coordination of Inadvertent Activation




                                                         193
COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION

                              APPENDIX 3
                           NOAA/NWS SYSTEM



  Wake County
                                National Weather Service
 Emergency Mgt..




                                 NOAA Weather Radio
                                      System




        Primary Transmitter                                Alternate Transmitter
       Raleigh-Durham Airport                                 Fayetteville, NC




                                     In-Home NOAA
                                        Receivers




                                          194
           COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION

                                APPENDIX 4
                  PUBLIC INFORMATION ORGANIZATION MATRIX



                              Chairman, Board of County
                                    Commissioners




                                   County Manager




 Public Safety Director                                   Public Information Director



                                         EOC


Emergency Management
       Director




                                   Siren System(s)



                                     NWS/NOAA




                               Emergency Alert System
                                       (EAS)




                                   Media Contacts



                                  State/Federal PIOs




                                         195
         COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION

                                   APPENDIX 5
                                 MEDIA CONTACTS


A current list of printed and broadcast media is maintained by the office of Emergency
Management.


EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) STATIONS:

NOTE: Supplementary broadcasting stations, when instructed by FCC Emergency
      Action Notification, will suspend normal operations after notifying the public to
      tune to the EAS station(s) serving designated areas.

        The stations listed below are the primary and alternate Common Programming
        Control Stations (CPCS) for EAS in the Wake County listening area:

         CPCS-l       WQDR-FM        94.7FM         Raleigh
         CPCS-2       WDCG-FM        l05.1FM        Raleigh




                                           196
         WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                   FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                           COMMON FUNCTION 14:
                         VOLUNTEERS AND DONATIONS

This common function will expedite the delivery of donated goods and voluntary service
to support relief efforts and manages monetary donations. This function is to be further
developed.




                                           197
                WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                          FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                      COMMON FUNCTION 15:
                                       MILITARY SUPPORT


The military support function will coordinate the use of military assets (federal and state) in supporting
all other ESFs. This function is to be further developed.




                                                    198
        WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                  FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                             COMMON FUNCTION 16:
                              LAW ENFORCEMENT


I. PURPOSE

  A. This common function provides for maintenance of law and order, and traffic
     control during emergency situations and describes the operational policies to be
     implemented for the purpose of minimizing the impact of civil disturbances upon
     the citizens and the property of Wake County.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

  A. Situation:

      During emergencies, law enforcement agencies must expand their operations to
      provide the increased protection required by disaster conditions. Numerous
      federal, state and county law enforcement agencies are available to support local
      law enforcement agencies.

      There are twelve (12) municipalities in Wake County which could be subject to a
      civil disorder. Raleigh, the state capital, is located in Wake County. Quite often,
      citizens gather to promote their cause. Business and industry in Wake County is
      both union and non-union.

  B. Assumptions:

      Activities of local law enforcement agencies will increase significantly during
      emergency operations and civil disturbances. In most incidences, adequate law
      enforcement resources and services will be available through existing
      mutual aid agreements. However, if local capabilities are overtaxed, support must
      be obtained from state and federal sources.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. Emergency law enforcement operations will be an expansion of normal functions
     and responsibilities. These responsibilities will include maintenance of law and
     order, traffic control, crowd control and security.

  B. Other than by statutory requirements, law enforcement activities will remain
     under the control of the senior law enforcement officer for the jurisdiction in which
     the emergency operation is taking place.


                                           199
  C. Law enforcement agencies will have responsibility for both warning and assisting
     the public relative to an evacuation, for traffic control in and near an evacuated
     area and for the security of such areas pending the return of the populace.

  D. During emergency situations, the Wake County Sheriff or designee may coordinate
     County law enforcement operations from the County Emergency Operations
     Center (EOC). In cooperation with the EOC, municipal law enforcement agencies
     will direct their law enforcement activities within respective command posts.

  E. Coordination among law enforcement agencies will ensure security for vacated
     hazard areas, essential industries, prisoners, evacuating populations and congregate
     care facilities.

  F. Civil Disturbances:

     1. When groups with conflicting viewpoints form, law enforcement agencies may
        gather intelligence by both overt and covert means.

     2. By monitoring the conditions, the responsible officials may sense when such
        gatherings are most likely to precipitate a commotion.

     3. By pre-planning and utilizing mutual aid agreements, responsible officials can
        have reasonable assurance that adequate support is available to counter a civil
        disturbance and maintain/or restore order.

     4. Once a "State of Emergency" proclamation is issued by a municipality or
        Wake County, the issuing governmental body has the additional authority to
        effectively address the situation.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Organization:

     The county Sheriff is responsible for coordinating law enforcement operations
     within the county. (Reference Appendix 1, Organization Matrix). Other law
     enforcement agencies will provide necessary support.

  B. Responsibilities:

     1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities.

     2. In the EOC the Law Enforcement Common Function’s specific responsibilities
        include:




                                          200
         a. Provide direction and control for law enforcement operations.

         b.    Assist in warning and notifying the affected population of an existing or
               impending emergency, as well as subsequent events of note.

          c. Provide necessary traffic control during emergencies.

          d. Assist in evacuation of the disaster area and movement to shelter.

         e.     Provide security and protection for evacuated areas, damaged or critical
               facilities, to include controlled access of affected areas.

          f. Relocate and house prisoners when necessary.

          g. Coordinate law enforcement support with State Highway Patrol, other
             counties and/or municipalities during response activities.

          h. Deliver radiological monitoring resources, potassium iodide (KI) and
             similar items upon request by proper authorities.

          i.    Maintain law and order missions within local jurisdictions.

          j.    Provide mobile units for warning operations.

V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

  A. Other than statutory requirements, the Sheriff is responsible for the
     coordination of law enforcement activities within the county during emergencies.

  B. There are twelve municipalities within Wake County. Each municipality should
     exercise its full authority in the execution of locally designed emergency
     operations plans and procedures. However, such activities should be coordinated
     with the Wake County EOC.

  C. Major emergency situations affecting the unincorporated portions of the county
     will be under the auspices of Wake County government. Emergencies which
     affect multi-jurisdictional areas, the county and municipalities, will be managed in a
     cooperative effort, each entity providing mutual support as required.

     Unless the county EOC is activated, Wake County Emergency Management
     Agency will serve in the role of coordination.

  D. As the situation dictates, the Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a joint,




                                            201
      coordinated endeavor, serving to effect inter and intra-agency cooperation
      between all authorities having responsibilities for public safety and protection
      during emergency operations.

VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

  A. The line of succession for the Board of County Commissioners is from the
     Chairperson to the Vice-Chairperson, continuing through the remaining board
     members according to seniority. In the absence of any commissioners, this line of
     succession would pass to the County Manager.

  B. The line of succession for the County Manager passes to the Public Safety
     Director or his designee.

  C. The line of succession for county emergency preparedness and coordination is
     from the Emergency Management Director (EMD) to the Assistant EMD or other
     designated staff.

  D. The chain of command within each enforcement organization/department/agency
     is established by their respective internal procedures

  E. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Wake County Sheriff's
     Department is:

      1. Sheriff

      2. Patrol Major

      3. Administration Major

  F. Measures to maintain documents and accountability of operations, including the
     preservation of records, will be taken to ensure continued operation and/or
     reconstitution, if necessary, of county government.

VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Records and Reports:

      The Sheriff will initiate and maintain essential records relative to emergency
      expenditures, law enforcement operations, and other allied activities occasioned by
      the emergency.

  B. Communications:

      The communications network between county, municipal and state law


                                           202
      enforcement agencies will be structured so as to obtain maximum benefit of radio
      and telephone communication resources.

  C. Emergency Access Passes:

      The decision as to the occasions that require passes will rest with the Chairman,
      Wake County Board of Commissioners--such orders, along with administrative
      guidance will be issued from the county EOC. A sample, temporary personnel
      pass and a vehicle pass, is shown at Appendix 2, Sample Access Passes.

VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

   The county EMD is responsible for coordinating a periodic review of
   plans and SOPs. Such efforts will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and
   departments. The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes
   based up periodic tests, drills, exercises and actual events.

IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

  A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A.

  B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance.




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       COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT

                                     APPENDIX 1
                                 ORGANIZATION MATRIX


                                                      EOC

                                                     Sheriff




Law Enforcement Support                                             Law Enforcement Support
                                             Sheriff's Department
          State                                                          Other Counties




          SHP
                                                                           Cary Police
         (Local)




     Raleigh Police                                                       Apex Police




     Garner Police                                                    Fuquay-Varina Police




    Knightdale Police                                                   Rolesville Police




    Morrisville Police                                                 Wake Forest Police




     Wendell Police                                                      Zebulon Police




                                                  RDU Police



                          Coordination of Inadvertent Activation




                                                      204
           COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT

                                  APPENDIX 2
                             SAMPLE ACCESS PASSES
                                VEHICLE PASS

                                  TEMPORARY PASS

                   _________________________________________
                                  Driver’s Name

                  ____________________ ____________________
                     Social Security #    Drivers License #

                  __________________________________________
                      Vehicle Type        Vehicle License #

                   This vehicle is authorized to enter or remain in the
                   Emergency Area during the following period:

                          From: ___________ ___________
                                   Date        Time

                          To:     ___________ ___________
                                     Date        Time

                 ___________________________________________
                      Authorized Signature         Title

                                          (Back)

                 1. This is a temporary pass to enter or remain in the
                    Emergency Area on official business/duty during
                    the specified period only.

                  2. This Pass shall be surrendered to the issuing authority
                     upon exit from the Emergency Area.


This pass will be issued to the driver of the vehicle entering the emergency area. The
vehicle pass is to be posted prominently in the lower right-hand corner of the window
and remain on the vehicle while it is in the emergency area. In addition, the driver and
passengers must have on their person a valid "Personnel Pass". Issuing authorities will
maintain a record of all passes insured and surrendered.



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                COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT

                                   APPENDIX 2
                              SAMPLE ACCESS PASSES
                                PERSONNEL PASS

                                  TEMPORARY PASS

                   _________________________________________
                                     Name

                   _________________________________________
                                 Social Security #

                   The bearer of this pass is authorized to enter the
                   Emergency Area.

                           From: ___________ ___________
                                    Date        Time

                           To:    ___________ ___________
                                     Date        Time

                  ___________________________________________
                       Authorized Signature         Title

                                          (Back)

              1. This is a temporary pass to enter the Emergency Area
                 on official business/duty only.

              2. The authorized person must carry this pass at all times
                 while in the Emergency Area.

              3. This pass shall be surrendered to the issuing authority
                  upon exit from the Emergency Area.


This pass will be issued to any individual that is authorized to enter the Emergency Area.




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          WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
                    FOR MULTI-HAZARDS

                                COMMON FUNCTION 17:
                                 ANIMAL PROTECTION

I.   PURPOSE

     This function will provide direction and coordination of animal issues before, during
     and after an actual or potential disaster situation to facilitate overall animal related
     activities. This function will protect wild and domesticated animal resources, the
     public health, the public food supply, the environment, and to ensure the humane care
     and treatment of animals in case of a large-scale emergency that causes animal
     suffering.

II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS

     A. Situation:

         This common function is intended for use by local government to take immediate
         action in providing a means of care and control to minimize animal suffering in the
         event of a large-scale emergency. This action will be aimed at animals that may
         need help whether such animals are owned, stray, domestic, or wild.

         Within Wake County, the Director of Public Safety or his authorized
         representative(s) may place into effect established plans and procedures and direct
         both the emergency and recovery aspects of the incident. He may deviate from
         these procedures when, in his judgment, immediate and direct action is necessary
         to protect the public safety.

     B. Assumptions:

        1. The owners of pets or livestock, when notified of an upcoming emergency,
           will take reasonable steps to shelter and provide for animals under their care
           and/or control.

        2. Natural, technological, or manmade disasters could affect the well-being of
           domesticated or nondomesticated animals.

        3. The County should plan both for emergency situations and to carry out
           response and recovery operations utilizing local resources. Outside animal
           care and rescue assistance would likely be available in most major situations
           affecting the County.

        4. Animal protection planning should ensure the proper care and recovery of


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         animals impacted during an emergency. These plans may include measures to
         identify housing and shelter for animals, communicating information to the
         public, and proper animal release.

     5. Public information statements will be issued through the various media outlets.
        This information will include locations where domestic and nondomestic
        animals (including livestock and wild animals) may be accepted during
        emergency situations.

     6. A large-scale emergency in Wake County may warrant immediate response
        from state and local personnel, agencies, and organizations. However,
        emergency situations may become compounded due to the nature of the
        emergency and also require activation of additional specialized agencies
        through mutual aid.

     7. Through effective animal protection planning and organization, disaster relief
        efforts would be more expedient.

III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

  A. General:

     1. The primary and support agencies identified in the Wake County Animal
        Protection Plan will manage and coordinate local animal protection activities.
        Responsibility for situation assessment and determination of resource needs in
        the event of a large-scale emergency lies primarily with the Wake County
        Department of Public Safety in cooperation with the Wake County Department
        of Human Services and local incident coordinators.

     2. Requests for animal protection assistance and resources such as food,
        medicine, shelter material, specialized personnel, and additional veterinary
        medical professionals, will be transmitted from the local Emergency
        Management office to the State Emergency Management office. Should the
        need for Federal or State resources exist, the State Emergency Operations
        Center will coordinate the requests for assistance.

     3. Animal protection operations will be managed under the Incident Command
        System (ICS). Public Health concerns will be managed in accordance with
        appropriate Wake County plans and procedures.

     4. Animals Included Under the Plan:

        a. The sheltering and protection of domestic and nondomestic animals
           (including livestock) are the responsibility of their owners.




                                         208
        b. Domestic and nondomestic animals that are lost, strayed, incapable of being
           cared for by their owners, or in danger to themselves or the public will be
           the responsibility of municipal or Wake County animal control officials, the
           Wake County SPCA, or other identified agencies. These animals will be
           sheltered, fed, and, if possible, returned to their owners. If the animals
           cannot be returned to their owners, they will be disposed of in accordance
           with established animal control procedures.

         c. Wild animals should be left to their own survival instincts. Wild animals
            out of their natural habitats that are in danger either to themselves or the
            public will be the responsibility N. C. Wildlife Resource Commission
            personnel, in cooperation with local animal control officials, and returned to
            their natural habitat if possible.

  B. Response and Recovery:

     Response and recovery efforts are explained in The Wake County Animal
     Protection Plan.

IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES

  A. Primary Agencies

     1. Wake County Human Services, Environmental Health Division, Animal
        Control Program:

         Coordinate support agencies to manage animal protection in major
         emergencies.

         Provide and coordinate personnel, equipment, and shelter as required to
         protect domestic and sick and/or injured nondomestic animals.

     2. Wake County Department of Public Safety:

         Activate the Emergency Operations Center, if necessary. Responsible for
         overall direction and control of the emergency incident.

  B. Support Agencies / Additional Resources:

     Support agencies and additional resources are detailed in section 2.0 of the Wake
     County Animal Protection Plan.




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V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL

 This plan and implementing procedures will be activated in the event of a large-scale
 emergency causing a significant need for animal protection. The Wake County
 Animal Control Director in cooperation with the Wake County Department of Public
 Safety will determine when these procedures will be implemented and notify the
 appropriate primary, support, and mutual aid agencies. A call down notification
 system will be maintained by the Wake County Animal Control Director.

VI. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS

  A. Communications:

      Communications between the primary and support agencies will occur primarily
      through telephone, facsimile and cellular telephone transmission. Amateur radio
      will be used as a backup system if other communication is impossible due to the
      nature of the emergency situation.

  B. Public Information (PI):

      A spokesperson from Wake County will be responsible for the coordination of
      media activities and press releases associated with the protection of animals.

      PI responsibilities may include:

      1. Notifying the public of appropriate shelters to drop lost/stray animals, animals
         that they cannot care for, or animals that need immediate medical assistance.

      2. Delivering instructions to the public to prepare their pets for an impending
         emergency (See attached Annex A) and/or instructions for minor “at home”
         medical responses for pets injured in an emergency situation (Annex to be
         developed).

      3. Initiating a system to direct inquiries on lost pets to the appropriate shelters.

      4. Other information as appropriate to the situation.

VII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  On a regular basis, this function will be reviewed and updated as appropriate by
  Wake County Animal Control, the Wake County Department of Public Safety, and
  other affected agencies.

  This procedure will be periodically tested by an appropriate exercise method.




                                            210
VIII. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES

Wake County Animal Protection Plan




                                     211
          COMMON FUNCTION 17 - ANIMAL PROTECTION

                              APPENDIX 1
                WAKE COUNTY DISASTER PLANNING TIPS FOR
                    PETS, LIVESTOCK, AND WILDLIFE

                                       Domestic Pets

•   If you evacuate your home, DO NOT LEAVE YOUR PETS BEHIND. Pets most
    likely cannot survive on their own, and if by chance they do, you may not be able to
    find them when you return.

•   For public health reasons, many emergency shelters cannot accept pets. Find out
    which motels and hotels in your area allow pets. Include your local animal shelter's
    number in your list of emergency numbers—they will be able to provide information
    concerning pets during a disaster.

•   Make sure identification tags are up to date and securely fastened to your pet's collar.
    If possible, attach the address and/or phone number of your evacuation site. Make
    sure you have a current photo of your pet for identification purposes.

•   Make sure you have a secure pet carrier, leash or harness for your pet so that if the
    animal panics, it cannot escape.

•   Take pet food, bottled water, medications, veterinary records, cat litter/pan, can
    opener, food dishes, first aid kit and other supplies with you in case they are not
    available later.

•   Make sure you have a copy of your pets medical records. If you are unable to return
    to your home right away, you may need to board your pet. Most boarding kennels,
    veterinarians, and animal shelters require that your pets vaccinations are current.

•   If it is impossible to take your pet with you to temporary shelter, contact friends,
    family, veterinarians, or boarding kennels to arrange for care. Make sure medical and
    feeding information, food, medicine and other supplies accompany your pet to its
    foster home.


                                         Livestock

•   Evacuate livestock whenever possible. The evacuation sites should have or be able to
    readily obtain food, water, veterinary care, handling equipment and facilities.




                                             212
•   If evacuation is not possible, a decision must be made whether to move large animals
    to available shelter or turn them outside. This decision should be determined based on
    the type of disaster and the soundness and location of the shelter.

•   All animals should have some form of identification that will help facilitate their return.


                                           Wildlife

•   Wild animals often seek higher ground which, during floods, eventually become
    submerged (i.e., island) and the animals become stranded. If the island is large enough
    and provides suitable shelter, you can leave food appropriate to the species. Animals
    have a flight response and will flee from anyone approaching too closely. If the animal
    threatens to rush into the water, back away from the island.

•   Wildlife often seek refuge from flood water on upper levels of a home and may remain
    inside even after the water recedes. If you meet a rat or snake face to face, be careful
    but don't panic. Open a window or other escape route and the animal will probably
    leave on its own. Never attempt to capture a wild animal unless you have the training,
    protective clothing, restraint equipment and caging necessary to perform the job.

•   Beware of an increased number of snakes and other predators who will try to feed on
    the carcasses of reptiles, amphibians and small mammals who have been drowned or
    crushed in their burrows or under rocks.

•   Often, during natural disasters, mosquitoes and dead animal carcasses may present
    disease problems. Outbreaks of anthrax, encephalitis and other diseases may occur.
    Contact your local emergency management office for help.


                                       Further Assistance

•   If you see any injured or stranded animal in need of assistance, or if you have any other
    questions or concerns about animal protection during an emergency situation, contact
    the Wake County Public Information Officer at 856-7036 or 856-7044.




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 COMMON FUNCTION 17 - ANIMAL PROTECTION

                 APPENDIX 2
WAKE COUNTY ANIMAL PLAN ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX




                     214
Commodity Flow

In 1995 the Wake County Emergency Management office conducted a commodity flow
study. This study was designed to identify the kinds and amounts of chemicals being
transported throughout the major transportation systems in Wake County and
characterizes the movement of hazardous materials through the County. The study
analyzes commodity flow from three distinct perspectives:

Historical
The historical research encompassed all data from 1987-1994. The intention behind the
historical research was to document the past in order to better anticipate the probabilities
of future HAZMAT incidents. Further, all historical information is now stored in a user-
friendly computerized database for easy accessibility and for further documentation of
HAZMAT problems.

Field Site Survey
The Field Site Survey was a study of placarded vehicles traveling along major
transportation routes in Wake County. This is a representative sample of what is being
transported throughout the Wake County system at any given time.

Fixed Site Survey
The Fixed Site Survey was conducted to identify the major chemicals shipped and received
by Wake County businesses. The difference between this survey and the Field Site Survey
is that trucks observed in the Field Site Survey may not have had a Wake County
destination. Thus, the Fixed Site Survey’s purpose was to identify the consumption of
hazardous materials by the County exclusive of the flow of materials traveling through the
County.

Although trucks were the major focus for this study, rail transportation was also
examined. Wake County is serviced by two rail companies, Norfolk-Southern and CSX.
Shipment reports were obtained from the companies, each providing information on the
number of cars in the train; the number of tons being transported; the products being
transported; and, when and what route was being taken by the train. Estimates of the
amounts of each chemical being transported were based on DOT requirements and tanker
capacity which is usually 80% full.

In 1993, industry and retail in the County reported a total quantity of chemicals in excess
of 3.7 billion pounds; Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) exceeded 53 million
pounds. In 1994, 2,874 businesses in Wake County reported having chemicals, of which
215 have EHSs. Along with having this large industry base comes the need to transport
large volumes of chemicals and raw materials, and to transport the waste products
including hazardous waste. With 305.53 miles of road (the largest in the state), 460,492
people (the second largest in the state), a total area of 833.9 square miles, and a
population density of 507.66 persons per square mile – the danger to people, property,
and the environment is ever present. The County averages 111 HAZMAT incidents per
year.

Wake County’s most heavily traveled route is Interstate 40. This is a major route between
the East and West Coasts of the United States. I-40 is also a major route between the
Triangle and the Triad communities; it is a link between communities in the Triangle area;
and it feeds into the I-440 Beltline passing through Raleigh, as do all of the County’s
major highways. This, in turn, brings most hazardous materials within range of the largest
population center in the county.

US Highway 64 North connects traffic between Raleigh and eastern Wake communities
and North Carolina industrial centers like Wilson and Rocky Mount. This route is also an
important connection with the coast, especially the Outer Banks and Southern Virginia
coastal areas.

US Highway 1 North connects northern Wake County to I-85 and also routes to I-95. US
1 North is also a major traffic connection between northern Wake communities and
Raleigh. US 1 South is in close proximity to the Harris Nuclear Power Plant and connects
southern Wake communities with Raleigh.

This study enables emergency responders to prepare for several types of hazardous
material transportation incidents involving railroad, pipeline, and road transportation.
Firefighters and HAZMAT personnel can use the top ten chemicals listed in the study as a
basis for their training (Reference: Wake County HMTUSA Commodity Flow Study).

								
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