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Wake County EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN For MULTI-HAZARDS First Revision June 1998 FOREWORD This document is a product of the collective efforts of the Wake County Emergency Services. It also reflects the many comments and suggestions received on earlier drafts from municipal governments, emergency managers, as well as many organizations actively concerned with emergency preparedness, response and prevention. This plan fulfills a congressional requirement that counties provide unified guidance for multi-hazards emergency planning and presents a consensus upon which implementing procedures, future guidance and technical assistance will be based. It also furnishes the foundation for organization design, material acquisition, professional education and individual/unit training. It applies to emergency response agencies countywide, but must be tailored to specific strategic and operational requirements of each municipality and response organization. This document is to be utilized in conjunction with established procedures including the Emergency Operations Center SOP, Harris Nuclear Power Plant SOPs, and The Wake County Incident Command Master Plan. This plan may be modified as necessary to effectively manage emergency operations. Users of this publication are encouraged to recommend changes which will improve the clarity and utility of this plan. Changes and comments should be forwarded to Wake County Emergency Management, Post Office Box 550, Raleigh, North Carolina 27602, Phone - 856-6480. e-mail - firstname.lastname@example.org 1 REVISIONS In order to maintain an acceptable level of multi-hazard preparedness, it is necessary to review and update this plan on a regular basis. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) shall coordinate all plan review/revision efforts. WCEMA shall also be responsible for incorporating all changes to the plan. Such revisions will be prepared based upon an annual review process or, as the result of periodic drills, tests and/or functional exercise evaluations. A form, entitled "Record of Revisions" (Figure 1), is provided in this section to assist plan holders with documenting appropriate plan changes. As revisions are incorporated into this plan, each plan holder will be forwarded a revision package containing the following information: 1) Detailed instructions for inserting plan revisions, 2) the appropriate plan changes, and 3) a summary of effective plan revisions referencing the plan section affected, the current revision number and date. First Revision: June 1998 2 RECORD OF REVISIONS Revision Number Revision Date Section and Page Signature Department Reference 001 06/12/98 Manual Revised Major Response WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN 3 FOR MULTI-HAZARDS LIST OF APPENDIXES SECTION Basic Plan: Appendix 1 - Wake County Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - County Base Map Appendix 3 - Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance Appendix 4 - Organizational Matrix for the Incident Command System Appendix 5 - Incident Command System Common Function 1 - Transportation: Appendix 1 - Organizational Matrix Appendix 2 - Estimated Vehicle Capacities For Major Evacuation Routes Common Function 2 - Communications: Appendix 1 - Organizational Matrix Appendix 2 - Communications Network Matrix Appendix 3 - Priority Telephone Systems Appendix 4 - Communications Capability Charts Common Function 3 - Public Works and Engineering: Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix Common Function 4 - Fire Services/Rescue: Appendix 1 - Fire Services Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - County Map of Fire Districts Appendix 3 - EMS/Rescue Organization Matrix Appendix 4 - EMS/Rescue Districts Map Appendix 5 - Mass Casualty/Triage Diagram Appendix 6 - Disaster Response Plan for EMS/Rescue Personnel Common Function 5 - Information and Planning: 4 Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - Federal Disaster Assistance Program Common Function 6 - Mass Care: Appendix 1 - Location of Various Supporting Documents Common Function 7 - Resource Support: Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - Resources Summary Chart Common Function 8 - Public Health: Common Function 9 - Search: Appendix 1 - Checklist for Lost/Missing Persons Searches Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials: Appendix 1 - Emergency Action Checklist for Hazardous Material Incidents Appendix 2 - Commodity Flow Appendix 3 - Hazardous Materials Transportation Corridors Appendix 3A - Wake County Pipeline Map Appendix 4 - Notification Chart for Hazardous Materials Incidents Appendix 5 - Information Flow Chart for Tracking Hazardous Materials Appendix 6 - Radiological Protection Organizational Matrix Appendix 7 - Radiological Emergency Equipment Appendix 8 - Radiological Monitoring and Decontamination Appendix 9 - Reporting Procedures for Nuclear Attack Hazards Appendix 10 - Emergency Action Checklist for Nuclear Threat/Attack Hazard Common Function 11 - Disaster Medical Services: Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - Listing of Medical Facilities Common Function 13 - Public Information: Appendix 1 - Notification and Warning Flowchart Appendix 2 - NAWAS System Appendix 3 - NOAA/NWS System Appendix 4 - Public Information Organization Matrix 5 Appendix 5 - Media Contacts Common Function 14 - Volunteers and Donations: Common Function 15 - Military Support: Common Function 16 - Law Enforcement: Appendix 1 - Organization Matrix Appendix 2 - Sample Access Passes Common Function 17 - Animal Protection: Appendix 1 - Planning Tips for Pets, Livestock, and Wildlife Appendix 2 - Organizational Matrix 6 GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS ARC - American Red Cross Attack Warning Signal - A three to five minute varying siren tone or horn blast, repeated as required, which warns of an actual attack on the nation, and that protective action should be taken immediately. Attention or Alert Signal - A three to five minute steady tone, warning of probable imminent danger other than enemy attack, and that the public should listen for essential emergency information. Civil Air Patrol - Volunteer pilots who offer their time and aircraft for emergency use in search and rescue, messenger service, light transport flights, airborne communications and reconnaissance support. Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) - Is operated by the Chemical Manufacturers Association. Provides information and/or assistance to emergency responders. CHEMTREC contacts the shipper or producer of the material for more detailed information, including on-scene assistance when feasible. Can be reached 24-hours a day by calling 800-424-9300. Command Post (CP) - The location where field commands are given. The incident commander directs the on-scene response from this location. Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) - Is a concept that applies mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery activities to all hazards in a local/state/federal partnership. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Regarding hazardous substance releases into the environment and cleanup of inactive hazardous waste disposal sites. Congregate Care Facilities (CCF) - Public or private buildings in the host areas planned for use to lodge and care for evacuees. Generally, assigned space is approximately 40 square feet per person. Continuity of Government (COG) - Plans and procedures for ensuring the survival and operational capabilities of governmental processes and lines of succession. This includes the protection and maintenance of agency and departmental vital records. 7 Damage Assessment/Estimation - The conduct of on-scene surveys following any disaster to determine the amount of loss or damage caused by the incident. Extent of damage is assessed in all types of disasters such as flash flood, tornado, winter storm, hurricane, nuclear power incident and chemical incidents. Disaster Application Center (DAC) - A "one-stop" center for disaster victims where they can get information and make application for all available assistance from federal, state, local and volunteer agencies. Disaster/Emergency - Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, fire, explosion or other catastrophe in any part of the United States which, in the determination of the President, caused damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under P.L. 93-288, above and beyond emergency services by the federal government, to supplement the efforts and available resources of the state, local government and disaster relief organization in alleviating damage, loss, hardship or suffering. Department of Crime Control & Public Safety (CCPS) - The North Carolina agency responsible for state crime control and disaster preparation and response. Division of Emergency Management (EM) - The North Carolina state agency tasked with protecting the general public from the effects of natural or man-made disasters. Emergency Alert System (EAS) - EAS is made up of AM, FM, and television broadcast stations and non-governmental electronic communications operating in a voluntary organized manner during natural/man-made emergencies or disasters at national, state or local levels. This system keeps the public informed. Emergency Management Director (EMD) - The emergency response person responsible to the direction and control group for coordinating the response activities of the combined government, industry and public forces at work in the disaster. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) - Local medical response teams, usually rescue squads or local ambulance services which provide medical services during a disaster. Emergency Operations Center (EOC) - A protected site from which government officials and emergency response personnel exercise direction and control in an emergency. The Emergency Communications Center (ECC) is normally an essential part of the EOC. 8 Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) - A brief, clear and concise description of action to be taken or instruction to be given to those concerned during a specific emergency. The plan will state the method or scheme for coordinated action based on pre-determined assumptions, objectives and capabilities. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (Title III) - Specifies requirements for organizing the planning process at the state and local levels for specified extremely hazardous substances; minimum plan content; requirements for fixed facility owners and operators to inform officials about extremely hazardous substances present at the facilities; and mechanisms for making information about extremely hazardous substances available to citizens. Emergency Public Information (EPI) - Information disseminated during an emergency to provide general information, direct actions, instruct the public and transmit general orders. Emergency Worker - Workers employed during an emergency to work specifically in disaster roles such as debris removal, engineering services, dike construction, water removal, etc. Also any person engaged in operations required to minimize the effects of a fixed nuclear facility emergency. EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Evacuation - Relocation of population to safe areas when disaster, emergencies or threats thereof necessitate such action. Evacuee - That individual which is moved to an area of less risk. Expenditure/Obligation Report - Used for documentation of local funds expended and obligated during response to a disaster. Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) - The 366 substances on EPA list (40CFR Part 355, issued April 22, 1987). Fallout Shelter - A habitable structure, facility or space used to protect occupants form radioactive fallout. Criteria includes a protection factor (PF) of 40 or greater, a minimum of 10 cubic feet of fresh air per minute per person. In unventilated underground space, 500 cubic feet of space per occupant is required. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - A federal agency tasked with national disaster or emergency preparedness and response. It also deals in temporary emergency housing, training of state and local emergency response personnel and funding of preparedness projects and functions. 9 Fixed Nuclear Facility (FNF) - Nuclear power plants, reactor fuel fabrication or processing plants, test and research reactors or any other facility using or producing large quantities of radioactive material. Flash Flood Watch - Indicates that a flash flood is possible or probable within an area. Stay alert. Flash Flood Warning - Means a flash flood is imminent within an area. Take immediate action. General Statute (G.S.) - The specific form of state law, codified and recorded for reference. Green Book - A North Carolina county document listing all available resources of fire fighting equipment in the county. Hazard - Any situation that has the potential for causing damage to life, property and the environment. Hazard Analysis - A process used by emergency managers to identify and analyze crisis potential and consequences. Hazardous Material (HAZMAT) - Any element, compound, mixture, solution or substance which, when spilled or released into the environment, may present a substantial threat or danger to human life or health and/or the environment. Hazard/Risk Area - Areas designated by the federal government that are considered relatively more likely to experience the direct weapons effects of a nuclear attack. Hazardous Waste - An unuseable hazardous material. Host/Reception Area - A specified area relatively unlikely to experience direct weapons effects from a nuclear attack and designated for reception and care of risk area evacuees. Host Area Allocation - The process of designating non-risk counties as hosting areas for a specific risk area. Hurricane - Pronounced rotary circulation, constant wind speed of 74 miles per hour (64 knots) or more. Incident - Any event that results in a spill or release of hazardous materials. Actions by emergency services personnel will be required to prevent or minimize loss of life or damage to property and/or material resources. Incident Command System (ICS) - The combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, 10 procedures and communications operating within an established command structure (e.g., on-scene command post). Incident Coordinator (IC) - The individual in charge at any given time of an incident. Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) - A system which allows improved capability by all levels of government to mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from all disasters or emergencies. Joint Information Center (JIC) - A combined public information office which serves two or more levels of government or federal, state and local agencies. Local Government - Political subdivision of the state. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Compilation of health, flammability and reactive hazards of a chemical. It is a legal document, required by OSHA l9l0.l200 Hazard Communication Standard. Mitigation - Is an activity that actually eliminates or reduces the probability of a disaster occurrence, or reduces the effects of a disaster. Mitigation includes such actions as zoning and land use management, safety and building codes, flood proofing of buildings and public education. Mutual Aid Agreements - Formal or informal understanding between jurisdictions or organizations that pledge exchange of emergency or disaster assistance. National Fire Academy (NFA) - Is a component of FEMA's National Emergency Training Center located in Emmitsburg, Maryland. It provides fire prevention and control training for the fire service and allied services. National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) - (40 CFR Part 300), prepared by EPA to put into effect the response powers and responsibilities created by CERCLA and the authorities established by Section 311 of the Clean Water Act. National Response Center (NRC) - A communications center for activities related to response actions, is located at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, DC. The toll-free number (800-424-8802, or 202-426-2675 or 202-267-2675 in the Washington, DC area) can be reached 24-hours a day for reporting actual or potential pollution incidents. National Response Team (NRT) - Consisting of representatives of 14 government agencies (DOD, DOI, DOT/RSPA, DOT/USCG, EPA, DOC, FEMA, DOS, USDA, DOJ, HHS, DOL, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE), it is the principal organization for implementing the NCP. 11 National Warning System (NAWAS) - The federal warning system, used to disseminate warnings of imminent natural disaster or enemy attack into a regional warning system which passes it to the state warning points for action. National Weather Service (NWS) - A federal agency tasked with forecasting weather and providing appropriate warning of imminent natural disaster such as hurricane, tornados, tropical storms, etc. OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Public Information Officer (PIO) - Responsible for the preparation and dissemination of public and emergency information and also for advising government on appropriate news releases for keeping the public informed of instructional emergency information. Population Protection Plan (PPP) - Plans which provide population protection from nuclear threat or enemy attack. This protection can be in-place shelters, orderly relocations and provisions for feeding. Protection Factor - Theoretical values defining the ratio of exposure rates from gamma radiation fallout expected in protected locations contrasted with exposure rates expected with the same radiation in unprotected locations. Protection factor values are determined from building design, building materials and location of shelter space within the building. Protection factor values are only used for planning. Reception Centers - Strategically located control points in the host area where relocatees report and are assigned to congregate care facilities. Recovery - Activities which involve assistance to enhance the return of the community to normal or near-normal conditions. Short-term recovery returns vital life-support systems to minimum operating standards. Long-term recovery may continue for a number of years after a disaster and seeks to return life to normal or improved levels. Recovery activities include temporary housing, loans or grants, disaster unemployment insurance, reconstruction and counseling programs. Regional Response Teams (RRT) - Composed of representatives of federal agencies and a representative from each state in the federal region. During a response to a major hazardous materials incident involving transportation or a fixed facility, the OSC may request that the RRT be convened to provide advice or recommendations in specific issues requiring resolution. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) - Established a framework for the proper management and disposal of all wastes. RCRA directed EPA to identify hazardous wastes, both generically and by listing specific wastes and industrial process waste management practices and to track the movement of wastes with a manifest system. Owners and operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities also must comply with standards, which are generally implemented 12 through permits issued by EPA or authorized states. Response - Activities occur immediately before, during, and directly after an emergency or disaster. They involve lifesaving actions such as, the activation of warning systems, manning the EOCs, implementation of shelter or evacuation plans and search and rescue. Risk - The probability that damage to life, property and the environment will occur. SARA - The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Shelter Manager - An individual who provides for internal organization, administration and operation of a shelter facility. Staging Area - A pre-selected location having large parking areas such as a major shopping area, schools, etc. The area is a base for the assembly of persons to be moved by public transportation to host jurisdictions and a debarking area for returning evacuees. Several of these areas should be designated to each evacuating jurisdiction. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's) - A set of instructions covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. State Emergency Response Team (SERT) - A team of emergency response personnel from the Department of Crime Control and Public Safety who are dispatched to the scene of a disaster in order to evaluate conditions, offer advice and coordinate all recovery activities. State Warning Point (SWP) - The state facility (State Highway Patrol Communications Center) that receives warnings and other emergency information over NAWAS and relays this information in accordance with current directives. Superfund - The trust fund established under CERCLA to provide money the OSC can use during a cleanup. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) - Title III of SARA includes detailed provisions for community planning. Tier I/Tier II - Emergency and hazardous chemical inventory forms used for Title III hazardous chemical reporting. Title III - Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. Tornadoes - Spawned by hurricanes, sometimes producing severe damage and casualties. If a 13 tornado is reported in your area, a warning will be issued. Traffic Control Points - Places along evacuation routes that are manned to direct and control movement to and from the area being evacuated. Tropical Disturbance - A moving area of thunderstorms in the tropics that maintains its identity for 24-hours or more. A common phenomenon in the tropics. Tropical Depression - Rotary circulation at surface, highest constant wind 38 miles per hour (33 knots). Tropical Storm - Distinct rotary circulation, constant wind speed ranges 39-73 miles per hour (34-63 knots). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Vulnerability - The susceptibility to life, property, and the environment to damage if a hazard manifests its potential. Wake County Standard Operations Procedures (WCSOP) - Warning - The alerting of emergency response personnel and the public to the threat of extraordinary danger and the related effects of natural disasters and acts of civil disturbance or war. Warning Point - A facility that receives warning and other information and disseminates or relays this information in accordance with a pre-arranged plan. Warning Signal - An audible signal, sounded on public outdoor warning devices. 14 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS BASIC PLAN I. PURPOSE This plan establishes a mechanism to pre-determine actions to be taken by government agencies and private organizations of Wake County to reduce the vulnerabilities of people and property to disaster, and establish capabilities to respond effectively to the actual occurrence of a disaster. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. General description of area - Wake County is located in the North Carolina Emergency Management Central Branch, and FEMA Region IV. Its geographic location is the Piedmont section of the state. It is bounded on the east by Franklin County, on the south by Harnett and Johnston Counties, on the north by Franklin and Granville Counties, and on the west by Durham and Chatham Counties (Reference: Appendix 2,County Base Map). The current population of the county and the municipalities within the county is 540,787. The estimated peak population of Wake County is 600,000, which represents population densities during weekly employment hours (e.g. county and state seat of government), colleges/universities in session, the N. C. State Fair and peak RDU airport passengers. 2. The major motor vehicle traffic arteries: a. I-40 h. NC-54 b. US-1 i. NC-42 c. US-401 j. NC-96 d. US-64 k. NC-97 e. US-70 l. NC-231 f. NC-55 m. NC-98 g. NC-50 n. I- 440 3. Railroads: a. Norfolk-Southern Railway b. CSX Transportation, Inc. (Seaboard Railway) 4. Major pipelines: a. Colonial Pipeline Company b. Dixie Pipeline Company 15 c. Public Service Company of N.C., Inc. d. Apex Terminal 5. The county contains the following general aviation commercial airport(s): a. Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU); located on Airport Road (SR-1002), off I-40 West. b. Raleigh East Airport; located on US-64 East, at Wendell exit. c. Triple-W Airpark; located on Hilton Road (SR- 2752), off US-401 South. d. Fuquay Angier Airport at Kennebec (2 miles N. of Angier - (2,800 ft.). 6. The county is exposed to many hazards, all of which have the potential to disrupt local communities, cause damage, and create casualties. Potential hazards (natural, man-made, technological and national security), as identified in the hazards analysis for Wake County include: a. Nuclear Threat/Attack - There is a low threat for nuclear attack against the United States by enemy forces; however, no jurisdiction can be considered safe from the effects of an attack. In the event of an attack, Wake County may be a likely target due to its geographic location within the state, its governmental infrastructure (state capitol), population density and industrial base. (Reference: North Carolina Emergency Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection, Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985 and Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials within this plan). b. Fixed/Licensed Nuclear Facilities - Fixed and licensed nuclear facilities within Wake County consist of: 1) Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP), 2) Research reactors located at universities, and 3) Numerous facilities (e.g., hospital, medical, laboratory, business and industrial firms, etc.) licensed to utilize various radioactive isotopes. HNPP utilizes large amounts of radioactive materials in the reactor core of the nuclear power plant for production of electricity. Should an emergency incident occur, the primary risk is the accidental release of radioactive material into the environment. According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), both on-site and off-site emergency preparedness capabilities are "considered necessary and prudent for large power reactor facilities", to ensure that adequate capabilities exist for the protection of the public. The area around HNPP for which off-site emergency planning efforts are required is defined as the Planning Zone. This zone is further subdivided into two specific planning areas: 1) the plume exposure pathway (an area representing approximately a 10-mile radius surrounding HNPP), and 2) The ingestion exposure pathway (approximately a 50-mile radius surrounding HNPP). In the plume exposure pathway, the primary radiation hazards are whole body exposures to gamma radiation from the plume, or from deposited material and inhalation exposures. 16 The ingestion of radiologically contaminated food and water represents the primary threat within the 50-mile ingestion exposure pathway. Due to the complexity of off-site emergency planning requirements for nuclear power plants, Wake County, in conjunction with the State of North Carolina (Division of Emergency Management), maintains a separate, in-depth emergency response plan and standard operating procedures in support of Harris Nuclear Power Plant. (Reference: N C Emergency Response Plan for HNPP; Part V, and Wake County SOPs). c. Hazardous Materials - Hazardous materials are those substances which, because of their characteristics, may pose a danger to the environment or the inhabitants of that environment when inappropriately introduced in sufficient quantity. They may be in the physical form of a useable product or as unusable waste. These substances include chemicals and other allied products, both of organic and inorganic nature. Organic products are used primarily in the manufacture of textiles, petroleum products, and pesticides. Inorganic products are used primarily in the manufacturer of paints, dyes, metal plating, electrical components and fertilizers. To a lesser extent, some materials are used in the manufacture of man-made products, such as pharmaceuticals and other specialty items. Petroleum products are found in the form of liquid fuels and lubricants. The majority of concern from petroleum products results from the bulk storage and extensive transportation of materials. From the processors, these products (e.g., natural gas, oil, etc.) are moved by pipeline to bulk storage facilities (tank farms) for distribution by vehicle to area wholesale distributors and retailers. Hazardous Waste - Hazardous waste is generated as a by-product during the use of hazardous substances usually resulting in diluted mixtures or concentrations. The storage and disposal of hazardous waste is an ever growing problem. Hazardous materials incidents are the indirect result of advanced technology and increased personal use, combined with an ever growing demand for development and manufacture of products. Such incidents frequently occur as a result of transportation and/or facility related events, posing an inherent risk to human life, property and the environment. (Reference: Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials). d. Transportation Accidents - The potential exists for a major transportation accident to occur within Wake County. Major mass casualty incidents may result from the transportation of passengers via commercial aircraft, railway, or highway carriers. e. Flooding and Dam Failures - Flooding is best described as the inundation of normally dry land or property resulting from an act of nature or from the failure of man-made structures. 17 Initial effects from flooding are inundation and swift currents (flash floods) carrying debris that cause structural damage to homes, buildings, roadways, bridges, farmland and public utilities. Agricultural losses may result to crops, livestock, stored feeds, or valuable soil base. Flooding may occur during any season, but is most frequent from early spring through late fall. The primary cause of flooding in Wake County is heavy precipitation, usually associated with major storm systems. Urban flooding situations result from the inability of existing storm sewers to compensate for excessive run-off from natural watersheds. However, downstream flooding/flash flooding may develop as the result of the failure of hydraulic structures (dam failure), geophysical occurrences, or the concurrent crest from major tributaries. During the winter season, significant run-off from abnormal snow melt conditions may pose a relative threat to the county. f. Hurricanes/Tropical Storms - Strong tropical storms may result in hurricanes which form in the warm tropical atmosphere of the ocean. Hurricane winds begin at speeds of 74 miles per hour. Most of the death and destruction associated with hurricanes is caused by wind, rain and the storm surge. Direct effects from hurricanes primarily affect the coastal counties of North Carolina. However, significant secondary effects from hurricanes (e.g., severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, heavy rains, etc.), have the potential for causing death and destruction within Wake County. The peak period for hurricane danger is during the months from June through November. August, September and October are the months when the greatest number of hurricanes affecting North Carolina have occurred. g. Tornadoes - Tornadoes are severe storms of short duration formed by strong winds rotating at very high speeds which descend to the ground in the familiar funnel shape from severe thunderstorm clouds. The vortex of the tornado can be from several hundred yards in diameter to as much as a mile or more, and can produce destructive winds in excess of 300 miles per hour. Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year and at any hour of the day. The most likely period for tornadoes in North Carolina is from late March through June. Avoidance of tornadoes is virtually impossible and all of Wake County is vulnerable to their occurrence. While tornadoes are not a common occurrence in Wake County, the county has experienced tornadoes in the past. With the rapid increases in both population and development within the county, any tornado of significant proportion would pose a maximum threat to both lives and property. h. Winter Storms - Because severe winter storms include frigid temperatures, heavy snow, ice and gusting winds in all combinations, the severity is usually determined by duration, temperature extremes and accumulation of precipitation. The primary threat is the ability of such storms to completely immobilize large areas, disrupt services and 18 cause injury or death. In Wake County, snow and/or sleet occur on an average of once or twice annually. In North Carolina, snowfall ranges from one inch to about nine inches across the state. i. Civil Disorders - Wake County may be subject to various civil disorders due to terrorist actions, riots, protests/demonstrations, labor disputes and/or illegal assembly (Reference: Common Function 16 - Law Enforcement). B. Assumptions: 1. It is necessary for the county to plan for and be prepared to carry out disaster response and short-term recovery operations, utilizing local resources. In addition, it is likely that outside assistance would be available in most major disaster situations affecting the county, but most likely only after about 72 hours of disaster onset. 2. Officials of the county are aware of the possible occurrence of an emergency or major disaster and their responsibilities in the execution of this plan. 3. Implementation of this plan may reduce or prevent the loss of lives and damage to property. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION A. General: 1. As required by General Statute 166A-2, it is the responsibility of county government to protect life and property from the effects of hazardous events. 2. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, in cooperation with the County Manager, Director of Public Safety and county Emergency Management Director, will coordinate and manage county resources and advise municipalities of needs or progress. If necessary, state assistance will be requested. 3. The primary Emergency Alert System (EAS) station is WQDR-FM radio located in Raleigh. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or his representative, may utilize WQDR-FM during times of emergency. 4. The County Emergency Operations Center (EOC) will be staffed and operated as the situation dictates. 5. If the emergency situation warrants, the senior elected official or the designee of the jurisdiction may declare a State of Emergency to exist within the jurisdiction (or a part thereof) and begin implementing emergency procedures (Reference: Appendix 3, Attachment A, County Proclamation, Declaration). 19 6. The senior elected official or the designee of the jurisdiction will order evacuation and ensure coordination of shelter activation as necessary. 7. Termination of a State of Emergency shall be declared by the authority by whom it was proclaimed. (Reference: Appendix 3, Attachment B, County Proclamation, Termination). B. Phases of Comprehensive Emergency Management: 1. Mitigation - Mitigation activities are those designed to either prevent the occurrence of an emergency or minimize the potentially adverse effects thereof. Some mitigation activities include development of public health and zoning/building code ordinances and enforcement of those regulations on a day-to-day basis. 2. Preparedness - Preparedness activities, programs, and systems are those that exist prior to an emergency and are used to support and enhance response to an emergency or disaster. Planning, training, and exercising are among the activities conducted under this phase. 3. Response - Response activities and programs are designed to address the immediate effects of the onset of an emergency or disaster, help to reduce casualties and damage and to speed recovery. Response activities include direction and control, warning, evacuation, mass care, and other similar operations. 4. Recovery - Recovery activities involve restoring systems to normal. Short term recovery actions are taken to assess damage and return vital life support systems to minimum operating standards; long-term recovery actions may continue for many years. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: All departments within local government have emergency functions in addition to their day-to-day activities. Each department is responsible for developing and maintaining their own emergency procedures. Specific responsibilities are outlined below under the section entitled "Responsibilities", as well as in the common functions and the Wake County Standard Operating Procedure for the Emergency Operations Center. Responsibilities for certain organizations which are not a part of local government are also included. When on-scene command posts are established, the Incident Command System (ICS) will be implemented. When the EOC is operational Wake County Standard Operating Procedures for the Emergency Operations Center (WCSOP100A) will be implemented. (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan and WCSOP100A). B. Responsibilities: 20 1. Chief Executive: The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners is responsible for policies, operational guidelines for emergency operations and key decisions relating to survival and recovery efforts. When appropriate he issues an emergency proclamation declaring a State-of-Emergency or terminating the State-of-Emergency and an evacuation order. In conjunction with the Public Safety Director, he authorizes the activation of the EOC. 2. County Manager: In addition to serving as the liaison between the Chairman and operations group, the County Manager assures that the members of the executive group are kept abreast of the situation by providing information and recommendations as he deems appropriate. In addition, the County Manager appoints the EOC Manager who is responsible for the overall effectiveness of the EOC's operations. 3. Wake County Attorney: a. Serves as legal advisor to the Board of County Commissioners and the County Manager. b. Develops rules and regulations and laws required for acquisition and/or control of critical resources. c. Develops the necessary ordinances and regulations to provide legal basis for evacuation and/or population control. d. In cooperation with the Wake County District Attorney, commences civil and criminal proceedings as necessary and appropriate to implement and enforce emergency actions. 4. Director of Public Safety: a. Upon activation of the EOC, serves as the EOC Manager or appoints the EOC Manager. b. Evaluates incoming information and directs response efforts. c. Keeps the County Manager and the EOC staff updated. 5. Emergency Management Director (EMD): a. Unless designated otherwise, acts as the EOC Manager in the absence of the Director of Public Safety. b. Responsible for implementing applicable federal, state and county emergency preparation/response guidelines within Wake County's jurisdiction and for translating 21 such guidelines into updated plans, operation procedures, emergency response assets and training, including exercising and testing to determine the county's state of readiness. c. When appropriate, activates, supports or employs emergency response assets under Wake County's jurisdiction. d. Maintains liaison with appropriate governmental, public, and private enterprises to assure their cooperative support in the event of need. e. Ensures necessary narratives/operations journals and essential records are maintained during emergencies and that appropriate information/reports are provided to higher, adjacent, and support jurisdictions. f. Develops and maintains a primary county EOC and an alternate EOC. g. Develops/maintains EOC SOPs and staffing rosters. h. Develops/maintains an Emergency Management computer system to manage information and resources required for emergency operations and dissemination of information to other levels of government, the public and private sector. i. Coordinates termination of EOC operations and close-out activities. Schedules EOC staff critique and debriefing. Files necessary after action reports 6. Public Information Officer: a. Prepares the Emergency Alert System (EAS) messages for approval by the EOC Manager. Preceding the release, all EAS messages should be verified by EOC operations as reflecting the most current situation. b. Serves as county government's representative to the news media. c. Responsible for formation and dissemination of public information and news releases to the media. d. Establishes procedures for rumor control and emergency instructions. e. Works with other media representatives through a Joint Information Center (JIC). f. Arranges meetings between the media and EOC personnel. g. Assists in issuing warnings about unsafe areas, structures and facilities; transportation routes, closures and shelter openings; and recovery efforts. 22 7. Wake County Sheriff: a. Coordinates law enforcement activities. b. Executes evacuation, re-entry and security plans for designated areas. c. Provides EOC security. Provides security for command posts, staging areas, reception centers, shelters, lodging and feeding facilities during emergency operations. d. As required, assists in notification of county officials. e Coordinates traffic control and security access activities during emergency responses. f. Provides backup communications for EOC through mobile units. g. Provides transportation for EOC personnel under emergency conditions. h. Develops and maintains updated law enforcement plans and SOPs. i. Maintains viable mutual aid agreements with appropriate law enforcement agencies. j. Coordinates search and recovery operations for missing or lost persons. 8. Communications: When the EOC is activated, the Sheriff's Communications Supervisor, as the Message Center Supervisor, will: a. Ensure notification of EOC communication personnel. Coordinate communications activities. b. Implement EOC message system upon activation. c. Supervise signal operations. d. Support communications requirements between the EOC staff and field emergency response forces. e. Coordinate communications capabilities between the county EOC, the county warning point and supporting communications centers. f. Coordinate communications support with amateur radio personnel. 9. Fire/Rescue Director: 23 Wake County Fire/Rescue Director coordinates the missions assigned to the respective fire departments. 10. County Emergency Medical Services Director: The county Emergency Medical Services Director coordinates the missions of all rescue squads and Emergency Medical Services. 11. Transportation Coordinator: The Wake County Transportation Coordinator will coordinate and provide available transportation, on request. 12. Human Services Administrator: a. Coordinates social services operations. b. Opens and operates special needs shelters, as needed. c. Assists the Red Cross in the operation of public shelters. d. Coordinates emergency activities during response and recovery with American Red Cross, Salvation Army, Council on Aging, and other volunteer organizations to include shelter, feeding and clothing. e. Maintains updated listing of county nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes. f. Coordinates with medical/health care facilities (e.g. nursing homes, rest homes, etc.) to insure development of emergency procedures in conjunction with appropriate agencies. g. Develops procedures for emergency public health operations. h. Plans for inspection of food and water in shelters. Issues instructions for decontamination, distribution and usage of food/water supplies as needed. i. Conducts sanitation inspections of shelters. j. Responsible for administration/issuance of potassium iodide (KI), when needed and coordinates distribution of other mitigating drugs, vaccines or preventatives. k. Provides available medical staffing of shelters if requested. l. Provides for crisis counseling to disaster victims and emergency workers. 24 m. Manages animal control issues and carries out the Wake County Animal Protection Plan. n. Activates the Wake County Family Center to receive family members in the event of mass casualties or fatalities. 13. Superintendent of Public Schools: a. Upon notification from the Red Cross, the Department of Human Services, or other appropriately designated official, opens designated schools as shelters. b. Provides school staff to support shelter operations. c. Provides available transportation assets upon request. 14. Medical Examiner (designated by the State Medical Examiner): a. Responds to notification of fatalities from local authorities and establishes an adequate local morgue. b. Supervises the disposition and transportation of the remains of the deceased. c. Certifies causes of death of deceased victims and issues death certificates. d. Notifies next-of-kin. Releases the remains and personal effects to proper representatives. e. Issues press releases in conjunction with the Public Information Officer. f. Identifies the availability of necessary resources (e.g., refrigerated trucks, body bags, etc.). 15. Finance Director: a. Assists in the procurement of needed supplies, equipment, etc., from public vendors. b. Develops financial accounting record procedures for agencies to report their emergency expenses. c. Acts as the county fiscal agent in matters affecting applications by municipalities for financial assistance. d. Prepares applications and claims for federal and state financial assistance. e. Tracks documentation for compensation and claims for injury. Provides information on 25 insurance coverage. Ensures the investigation of all accidents and prepares all necessary claims. 16. Cooperative Extension Service Director: Assists the USDA (Wake County Emergency Board) in the performance of duties associated with - a. Providing food for mass feeding. b. Locating sources of uncontaminated feed for livestock. c. Restricting sale of livestock and distribution of processed or unprocessed food products if contamination is suspected. d. Sampling and monitoring activities including areas accessible by fish. e. Assisting Damage Assessment Officer in matters related to farm land, commodities, livestock and structures. 17. Damage Assessment Officer (Tax Assessor): a. Assesses structural damage through utilization of the county and other municipal governments' inspection personnel. b. Assists in consolidating damage assessment reports. c. Provides advice and information on damage assessment to the EOC staff. 18. Community Development Administrator: a. Temporary Housing - (l) Maintains a current list of suitable housing accommodations available for thirty (30) continuous days (motel rooms, private or commercial apartments, rental units in mobile home parks, etc.). (2) Identifies additional sites for mobile homes, as needed. (3) Where necessary and available, facilitates erection of pre-fabricated dwellings or tentage. b. Ensures compliance with the applicable state and local laws, and ordinances. Assists in the preparation of agreements or contracts with other municipalities toward the furnishing of building, electrical, plumbing, mechanical, housing and other 26 inspections. c. Upon request, identifies additional resources to assist with emergency repair and restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities. d. Assists with the disposal of debris and landfill operations. e. Assists with planning for shelter markings and upgrading. 19. General Services Administrator: a. Assists the Emergency Management Director in the Wake County Emergency Operations Center's general upgrading and maintenance services to include emergency power and water supply. b. On call, provides transportation for and maintenance of needed support services for the EOC staff and emergency response elements. c. Assists with debris removal activities. d. Coordinates emergency repairs and restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities. e. Plans for shelter marking and shelter upgrading capabilities. f. Develops and maintains resource lists with source, location and availability of equipment, fuel and operational personnel to support response/recovery operations. g. Assists with support services for field emergency response units including potable water, food, lights, tentage, portable toilets, vehicular refueling, etc. h. Provides containers and/or vehicles for removal of contaminated materials. i. During nuclear threat, organizes available personnel and equipment for shelter marking and upgrading. j. Provides Central Services support with office supplies and materials as needed. 20. American Red Cross: a. Initiates opening and effective operation of emergency public shelters. b. Consistent with internal policies and capabilities, assists in other activities such as damage assessment, mass feeding, individual case assistance, etc. c. Upon request, provides canteen services for emergency responders. 27 d. Answers inquiries and informs families on status of individuals displaced, injured or missing. e. Provides blood through blood donor program. f. Assists in other activities such as damage assessment, mass feeding, individual case assistance, etc. . . 21. Emergency Operations Center Staff will: a. Ensure appropriate staffing and operations capabilities in a timely manner. b. Coordinate all missions assigned to their respective function and response elements. c. Ensure multi-shift capabilities, as necessary. d. Maintain documentation of activities related to the emergency. e. Upon request, assist with procurement of necessary supplies, equipment, personnel, etc. to support field operations. f. When necessary, initiate duly authorized mutual aid agreements. g. Provide advice and information to the EOC manager on the status of response and recovery efforts. These are general duties and responsibilities. Upon activation of the EOC, they may be amended as necessary by the EOC Manager. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. EOC Assumptions: Direction and control provides for an efficient response to an emergency by coordinating all response and recovery activities through one central location. When activated, the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) acts as the base of operations for all emergency management activities for the county. Members of emergency management services must remain familiar with supporting plans and procedures. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or the designee decides whether to activate the EOC. The overall direction and control of emergency activities in a crisis situation is vested in the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners and his representatives. Upon declaration of an emergency or attack warning, the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, County Manager, Director of Public Safety, EMD and other designated 28 personnel will operate from the EOC. (Reference: WCSOP 100A: Wake County Standard Operating Procedure for Emergency Operations Center). In most instances, emergency operations will be conducted locally with little or no outside assistance or coordination. The county EOC can be activated in a timely manner upon the imminent threat, or actual occurrence of a significant emergency. The county EOC has communication capabilities with emergency services organizations. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have been developed to implement appropriate and effective direction and control measures. They may be used to supplement this plan. Coordination of Wake County emergency operations, at all levels of government, will be formulated and effected in accordance with the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan for Multi-Hazards. B. General: 1. The primary responsibility for direction and control of emergency operations and response efforts, rests with county/local government. The North Carolina Division of Emergency Management (NCEM) will augment county/local emergency resources, upon request by those agencies. 2. Emergency operations shall include all activities which are directed toward the preservation of life and property, mitigation of the hazard or threat, establishing situation control, recovery and the restoration of critical services. 3. Subject to the guidance of the Director of Public Safety (Emergency Operations), the Emergency Management Director (EMD) will organize and coordinate EOC activities to provide for timely, effective and flexible response efforts. 4. The EOC will be activated and staffed in accordance with the nature and severity of the incident or threat, the agencies or jurisdictions involved, operational objectives and strategies selected, and visualized response/support requirements. 5. The EMD will notify county administration when it is deemed advisable to activate the EOC. C. EOC Staffing: 1. Staffing of the EOC will consist of personnel assigned to two (2) primary groups, and six (6) functional sections in accordance with the Wake County Standard Operating Procedures for the Emergency Operations Center (WCSOP-100). 2. The EMD will provide appropriate means for the training and exercising of the EOC staff. Such training and exercising will be administered in conjunction with WCSOP-100. 29 3. EOC staff is responsible for ensuring that adequate clerical/administrative assistance is provided to support their respective needs. 4. Each agency representative is responsible for ensuring that alternate personnel are designated and properly trained for EOC operations and shift changes. 5. The county EMD shall assign additional EOC staff (e.g., technical/support), as may be required. 6. EOC security is coordinated by the county Sheriff's Department. Access to the EOC (other than pre-designated staff) must be authorized by the County Manager, EOC Operations Manager, or the county EMD. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. General: The possibility that emergency and disaster occurrences could disrupt government functions necessitates that all levels of local government and their departments develop and maintain procedures to ensure continuity of governmental services. These procedures will designate who will be the decision-makers if an elected official or department head is not available. B. Line of Succession: 1. The line of succession of the Board of County Commissioners proceeds from the Chairman to the Vice-Chairman to members of the Board in accordance with county policy. 2. Department/agency heads with emergency responsibilities are required to establish a line of succession (Reference: Wake County Emergency Telephone Directory). C. EOC Staffing: EOC Staffing assignments allow for continuous operations. Selection and assignment of primary EOC staff is the responsibility of the county EOC Manager. Primary EOC staff are responsible for ensuring that alternate (backup) EOC staff and administrative (clerical) support are trained and available. D. Preservation of Vital Records: 1. It is the responsibility of each governmental agency to insure that all legal documents of both a public and private nature be protected and preserved in accordance within existing laws, statutes, and ordinances. 30 2. Each department/agency is responsible for the preservation of essential records to ensure continued operational capabilities. E. Relocation of Government: 1. If necessary, the county will relocate elements of the governing body to the EOC. 2. If the primary EOC is determined inoperable, the governing body will relocate to an alternate EOC. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. General: 1. The emergency services dispatching/communications center operates continuously 24-hours per day and is administered jointly by Wake County and the City of Raleigh. Also, around-the-clock dispatching capabilities exist in several municipalities within the county. 2. The operational readiness of the EOC is the responsibility of the Emergency Management Director. B. EOC Facilities: 1. Facilities to be used as an EOC are provided by the Board of County Commissioners. This includes all furnishings, supplies, equipment and communications necessary to sustain operations and to support the operations staff. Expendable supplies and displays will be provided and maintained through the county Emergency Management office. 2. The mechanics of EOC notification, activation, staffing and internal operations are contained in WCSOP-100. C. Communications: The EOC Signal Officer (Sheriff's Communications Coordinator) will develop procedures to activate additional EOC communications support personnel and to expand the EOC communications capability, as required. These procedures will address the provisions for EOC message handling to include record keeping/documentation, distribution/internal message flow and coordination of incoming/outgoing information. D. Records and Reports: 1. Expenditures and obligations of public funds during emergency operations must be recorded by the responsible agencies in a manner acceptable for payment, reimbursement and audit purposes. 31 2. Narratives and operational journals of response actions will be kept by all agencies with emergency responsibilities. E. Consumer Protection: Consumer complaints concerning alleged unfair or illegal business practices during emergencies will be referred through the Wake County Attorney's Office. F. Non-Discrimination: There will be no discrimination on grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, or economic status in the execution of emergency preparedness, response, or relief and assistance functions. G. Agreements and Contracts: 1. Agreements and contracts must be entered into by duly authorized officials and, where practicable, will be formalized in writing prior to performance. 2. Should local government resources prove to be inadequate during emergency operations, requests for assistance may be made to other governmental jurisdictions, volunteer agencies and the private sector in accordance with existing or emergency negotiated agreements, i.e. mutual aid agreements. 3. Organizations responsible for implementing this plan must provide for their own administrative and logistical needs, and for preparation and maintenance of a resource list for use in carrying out their emergency responsibilities. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Primary responsibility for coordinating the plan development and maintenance process rests with the county EMD. B. Operational plans and supporting SOPs will be developed in conjunction with department heads, emergency services representatives and various supporting organizations. C. Periodic revisions to this plan will be identified by appropriate signatures and approval dates. The county EMD is responsible for performing periodic reviews of all plans and SOPs with appropriate agencies and departments. The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes based upon periodic tests, drills and exercises or actual events. D. As a minimum, this plan shall be exercised in accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) four-year exercise plan. 32 E. Wake County Emergency Management office, in cooperation with emergency services agencies, will schedule and conduct required training activities to insure emergency response capabilities and certification. Training calendars will be provided periodically to inform interested personnel. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. The following listed authorities and references were consulted to support this plan: 1. Public Law 93-288. 2. National Security Decision Directive #259, U.S. Civil Defense, February 4, 1987. 3. Nuclear Attack Planning Base, 1990 (NAPB 90) April, 1987. 4. N.C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A. 5. N.C. Executive Order 72. 6. N.C. General Statutes 115C-242 (6). 7. N.C. General Statutes Article 36A of Chapter 14. 8. State of North Carolina Executive Order 43, North Carolina Emergency Response Commission, April 7, 1987. 9. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 10. Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985. 11. Civil Preparedness Guide (CPG) 1-8/1-8a; "Guide For The Development of State and Local Emergency Operations Plans", FEMA - October 1985. BASIC PLAN 33 APPENDIX 1 WAKE COUNTY GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Clerk to the Board Board of Commissioners County Attorney Deputy County County Manager Manager PIO Community Budget and General Services Planning Personnel Human Services Services Management Environmental Information Facilities Design Public Safety Finance Revenue Service Services and Construction Sheriff Register of Deeds Board of Election WC Public School System 34 BASIC PLAN APPENDIX 2 COUNTY MAP 35 BASIC PLAN APPENDIX 3 COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORDINANCE Chapter 2-5 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Art. I. In General, §§ 2-5-1--2-5-15 Art. II. Emergency Management Agency, §§ 2-5-16--2-5-35 Art. III. State of Emergency, §§ 2-5-36--2-5-49 ARTICLE I. IN GENERAL Secs. 2-5-1--2-5-15. Reserved ARTICLE II. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY Sec. 2-5-16. Short title This article shall be known and may be cited and referred to as the Emergency Management Ordinance for the County of Wake, including its municipalities.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 1) Sec. 2-5-17. Purposes (a) It is the intent and purpose of this article to establish an office of emergency management to ensure the complete and efficient utilization of all resources of the county and its municipalities in the event of disaster as defined herein. (b) The office of emergency management shall be the coordinating agency for all activity in connection with emergency management within Wake County; it will be the agency through which the board of commissioners and the city (or town) council will exercise the authority and discharge the responsibilities vested in them during states of disaster or local emergency. _______ *State law references--Ordinances dealing with states of emergency, G.S. § 14-288.13 et seq.; civil preparedness functions under state department of crime control and public safety, G.S. § 143B-475; 36 property taxes for civil preparedness programs, G.S. § 153A-149(c)(9); continuity of local government in emergency, G.S. Ch. 162B; emergency management, G.S. Ch. 166A. (c) This article does not relieve any county department or agency of the responsibilities or authority given to it by state law or by local ordinance, nor will it adversely affect the work of any volunteer agency organized for relief in disaster situations. (d) This article shall not abridge or modify the authority of the governor or his delegates to implement emergency measures during declared states of disaster.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 2) Sec. 2-5-18. Definitions The following definitions shall apply in the interpretation of this article: Attack shall mean direct or indirect assault against the county, its government or its environs, or against the state or nation, by the forces of a hostile nation or the agents thereof, including but not limited to assault by bombing, conventional or nuclear, chemical or biological warfare, or sabotage. Director shall mean the coordinator of the emergency management agency, appointed as prescribed in this article. Disaster is an occurrence or imminent threat of widespread or severe damage, injury or loss of life or property resulting from any natural or man-made accidental, military or paramilitary cause. Emergency management shall be broadly defined to mean the basic government functions of maintaining the public peace, health and safety during an emergency. This shall include plans and preparations for minimizing the adverse effect of any kind of disaster, as defined herein, and shall include prevention, mitigation, warning, movement, shelter, emergency assistance and recovery. It shall not, however, include any activity that is the primary responsibility of the military forces of the United States. Emergency management forces shall mean the employees, equipment and facilities of all county and city (town) departments, boards, councils, institutions, acting in furtherance of the purposes of this article; and, in addition, it shall include all volunteer personnel, equipment and facilities contributed by or obtained from volunteer persons or agencies while acting in the capacity of emergency management volunteers. Emergency management volunteer shall mean any person or agency contributing a service, equipment or facilities to the emergency management agency without remuneration and assigned to participate in the emergency management activity. Regulations shall mean plans, programs and other emergency procedures deemed essential to emergency management. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 3) Sec. 2-5-19. Violation of regulations 37 It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any of the provisions of this article or of the regulations or plans promulgated pursuant to the authority contained herein, or to willfully obstruct, hinder or delay any member of the emergency management forces as herein defined in the enforcement of the provisions of this article or any regulations or plan issued thereunder. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 9) Sec. 2-5-20. Organization and appointments (a) The organization shall consist of the following: (1) An agency of emergency management within the executive department of county government under the direction of the board of commissioners, through the County Manager, as authorized by G.S. Chapter 166A-7. The coordinator of emergency management shall be its director. Such assistants and other employees as are deemed necessary by the board of commissioners for the proper functioning of the agency shall be appointed. (2) The employees and resources of all county and city (town)departments, boards, institutions and councils. The same shall participate in the emergency management activities. Duties assigned to county or city (town) departments shall be the same as or similar to the normal duties of the department, where possible. (3) Volunteer personnel and agencies offering service to and accepted by the county or city (town). (b) A coordinator of the emergency management agency will be appointed. The coordinator of the emergency management agency will be a person well versed and trained in planning operations involving the activities of various agencies which operate to protect the public health, safety and welfare in the event of disaster as defined in this article. (c) The coordinator shall designate and appoint deputy coordinators to assume the emergency duties of the coordinator in the event of his absence or disability.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 4) Sec. 2-5-21. Emergency powers and duties (a) The coordinator shall promulgate local emergency management plans which shall be approved by the board of commissioners and which shall be activated whenever a local state of emergency is declared by the board of commissioners pursuant to local ordinance and G.S. 166A or when the Governor of North Carolina declares a state of disaster in all or any part of Wake County. Such local programs and plans shall be in accordance with the policies and standards set by the state. (b) During states of declared disaster or local emergency, the board of commissioners may delegate to the coordinator the power to implement such additional plans as are necessary for the 38 efficient administration of state or federal disaster plans and for the preservation of the public safety, health and welfare.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 5) Sec. 2-5-22. Day-to-day duties and responsibilities of the coordinator The coordinator shall be responsible to the board of commissioners, through the County Manager, in regard to all phases of the emergency management activities. The coordinator shall be responsible for the planning, coordination and operation of emergency management activities in the county. The coordinator shall maintain communication with state and federal authorities and authorities of nearby political subdivisions to ensure the most effective operation of the emergency management plans. The coordinator's duties shall include but not be limited to the following: (a) Coordinating the recruitment of volunteer personnel and agencies to augment the personnel and facilities of the county and its municipalities for emergency management purposes. (b) Development and coordination of plans for the immediate use of all facilities, equipment, manpower and resources of the county for the purpose of minimizing or preventing damage to persons and property; and protecting or restoring governmental services and public utilities necessary for the public health, safety and welfare. (c) Negotiating and entering into agreements with owners or persons in control of real property for the use of buildings and properties for emergency management purposes; pursuant to such agreements designating suitable buildings as public shelters. (d) Educating the populace through public information programs about procedures required for the protection of their persons and property in case of disaster as defined herein. (e) Conducting public practice alerts to ensure efficient operation of the emergency management forces and to familiarize residents with emergency management plans, procedures and operations. (f) Coordinating the activity of other public and private agencies engaged in any emergency management activities, and implementing state disaster procedures.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 6) Sec. 2-5-23. Emergency management plans (a) Comprehensive emergency management plans shall be adopted and maintained by resolution of the board of commissioners and the city (town) councils. In the preparation of these plans, the services, equipment, facilities and personnel of all existing departments and agencies shall be utilized to the fullest extent. When comprehensive emergency management plans are approved, each municipal department or agency shall perform those functions assigned to it by these plans and shall maintain a current state of readiness at all times. The basic emergency operation plan and disaster operations plan shall have the full effect of local law whenever disaster, as defined in this article, has been proclaimed. 39 (b) The coordinator shall describe in emergency plans those positions within the disaster organization, in addition to his own, for which lines of succession are necessary. In each instance, the responsible person shall designate and file with the coordinator a current list of three (3) persons to be successors to his position. The list shall be in order of succession and shall designate persons most capable of carrying out all duties and functions assigned to the position. (c) Each service chief and department head designated in the basic plan shall be responsible for carrying out all designated duties and functions. Duties will include organization and training of assigned employees and volunteers. Each chief shall formulate operating procedures to implement the plan for his service. (d) Amendments to the basic plan shall be submitted to the coordinator. The coordinator may submit proposed amendments to the board of commissioners and the city (town) councils, with his recommendation. Such amendments shall take effect thirty (30) days from the date of approval by the board of commissioners. (e) When a skill required for a disaster relief function is not available within local government, the coordinator shall be authorized to seek assistance beyond local government resources. Duties of a supervisory nature shall also include an implicit authority to carry out such ancillary duties as are necessary and proper before and after the occurrence of a disaster for the fulfillment of functions authorized by this article. Services from persons other than government employees may be accepted by local government on a volunteer basis. Such citizens shall be enrolled as emergency management volunteers with the approval of the local government department chiefs affected. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 7) Sec. 2-5-24. Municipal or private liability (a) All functions hereunder and all other actions related to emergency management by the county and its municipalities are governmental functions for the protection of the public peace, health and safety. Neither the county nor its municipalities, nor agents and representatives of same, nor any individual, receiver, firm, partnership, corporation, association, or trustee, nor any of the agents thereof, in good faith complying with or attempting to comply with this article or rule, or regulation promulgated pursuant to the provisions of this article, shall be liable for the death of or injury to persons, or for damage to property as a result of such activity. (b) Any person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who voluntarily and without compensation grants to the county and its municipalities the right to inspect, designate and use the whole or any part or parts of such real estate for the purpose of sheltering persons during an actual, impending or practice disaster situation shall not be civilly liable for the death of or injury to any persons on or about such real estate under such license, privilege or permission, or for loss of or damage to the property of such persons.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 8) Sec. 2-5-25. Severability 40 Should any provisions of this ordinance be declared invalid for any reason, by any court of competent jurisdiction, such declaration of invalidity shall not affect the validity of the provisions or of this ordinance as a whole. Sec. 2-5-26. Conflicting Ordinances, Orders, Rules and Regulations Suspended Whenever a declared state of emergency or disaster exists, the provisions of this ordinance shall supersede all local rules and ordinances inconsistent herewith. Secs. 2-5-27--2-5-35. Reserved ARTICLE III. STATE OF EMERGENCY* Sec. 2-5-36. Territorial applicability This article shall not apply within the corporate limits of any municipality, or within any area of the county over which a municipality has jurisdiction to enact general police-power ordinances, unless the municipality by resolution consents to its application, in which event it shall apply to such areas as fully and to the same extent as elsewhere in the county. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 14) Sec. 2-5-37. Violations Any person violating any prohibition or restriction imposed by a proclamation authorized by this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 12) Cross reference--General penalty for Code violations, § 2-1-13. Sec. 2-5-38. Definition; restrictions authorized (a) A state of emergency shall be deemed to exist whenever during times of public crisis, disaster, rioting, catastrophe or similar public emergency, for any reason, public safety authorities are unable to maintain public order or afford adequate protection for lives, safety or property, or whenever the occurrence of any such condition is imminent. (b) In the event of an existing or threatened state of emergency endangering the lives, safety, health and welfare of the people within the county or any part thereof, or threatening damage to or destruction of property, the chairman of the board of commissioners is hereby authorized and empowered under G.S. Sections 14-288.13 and 166A.8 to issue a public proclamation declaring to all persons the existence of such a state of emergency, and, in order to more effectively protect the lives and property of people within the county, to place in effect any or all of the restrictions authorized in this article. _____________ *State law reference--Riots and civil disorders, G.S. § 14-288.1 et seq. 41 (c) The chairman is hereby authorized and empowered to limit by the proclamation the application of all or any part of such restrictions to any area specifically designated or described within the county and to specific hours of the day or night, and to exempt from all or any part of such restrictions, while acting in the line of and within the scope of their respective duties, law enforcement officers, firemen and other public employees, rescue squad members, doctors, nurses, employees of hospitals and other medical facilities; on-duty military personnel whether state or federal; on-duty employees of public utilities, public transportation companies, and newspaper, magazine, radio broadcasting, and television broadcasting corporations operated for profit; and such other classes of persons as may be essential to the preservation of public order and immediately necessary to serve the safety, health and welfare needs of the people within the county. (Ord. of 1-5-81, § 1) Sec. 2-5-39. Proclamation--Generally (a) The chairman of the board of commissioners by proclamation may impose the prohibitions and restrictions specified in sections 2-5-42 and 2-5-43 in the manner described in those sections. The chairman may impose as many of those specified prohibitions and restrictions as he finds necessary, because of an emergency, to maintain an acceptable level of public order and services, and to protect lives, safety and property. The chairman shall recite the findings in the proclamation. (b) The proclamation shall be in writing. The chairman shall take reasonable steps to give notice of the terms of the proclamation to those affected by it and shall post a copy of it in the county courthouse. The chairman shall retain a text of the proclamation and furnish upon request certified copies of it for use as evidence.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 2) Sec. 2-5-40. Same--Amendments The chairman may amend or extend the proclamation from time to time, making such modifications as he would have been authorized to include in the original proclamation. The proclamation shall expire five (5) days after its last imposition unless sooner terminated.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 8) Sec. 2-5-41. Evacuation A proclamation may direct and compel the evacuation of all or part of the population of the County of Wake by prescribed routes, modes of transportation and destination in connection with evacuation, and may control ingress and egress of a disaster area, and the occupancy of premises therein. Sec. 2-5-42. Curfew (a) The proclamation may impose a curfew prohibiting in certain areas and during certain periods the appearance in public of anyone who is not a member of an exempted class. The proclamation shall specify the geographical area or areas and the period during each 24-hour day to which the curfew applies. The chairman may exempt from some or all of the curfew 42 restrictions classes of people whose exemption the chairman finds necessary for the preservation of the public health, safety and welfare. The proclamation shall state the exempted classes and the restrictions from which each is exempted. (b) Unless otherwise specified in the proclamation, the curfew shall apply during the specified period each day until the chairman by proclamation removes the curfew.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 3) Sec. 2-5-43. Restrictions (a) Intoxicating Liquor. The proclamation may prohibit the possession or consumption of any intoxicating liquor, including beer and wine, other than on one's own premises, and may prohibit the transfer, transportation, sale or purchase of any intoxicating liquor within the area of the county described in the proclamation. The prohibition, if imposed, may apply to transfers of intoxicating liquor by employees of alcoholic beverage control stores as well as by anyone else within the geographic area described. (b) Dangerous Weapons and Substances. (1) The proclamation may prohibit the transportation or possession off one's own premises, or the sale or purchase of any dangerous weapon or substance. The chairman may exempt, from some or all of the restrictions, classes of people whose possession, transfer or transportation of certain dangerous weapons or substances is necessary to the preservation of the public health, safety or welfare. The proclamation shall state the exempted classes and the restrictions from which each is exempted. (2) "Dangerous weapon or substance" means: (i) Any deadly weapon, ammunition, incendiary device, radioactive materials or devices, explosive, gasoline, or other instrument or substance designed for a use that carries a threat of serious bodily injury or destruction of property. (ii) Any other instrument or substance that is capable of being used to inflict serious bodily injury or destruction of property, when the circumstances indicate that there is some probability that such instrument or substance will be so destructively used. (iii) Any part or ingredient in any instrument or substance included above. (3) If imposed, the restrictions shall apply throughout the jurisdiction of the county or such part thereof as designated in the proclamation. (4) A violation of this section shall be punishable as provided in G.S. 14-288.7. (c) Access to Areas. (1) The proclamation may prohibit obtaining access or attempting to obtain access to any area, designated in the manner described in this subsection, in violation of any order, clearly posted notice, or barricade indicating that access is denied or restricted. 43 (2) Areas to which access is denied or restricted shall be designated by the sheriff and his subordinates when directed in the proclamation to do so by the chairman. When acting under this authority, the sheriff and his subordinates may restrict or deny access to any area, street, highway or location within the county if that restriction or denial of access or use is reasonably necessary to promote efforts being made to overcome the emergency or to prevent further aggravation of the emergency. (d) Other Restrictions. The proclamation may prohibit or restrict: (1) Movements of people in public places; (2) The operation of offices, business establishments and other places to or from which people may travel or at which they may congregate; and (3) Other activities or conditions the control of which may be reasonably necessary to maintain order and protect lives or property during the state of emergency, within the area designated in the proclamation. (Ord. of 1-5-81, §§ 4--7) Sec. 2-5-44. Removal of prohibitions and restrictions The chairman shall by proclamation remove the prohibitions and restrictions as the emergency no longer requires them, or when directed to do so by the board of commissioners.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 9) Sec. 2-5-45. Separate and superseding proclamations The chairman in his discretion may invoke the restrictions authorized by this article in separate proclamations, and may amend any proclamation by means of a superseding proclamation.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 10) Sec. 2-5-46. Absence or disability of chairman In case of the absence or disability of the chairman, the vice-chairman of the board of commissioners, or such other person as maybe designated by the board of commissioners, shall have and exercise all of the powers herein given the chairman.(Ord. of 1-5-81, § 11) Sec. 2-5-47. Penalty for Violation Except as provided in Sec. 2-5-43, any person violating any prohibition or restriction imposed by a proclamation authorized by this ordinance shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable upon conviction by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars ($50.00) or imprisonment not exceeding 30 days. Sec. 2-5-48. Repeal of Conflicting Ordinances All ordinances in conflict with the provisions of this ordinance are hereby repealed. 44 Sec. 2-5-49. Validity If any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is for any reason held to be invalid by any court of competent jurisdiction, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. 45 APPENDIX 3 ATTACHMENT A PROCLAMATION DECLARING A COUNTY STATE OF EMERGENCY Section 1. Pursuant to County Ordinance _____________ and chapter 166A of the General Statutes and Article 36A Chapter 14 of the General Statutes, I have determined that a State of emergency as defined in County Ordinance ____________ exists in the County of Wake. Section 2. I, therefore, proclaim the existence of a State of Emergency in the County of Wake. Section 3. I hereby order all county law enforcement officers and employees and all other emergency management personnel subject to my control to cooperate in the enforcement and implementation of the provisions of the county emergency ordinances which are set forth below. Section 4. Evacuation. I have determined that, in the best interest of public safety and protection, it is necessary to evacuate the civilian population from the County of Wake.Citizens are free to use any type of transportation, but they are to use only ________________________ in leaving the county. Evacuation is to occur as soon as possible. Further proclamation concerning evacuation will be issued as needed. Section 5. Curfew. Unless a member of the County's law enforcement agency or the emergency management program, every person who is located within a ____________ radius of___________________ is to be inside a house dwelling from the hours of ______________ (am/pm) to _____________ (am/pm). Section 6. No Alcoholic Beverages. There shall be no sale, consumption, transportation, or possession of alcoholic beverages during the State of Emergency in the County of Wake except that possession or consumption is allowed on a person's own premises. Section 7. No firearms, ammunition, or explosives. During the State of Emergency, there shall be no sale or purchase of any type of firearm or ammunition, or any possession of such items along with any type of explosive off owner's own premises. Section 8. Execution of Emergency Plan. All civilians and emergency management personnel are ordered to comply with the emergency reaction plan. Section 9. This proclamation shall become effective immediately. Proclaimed this the ____ day of _____ 19__, at_____ (a.m.) (p.m.) _______________________________________________ CHAIRMAN BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS 46 APPENDIX 3 ATTACHMENT B PROCLAMATION TERMINATING A COUNTY STATE OF EMERGENCY Section 1. On ____________________________________, at__________(am/pm), I determined and proclaimed a local State of emergency for the County of Wake. Section 2. On ____________________________________, at__________(am/pm), I ordered the evacuation of all civilians from the area, imposed a curfew, prohibited alcoholic beverages, firearms, ammunition and explosives, and ordered the execution of the emergency reaction plan. Section 3. I have determined that a State of Emergency no longer exists in the County of Wake. Section 4. I thereby terminate the proclamation of a local State of Emergency and all of the restrictions and orders therein. Section 5. This proclamation is effective immediately. Proclaimed this the _______day of _____________________________,at _____________ (am/pm). ________________________________________________ CHAIRMAN, BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS 47 BASIC PLAN APPENDIX 4 ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX FOR THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) Command Staff - Incident Commander - Command Post - Staging Area(s) Operations Section - Mass Care - Public Works - Law Enforcement - Fire Service - EMS/Rescue Service - Health & Medical - Evacuation - Transportation Planning Section (Disaster Analysis) Collection, Evaluation & Dissemination of Info: - Radiation Protection / Hazmat - Damage Assessment - Technical Specialists: Assist in forecasting of resource needs - Action Plans - Maintain status of resources Logistics Section (Resources) Service Branch - Communications Support Branch - Supply Unit - Facilities Unit - Ground Support Unit Financial/Fiscal Section - Procurement of Resources - Cost Analysis - Accounting of Emergency Expenditures 48 BASIC PLAN APPENDIX 5 INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS) General: The Incident Command System, hereafter referred to as "ICS", provides a basis for a standardized system to be utilized in combating emergencies. The ICS encompasses methodologies enabling agencies to work together towards the common objective of effective and efficient management of emergencies. It is a responsive system, capable of incorporating new technology, ideas and the individual needs of the agencies comprising the system. In addition, the ICS provides an umbrella concept which municipalities may find effective in addressing emergencies within their respective jurisdictions. I. PURPOSE The purpose of the ICS is to provide guidance to all emergency response agencies in Wake County necessary to effectively orchestrate inter-agency management of an emergency incident. The goal of an effective command organization is to eliminate confusion and the unnecessary loss of life. Command of an incident must not be left to chance. The ICS provides methods for the management team to manage any incident, whether routine or a major disaster. The ICS will provide an umbrella system through which multi-agency responses will be effectively pre-planned, organized, and coordinated across response jurisdictions. Through a unified command system, agencies will develop common terminology, compatible communication systems, coordinated planning procedures, and efficient standard operating techniques. The ICS will provide a system to process information to support incident management, planning and decision making. The ICS is based upon basic business management principles. Just as in business, the incident commander must utilize the tasks of planning, directing, organizing, coordinating, communication, delegation and evaluating. In brief, the ICS is a management tool consisting of procedures for organizing personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications at the scene of an emergency. The ICS can be used for every type of emergency situation (e.g., fires, floods, hazardous material incidents, hurricanes, radiological incidents, tornadoes, transportation accidents, etc). ICS can be expanded to support the following types of operations: - Single jurisdiction/single agency. - Single jurisdiction/multi-agency. - Multi-jurisdiction/multi-agency. ICS incorporates the following principles: 49 - Use of common terminology. - Implementation of pre-established role responsibilities and operational strategies. - Integrated communications. - Unified command structures (combined with a flexible span of control). - Comprehensive resources management. - Training standards. II. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS: A. General: 1. The primary responsibility for implementation of the ICS, rests with the local emergency services organizations (e.g., fire, EMS/rescue, law enforcement). 2. Once implemented, management and coordination of emergency operations becomes the responsibility of the Incident Commander/On-Scene Coordinator. 3. Selection of the Incident Commander/On-Scene Coordinator will depend upon three primary factors: a. Nature of incident. b. Location of the incident. c. Magnitude of incident. 4. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) will support local response efforts through: a. Coordination of necessary county, state, federal and private resources. b. Provide for technical assistance and support, as required. c. Activation of the county Emergency Operations Center (EOC), as required. Reference: The Wake County Incident Command Master Plan Attachments: 1. Organizational Chart for ICS Unified Command Post (Large Scale) 2. Organizational Chart for ICS Unified Command Post (Small Scale) BASIC PLAN 50 APPENDIX 5 - ATTACHMENT 1 UNIFIED COMMAND POST (LARGE SCALE OPERATION) 911Communications Centers EOC (s) Liaison with State/Federal Agencies Fire Marshal Coordinator Emergency Management Plans *Public Information Officer Logistics *Safety Officer Finance *Technical Advisors Support Agencies **Recorder (as necessary) Communication Officer EMS Command Fire Command Law Enfor. Command Staging Officer Affected Agency On-Scene Operations Planning Section Logistics Section On-Scene Operations Documentation Unit Food Unit Sector Officers Technical Specialist Supply Unit Staging Officer Time Keeper Facilities Strike Team Leaders Situation Unit Task Force Leaders Demobilization Unit Air Operations Director * May be mobile due to nature of their assignment ** May report to plans or coordinator BASIC PLAN 51 APPENDIX 5 - ATTACHMENT 2 SINGLE AGENCY COMMAND (FIRE, LAW ENFORCEMENT OR EMS OPERATION) Fire Marshal Command Emergency Mgt. Technical Advisor Public Information Officer Support Agency Liaison Safety Officer Communications Officer Recorder On Scene Operations (Operations Officer) Staging Officer Sector I Sector II Sector III Sector IV Sector V Sector VI 52 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 1: TRANSPORTATION I. PURPOSE This common function provides overall coordination of transportation assistance to county departments, other governmental and private agencies and voluntary organizations requiring transportation to perform emergency missions. A primary priority of the transportation function will be the coordination of evacuation transportation and to support the transportation needs of other common functions. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Emergency situations may require the evacuation of a significant segment of the population within Wake County. Small-scale, localized evacuations may be necessary as a result of a hazardous materials incident, major fire, or other incident. Large-scale evacuation may be needed in the event of a nuclear event or other county-wide disaster. 2. An evacuation may require substantial physical resources for transportation, communication and traffic control. 3. As per N. C. General Statutes, county school buses may be used for emergency transportation. 4. In the event of nuclear threat attack, mass evacuation of Wake County population may be necessary to designated host areas. In such an event, public transportation will be required to evacuate a main segment of projected evacuees from the Wake County hazard area to the host areas of Wake, Johnston, Franklin, Vance, Wilson, Nash and Orange Counties. There will be a need to maintain a continuous flow of essential goods and services to support the evacuees in the host areas (Reference Wake County Populations Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985). B. Assumptions: 1. A hazard analysis is on-going which identifies the types of threats and the areas and population in the county that are most vulnerable to these threats (See Basic Plan, Section II). 53 2. Sufficient warning time will normally be available to evacuate the threatened population. 3. The principal mode of transportation will be private vehicles. 4. Certain areas of the county, or special populations within the county will need additional time to accomplish an evacuation. 5. The public will both receive and understand official information related to evacuation. The public will act in its own interest and will evacuate dangerous areas promptly when advised to do so. 6. If there is sufficient advanced warning, some residents will evacuate prior to being advised to do so by public officials. 7. Most evacuees will seek shelter with relatives or friends rather than accept public shelter. 8. Some residents may refuse to evacuate regardless of warnings. 9. Some people will lack transportation. Others who are ill or disabled may require vehicles with special transportation capabilities. 10. For nuclear attack hazard, evacuation and movement will occur over a period not to exceed three days. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. General: 1. The ultimate responsibility for ordering an evacuation rests with local government. If a municipality is to be evacuated, the mayor will issue the order. If the evacuation involves more than one jurisdiction, or an area outside of a municipality, the order will be issued on a county level by the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or his designated representative. 2. In coordination with the county Transportation Coordinator, the Wake County school system will provide an augmentation of available buses and drivers to support emergency transportation needs. 3. During a nuclear threat, the order to evacuate the risk area will be given by the governor. 54 4. By monitoring the progress of the evacuation, any impediments to the evacuation can be recognized and contingency options can be implemented. B. Specific: 1. Movement Control and Guidance a. The size of the threatened area to be evacuated will be determined by conditions at the time of the emergency. b. Traffic movement during evacuation will be controlled by use of pre- designated routes and traffic control points. Whenever practical, the evacuation area will identify at least two routes of egress. One lane of each route will be kept open to permit ingress of emergency vehicles. c. The progress of the evacuation will be closely monitored. Any impediments to the evacuation will be identified and contingency options will be implemented, immediately and effectively. d. Estimated vehicle capacity for the major evacuation routes are shown at Function 1, Appendix 2, Estimated Vehicle Capacities for Major Evacuation Routes. e. Traffic movements are to be directed to pre-designated reception areas and shelters within Wake County and in adjacent counties. f. Vehicles experiencing mechanical problems during the evacuation will be moved off the roads. Stranded evacuees will be picked up by other evacuating vehicles or by emergency response personnel. g. As necessary, service areas will be identified to assist evacuees with fuel, medical aid, information, etc. 2. Staging Areas and Pick-Up Points and Routes a. The designation of staging areas as mobilization points to organize the emergency response personnel and equipment entering from areas outside the county will be effected as needed. b. Pick-up points and routes will be established as needed. Evacuees without vehicles will be instructed to go to the nearest pick-up point or route. Time permitting, emergency vehicles will travel these routes at least twice during the evacuation to assist evacuees without vehicles. 55 3. Evacuation of Special Populations a. Institutions, Facilities and Special Care Individuals: (1) Institutions within the county are to maintain updated procedures for evacuation. (2) Many of the patients and staff of the county's medical facilities will be evacuated by on-site transportation. Ambulances and vans will be mobilized for the evacuation of non-ambulatory patients. Procedures for rapid (no notice) evacuation or in-place sheltering should be included in emergency planning by all special needs facilities. (3) Schools will maintain updated tested evacuation procedures. Pre- designated buses will be utilized for students without their own transportation. Procedures for rapid (no notice) evacuation or in-place sheltering must be considered by all educational facilities. Where appropriate, parents will be notified of the location of reception centers (shelters). (4) The public will be provided telephone number(s), via the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to request otherwise non-available transportation for handicapped or disabled persons. To the extent of available assets, the Emergency Management Director (EMD) will arrange pick-up of these individuals. The county Department of Human Services will provide the EMD an updated roster of individuals known to need transportation assistance. (5) Each prison and detention center within the county will maintain updated procedures for expedient relocation of prisoners. (6) Evacuation from county parks and recreation areas will be planned for and coordinated by the county Parks and Recreation Department and the Municipal Parks Department. Evacuation of state parks and recreation areas within the county will be planned for and coordinated by the local field staff of the Parks and Recreation Division, Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources. County and state parks representatives will advise the EMD of the scheduled special events which may draw crowds to the parks or recreation areas. (7) Large employers within the county are responsible for the development and maintenance of procedures for an evacuation of their employees. These procedures include, if needed, a controlled equipment "shut-down". Assistance in the development of such procedures is available from the county EMD. 56 4. Emergency Public Information a. For nuclear attack and fixed nuclear facility emergencies, emergency public information relative to evacuation zones, movement guidance, shelter locations, and other protective information will be provided by a crisis relocation emergency public information newspaper supplement and/or EAS. b. For other emergencies, warning to the public and information concerning evacuation will be broadcast over the EAS network and/or by emergency vehicles equipped with sirens, warning lights, and/or loud-speakers moving through the threatened areas. For localized evacuations, warning and evacuation instructions may also be given door-to-door. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The Director of Public Safety, or in his absence the EMD, is responsible for implementing the county transportation common function. 2. During an evacuation, county emergency operations will be directed by the Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners and coordinated by the office of Emergency Management. The Transportation Coordinator will provide coordination of all available transportation resources. 3. The organizational chart for the evacuation and transportation annex is contained at Function 1, Appendix 1, Organization Matrix. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. In the EOC the Transportation Common Function’s specific responsibilities include: a. Identifying potential evacuation areas. b. Developing evacuation procedures. c. Identifying population groups requiring special assistance during evacuation (e.g. senior citizens, the very ill and disabled, nursing homes, prison populations, etc.). 57 d. Assisting institutions and facilities within the county in the development of evacuation procedures. e. Selecting pick-up points and routes for assisting persons without transportation. f. Coordinating with private industry for use of privately owned vehicles, communication, or other resources needed for evacuation management. g. Coordinating the evacuation movement, including the relocation into other jurisdictions. h. Assuring, as required, the transportation of emergency workers into and out of the hazard areas. i. Assisting in the evacuation of identified handicapped, elderly and other special population groups. j. Coordinating with the Department of Human Services to identify reception and shelter areas within the county. Coordinating with governments from adjoining counties to ensure that reception areas and shelters will be designated in their counties and activated to receive the relocatees. k. Monitoring the progress of the evacuation and modify evacuation procedures when needed. l. Briefing Emergency Operations Center (EOC) staff and executive groups on evacuation status. m. At the direction of the Chairman, Board of County Commissioners, or his designee, initiating the return of the population. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Direction and control of evacuation is the responsibility of the Chairman, County Board of Commissioners or his designee. B. During large scale evacuations involving the relocation of the populations from an entire municipality, county, or several counties, the governor may declare a State of Disaster. At that point, the governor assumes direction and control of emergency operations. C. When an emergency situation requires an immediate evacuation and necessary authority is temporarily unavailable, the "on-scene" coordinator can call for evacuation in accordance with Wake County's State of Emergency ordinance. 58 VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Evacuation: The line of succession is: 1. Chairman, County Board of Commissioners 2. Vice-Chairman, County Board of Commissioners 3. Commissioners in order of seniority B. As necessary, continuity of government will be maintained by relocating government operations. Lines of succession to all key positions will be established through internal published protocol and all essential records will be protected. C. When evacuees are relocated outside the county, a representative will be appointed by EOC operations to act as liaison between Wake county and the reception area government. The evacuees will be subject to the laws of the reception area for the duration of their stay. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Informational materials relative to evacuation zones, routes, parking facilities and shelters will be developed, both preceding and during an emergency. B. In concert with the Public Information Officer, emergency public information instructions (EPIs) will be prepared and retained by the office of Emergency Management. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Periodically, the EMD will update the county hazard analysis, resources lists and demographic studies. B. Emergency response forces which are to support an evacuation effort are responsible for development and maintenance of departmental SOPs, mutual aid agreements, equipment inventories and personnel rosters including 24-hour emergency notification telephones numbers. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. General Statutes, Chapter 166A 59 B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance C. Wake County Population Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985 D. Nuclear Attack Planning Base (NAPB), 1990 Final Project Report, April, 1987. E. North Carolina Emergency Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection, Rev. 1, April 1989. 60 COMMON FUNCTION 1 - TRANSPORTATION APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX Chairman Board of County Commissioners Municipalities PIO Director of Public Safety _________________ EMD Transportation Coordinator EMS Director Sheriff Local Rescue Squads Fire Marshal Local VFD Superintendent Of Schools Coordination 61 COMMON FUNCTION 1 - TRANSPORTATION APPENDIX 2 ESTIMATED VEHICLE CAPACITIES OR MAJOR EVACUATION ROUTES Major Evacuation Route Estimated Capacity * I-40 ....................................................................................... 3000 US 1 North ............................................................................ 3000 US 1 South ............................................................................ 1500 US 64 East ............................................................................ 3000 US 64 West ........................................................................... 1500 US 401 North ........................................................................ 1500 US 401 South ........................................................................ 1500 US 70 East ............................................................................ 3000 US 70 West ........................................................................... 3000 NC 50 North .......................................................................... 1500 NC 50 South .......................................................................... 1500 NC 55 North .......................................................................... 1500 NC 55 South .......................................................................... 1500 * Capacity is in vehicles per hour for points on routes outside of neighborhoods and city streets. Capacity is only a general estimate and actual capacity will vary with roadway and weather conditions and utilization. The minimum time required for evacuation is the total number of vehicles, divided by the total capacity of the most critical point in the evacuation roadway network through which those vehicles must travel. Generally, highways have a capacity for 1,500 vehicles per hour, per lane; city streets, 500 vehicles per hour; and rural roads, 850 vehicles per hour. (Source: North Carolina Department of Transportation Planning and Research Branch) 62 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 2: COMMUNICATIONS I. PURPOSE This common function will assure the provision of required telecommunications and emergency radio support to operations and will provide technical assistance in the assessment and reconstruction of the communications infrastructure. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Communications play a critical role in emergency operations. Communications networks and facilities exist and operate throughout the county. Properly coordinated, these facilities provide for reasonably effective and efficient response activities. a. The Raleigh-Wake County Emergency Communications Center is located in the municipal building (222 West Hargett St, Raleigh). The county Sheriff's Communications is also located at that facility. b. The Cary Communications Center is located in the municipal building in Cary (316 N. Academy St.). c. The Apex Communications Center is located in the police department of Apex (205 Saunders St.). d. The Fuquay Varina Communications Center is located in the police department of Fuquay Varina (1300 E. Academy). e. The Holly Springs Communications Center is located in the public safety center of Holly Springs (501 Kinderson Dr.). f. The Wake Forest Communications Center is located in the police department of Wake Forest (401 Owen Ave). g. The Wendell Communications Center is located in the police department of Wendell (15 E. 4th St.). 63 h. The county Emergency Operations Center (EOC) (316 Fayetteville St. Mall, Raleigh) has communications capabilities with most of the principal emergency response agencies. B. Assumptions: 1. It is likely that a significant portion of the communications system will withstand most effects of a disaster. 2. The coordination of communication assets during an emergency situation will facilitate timely response activities. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. General: Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center (911) 1. The principal emergency communications systems and services used by the county are located at the Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center, which also serves as the county warning point. 2. The Communications Center must effect, maintain and implement updated emergency communications procedures. B. Specifics: 1. Telephone Service a. Telephone service in the county is provided by BellSouth Telephone and Telegraph Company; Sprint Mid-Atlantic; General Telephone Company (GTE). b. The telephone companies will be provided with a list of priority users of telephone service (Reference: Function 2, Appendix 3, List of Priority Telephone Service Users and Restoration). c. If telephone service is disrupted or damaged, the priority user list is applicable for restoration. 2. Two-Way Radio Systems a. The two-way radio system is designated as a principal system to be used 64 for operational direction and control activities. It provides voice communications between mobile, portable and fixed stations with the county Emergency Communication Centers. b. Wake County departments, agencies and organizations which operate two-way radio systems include: (1) Sheriff's Department (2) County School Administration/Transportation (3) County Volunteer Fire Departments (4) Municipal Police Departments (5) Municipal Fire Departments (6) Municipal Public Works Departments (7) County Rescue Squads/EMS Radio Systems (8) The major hospitals (9) County Health/Inspections Departments (10) Capital Area Transit (CAT) (11) Wake County transportation contractor c. Wake County volunteer organizations which operate two-way radio systems include: (1) Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) (2) American Red Cross (3) Civil Air Patrol (CAP) d. Other two-way communication systems which may be used to communicate with the state EOC during emergencies include: (1) Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) (2) Civil Air Patrol Radio Systems 65 (3) National Warning System (NAWAS) (4) State Emergency Management Area B (5) Commercial Telephone (6) State Highway Patrol (7) State Emergency Medical Services (EMS) 3. Systems Accessible To Communications Centers a. The following communications systems can be accessed from the Wake County EOC (See Function 2, Appendix 4-A): (1) Raleigh/Wake County Communications Command Post (Automatic Ring- down) (2) Sheriff's Department Radio System (3) Raleigh Police, Cary Police and Apex Police Department (4) Raleigh, Cary and County Fire (5) County Rescue/EMS (RESCOM) (6) County School System (7) County Health Inspections (8) Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant Selective Signaling (9) Area B Emergency Management (10) State Emergency Management (11) Amateur Radio (12) Raleigh Durham International Airport (13) WQDR Radio Link 66 b. Other Communications Systems The following communications systems are available but not operated from the Raleigh-Wake County Communications Center or the EOC: (1) Triangle Area Chapter of American Red Cross (2) Citizens Band Radio System (REACT) IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The Communications Coordinators are the principals for planning and developing of the emergency communications system (Reference Function 2, Appendix 1 - Communications Organizational Structure Matrix). 2. The county warning point serves as the central control point for coordinating 911 communications and dispatching. 3. When the Wake County EOC is activated, related emergency communications will be coordinated through the Message Center at the EOC. B. Responsibilities: 1. General: The Communications Coordinators of Raleigh/ Wake Communications Center, Sheriff's Communications, Cary, Apex, Holly Springs, Wendell, Wake Forest, and Fuquay-Varina Communications Centers will: a. Develop Communications SOPs with recall list and coordinate procedures with other communications centers. b. Staff, equip, test, operate, and maintain emergency communications facilities and systems in a readiness posture. c. Ensure that their personnel maintain their technical and operational proficiency through training, exercises and demonstrated ability. d. Identify or develop potential resources of additional equipment and supplies. e. Coordinate intra-county communication networks with surrounding counties and the state during disasters. 67 f. Provide for emergency radio repair capabilities and maintenance operations under both short duration and prolonged emergency conditions. 2. In addition to the above, the Raleigh/Wake Communications Director will: a. Serve as county warning point coordinator. b. As appropriate, activate, flood warning sirens and county fire sirens. c. Activate the Emergency Alert System (EAS), NOAA, and CCTV, as appropriate. d. Monitor the NAWAS, NOAA weather radio or any other emergency notification system. e. Make initial notification to county administration, Emergency Management staff and the emergency services authorities in accordance with published procedures. 3. In addition to the responsibilities listed in Para. IV, B.1, the Sheriff's Communications Supervisor will: a. Activate EAS and NOAA or any other emergency notification system, as appropriate. b. Act as Message Officer in the county EOC. In this capacity they will: (1) Operate the EOC Message Center. (2) Supervise signal operations. c. Provide backup communications (mobile), as needed. d. Insure telecommunicators are trained in procedures to: (1) Receive messages from the Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP). (2) In the absence of EOC control, activate the Harris Nuclear Power Plant Sirens. (3) Activate EAS and NOAA weather radios in support of HNPP siren activation. (4) Make initial notification to county administration, Emergency Management 68 staff and emergency services authorities in accordance with published procedures. 4. Telecommunicators a. Provide radio communications as instructed by their respective Communications Coordinator. b. Establish and maintain message logs. c. Route messages in accordance with written guidelines/procedures or as instructed by their Communications Coordinator. 5. Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES) Provide communications between the EOC and command posts, shelters, and sites when needed. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. The county EMD will be notified when a major emergency has occurred or is imminent. The county EMD will then inform county officials in accordance with county procedures. B. During normal operations, authority to direct and control use of communications systems and services available to county departments and agencies is delegated to the Communications Coordinators listed in this Common Function. (Reference: Para. IV, B.1). C. When the EOC is activated, direction and control of the county emergency communications system will be the responsibility of the EOC Operations Manager. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. The lines of succession for the primary communications centers are: 1. Raleigh/Wake County Communications: a. Communications Director b. Assistant Communications Director c. Shift Supervisor 69 2. Sheriff's Communications: a. Communications Supervisor b. Assistant Communications Supervisor c. Team Leader B. Lines of succession for other communications centers are in accordance with their established policies. C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Signal Officer is: 1. Sheriff's Communication Supervisor 2. Assistant Supervisor 3. Team Leader VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. General The organizations involved in emergency communications will follow the administrative and logistical procedures established by their individual agencies. B. Training and Exercises: Radio operators of Communication Centers and emergency response organizations are to gain and maintain their technical proficiency through a combination of adequately designed training and exercise programs. These programs will be under the auspices of the respective communications director or senior official. C. Security: 1. Communications equipment will be vulnerable during times of emergency, particularly during periods of national emergency. Therefore, security measures must be effected to reduce vulnerability. 2. To reduce security risk, communications personnel will have undergone a background investigation prior to such assignments. 70 VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Reference Paragraph VIII.C., Basic Plan. B. All departments/organizations within the county providing emergency communications will develop and maintain updated communications SOP's, mutual aid agreements, personnel rosters, including 24-hour emergency telephone numbers and communications equipment inventories. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations. B. N.C. General Statutes, 166A. C. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 71 COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX EOC Raleigh/Wake Communications Center Sheriff City of Raleigh Sheriff City/County Sheriff's Communications City/County Supervisor Communications Director Telecommunicators Telecommunicators Apex Wendell Wake Forest Cary Holly Sp. Fuquay-Var. Comm. Comm. Comm. Comm. Comm. Comm. Direction Coordination 72 COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS APPENDIX 2 EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK MATRIX EOC Raleigh/Wake Communications Center Amateur Radio Sheriff's City Communication Communication Supervisor Supervisor Sheriff's Department Fire Departments NCDCI NAWAS SHNPP Selective Signalling Rescue/EMS Law Enforcement NCDCI Public Works Apex Communications Cary Communications Morrisville Center Center (911) Fuquay-Varina Wake Forest Zebulon Wendell Rolesville Garner Police Police Police Police Police Police Direction Coordination 73 COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS APPENDIX 3 PRIORITY TELEPHONE SYSTEMS I. PURPOSE In case of a partial or complete telephone outage in Wake County, certain critical telephone circuits MUST to be restored as soon as possible. An updated listing of these circuits, in the order of their priority, must be maintained. In addition, a current edition of this information must be on file at the concerned telephone company. II. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. Emergency Management will: 1. Keep current the priority telephone systems lists. 2. Maintain an updated copy of priority list at each of the affected telephone companies. B. Each telephone company will: 1. Keep the updated copy of the priority telephone list accessible. 2. When there is a partial or complete telephone outage, at the request of the Emergency Management Director or the EOC, the telephone company is to restore the identified circuits. C. Telephone companies that service Wake County: 1. BellSouth Telephone 2. Sprint Mid Atlantic 3. General Telephone Company (GTE) • NOTE: Wake County maintains a controlled copy listing of all priority telephone numbers, circuit numbers and account numbers. Such information will be made available on a need-to-know basis only. 74 COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS APPENDIX 4 COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY CHART RALEIGH/WAKE COUNTY COMMUNICATIONS CENTER Raleigh Police Raleigh Fire Sheriff Raleigh Public Works/Utilities County Fire Other Municipal Police County EMS/ Rescue Raleigh/Wake (RESCOM) Communciations Hospitals Center (County 911) County Amateur Radio Emergency (Phone Patch) Management State EM Conference Tele. NAWAS Network Inter-City Police Selective NCDCI Signaling (SHNPP) 75 COMMON FUNCTION 2 - COMMUNICATIONS APPENDIX 4-A COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY CHART EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER (EOC) Cary Police Raleigh Police Cary Fire Raleigh Fire Apex Police Sheriff Raleigh Public Works/Utilities County Fire CAP EMS/Rescue County Health/ (RESCOM) Inspections EOC Area B Amateur Radio Emergency Management State EM Conference Tele. Raleigh CP Network County Schools Selective Telecopiers Signaling (SHNPP) 76 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 3: PUBLIC WORKS AND ENGINEERING I. PURPOSE The purpose of this common function is to provide for essential public works/utility services during and following an emergency. This function has two primary responsibilities: debris clearance and removal, and restoration of public facilities. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. During non-emergency periods, the role of the county and municipal governments is supportive of such public work functions as trash collection, landfill operations, building-grounds-road maintenance, water and sewage utility services and fleet operations. B. During and following emergencies, these and other public work functions are likely to expand, take on a degree of criticality and have little regard for jurisdictions. Therefore, immediate capabilities--local, private, county or state-- will need to be a coordinated effort to reduce the impact of the emergency and provide for essential restoration of services. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. The Wake County Facilities Design and Construction department manages the planning, design and construction of capital projects undertaken by the County. In this capacity, the staff works with municipalities, state agencies, public/private sectors within Wake County and can provide guidance for essential public works and utility services emergency restoration efforts. B. The Wake County General Services Administration (GSA) has limited in-house capabilities for such services as the removal of debris and obstructions, emergency repair of facilities, utilities, etc., and support services for emergency response elements. However, by the nature of the agency's day-to-day activities, GSA can identify critical needs, established appropriate priorities, identify resources and effect a general coordination of restitution efforts. C. The Wake County Community Development Services (CDS) capabilities will be utilized during emergency situations to assist in coordination of the restitution efforts. Additionally, CDS responsibilities will include, but are not be limited to, temporary housing, emergency inspections and permits, and landfill operations. 78 D. Local municipal public works departments resources, equipment and personnel will be utilized to reduce the impact of the emergency. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: The Wake County Facilities Design and Construction department serves as lead agency for this function. The Wake County General Services Administration consists of the following divisions: Physical Plant, Fleet Operations, Central Services and Field Services. The Wake County Community Development Services Department consists of the following divisions: Administration, Engineering, Inspections, Land Use and Permits, Soil and Water Conservation, Parks and Recreation and Solid Waste. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. Disaster responsibilities for municipalities will be determined by the respective jurisdictions according to their capabilities. However, all restitution efforts should be coordinated with adjoining jurisdictions, including Wake County. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. The Facilities/Design Director will coordinate essential public work activities during emergencies in cooperation with the EOC operations and other response forces. B. The Facilities/Design Director will effect appropriate coordination of efforts with representatives of municipalities, the public/private sectors, and/or the state/federal agencies. C. When notified of an emergency, the General Services Administrator will determine the county resources to be committed, alert appropriate personnel and designate an individual for on-site control. D. Activities related to temporary housing will be under the direction and control of the Community Development Services Administrator in cooperation with EOC operations. 79 VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Facilities Design and Construction is: 1. Facilities/Design Director 2. Project Managers B. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for General Services is: 1. Wake County General Services Administrator 2. Director of Business/Technology 3. Central Services Director C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Community Services is: 1. The Wake County Community Services Administrator. 2. Chief Engineer. 3. Projects Officer D. Lines of succession for municipal public works will be in accordance with their established internal procedures. E. Each department/municipality is responsible for the preservation of essential records to ensure continued operational capabilities. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Updated data and maps pertaining to municipal and Wake County facilities, streets, roads and utility systems must be accessible to Facilities/Design and municipal public works (on a need-to-know basis). B. Documentation regarding personnel, resources, and expenditures incurred during emergency response activities must be maintained by respective resource managers. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. This common function will be reviewed periodically by Wake County Facilities/Design Director, General Services Administrator, Community Services Administrator, and municipal authority, both as to content, clarity, and accuracy, reporting recommended changes to Wake County Emergency Management for consideration. 80 B. The Wake County Facilities/Design Director, the Community Services Administrator, the General Services Administrator and municipal public works coordinators will develop and maintain necessary implementing procedures and personnel notification rosters. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinances. 81 COMMON FUNCITON 3 - PUBLIC WORKS AND ENGINEERING APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX EOC Facilities Design and Construction Community Development General Services Services Municipal Utilities (Water & Municipal Public Works Sewer) Public Utilities (Gas, State Department of Private Sector Resources Electric, Telephone) Transportation Direction Coordination 82 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 4: FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE I. PURPOSE This common function provides for the coordination of fire service and Emergency Medical Services/rescue activities to ensure the safety of life and property within the county during actual or imminent emergency situations. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: Fire prevention, suppression and control operations are daily problems faced by fire service personnel. Several hazards become more significant during emergency situations. EMS/rescue operations which provide adequate response, assessment, treatment, and safe transportation of sick/injured people are problems faced daily by local EMS/rescue squads within Wake County. Life saving activities become more significant during extraordinary disaster/emergency situations (e.g., natural disasters, hazardous materials, nuclear incidents, etc.). Such occurrences may cause need for specialized emergency medical activities, including provisions for extended mass care/triage operations. B. Assumptions: Existing fire and EMS/rescue personnel and equipment will be available to cope with most emergency situations through the use of mutual aid agreements. When additional support is required, assistance will be obtained through Wake County Emergency Management from state and federal agencies. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. The primary mission of fire departments is the preservation of life and property, and includes capabilities for fire prevention and suppression. During emergencies, local fire department operations may be expanded to include additional tasks. Mutual aid agreements between fire departments are a necessity and must be effected before the fact. 83 Emergency operations for EMS/rescue squads will be an extension of their normal duties. Utilizing mutual aid agreements, local EMS/rescue squads are prepared to support one another by utilizing available manpower and equipment. B. The EMS/rescue chief (or designee) of the district where an incident occurs shall coordinate EMS/rescue activities. Coordination of such activities shall include cooperation with other emergency authorities on the scene, as specified in the Wake County Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel. C. During situations which require significant resource commitments, all emergency departments (e.g., fire, EMS/rescue, law enforcement, etc.) will coordinate their operational efforts through implementation of the Wake County Incident Command System (ICS). D. Under the North Carolina Hazardous Materials Right-To-Know Act of 1985 and the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (Title III of SARA), facilities within fire districts are to provide information on type and quantities of hazardous materials located on site, identify a facility emergency coordinator and provide an on-site emergency plan. This information will be incorporated into emergency response action pre-plans and SOPs by each fire department. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. Fire Services: a. Fire departments in Wake County are made up of organized and trained units, utilizing paid or volunteer personnel, which serve specific geographical areas known as fire districts (Reference: Function 4, Appendix 2 - County Fire District Map). b. The control and prevention of forest/wild land fires is the responsibility of the State Division of Forest Resources. Through mutual aid agreements, local fire departments and the state Division of Forest Resources provide mutual support in this endeavor. 2. EMS/Rescue: a. EMS/rescue squads within Wake County are made up of organized and trained units, consisting of paid and volunteer personnel. 84 b. EMS/rescue squads serve specific geographic areas known as EMS/rescue districts (Reference: Function 4, Appendix 4 - County Map of EMS/Rescue Districts). B. Responsibilities: 1. County Fire Marshal a. Coordinate fire service requirements as to fire protection, fire suppression and hazard abatement. b. Support fire related training and provide necessary technical assistance to local fire departments. c. As appropriate, respond to the county Emergency Operations Center (EOC) or local command post, providing necessary support. d. Assist in the development of necessary mutual aid agreements. e. Maintain updated inventories of all available fire equipment and personnel resources. f. Coordinate fire protection for emergency shelters. g. Assist in notification of all fire services personnel as to known dangers associated with a technological hazard (e.g. HAZMAT, radiological incidents, etc.) and recommended protective actions. h. Support fire services activities for warning and notification of the population at risk from an existing or impending emergency. i. Provide support personnel to assist damage assessment operations. 2. Fire Departments (Fire Chiefs) a. Provide fire protection services within their fire districts. b. Arrange for appropriate training for members of the fire department. c. Initiate and maintain updated reports, leading to the preservation of historical records and the evidencing of expenditures. d. Support rescue operations, as necessary. 85 e. Support warning and evacuation of the public within threatened or contaminated areas. f. Coordinate efforts for training fire personnel to perform necessary radiological functions. 3. County EMS Director a. Plan for emergency medical services requirements, mass casualty/triage operations, evacuation support and transportation. b. Prepare or assist in the preparation of plans and SOPs in support of EMS/rescue operations during emergencies and provide for coordination with other emergency services (e.g., fire, law enforcement, hospital, etc.) including private support groups. c. Coordinate EMS/rescue related training and provide technical assistance to local EMS/rescue departments. d. Assist in the development and maintenance of a viable EMS/rescue communications system. e. Assist in maintenance of appropriate mutual aid agreements. f. Prepare and maintain inventories of all EMS/rescue equipment and personnel resources. g. Provide necessary rescue and ambulance support to local staging area operations. h. Coordinate EMS/rescue activities for public warning, notification and evacuation operations (e.g., route/door-to-door alerting), as needed. i. Coordinate EMS/rescue services to emergency shelters for transport of injured/sick evacuees. j. Support radiological monitoring/decontamination activities related to EMS/rescue operations. k. Assist in the notification of all EMS/rescue services as to known dangers associated with technological hazards (e.g., HAZMAT, radiological incidents, etc.) during emergency operations. l. Assist in the recommendation of protective clothing/equipment to support assigned tasks of EMS/rescue activities. 86 m. Provide training of EMS/rescue personnel relative to the proper recording and maintenance of exposure/decontamination records. 4. Chief of Rescue Squad a. Provide adequate response, patient assessment, treatment, and safe transportation of sick/injured people. b. Provide mutual aid assistance as requested. c. Support search and recovery activities. d. Provide support for emergency operations as needed (public warning, traffic control, etc.). V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Fire Services 1. Coordination of local fire departments is exercised by the executive branch of government through the county Fire Marshal, and the local Fire Chief. 2. Volunteer fire departments are chartered as private, non-profit corporations and provide fire service to local government, as well as to the designated fire districts. 3. As the situation dictates, the Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a joint, coordinated endeavor, serving to effect inter and intra-agency cooperation between all authorities having responsibilities for public safety and protection during emergency operations. B. EMS/Rescue 1. Direction and control of local EMS/rescue departments is exercised by the executive branch of government through the county EMS Director, in coordination with local EMS/rescue squad chiefs. 2. EMS/rescue squads are chartered as private, non-profit organizations, providing service to local government through established EMS/rescue districts. 3. Coordination of EMS/rescue activities during an emergency is accomplished through the county EMS Director, utilizing mutual aid agreements with local rescue squads. 87 VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. The line of succession within local fire departments is in accordance with statutory requirements or established internal procedures. B. The line of succession within the EOC for the Wake County Fire Marshal's department is: 1. County Fire Marshal 2. Assistant Fire Marshal (Training) 3. Assistant Fire Marshal (Prevention) 4. President, Wake County Fire Association C. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the county EMS Director is: 1. County EMS Director 2. County EMS Operations Officer 3. EMS Shift Supervisor 4. Training Officer D. Records vital to the functioning of the local fire departments and EMS/rescue units, including facility pre-plans, resource information, training records, mutual aid agreements, and SOP’s will be maintained in a secure, confidential, need-to- know basis. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. A listing of the personnel and emergency response resources available to the respective county fire departments and rescue units will be maintained by the Fire Marshal's department and the county EMS Director in conjunction with the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. B. North Carolina Incidents Reports (Form ID-SFC-2) will be collected, consolidated, and maintained by the county Fire Marshal. 88 Necessary reports and records of EMS/rescue activities during disaster/emergency operations, will be collected from local rescue units consolidated and maintained by the Wake County EMS Director. C. Communications network between local fire departments, the county, and mutual aid fire departments will be structured to obtain maximum benefit of radio communication resources. D. Copies of existing emergency response mutual aid agreements will be maintained on file by the county Fire Marshal. E. The county Fire Marshal and EMS Director will maintain updated fire and EMS/rescue district maps for distribution as necessary. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Each fire department and rescue unit will develop and maintain procedures that reflect their operational capabilities. Such information will be coordinated with the county Fire Marshal and EMS Director and the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. B. Periodic revisions to this plan will be identified by appropriate signatures and approval dates. The county Emergency Management Director (EMD) is responsible for coordinating a periodic review of all plans and SOPs. Such efforts will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and departments. The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes based upon periodic tests, drills and exercises. C. Records/catalogues of resources will be updated periodically, to include trained personnel, equipment, supplies and other related items. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statute 58-9; 118-38; 143-166.1, 143-507 through 517, 153-A and 160-A. B. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A. C. The Hazardous Chemical Right-To-Know Act, Article (8), Chapter 95 of N. C. General Statutes. D. Title III of Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). E. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 89 F. County and State EMS/rescue Mutual Aid Agreements. G. Wake County Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel; dated April 1985. H. N. C. Board of Medical Examiners Administrative Code - T21; 32H. 90 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 1 FIRE SERVICES ORGANIZATION MATRIX N. C. Division of Forest County Fire Marshal Resources Local Fire Departments Apex FD Bayleaf FD Cary Municipal FD Durham Highway FD Fairgrounds FD Fairview FD Falls FD Fuquay-Varina FD Garner FD Holly Springs FD Hopkins FD Knightdale FD Morrisville FD Raleigh FD Rolesville FD Raleigh-Durham FD Six Forks FD Stony Hill FD Swift Creek FD Wake Forest FD Wake-New Hope FD Wendell FD YRAC FD Zebulon FD Coordination 91 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 2 COUNTY MAP OF FIRE DISTRICTS 92 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 3 EMS/RESCUE ORGANIZATION MATRIX County EOC County EMS Director Transportation Area Hospitals Local Command Post(s) (Rescue Services) Staging Area(s) Local Fire Departments Apex Rescue Six Forks Rescue Cary Area Rescue Wake County EMS Fuquay-Varina Rescue Wendell Rescue Garner Rescue Zebulon Rescue Knightdale Rescue Raleigh-Durham Airport Authority CFR Northern Wake Rescue Coordination 93 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 4 EMS/RESCUE DISTRICTS MAP 94 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRES SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 5 MASS CASUALTY/TRIAGE DIAGRAM (To Be Added) 95 COMMON FUNCTION 4 - FIRE SERVICES/RESCUE APPENDIX 6 DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN FOR EMS/RESCUE PERSONNEL I. INTRODUCTION This plan is intended to define the responsibilities of emergency medical personnel in response to incidents requiring coordination with other agencies. This plan includes terminology, assignments, and responsibilities to be studied carefully. This document is condensed on the premise that emergency medical personnel apply similar practices during daily routines, and the efforts described herein will simply be an expansion of those services. In the reality of a disaster response becoming necessary, it shall be the responsibilities of the primary provider (host area EMS/rescue squad) in whose jurisdiction the disaster to direct, coordinate an implement the disaster/emergency response. Two major complications that emergency medical personnel encounter during disaster situations are: A. The limited number of trained EMS/rescue personnel available. B. Individuals or groups working without authority and/or independently from organized efforts. These problems should be addressed early on, by narrowing the assignments of responsibilities and expectation of emergency medical personnel at the disaster/ emergency scene. Such efforts should include: 1. Implementation of the Wake County Incident Command System (ICS). 2. Coordination of efforts to ensure maximum use of emergency medical personnel, equipment and supplies. 3. Effective mass casualty/triage strategies to include concentration on victims most likely to be saved. 4. Rapid transport to hospitals and medical facilities, having priority over Advanced Life Support (ALS) on the scene. 5. Providing ALS while en-route to hospitals and medical facilities. C. The first unit to arrive on the scene must not blindly rush to individual victims, 96 but must first perform a rapid assessment of the situation and ensure that proper personnel, equipment and supplies are dispatched to provide essential lifesaving efforts. These actions and initial decisions (in the first few minutes) will influence the entire response and management of the incident. Proper actions and decisions will avoid confusion, chaos and inefficiency. D. It is essential that emergency response personnel familiarize themselves with the Disaster Response Plan for Emergency Medical Personnel, the EMS guides of SOPs for Disaster Response and the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan for Multi-Hazards. II. RESPONSE The incident scene should provide for the following: A. Command Post: (See EMS SOPs); the EMS person in charge of coordinating EMS/rescue activities at the command post shall be called the "EMS Command Post Officer". Responsibilities of this individual shall be: 1. Coordination of overall EMS/rescue operations. 2. Coordination with other emergency service command post representatives (e.g., fire, law enforcement, emergency management, etc.). 3. Appointment of and coordination with: a. EMS Control Officer b. EMS Extrication Officer c. EMS Staging Area Officer 4. Coordination with the Medical Director. 5. Coordination of communications capabilities and related on-scene requirements. B. Extrication: is the actual rescue and removal of victims from buildings, aircraft, trains, vehicles, etc. Once the decision is made that a disaster response is required, the responsibility for rescue and/or extrication should be conducted by emergency personnel qualified to perform necessary tasks. The EMS Command Post Officer shall designate an individual to be responsible for coordinating this activity. This individual shall be called the "EMS Extrication Officer". Only personnel requested by the EMS Extrication Officer should enter the sector to assist with this effort. Victim treatment in this area should be limited to only those 97 efforts necessary to save lives (triage), until such time that victims may be removed to established on-scene treatment area(s). If entrapped victims require advanced life support (ALS) prior to, or during removal efforts, qualified personnel, as available, will be requested to assist in the extracation sector. Other personnel will be needed to support triage, treatment and transportation of victims. The EMS Extrication Officer must keep other primary EMS personnel (e.g., Command Post Officer, Control Officer, Triage Officer, etc.) informed of the total number of victims found. C. Triage, Treatment and Transportation: These sector activities should be established close to, but a safe distance from the actual incident scene. Triage efforts (initial victim assessment/life-saving treatment and tagging will usually be performed at the incident scene. Continued assessment, treatment and transportation of victims will be performed at the established treatment area(s). The following individuals must coordinate their efforts: 1. EMS Control Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Command Post Officer); responsibilities include: a. Appointment of EMS Triage Officer(s). b. Appointment of EMS Transportation Officer. c. Request for adequate numbers of EMS personnel, equipment and supplies. d. Ensuring continuous movement of victims from triage to treatment areas, then from treatment areas to transportation units. e. Determination of hospital/medical facility capabilities, based upon the number of victims, seriousness of injuries and available transportation modes. f. Coordination of communications with other EMS sectors and the Incident Command Post (EMS Command Post Officer). 2. EMS Triage Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Control Officer); responsibilities include: a. Request blanket standing orders for treatment if number of victims exceeds capability for individual requests. b. Request adequate number of personnel, equipment and supplies. c. Tag all victims (METTAG) to be brought to the treatment area, according 98 to priority for further treatment/transport. Where possible, note location of victims prior to movement. d. Ensure that EMS Control Officer and EMS Command Post Officer is informed of situation information. e. Keep EMS Treatment Officer informed of number of victims. f. Designate EMS personnel to enter the extrication sector for lifesaving treatment of victims, if required. 3. Transportation Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Control Officer); responsibilities include: a. Assist with the loading of victims. b. Maintain a written log of victims transported to area hospitals/medical facilities (including the unit transporting, hospital taken to, victims name, tag number and general condition). c. Notify hospitals of victims en-route. d. Maintain status of hospital loading and victim treatment capabilities. e. Coordinate with other primary EMS personnel. f. Coordinate with EMS Staging Area Officer for necessary transportation units. 4. Medical Director - The Wake County EMS Medical Director or his designee is responsible for the following: a. Oversee medical control at the triage and treatment sector of the incident scene. b. Issue treatment orders. c. Assist EMS Control Officer is selecting hospital destination for victims. d. Supervise and coordinate with any other physicians or nurses that may be on-scene. 5. Staging Area Officer - (Appointed by the EMS Command Post Officer); is responsible for: 99 a. Ensuring access into and out of the incident scene, for EMS personnel, equipment and supplies. b. Coordination with primary EMS personnel, especially supporting the EMS transportation section. c. Maintaining an adequate status log of all personnel, equipment and/or supplies available from the staging area. Coordination of such information with command post staff. d. Maintaining communications necessary to support operational activities between field units, staging are and command post. III. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs) This SOP is intended for use as a guide in support of EMS operational strategies when conditions dictate the coordination and mutual support of various agencies during extraordinary disaster/emergency situations: A. PERSON IN CHARGE: The person in charge of the first arriving EMS unit shall be considered in charge and will assess the incident situation, report conditions, request necessary mutual aid and remain in charge until properly relieved by an appropriate individual of authority. B. COMMAND POST:* An incident command post* should be established and should handle all communications to and from the incident scene, including any related news releases for public information. C. STAGING AREA: The senior EMS individual in charge of the incident scene will determine the best place for staging area(s), and direct that all responding resources report to the staging area, unless otherwise determined. * An incident command post simply means a control point, strategically established by emergency authorities for the purpose of directing, controlling and/or coordinating emergency response activities. Each primary emergency service and/or support element should have a representative at the command post. 100 D. MEDICAL TREATMENT/TRIAGE: The EMS individual in charge of the first responding unit shall: 1. Assess the need for additional emergency medical response. 2. In cooperation with the Incident Commander of the scene, establish a triage area if necessary. 3. Notify hospitals of the situation at hand. E. SCENE CONTROL: Law enforcement personnel, in cooperation with the Incident Commander and command post staff, shall be responsible for: 1. Access/crowd control. 2. Traffic control. 3. Coordinate and support evacuation. F. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS: Fire department personnel shall be considered as the primary authorities responsible for managing hazardous material incidents which pose a threat to life and/or property. G. NON-COMMITTED EMERGENCY PERSONNEL: It is understood and expected that all emergency personnel and equipment responding to an incident are to assist as needed, in whatever role, and in coordination with the Incident Commander, command post staff and other responsible authorities on-scene. 101 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 5: INFORMATION AND PLANNING I. PURPOSE This common function collects, processes, and disseminates information about a potential or actual emergency to facilitate response and planning processes. This function includes recovery operations, situation unit, damage assessment, weather information, demobilization activities, expedient training, technical specialist, family center operations, planning for dislocated populations, re-entry inspections and permits and Geographic Information System (GIS). II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Most hazardous events which may affect the county have the potential for causing damage. A planned damage assessment program is essential for effective response and recovery operations. 2. An initial damage assessment will provide a descriptive measure of the severity and magnitude of the disaster. Recovery capabilities and requirements for supplemental assistance can be determined from initial damage assessments. 3. If a disaster occurs of such magnitude that it could result in a Declaration of Disaster or Emergency, a damage assessment of public and private property is required for the county and affected political subdivisions. This information will provide a basis for the determination and justification of actions needed, the establishment of priorities, the allocation of local government resources in the disaster area, and what, if any, outside assistance will be required to restore the affected area to pre-disaster condition. B. Assumptions: 1. The county will continue to be exposed to various hazards resulting in damage to property both public and private. 2. Damage will be assessed by trained teams of local resource personnel. 3. Implementing damage assessment procedures will expedite relief and assistance for those adversely affected. 102 III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. During emergency operations, responders will conduct an assessment of damages impacting their jurisdictions. That assessment will direct response and recovery operational activities. Initially, a generalized assessment will identify the geographical boundaries of the event, type and magnitude of the damages, and the impact to critical facilities. As the life of the event progresses, information will become more specific, almost anecdotal in nature. B. Information, to be useful, must be organized into major and subgroups. This information must accurately describe the impacted area and the affect to the infrastructure. At a minimum, the following information is required to describe the emergency/disaster event: 1. Deaths 2. Injuries 3. Boundaries of the disaster area 4. Political boundaries 5. Status of transportation infrastructure 6. Status of communications infrastructure 7. Status of electrical infrastructure 8. Status of medical infrastructure 9. Hazard specific information 10. Weather data affecting the impacted area 11. Activated Emergency Management facilities 12. Shelter information 13. Mass feeding information 14. Immediate or life threatening needs 15. Fires reported in the impacted area 16. Missing persons C. Informational displays will be developed based on the intensity and impact of the disaster and will reflect the overall emergency operation of the event. Specific information will be displayed on an as needed basis. D. Situation reports will be developed using statistical, narrative, and graphical information from response and recovery operations that describe periodically the progress of the emergency workers and future operational strategies. 103 IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: This section is responsible for gathering, analyzing, evaluating and disseminating technical information and forwarding recommendation(s) to the EOC Manager. While the Operations Chief is involved with immediate response to the emergency, this Section is planning ahead and looking at possible contingencies and alternate means of actions. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities 2. Specific Responsibilities (Reference WCSOP-100A) Cooperative Extension Director will assist the USDA (Wake County Emergency Board) in the performance of duties associated with: a. Locating and providing food for feeding of animals. b. Restricting sale, production, distribution, and warehousing of livestock, produce, processed and unprocessed food products, if contamination is suspected. c. Locating sources of uncontaminated feed for livestock and the feeding of livestock. d. Assisting Damage Assessment Officer in matters related to farm land, commodities, livestock and structures. e. Assisting with sampling and monitoring activities associated with Ingestion Pathway. f. Providing support activities for agricultural needs within Wake County. Damage Assessment Officer (Tax Supervisor) will coordinate public and private damage assessments used to determine the County’s eligibility for a disaster declaration. This assessment will be the basis for relief efforts. Responsibilities will include: a. Assessing structural damage through utilization of the County and other municipal governments’ inspections capabilities. 104 b. Assisting in consolidating damage assessment reports. c. Providing advice and information on damage assessment to the EOC staff. Community Recovery Services Coordinator (Community Development Services Administrator) will: a. Maintain a current list of suitable housing accommodations available for possibly thirty (30) continuous days (motel rooms, private or commercial apartments, rental units in mobile home parks, etc.). b. Identify additional sites for mobile homes, as needed. c. Where necessary and available, facilitate the erection of pre-fabricated dwellings or tents. d. Insure compliance with State and local laws, and ordinances. e. Assist in the preparation of agreements or contracts with other municipalities toward the furnishing of building, electrical plumbing, mechanical, housing and other inspections. Recovery Team - The activities of the Recovery Team will continue for an extended time frame. Strategies will be developed for short term and long term recovery. Short term recovery phase activities will be simultaneous with the post impact response phase. Critical Incident Stress Management will be a function of the Recovery Team. Hazard Mitigation - The Hazard Mitigation Officer (HMO) is responsible for identifying potential improvements that would reduce or remove the hazard vulnerability. The HMO may be a member of the State Hazards Mitigation Team and may assist in the preparation of the Disaster Hazard Mitigation Plan. Additional County Agencies/Department will be identified to perform task/responsibilities as the need requires. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. The Director of Public Safety will coordinate planning and recovery activities. In his absence, unless otherwise designated, the duties will be assumed by the Wake County Emergency Management Director. B. The county Damage Assessment Officer as a member of the EOC staff is responsible for the coordination of damage assessment teams. 105 C. County departments will provide available personnel and resources to support the planning and recovery effort, as requested. Personnel from operating departments assigned to planning and recovery responsibilities will remain under the control of their own departments, but will function under the technical supervision of the planning and recovery chief. D. The municipalities within Wake County should exercise their full authority in the execution of locally designed emergency plans and procedures. However, such activities should be coordinated with the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. E. Major emergency situations affecting the unincorporated sections of the county will be supported by Wake County government. Situations affecting multi- jurisdictional areas, the county and municipalities, will be managed in a cooperative effort, each providing mutual support as needed. Unless the EOC is activated, the Wake County Emergency Management Agency shall serve as the lead agency. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Upon activation of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) lines of succession for agencies supporting the planning and recovery section are in accordance with the agencies' established policies. B. County Government Line of Succession 1. The line of succession for the Chairman, Board of County Commissioners is from Chairperson to the Vice Chairperson, continuing on through the board members in order of seniority. In the absence of the aforesaid officials, the line of succession would proceed to the County Manager. 2. Administration and Operations The line of succession for county management is from the County Manager to the Director of Public Safety/Emergency Operations. 3. Preparedness and Coordination The line of succession for preparedness and coordination is from the Emergency Management Director to the designated Emergency Management staff representative(s). 106 4. Departmental Support The line of succession within each county department or agency is according to their respective SOP. C. Documentation and Preservation of Records Measures to maintain documentation and accountability of operations, including preservation of records, will be taken to ensure continued operation and/or reconstitution, if necessary, of county government (See Basic Plan: Part VI - Continuity of Government). VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Reporting forms and necessary federal disaster reporting forms and guidance will be maintained in the Emergency Management office and made available for distribution when necessary. Copies of all documentation are retained for record purposes. B. Survey teams for damage assessment will consist primarily of local government employees. When necessary, non-profit organizations and non-government personnel may supplement the teams. Radiological and/or hazardous materials specialists will be added to teams when needed. C. Records and Reports 1. Records of personnel and equipment will be kept. 2. Records regarding expenditures incurred during emergency response activities will be kept. D. Communications 1. Primary communications will be emergency services, radios and public telephone. 2. Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES) will augment communications and provide as backup. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Responsibility 1. This common function is developed and maintained by Wake County Emergency Management Agency. 107 2. This common function will be reviewed annually by Wake County Emergency Management Agency. Revisions will be coordinated with appropriate agencies having attending responsibilities. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. Authorities: 1. Disaster Relief Act of 1974, Public Law 93.288, as amended. Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988 (P. L. 100-707). 2. 44CFR, Part 206. 3. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A. 4. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 5. Flood Hazard Information for Crabtree Creek, U.S. Corps of Engineers, December 1977. B. References: 1. Handbook for Applicants Pursuant to P. L. 93.288, DR & R1 FEMA, 3-81. 2. Digest of Federal Disaster Assistance Programs: DR & R21, FEMA, June 1985. 3. Federal Disaster Assistance Program, DR & R18, January 1987. 4. Disaster Assistance Program, DAP 19, March 1987. 5. Wake County Standard Operation Procedures for Damage Assessment/Recovery 6. Wake County EOC Standard Operating Procedure (WCSOP - 100). 108 COMMON FUNCTION 5 - INFORMATION AND PLANNING APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX EOC NCDEM Area "B" Director of Public Safety Coordinator Non-Government County Agencies Municipalities Agencies Damage Assessment Officer Damage Assessment Teams Coordination 109 COMMON FUNCTION 5 - INFORMATION AND PLANNING APPENDIX 2 FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM I. PURPOSE The purpose of this summary is to provide a brief description of Federal programs and voluntary agency assistance which may be available to Wake County, municipal governments and the populace under a Presidential Declaration following a major disaster or an emergency. It also describes Federal programs available under their own authority without a major disaster or emergency declaration. II. ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS A. Major Disaster Declaration: 1. Clearance of debris, when in the public interest, on public or private lands or waters. 2. Emergency protective measures for the preservation of life and property. 3. Repair or replacement of roads, streets, and bridges. 4. Repair or replacement of water control facilities (dikes, levees, irrigation works, and drainage facilities). 5. Repair or replacement of public buildings and related equipment. 6. Repair or replacement of public utilities. 7. Repair or restoration to pre-disaster condition of essential public facilities damaged. 8. Repair or restoration of recreational facilities and parks. 9. Repair or replacement of private non-profit educational, utility, emergency, medical, and custodial care facilities, including those for the aged or disabled, and facilities on Indian reservations. 10. Disaster loans from FEMA to those communities that may suffer a substantial loss of tax and other revenues and have demonstrated a need for financial assistance in order to perform their governmental functions. 110 11. Repairs and operating assistance to public elementary and secondary schools by the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 12. Use of federal equipment, supplies, facilities, personnel, and other resources (other than the extension of credit) from various federal agencies. 13. Certain forms of hazard mitigation assistance from FEMA under its own authorities and with other federal agencies through the inter-agency hazard mitigation team process. 14. Repairs to federal aid system roads when authorized by the Department of Transportation. B. Emergency Declaration: 1. Emergency mass care, such as emergency shelter, emergency provision of food, water and medicine, and emergency medical care. 2. Clearance of debris to save lives and protect property and public health and safety. 3. Emergency protective measures, including search and rescue, demolition of unsafe structures, warning of further risks and hazards, public information on health and safety measures, and other actions necessary to remove or to reduce immediate threats to public health and safety, to public property, or to private property when in the public interest. 4. Emergency repairs to essential utilities and facilities as necessary to provide for their continued operation. III. ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS (Major Disaster Declaration) 1. Temporary housing in the form of government, private and commercial resources or grants for minor repairs to owner-occupied damaged structures is provided. Temporary assistance with mortgage or rental payments for persons faced with loss of their residence because of disaster-created financial hardship. 2. Disaster unemployment assistance and job placement assistance for those unemployed as a result of a major disaster. 3. Individual and family grants to meet disaster related expenses or serious needs when those affected are unable to meet such expenses or needs through other programs or other means. 4. Legal services to low income families and individuals. 111 5. Crisis counseling and referrals to appropriate mental health agencies to relieve disaster-caused mental health problems. 6. Loans to individuals, businesses, and farmers for repair, rehabilitation, or replacement of damaged real and personal property and some production losses not fully covered by insurance. 7. Agricultural assistance, including technical assistance, payments covering a major portion of the cost to eligible farmers who perform emergency conservation actions on farm land damaged by the disaster, and provision of federally owned feed grain for livestock and herd preservation. 8. Veterans' assistance, such as death benefits, pensions, insurance settlements, and adjustments to home mortgages held by the Veterans Administration, if a VA-insured home has been damaged. 9. Tax relief, including help from the Internal Revenue Service, in claiming casualty losses resulting from the disaster and state tax assistance. 10. Waiver of penalty for early withdrawal of funds from certain time deposits. 11. Cora Brown Fund, to assist victims of natural disasters for those disaster- related needs that have not been or will not be met by government agencies or other organizations that have programs to address such needs. IV. ASSISTANCE WITHOUT A PRESIDENTIAL DECLARATION A. Search and Rescue: The Coast Guard or U.S. Armed Forces units can assist in search and rescue operations, evacuate disaster victims, and transport supplies and equipment. B. Flood Protection: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has the authority to assist in flood fighting and rescue operations and to protect, repair, and restore federally constructed flood- control works threatened, damaged, or destroyed by a flood. C. Fire Suppression Assistance: The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 authorized the President to provide assistance, including grants, equipment, supplies, and personnel to a state for the suppression of a forest or grassland fire on public or private lands that threatens to become a major disaster. 112 D. Health and Welfare: The Department of Health, Education and Human Services can provide assistance to state and local welfare agencies and to state vocational rehabilitation agencies. The Public Health Service can aid states and local communities in emergency health and sanitation measures. The Food and Drug Administration can work with state and local governments in establishing public health controls through the decontamination or condemnation of contaminated food and drugs. E. Emergency Conservation Measures: The state director may designate areas eligible for the Emergency Conservation Measures Program of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. This program provides for cost-sharing grants to rehabilitate farm lands damaged by natural disasters. F. Emergency Loans for Agriculture: The Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), may make emergency loans to farmers, ranchers and aquaculturists in areas designated as eligible by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Administrator of FmHA. G. Disaster Loans for Homeowners and Businesses: The Small Business Administration can provide both direct and bank-participation disaster loans to qualified homeowners and businesses to repair or replace damaged or destroyed private property when the SBA Administrator declares a "disaster loan area" under his own statutory authority. Economic injury loans can help small firms suffering economic loses as a result of a disaster. H. Tax Refund: The Internal Revenue Service can assist individuals in applying for casualty losses resulting from natural disasters. I. Repairs to Federal Aid System Roads: The Federal Highway Administration, DOT, can provide assistance to restore roads and bridges on the Federal Aid System. J. Voluntary Agency Assistance An essential element of almost any disaster relief effort is the assistance provided by private relief organizations (i.e., distribution of food, medicine, supplies, 113 provisions for emergency shelter, and restoration of community services). The American Red Cross, which operates under a federal charter (as provided by public law 58-4, approved January 5, 1905), provides grants and other types of assistance to individuals and families affected by disasters to meet emergency needs. The Salvation Army, Mennonite Disaster Service and other charitable organizations and church groups also provide assistance to those in need. 114 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 6: MASS CARE I. PURPOSE This common function provides for the protection of the population from the effects of hazards through the identification of shelters and provision of mass care and social services in shelters. It also provides for emergency assistance to the residents in nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes located in Wake County. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Based upon the county's hazard analysis, there are several emergencies for which shelters may be required including severe storms, tornadoes, floods, hazardous materials accidents, fires and nuclear crisis. 2. Regularly, Wake County Human Services provides oversight of the nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes in Wake County. It is Human Services' responsibility to assist in the protection of the interests, welfare, and human dignities of patients in these facilities. 3. The county public school system has buildings throughout Wake County suitable for utilization as public shelters in times of stress and displacement of significant segments of populace. B. Assumptions: 1. With the possible exception of a nuclear crisis, sufficient in-county sheltering exists to meet the needs of an evacuation during emergencies or a disaster. 2. For out-of-county evacuation, sufficient shelter capacity exists in adjacent counties and can be made available. 3. Under most circumstances, a high percentage of evacuees will seek shelter with friends or relatives. 4. During an emergency, Human Services would continue the protection of residents in nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes. When necessary, special shelters will be opened and operated by Wake County Human Services, 115 assisted by other agencies. If local capabilities become overtaxed, support will be available from State agencies. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. In-county public shelter operations will be coordinated by the American Red Cross (ARC) liaison, assisted by the county Department of Human Services. B. In an emergency situation Human Services may, out of necessity, expand their day-to-day operations. C. Human Services will be appropriately assisted by Wake County Emergency Management and other county agencies, as necessary. D. During nuclear emergencies, the director of county Human Services will operate reception centers and allocate citizens to shelters. E. The director of county Human Services will open and operate the special needs shelters to care for the patients of the nursing/rest homes and the domiciliary homes in Wake County. F. When utilized as a special needs shelter, Dorothea Dix Hospital has agreed to furnish the facility, meals, and available bedding. G. By prior agreement, the staff of the evacuated nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes are to assist in the operation of special care shelter facilities. H. The Wake County school system will cooperate with Human Services and Red Cross in the operation of school facilities activated as public emergency shelters, including the furnishing of kitchen staff and custodial personnel. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The Wake County Human Services Department acts as the lead agency in the development and implementation of a comprehensive shelter program for Wake County. 2. ARC (Triangle Chapter) is designated as the primary agency for shelter activation and management. 3. The coordination of the comprehensive shelter program and the staffing of shelters is established through letters of understanding between the ARC, Human Services and the school system. 116 4. The Wake County Human Services Director will coordinate with necessary agencies in the operation of special shelters for evacuated patients of nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes and reception centers for the general public. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. Specific responsibilities: (Reference ARC Mass Care Standard Operating Procedures and Wake County Department of Human Services Reception/Registration Center Procedures.) V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. The ARC will act as the lead agency in public shelter/mass care operations for the county. B. The Director of Human Services will lend all possible assistance in shelter and mass care operations and coordinate the opening of shelters and special needs shelters if needed. C. During a nuclear threat/attack, the Director of Human Services will direct and control the operations of the reception centers. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for Wake County Social Services is: 1. Wake County Human Services Director 2. Assistant Human Services Directors Lines of succession for agencies which have been designated to support the shelter and mass care operations will be in accordance with their established policies. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Records and Reports 1. Shelter kits containing appropriate forms, handbooks and identification will be provided by the ARC/Human Services, as appropriate. The shelter kits will 117 contain, but not be limited to, shelter registration forms, shelter occupancy reports, inventory reports and event log forms. 2. Necessary agreements, records and reports relating to special shelter operations will be maintained by Wake County Human Services. 3. Security of evacuated patients records and medical supplies will be provided for by the shelter manager. B. The primary communications link between shelters and the EOC will be telephone. Amateur radio operators or law enforcement personnel may be assigned to the shelters to provide additional communication capabilities. Request for these services will flow through the EOC. C. The emergency stocking of shelters with essential supplies (i.e. food, bedding, sanitation needs, etc.) will be initiated and made available through appropriate agencies with identified resources. D. Shelter safety and security will be provided on an as need basis by law enforcement, fire and EMS/rescue. E. Public shelters will follow a non-discrimination policy. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Under the guidance of the EMD, this common function will be reviewed and updated on a periodic basis. B. Involved agencies will develop and maintain updated departmental SOPs, letters of agreement, personnel rosters and resource inventories. C. The Human Services Director will assist nursing/rest homes and domiciliary homes in the county in their development and maintenance of emergency plans and procedures. D. ARC will provide shelter management training upon request. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. Authorities: 1. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A. 2. N. C. General Statutes 115C-242(6). 118 3. County Emergency Management Ordinances. 4. Executive Order, March 31, 1966, Dan K. Moore, Governor, as amended August 29, 1968. 5. Statement of Understanding between FEMA and American Red Cross. 6. Agreement between Wake County School System and the American Red Cross. B. References: 1. Shelter Management Handbook (FEMA-59). 2. Wake County Department of Human Services Standard Operating Procedures for Reception/Registration Centers. 3. American Red Cross Mass Care Procedures. 119 COMMON FUNCTION 6 - MASS CARE APPENDIX 1 LOCATION OF VARIOUS SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS Copies of the following documents are held at the Wake County Office of Emergency Management. • Statement of understanding between ARC and Board of Education Wake County Public School System. • Statement of understanding between ARC and Wake County Office of Emergency Management. • Mutual Aid Agreement between ARC and Wake County Department of Human Services. • The National Shelter Survey (NSS). 120 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 7: RESOURCE SUPPORT I. PURPOSE This common function provides a system of identifying and locating resources within the county and a method of activating those resources during an emergency. The preservation, conservation and replenishment of these resources is also included. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS Subject to their availability, the county is responsible for identifying and acquiring resources necessary to cope with hazards posing a potential threat to Wake County. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. County departments and agencies will use their resources and equipment during emergencies and, generally speaking, will maintain control over the management of these resources when such resources are needed to respond to the emergency situation. B. The county Purchasing Director will provide routine procurement procedures to acquire/replenish critical resources during emergency operations. C. A resource directory identifying the resource, the control agency and the procedures needed to activate the resource at any time will be developed and maintained by the Wake County Emergency Management Agency (EMA). D. The EMA will also identify those resources and capabilities that are available from local businesses, industry and other contributing organizations and develop agreements as necessary to acquire those resources to support the county under emergency conditions. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The Director of Public Safety will have overall responsibility for coordination of resources. In his absence, the Emergency Management Director (EMD) will assume this responsibility. 2. Generally, the agency having primary control of a resource will continue to 121 control that resource during emergencies. 3. The acquisition or replacement of a resource will follow routine procurement procedures exercised by the county Purchasing Director. In emergency situations, he will develop the means and the authority for the immediate procurement of expendable supplies. 4. An organizational chart for resource management is contained at Appendix 1, Resource Management Organization Matrix. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. In the EOC the Resource Management Common Function’s specific responsibilities include: a. Analyze personnel and equipment requirements to meet potential hazards and maintain a resource directory. b. In concert with the County Attorney, develop mutual aid agreements for use of resources, as necessary. c. Assist the Director of Public Safety in the control and coordination of resources used under emergency conditions (including nuclear attack) and provide a system to protect those resources. d. Request additional resources from outside the county structure where needed. e. Identify additional emergency resources from local business and industry and other agencies. f. Provide for the storage, maintenance, and replenishment of radiological instruments, equipment for radiation hazard evaluation and exposure control. g. Identify available county owned resources. h. Assist in the development of procedures for the storage, maintenance and expeditious procurement of essential equipment, materials, food, water, etc. i. Assist the Community Development Services Administrator in the design of procedures leading to the restoration of essential public services. 122 V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Utilization of resources under the operational control of local government response forces will be coordinated by the Director of Public Safety or, in his absence, by the Emergency Management Director. B. The commitment of resources from outside county government will be initiated by the Director of Public Safety or, in his absence, by the Emergency Management Director with operational control being exercised by the on-site commander of the service requiring that resource. C. Mutual aid agreements must specify who will move, operate, maintain and bear the cost of operation for equipment used under emergency conditions. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Resource management does not fall under a centralized control element, but is coordinated by the EOC during emergency situations. B. Lines of successions for agencies supporting resource management activities will be in accordance with statutory requirements or established internal procedures. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Documentation regarding personnel, resources and expenditures occurring during emergency activities must be maintained by the respective response units. B. The EMD will maintain a record of equipment usage and supply consumption from feeder reports provided by the user units during emergency operations. C. The Budget Director and the Purchasing Director will develop procedures to expedite the acquisition of supplies in emergencies and to account for all funds expended during emergency response and recovery operations. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. The development and maintenance of a resource directory and mutual aid agreements are the responsibility of the EMD. The resource directory must identify the resource as a physical asset or a capability, the location of the resource and who controls it as well as how it can be activated when needed and by whom. B. Accountability, use, maintenance and operational cost for resources outside 123 government control will be pre-determined by mutual aid agreements. These documents should be reviewed following each emergency event in which they are used and amended or corrected as needed. C. Development and implementation of procedures for the acquisition and replenishment of government resources are the responsibility of the Budget Director and Purchasing Director. D. Periodically, the Emergency Management Director will review, update, and modify this guidance, as necessary. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, 166-A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 124 FUNCTION 7 - RESOURCE SUPPORT APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX EOC Director of Public Safety General Services Finance Director Purchasing Director Administrator County Resources Business/Industry Municipal Resources Resources Mutual Aid Counties' State Resources Resources Coordination 125 FUNCTION 7 - RESOURCE SUPPORT APPENDIX 2 RESOURCES SUMMARY CHART Resources Ordered Resource ETA On Location/Assignment Identification Scene 4 ICS 201 5-94 126 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 8: PUBLIC HEALTH I. PURPOSE This common function provides a coordinated response to public health and medical needs following an emergency; provides a structure to receive assistance from field medical teams and volunteer medical personnel to assist persons with special needs; and provides staffing and supplies for Assisted Care Shelters. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Most emergency situations have the potential to aggravate health problems. Depending on the nature of the incident, complications may include, but not necessarily be limited to, general health problems, communicable disease, contamination of food and water, and mental health ailments. 2. A well-planned health support network is essential during emergency situations. 3. The release of toxic or hazardous materials may result in human and environmental contamination. B. Assumptions: 1. A large-scale emergency may result in increased demands on health personnel services. 2. Existing mutual aid agreements will provide additional health and mortuary services. 3. When local resources can no longer meet the demand of the situation, state agencies will provide assistance appropriate to the needs. 4. Catastrophic disasters involving large areas of the county may adversely affect response capabilities of local resources. 5. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to relocate hospital facilities and patients. 127 III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION A. General: 1. Emergency operations for health and mental health services will be an extension of normal agency and facility responsibilities. 2. Coordination between health and mental health providers is necessary to ensure emergency operational readiness. B. Human Services: 1. The primary concern of public health is disease control. The Human Services Department will implement effective environmental health, nursing and health education practices to minimize the incidence of disease. 2. Frequent inspections of damaged housing, emergency shelters, and public facilities may be necessary to determine the need for emergency repairs, pest control, sanitation, or other health related protective procedures. 3. The day to day activities of mental health include planned programs in mental health services, mental retardation and developmental disabilities services, and substance abuse services. 4. During an emergency, services will be extended as necessary for crisis counseling and supporting mental health services. C. Mortuary: The county Medical Examiner will identify and take charge of the proper recovery of human remains. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The county Human Services Administrator will organize, coordinate, and supervise emergency public health operations. 2. The county Medical Examiner will coordinate activities relating to the identification of the dead and mortuary services. 3. Emergency health teams will be provided with safety equipment and associated training for response to hazardous materials incidents. 128 B. Assignment of Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. In the EOC the Public Health Common Function’s specific responsibilities include: a. Assist the Emergency Management Director (EMD) in the development and implementation of appropriate health awareness and public information programs relating to personal actions preceding, during and following emergencies. b. On call, report to the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and provide direction and control for emergency public health operations. c. Assist in providing public health care at emergency facilities, to include shelters and congregate care/reception centers. d. Provide continuous health inspections and immunizations when appropriate; evaluate, detect, prevent and control communicable disease. e. Coordinate environmental health activities for waste disposal, refuse, food, water control, vector/vermin control and sanitation. f. Supervise health related laboratory activities. Provide for the monitoring and evaluation of environmental health hazards and arrange for corrective measures. g. Assist in the re-supply of health related response access. h. In conjunction with medical authorities, identify sites for temporary hospitals/clinics. i. Arrange for debriefings or psychological support for emergency workers and disaster victims. j. Provide crisis intervention training for personnel assigned to mental health service teams. k. Assist in the identification of evacuees in reception centers and shelters who have evidence of mental stress, providing them with appropriate mental health services. l. In appropriate incidences, provide for the continuity of mental health 129 treatment services for relocatees. m. Provide crisis counseling to professionals and support staff working with the relocated population. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Emergency health operations will be coordinated by the Human Services Director. B. The Medical Examiner will assume responsibility of all activities connected with identification of the dead and mortuary services. C. The Human Services Director will maintain communications with their field forces and will keep the EOC informed of activities, including personnel and equipment needed to maintain adequate response and recovery efforts. D. Support agencies/departments will follow established internal procedures for direction and control. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT Lines of succession within each agency are established either by statutory requirements or by the agencies' internal procedures. Upon activation of the EOC, line of succession is as follows: Human Services: 1. Emergency and Adult Health Services Director 2. Community Health Director 3. Resource Management Director 4. Human Services Director VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. General: 1. Departments with responsibilities related to health services will arrange for the collection, processing and security of vital records, statistics and other documentation. 2. Data related to disease outbreaks will be collected and forwarded to appropriate state and federal officials. 130 3. Health inspections may be required with increased frequency. B. Logistical Support: The Human Services Director and supporting agencies will: 1. Assist in the effecting of mutual aid agreements leading to availability of additional medical response teams. 2. Prepare for the emergency requisition of medical/health equipment and supplies. 3. Determine the availability of and arrange for support assets, such as: a. Aircraft, helicopters, trucks, four wheel vehicles; b. Private and public ambulance companies; c. Mortuaries. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. The county Human Services Director and Medical Examiner will maintain updated procedures to support this common function. B. Involved agencies will maintain current internal notification rosters. C. Periodically supporting agencies will review and update the public health common function. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 131 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 9: SEARCH I. PURPOSE This common function’s activities include developing search patterns and procedures to locate emergency victims in damaged areas; and locating, extricating and providing for the immediate medical treatment of victims trapped in collapsed structures. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation 1. Search is an action likely performed under emergency conditions. 2. The primary objective when searching for lost or missing persons is to find the lost person in the best possible condition, expeditiously, while expending resources wisely. 3. This procedure is designed for use by Wake County Sheriff's Department, CCBI, and Wake County Emergency Management in cooperation with local emergency response agencies such as municipal law enforcement, fire departments, and EMS/rescue units. B. Assumptions 1. Utilization of this procedure of action will result in an improved Search and Rescue (SAR), management awareness, accurate expenditure of resources, coordination between agencies, good communication and accurate planning techniques. 2. Prompt execution of the Wake County SAR Procedure will be accomplished by pre-designated individual(s) specially trained in directing and coordinating SAR operations. 3. SAR response capabilities will be improved by the rapid identification of essential resources and the prompt provision of the resources by municipalities, counties, state, federal government or the private sector. 4. A pre-designated individual will provide verified and factual information concerning the operation to the media and the public. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. Upon receipt of a report by a communications center of any of the following incidents within the jurisdiction of the Wake County Sheriff's Department, the center shall notify the Wake County Sheriff's Department shift patrol supervisor(s). 132 1. Reports of lost or missing institutionalized persons (other than felons) 2. Reports of lost or missing children or elderly 3. Situations which require a missing persons report or entry into law enforcement records 4. Mentally retarded/despondents who have been reported lost or displaced 5. Overdue persons such as hikers, hunters, fishermen, etc. 6. Missing persons with medical problems B. Upon determination that a need exists to initiate a SAR mission, the patrol supervisor shall notify the WC Sheriff's Department Communications Center who, in turn, will promptly activate the following: 1. The Wake County Sheriff's Department senior supervisor on duty with both the patrol and Criminal Investigation Division (CID) 2. The Wake County Emergency Management staff duty officer C. Other resources will be called in, on an "as needed" basis by the Incident Coordinator (IC) or his designee (such as CCBI and other specialized resources). IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES The Wake County Sheriff’s Department shall have overall responsibility for direction and control of Wake County SAR missions outside of a municipality’s jurisdiction. The senior Wake county Sheriff’s Department Duty Officer shall appoint the SAR IC. The IC shall in turn appoint 1. SAR Command Group 2. Support Functions 3. SAR Supervisor(s) Specific responsibilities for the IC and support agencies and individuals are detailed in sections IV and V of the Wake County Standard Operating Procedures: Ground, Water & Air Searches for Lost Persons. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL 1. Direction and control will be established through the Wake County Incident Command System and SOP's as defined and designated within this procedure. 2. SAR operations, which traverse from one political subdivision to another, will require the use of the Unified Command System. 133 3. The SAR operations officer, under the supervision of the IC, is responsible for SAR operations involving ground and water areas within his political jurisdiction. 4. Direct coordination between agencies is authorized as designated within this procedure or as negotiated in mutual aid agreements between contiguous municipalities and counties. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT Generally speaking, the line of succession during an SAR mission will be: 1. The law enforcement agency representative with territorial jurisdiction 2. Wake County Emergency Management Agency Staff Duty Officer 3. The SAR team supervisor 4. Other duly appointed emergency services personnel VII. ADMINISTRATIVE AND LOGISTICS A. Maintenance of journals and records relating to SAR missions are the responsibility of the agency with territorial jurisdiction. B. While not necessarily all inclusive, SAR forms are found as attachments to the Wake County SAR SOP and are on file at the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. C. A list of identified SAR resources will be maintained by the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. As appropriate, affected departments shall periodically review the Wake County SAR procedure and other relevant procedures and resources lists, and make recommendations they deem appropriate to the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. B. Emergency response agencies, which plan to participate in the SAR program, are responsible for the development and maintenance of their departmental SOPs, mutual aid agreements, training, equipment inventories and personnel rosters. C. SAR team(s) shall develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to address how the search function will be operationally conducted. D. Periodic exercises shall be conducted to provide an opportunity for testing the effectiveness of training and updating of supporting procedures. 134 IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166A B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance, 1990 C. Burke County Search Plan D. "Search Is An Emergency", Emergency Response Institute E. Minutes of the Wake County Board of Commissioners' Meeting on January 30, 1984 135 COMMON FUNCTION 9 - SEARCH APPENDIX 1 EMERGENCY ACTIONS CHECKLIST FOR SEARCHES FOR LOST/MISSING PERSONS Case Number Date Time Name of Person(s) SECTION I...SEARCH ASSESSMENT INFORMATION o Has departmental missing persons report been completed? o Has lost person questionnaire (SAR-2) been completed? o Has BOLO Message been broadcast, as appropriate? o Has appropriate information been entered into NCIC? o Has photo/articles of clothing been obtained from family? o Has an investigator been assigned to gather background data (SAR 41) and subject data (SAR 43)? o Has information been gathered on the incident? (SAR 46) o Has long range weather forecast been obtained? o Has topo map or person familiar with area been obtained? o Has urgency of search been established (SAR 17)? SECTION II...PRE-SEARCH INFORMATION o Have actions taken by others, prior to law enforcement intervention, been noted and evaluated? o Have initial information and sources been noted and evaluated? o Has subject behavior: Evaluation of circumstances (SAR 19), detectability (SAR 20), and general characteristics of lost persons (SAR 21), been computed for comparability? o Has a strategy and tactics session been conducted to determine search objectives? o Have resources (personnel, equipment and money) which will be needed to accomplish objectives been identified? o Have assist agencies been notified, such as, fire departments, rescue/EMS, emergency management, etc.? o Has a "HASTY TEAM" search been completed as a preliminary survey of the immediate area to eliminate obvious areas of concealment? o Has a supervisor been contacted who can authorize the initiation of a search and appropriate resources? 136 SECTION III...THE SEARCH BEGINS o Has ICS established, including the appointments of an incident coordinator, plans chief and operations chief, other functions as immediately as necessary? o Has a command post, staging area, and incident base been established? (SAR 66) o Has a tactical communication channel been established? o Has a search action plan been established? (SAR 30) o Has an incident action plan been established? (SAR 35) o Are confinement measures being put in place? (SAR 18) o Have resources been organized into teams, task forces, strike teams, as appropriate? (SAR 62) o Are effective search techniques being utilized? (SAR 53) o Have special functions, such as, a media coordinator, technical assistance, safety and inter-agency liaison coordinator been appointed? o Have operational periods (SAR 34) been established? o Have shifts been planned? o Has the criminal investigation been separated from the search and recovery operation? o Has a realistic search area been established, based on one of the four indicated methods (theoretical, statistical, subjective or deductive reasoning)? (SAR 48) o Are briefings being conducted to keep command staff aware of situations as they occur? (SAR 58) o Are adequate records being maintained, including maps? (SAR 40) and (SAR 39) o Are returning field units being debriefed? (SAR 64) SECTION IV...PREPARATION OR OPERATION CLOSE-DOWN o If subject was not located, is discontinuing the search warranted? (SAR 68) o Has a demobilization plan been put into effect? (SAR 69) o Has legal advisor/DA been contacted prior to close down? o Has the assigned criminal investigator been notified of the intent to close down? o Have records been preserved? 137 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 10: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS I. PURPOSE This common function provides basic information and concepts for coping with potential hazardous material incidents (chemical and radiological) within Wake County. This document establishes a plan of action for coordination and support of emergency response operations, as required pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); Title III - "The Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986", Sec. 303(c). This common function is designed to be an integral part of the Wake County Emergency Operations Plan for Multi-Hazards. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. The threat of a major incident involving hazardous materials has increased because of growth in the manufacturing, transportation and use of chemical and radioactive material. 2. Hazardous material incidents could result in accidental releases of hazardous materials in varying degrees throughout Wake County. Such situations could pose significant health and safety concerns to the population at risk, property and the environment. 3. Initial emergency response efforts would focus on protecting human health, the environment, and property. Such measures could involve parallel efforts to include: command and control, evacuation, fire suppression, rescue, mass casualty/triage operations, containment/control, and cleanup. 4. The primary sources of radiological hazards within Wake County are (See Appendix 2 Commodity Flow): a. Fixed-Site Facilities. b. Transportation spills. c. The Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP), at New Hill. d. Illegal/intentional spill or releases. 138 B. Assumptions: 1. Major hazardous materials incidents could threaten a significant number of people within the county, with little or no warning. 2. Emergency response personnel (e.g., Fire, EMS/rescue, Law Enforcement, Emergency Management) and qualified technical experts will be available with equipment and resources to detect, analyze, evaluate and cope with most hazardous material incidents. 3. Planning, training, and coordination of emergency response personnel will serve to reduce hazards and associated risks. Proper development and execution of a radiological protection system will significantly reduce the number of casualties from a nuclear attack or peacetime radiological incident. Warning, detection, prevention and remedial measures will reduce the effect of nuclear radiation. 4. Most jurisdictions (emergency services) can effectively cope with minor situations. However, should an incident escalate into a major emergency situation, additional emergency resources could be rapidly deployed through existing mutual aid agreements, and further augmented, if necessary, by resources of the county, state and federal government and private industry. 5. A combination of trained personnel and operational equipment can be positioned to detect, measure, report, analyze, evaluate and conduct counter- measure operations. Trained local emergency response organizations can effectively manage an accident scene with technical assistance from the N. C. Radiation Protection Division, Department of Human Resources. 6. Hazardous substances involved in an incident can be identified within a reasonable period of time from many sources of information. These sources include: - U.S. DOT Emergency Response Guidebook - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) - SARA Tier II Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventories - SARA designated Facility Emergency Coordinators - Shipping papers - Placards and product labels - Product containers - Emergency Support Information Services (e.g., CHEMTREC, etc). 7. Emergency planning efforts will assume that most of the population(s) potentially affected (including designated evacuees), will cooperate with local officials and follow recommended protective actions. Such measures could 139 include evacuation instructions for relocation to designated reception/shelter areas. 8. Private automobiles will be the primary means of transportation for evacuation movement. Available alternate transportation resources would be coordinated to support evacuation of the public without transportation, special needs individuals (e.g., handicapped, mobility impaired, developmentally disabled, etc. . .), and the elderly. 9. The initial movement of population(s) at risk may occur immediately following the on-scene assessment of the situation by emergency response authorities, or by the issuance of an evacuation order by county public officials. 10. Evacuees could be isolated from their homes for extended periods of time. 11. The calculated initiation of strategic nuclear war by any nation is considered a remote possibility. Nevertheless, nuclear war could occur through accident, miscalculation, an irrational act, or the unplanned escalation of a general limited war. Also, terrorist activities could include the threat of, or the use of, explosive nuclear devices. Therefore, contingency plans must provide for these types of events. 12. In the event of a terrorist nuclear attack direction or request for relocation will come from the President of the United States to the Governor of North Carolina, who could then order relocation. Relocation may be selective for certain hazard areas, or may be general to all hazard areas. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS There are three basic types of hazardous material situations which could affect Wake County: 1) Fixed facility, 2) Transportation, and 3) Illegal/intentional spill or release. Each incident may present a unique situation, requiring a somewhat different but interrelated response by various emergency personnel. A. The Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a joint, coordinated endeavor, serving to effect intra-agency cooperation between all authorities having responsibilities for public safety and environmental protection during emergency operations. The local fire chief (or his designee) shall be considered as the On-Scene Incident Coordinator (OIC), responsible for managing emergency responses to a hazardous material incident in accordance with the Wake County Incident Command System (ICS). (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan). 140 B. The initial action of the OIC will be to determine the extent of the emergency condition of the hazardous materials incident and establish emergency response actions accordingly. (Reference: Appendix 1: Emergency Action Checklist for Hazardous Materials Incidents and Published Standard Operating Procedures). The basic types of emergency conditions are as follows: 1. Potential Emergency Condition: An incident which can be controlled by the first response agencies and does not require evacuation of other than the involved structure or immediate outdoor area. The incident is confined to a small area and does not pose an immediate threat to human health, the environment, or property. 2. Limited Emergency Condition: An incident involving a greater hazard or larger area which poses a potential threat to human health, the environment or property and which may require protective action including limited evacuation or in-place sheltering. 3. Full Emergency Condition: An incident involving a severe hazard or a large area which poses an extreme threat to human health, the environment and property and will probably require a large-scale evacuation; or an incident requiring the expertise or resources of county, state, federal and/or private agencies/organizations. C. In all probability, little if any advance warning of a hazardous materials incident will occur. When notified of an incident, applicable portions of this plan will be implemented by appropriate authorities. The level of emergency response and necessary protective actions will be determined by many factors associated with a hazardous material incident (e.g., when responding to a fire at a facility where hazardous materials are known to exist, emergency responders will assume the involvement of hazardous substances unless otherwise advised or determined). D. A very important part of an effective radiological protection system is detection and monitoring (Reference: Appendix 7, Radiological Emergency Equipment and Appendix 8, Radiological Monitoring and Decontamination). E. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) will develop, organize and maintain a Radiological Protection (RADPRO) System to include the county EOC staff. The RADPRO System will provide: 1. A shelter capability for monitoring and assessing the radiation environment for shelterees. 141 2. A capability for monitoring and assessing the radiation environment to control for limit the exposure of emergency response personnel. 3. A monitoring, reporting and assessment capability for determining the extent and magnitude of the radiological hazard. 4. A decontamination capability to include an inventory of equipment and listing by priority of facilities and industries to be returned to an operational status. 5. A peacetime response capability for managing radiological emergencies. F. Harris Nuclear Power Plant: The emergency response plan for the Harris Nuclear Power Plant is published under separate cover: North Carolina Emergency Response Plan: Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP) G. Nuclear Threat/Attack: The emergency response plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack is published under separate cover: Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. In accordance with SARA Title III, Sec. 301(c), the Board of Wake County Commissioners submitted nominations to the North Carolina Emergency Response Commission (NCERC) for appointment to the Wake County Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). These nominations were confirmed by the NCERC in 1987 and, with minor modifications to the original committee, continues in operation. 2. County agencies involved in hazardous materials emergency response are responsible for the safety of their personnel, including training in the dangers of hazardous materials, emergency response techniques and procedures, protective measures, the provision of protective clothing and equipment, and medical monitoring of personnel as required by 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.120, effective March 6, 1990. 142 3. The Emergency Management Director will coordinate and maintain the RADPRO system. 4. The Wake County RADPRO Officer will conduct radiological protection operations and will coordinate with other departments to ensure radiological protection operational readiness (Reference: Appendix 6, Radiological Protection (RADPRO) Organizational Structure). 5. Upon request of the county RADPRO Officer, selected county agencies and other support organizations will ensure the availability of personnel and equipment for training support and operations as radiological monitors, during radiological emergencies. 6. The county RADPRO Officer will contact the North Carolina Division of Radiation Protection for technical assistance in support of control and disposition of radioactive materials. B. Responsibilities: 1. Board of County Commissioners (Chairman): a. Bring about the appointment of a Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) in accordance with SARA, Title III, and ensure appropriate coordination of such efforts with Wake County's Emergency Management Agency. b. Provide fiscal support and administrative resources. 2. Director of Public Safety: Ensure active coordination between the LEPC and County Emergency Management Agency. 3. County Emergency Management Director: a. Serve as community emergency coordinator, the primary county point of contact for hazardous material planning and response coordination. b. Make every reasonable effort to ensure that county/municipal facilities with hazardous materials are identified and appropriately catalogued. Seek the appointment of facility emergency coordinators. c. Ensure that related training concerns are being addressed and that every reasonable effort is made to provide appropriate training for emergency responders as required by CFR 1910.120. 143 d. Develop capabilities for the timely notification and, as necessary, the activation of the county emergency response system. e. Establish a comprehensive radiological protection program. f. Establish a Wake County RADPRO System. g. Identify and catalogue available resources and equipment which may be assembled to support hazardous material emergency response operations. h. Ensure documentation and coordination of necessary records and reports. i. Conduct periodic inventories of radiological equipment and coordinate maintenance, service-ability and exchange with the N. C. Division of Emergency Management (NCDEM). j. Ensure continuity of the Local Emergency Planning Committee activities with government, industry and local emergency services, pursuant to SARA, Title III, and the county's emergency management objectives. k. Ensure exercises and tests of the emergency response system for hazardous materials are conducted, as required (Reference: Para. VIII, Basic Plan ). l. Ensure that critiques are conducted following exercises, tests or actual emergency responses. Identify deficiencies and implement necessary corrective actions. m. Responsible for insuring that operational procedures and other tasks for the emergency public information and radiological defense are accomplished as stated under the Normal Readiness Phase of these areas. 4. County RADPRO System (Environmental Health Dept.) a. In conjunction with the Emergency Management Director, develop county radiological protection procedures. b. Develop method to exchange radiological data and provide support radiological capability with neighboring jurisdictions. c. Maintain a current notification roster. d. Ensure that appropriate training is provided for radiological protection response personnel. 144 e. Establish a distribution system for radiological protection equipment. f. Develop and maintain a radiological decontamination capability for personnel, vehicles, equipment and facilities. g. Report to EOC upon request to coordinate and support the radiological emergency response. h. Coordinate with EOC communications personnel to establish and maintain necessary communications capabilities for reception of radiological data to include radiation levels and population exposure. i. Provide for the maintenance of exposure records for emergency workers and ensure that dosimeters are read at appropriate intervals. j. Coordinate special monitoring functions with the state EOC (e.g. ground and aerial surveys during recovery actions). k. Coordinate with the EPI to prepare pre-scripted announcements for radiological emergencies. l. In concert with the EPI, prepare and distribute public educational programs relating to radiation safety. m. Conduct damage assessment following radiological emergencies. n. Support specialized radiological teams as needed (e.g. Radiological Emergency Response Teams). 5. County Environmental Health Department: In addition to other responsibilities required by this plan and agency directives will: a. Provide technical support to emergency response officials regarding environmental health concerns. b. Develop and implement, on an as-needed basis, capabilities for coordination of support from state and federal health resources. c. Monitor and coordinate environmental health functions, as required. d. Provide technical assistance to N. C. Division of Radiation Protection when requested. 145 6. On-Scene Incident Coordinator (OIC): a. Implement necessary actions to safeguard human health, the environment and property. (Reference: Appendix 1, Emergency Action Checklist for Hazardous Materials Incidents). b. Where appropriate, assist in the identification of the hazardous materials involved. c. Develop strategy and provide guidance during the implementation of the emergency plan and supporting actions. (Reference: Wake County Incident Command System, published standard operating procedures and hazardous materials training documents). 7. Facility Emergency Coordinator(s): a. Ensure that the facility information required under provisions of Title III of SARA is submitted to the LEPC, designated fire department, and N. C. Emergency Response Commission (NCERC), and maintained in a current status. b. Ensure that the facility emergency response capabilities are effective, including provisions for the immediate and follow-up notification of the jurisdiction and state authorities in the event of a hazardous material incident, under provisions of Sec. 304, Title III of SARA. c. Make every reasonable effort to ensure that facility personnel are knowledgable of and adequately trained in on-site emergency response actions, including recognition of release and notification procedures. d. Ensure that the facility maintains a current inventory of available equipment and resources for response to a hazardous material emergency. e. When requested, provide a qualified technical representative to the On- Scene Incident Coordinator and the Wake County EOC. 8. Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC): a. The LEPC is tasked with fulfillment of responsibilities regarding local emergency planning for extremely hazardous substances (EHS) pursuant to Title III of SARA, Sec 303, under the guidance of both the North Carolina Emergency Response Commission and the Wake County Board of Commissioners. 146 b. Identify and assess the current level of prevention, preparedness, and response of existing programs, both as to capabilities and shortfalls. c. Ensure an active chemical hazard identification program within the jurisdiction, as well as a vulnerability assessment and risk analysis. d. Ensure the development of plans to protect the public (to include notification, sheltering-in-place, evacuation, etc.). e. Ensure the public is educated through Public Awareness Programs for possible emergencies in their area, kept informed during a hazardous material accident, and permitted access to the county emergency operations plan, including information regarding chemical hazards within the community. f. Assist in the identification of resources needed for response to a hazardous material incident from public and private sources. g. As needed, make recommendations to the county officials about emergency response matters related to hazardous material. 9. State Responsibilities: a. In accordance with state statutes, upon request by local jurisdictions, the State Division of Emergency Management is responsible for providing augmentation of necessary emergency response capabilities. Most state agencies (especially those with a response role such as Environmental Management, Solid and Hazardous Waste, State Highway Patrol, National Guard, etc.) are available to assist local jurisdictions upon application to the State Emergency Response Team (SERT). b. The Central Branch Area Coordinator has been empowered by the Secretary of Crime Control and Public Safety to act on his behalf as prescribed in G.S. 166A, and, when requested by local government, is responsible to provide state assistance during an emergency. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Within the county, there are four (4) primary categories of response agencies that generally respond to HAZMAT incidents 24 hours per day. They are: 1) Sheriff's Department/Municipal Law Enforcement and State Highway Patrol, 2) Municipal/Volunteer Fire Departments and County Fire Marshal, 3) County EMS/Rescue Squads and, 4) the County Emergency Management Agency. The initial response efforts, combined with on-scene incident management, will be provided by appropriate emergency response agencies. The first dispatched 147 agency arriving on scene will establish direction and control based on the size and complexity of the incident. They will call in additional resources, as required (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan). B. When appropriate, the county RADPRO System will coordinate radiological emergency response activities and decontamination operations, as needed. Environmental Health will effect the collection and evaluation of information and make recommendations for protective measures. C. The county Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is located in the basement of the Wake County Courthouse in Raleigh. Engineering survey has determined that 542 category 4+ spaces exist in this facility. D. The Chairman, County Board of Commissioners, with support from heads of municipal governments, key county and municipal officials, and non-government personnel staff, has overall responsibility, and will exercise direction and control from the EOC, or the alternate EOC, during shelter and relocation operations. E. The Wake County Manager, Director of Public Safety and the county Emergency Management Director will act as the chairman's principal advisors during nuclear related emergencies. F. EOC staffing and internal operations will be in accordance with the WCSOP- 100A. A current roster of the EOC staff, with positions, names and telephone numbers will be maintained as part of this SOP. G. EOC communications will include all systems now in use by county and municipal governments on a day-to-day basis as well as NOAA and the Emergency Alert System (EAS), if activated. H. In the event of relocation to adjacent counties, Wake County will provide a local government liaison team in the host areas EOC's to assist in the coordination between the relocatees and the host county's officials. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Should the Chairman, County Board of County Commissioners, be unable to perform the duties of his office, the Vice Chairman, as duly elected by the board, will assume the powers and discharge the duties of the Chairman. Further, the board shall specify the rank in the order of succession of the other board members. B. Lines of succession for agencies and officials involved in a hazardous material incident will be in accordance with either statutory requirements or internal organizational design. 148 C. RADPRO continuation/coordination of activities will be established by the Wake County Environmental Health Department line of succession. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. The agencies that may become involved in a hazardous material incident will develop and maintain emergency procedures and response capabilities as appropriate to address such incidences. Such capabilities will include appropriate hazardous materials training, coordination of the Wake County Incident Command System (ICS) and maintenance of mutual aid agreements. B. Specific Fixed Facility Information: Information about each facility identified under SARA, Title III, as having extremely hazardous substances exceeding the threshold planning quantities, will be collected, catalogued and maintained by the Wake County Emergency Management office and made available to emergency responders and the public as required. C. The county RADPRO System will develop a roster of radiological response agencies and organizations to include names, addresses, telephone numbers, and training status and assignments. D. The North Carolina Division of Emergency Management is responsible for maintenance and calibration of RADPRO instruments. E. Training/Logistics: 1. Each agency and organization assigned RADPRO responsibilities will be trained in the employment of assigned radiological emergency equipment. 2. Equipment and expendable supplies for hazmat operations will be coordinated by the Wake County Emergency Management Agency. 3. Radiological emergency equipment which is not issued to emergency response organizations, will be stockpiled and maintained in reserve at the county Emergency Management Agency's storage facility. 4. The computation of radiological data from a nuclear attack or peacetime incident is vital for emergency workers. These records will be kept current as to exposure levels and will be supplied by the Emergency Management Director (Reference: WCSOP -101, Radiation Exposure Control and Dosimetry). 5. Transportation, as required by shelter operations, relocation operations, or as required for securing supplies and equipment will be coordinated by the Wake County EOC. 149 F. Reporting: Reporting for hazardous material incidents will be in accordance with reporting requirements and procedures (See Appendix 9: Reporting Procedures for Nuclear Attack Hazards). VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency will ensure overall coordination of hazardous materials planning and training efforts within Wake County and adjoining jurisdictions. B. The county LEPC and RADPRO Officer will assist with the review and revision of plans on a periodic basis. Such efforts will be coordinated through the county Emergency Management Agency with local government, local emergency services, business/industry and the public. C. County agencies/municipalities involved in hazardous materials emergency response should develop procedures to implement this annex in coordination with county Emergency Management. D. The Emergency Management Director will coordinate efforts by the county RADPRO Officer, county agencies, and emergency response/support organizations, in the development of the county RADPRO system. E. Appendices to this common function include references to Wake County standard operating procedures which, in turn, provides lists of emergency equipment and details for radiation control, dosimetry, record keeping, sheltering, and radiological monitoring and decontamination. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); Title III - "The Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986". B. N. C. Executive Order #43; North Carolina Emergency Response Commission, dated April 7, 1987. C. N. C. Hazardous Chemicals Right-To-Know Act; General Statutes 95-173/95- 218. D. North Carolina Emergency Response Plan in support of the Harris Nuclear Power Plant. 150 E. N. C. General Statutes, Chapter 166-A. F. N. C. General Statutes, 104 E. G. National Response Team Guidance; NRT-1, dated March 1987, "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide". H. FEMA Planning Guidance; CPG 1-8/1-8a. I. FEMA/REP 2 - "Guidance On Off-Site Emergency Radiation Measurement Systems". J. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. K. Wake County Incident Command Master Plan, February 1990. L. Wake County Standard Operating Procedures. M. North Carolina Emergency Operations Plan for Nuclear Civil Protection (NC EOP for NCP). N. Wake County Population Protection Plan for Nuclear Threat/Attack, 1985. O. FEMA CPG 2-10 Series, June 1978. P. Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended, Public Law 920 - 81st Congress. Q. Readiness During Periods of International Crisis, April 1979. R. Nuclear Attack Planning Base (NAPB), 1990. Final Project Report, April, 1987. COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZERDOUS MATERIAL APPENDIX 1 EMERGENCY ACTION CHECKLIST 151 FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS A. INITIAL RESPONDERS 1. Size-Up/Identification o Approach from upwind and upgrade o Observe from safe distance o Use binoculars if necessary o Examine placards/labels o Interview driver, conductors, facility operator, dock manager, etc. o Examine shipping papers or I.D. numbers o Refer to DOT Guidebook or Fire Fighter's Handbook of Hazardous Materials 2. Isolate Area o Avoid contact with materials, fumes, dust, etc. o Establish control line at safe distance o Eliminate or avoid ignition sources o Determine if larger evacuation necessary to keep people away from chemicals 3. Provide for Personnel Safety o Use appropriate personal protective equipment o Consciously avoid committing personnel and equipment to an unsafe situation 4. Rescue injured persons if possible to do so in safe manner o Identify all people who might have been injured or exposed 5. Notification and Technical Assistance o Alert 911 o State Agencies 919-733-3861 (State Warning Point) o Federal agencies: NRC (1-800-452-8802) o Industry: CHEMTREC (1-800-424-9300) o Emergency Medical Advice: Poison Control Center (1-800-672-1697) 152 PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IF POSSIBLE: - your name, agency, location and call back number - type of material involved, characteristics, physical state, physical effects - amount of material released, duration of release, total amount that may be released whether significant amounts of substance appear to be entering the atmosphere, nearby water, storm drains - direction, height, color, odor of vapor clouds or plume, weather conditions, local terrain conditions, wind direction - Injuries, contamination, exposure - responsible party - personnel on scene 6. Establish Incident Command System o Determine who is the On-Scene Incident Coordinator o Set up field command post at same location o Advise dispatcher exact location of command post o Establish communications with off-scene help o Brief commander(s) *(This is a suggested format. Actual implementation should be based upon training and the ability to perform the identified tasks. Source: Right-To-Know Guide, the Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.) B. ON-SCENE INCIDENT COORDINATOR (OIC) 1. Determine the On-Scene Incident Coordinator o Clearly identify yourself as OIC o Make sure Command Post is at a safe location o Establish unified command, if appropriate, with agencies on scene o Identify lead state agency, if any o Establish staging areas for equipment, medical treatment o Assure notifications made o Determine assistance needed from other agencies 2. Determine the Hazard o Check placards, shipping, etc. o Use reference books and off-scene help (i.e. Emergency Management, Fire Marshal, CHEMTREC, etc. o Identify hazardous material, estimate threat to the population and environment o Determine wind speed and direction o Determine downwind, downstream, and downslope exposures o Identify ignition sources 153 o Use available detection equipment 3. Provide for Personnel Safety o Ensure the use of proper personal protective equipment o Evaluate need for further evacuation o Document personnel exposure o Appoint a Safety Officer 4. Assign Personnel Responsibilities (as appropriate) o Staging __________________________________________ o Evacuation________________________________________ o Rescue___________________________________________ o Traffic and crowd control____________________________ o Containment_______________________________________ o Fire suppression____________________________________ o Public information__________________________________ o Communications___________________________________ o Safety____________________________________________ o Emergency Medical_________________________________ o Documentation_____________________________________ 5. Evaluate Control Line and Revise (if necessary) o Use tape, rope, fire-hose, etc. o Leave a margin of error 6. Incident Management o Develop incident action plan o Oversee incident operations o Coordinate activities with EOC, Communications Center, etc. as appropriate 7. Decontamination o Assign decontamination area officer and team o Identify people and equipment possible exposed o Set up decontamination area procedures 154 EVACUATION/SHELTER ACTIVITIES: (COMMAND POST) 1. Determine Danger Area o Determine size of spill o Determine plume direction o Identify people and facilities in danger area 2. Decide between evacuation or shelter. (What will best reduce exposure.) 3. Begin warning and/or evacuation procedures for those nearest the accident site. Work outwards from the accident site 4. Notify necessary support agencies: o Law enforcement agencies o Local T.V., Radio, Cable and Newspaper through the PIO o Dispatchers o Emergency Management (Red Cross, County Public Health Department, Transportation Coordinator, County Social Services when rest homes, family care homes, or special needs groups are involved) C. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES (EMS) o Be aware of dangers o Take proper precautions to protect yourself when handling casualties o Coordinate actions with OIC (Command Post) o Identify medical risk to victims and emergency responders o Establish medical triage area, if necessary o Determine and establish appropriate treatment o Coordinate emergency transportation o Coordinate with hospital and medical personnel o Coordinate with Red Cross Mass Care Coordinator and/or EOC logistics regarding medical services required by evacuees o Decontaminate personnel - victims and equipment as needed o Help question/examine responding personnel on state of health and treat as required o Provide medical monitoring of emergency personnel as needed D. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH o Identify yourself to OIC as representing public health o Coordinate with medical services o Confirm health hazard o Investigate toxic levels of materials involved o Confirm evacuation area perimeters o Insure no biological agents involved (contact N. C. Division of Health if 155 biological agents involved) o Work with State and Federal agencies to address environmental health/sanitation impacts E. LAW ENFORCEMENT o Determine with the OIC on the need for an exclusion perimeter, and the distances to establish traffic control o Establish perimeter, using rope, barricades, vehicles, etc. (Note: avoid flares if any indication that combustible or flammable chemicals are present) o Reroute pedestrians and vehicles around perimeter - keep onlookers, news media and others from excluded area o Request additional assistance as needed o Be prepared, at the request of the OIC, to remove persons hindering emergency operations o Reopen evacuated areas at the determination of Command Post F. PUBLIC WORKS/UTILITIES OPERATIONS o Coordinate activities with OIC o Be prepared to assist with traffic control, providing barricades, etc. o Be prepared to provide sand for absorption and diking o Be prepared to cut off power, gas, water, etc., as required G. PUBLIC INFORMATION 1. Initial Actions o Work with OIC on press releases o If necessary, contact local media and inform them of nature of the emergency and other pertinent information as appropriate o Set up press briefing area as close to the command post as possible, but in such a way that it does not interfere with the command post. o Establish both incoming and outgoing telephone communications at the press briefing area if possible. o Be available to supply information to press on request o Periodically get status summary from OIC 2. Long Term Actions (if required) o Coordinate press releases with involved agencies o Coordinate with State and Federal PIOs o Be the direct liaison with all the news media o Do follow-up after emergency is over for evaluation purposes o Offer on-going contact with media for wrap-up stories. 156 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 2 COMMODITY FLOW In 1995 the Wake County Emergency Management office conducted a commodity flow study. This study was designed to identify the kinds and amounts of chemicals being transported throughout the major transportation systems in Wake County and characterizes the movement of hazardous materials through the County. The study analyzes commodity flow from three distinct perspectives: Historical The historical research encompassed all data from 1987-1994. The intention behind the historical research was to document the past in order to better anticipate the probabilities of future HAZMAT incidents. Further, all historical information is now stored in a user- friendly computerized database for easy accessibility and for further documentation of HAZMAT problems. Field Site Survey The Field Site Survey was a study of placarded vehicles traveling along major transportation routes in Wake County. This is a representative sample of what is being transported throughout the Wake County system at any given time. Fixed Site Survey The Fixed Site Survey was conducted to identify the major chemicals shipped and received by Wake County businesses. The difference between this survey and the Field Site Survey is that trucks observed in the Field Site Survey may not have had a Wake County destination. Thus, the Fixed Site Survey’s purpose was to identify the consumption of hazardous materials by the County exclusive of the flow of materials traveling through the County. Although trucks were the major focus for this study, rail transportation was also examined. Wake County is serviced by two rail companies, Norfolk-Southern and CSX. Shipment reports were obtained from the companies, each providing information on the number of cars in the train; the number of tons being transported; the products being transported; and, when and what route was being taken by the train. Estimates of the amounts of each chemical being transported were based on DOT requirements and tanker capacity which is usually 80% full. In 1993, industry and retail in the County reported a total quantity of chemicals in excess of 3.7 billion pounds; Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) exceeded 53 million pounds. In 1994, 2,874 businesses in Wake County reported having chemicals, of which 215 have EHSs. Along with having this large industry base comes the need to transport large volumes of chemicals and raw materials, and to transport the waste products 157 including hazardous waste. With 305.53 miles of road (the largest in the state), 460,492 people (the second largest in the state), a total area of 833.9 square miles, and a population density of 507.66 persons per square mile – the danger to people, property, and the environment is ever present. The County averages 111 HAZMAT incidents per year. Wake County’s most heavily traveled route is Interstate 40. This is a major route between the East and West Coasts of the United States. I-40 is also a major route between the Triangle and the Triad communities; it is a link between communities in the Triangle area; and it feeds into the I-440 Beltline passing through Raleigh, as do all of the County’s major highways. This, in turn, brings most hazardous materials within range of the largest population center in the county. US Highway 64 North connects traffic between Raleigh and eastern Wake communities and North Carolina industrial centers like Wilson and Rocky Mount. This route is also an important connection with the coast, especially the Outer Banks and Southern Virginia coastal areas. US Highway 1 North connects northern Wake County to I-85 and also routes to I-95. US 1 North is also a major traffic connection between northern Wake communities and Raleigh. US 1 South is in close proximity to the Harris Nuclear Power Plant and connects southern Wake communities with Raleigh. This study enables emergency responders to prepare for several types of hazardous material transportation incidents involving railroad, pipeline, and road transportation. Firefighters and HAZMAT personnel can use the top ten chemicals listed in the study as a basis for their training 158 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 3 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION CORRIDORS 159 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 3-A WAKE COUNTY PIPELINE MAP 160 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 4 NOTIFICATION CHART FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS Incident Occurs Spiller Public Emergency Responders EPA 911 Communications Center SHP Communications Clean-up Company Fire Department Responds Options upon arrival 1. FD Will handle notification only 2. Request hazmat 3. Need resources from Wake Co. (specify) Notifies 911 of intenetions/ actions. All spills to be reported to 911 911 Notifies appropriate agencies If requested, notify Hazmat County only notify FM Others as required by departmental SOP City of Raleigh Notify FD Safety Officer LEPC Wake Co. Emerg. Mngt. State EM SERC FEMA Wake Co. Env. Health State Env. EPA Management Notes: Sewage spills should be reported directly to the Wake County Department of Environmental Health. Wake County Agencies will respond upon request. 161 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 5 INFORMATION FLOW CHART FOR TRACKING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SERC State Emergency LEPC Wake Co. Local Fire Department or Management Emergency Management Fire District Employees SARA Industry (Right-To-Know) Fire Marshal Affected Fire Department or (Inspectors) Fire District Purpose of Information Risk Assessment Plans/Procedures Training General Public Inquiries Local Government Input Public Awareness Wake Co. Emergency Emergency Response Management Computerized Exercises Information Center. Recovery Operations County Departments and Computerized Information GIS Computer Hazmat Teams Raleigh/ 911 Comm Center "CAD" Env. Health Dept. Affected Fire Department Wendell 162 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 6 RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX Board of Wake County Commissioners (Chairman) County Manager Director of Public Safety Emergency Management Director County RADPRO System County PIO Fire Services Law Enforcement EMS/Rescue NC Radiological Protection County Environmental Division Health Department 163 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 7 RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT I. PRE-EMERGENCY PHASE The Emergency Management Director will ensure that radiological emergency equipment is issued to the appropriate emergency response agencies and organizations for use in responding to incidents involving radiological materials. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency (WCEMA) maintains up-to-date listings of radiological emergency equipment, both distributed (field deployed) and available in reserve storage. The locations of radiological emergency equipment which have been pre-positioned (field deployed) and detailed listings of the equipment inventory are maintained in the WCEMA office. Training (e.g., role responsibility and equipment proficiency) will be provided to appropriate WCEMA staff and emergency response personnel of those organizations issued radiological emergency equipment. Training records are maintained in the WCEMA office. II. DURING INCREASED READINESS Radiological survey equipment kits are retained in storage, located at Wake County Emergency Management Agency's storage facility. This equipment can be used for self protection and reporting stations. The Wake County Emergency Management Agency will coordinate the strategic deployment and distribution of this equipment during periods of increased readiness. 164 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 8 RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND DECONTAMINATION I. RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING, DECONTAMINATION AND EXPOSURE CONTROL A. Radiological monitoring/decontamination will be conducted by radiological monitoring and decontamination (RM&D) teams, dispatched to an emergency scene, to designated shelter facilities and/or decontamination stations. Wake County Emergency Management Agency shall coordinate radiological emergency response activities with appropriate emergency response/support organizations. 1. Specific instructions for radiological monitoring and decontamination operations, along with a listing of the pre-designated facilities and sites for RM&D activities, are provided for in WCSOP-102 "Radiological Monitoring and Decontamination". 2. Instructions for radiation protection of emergency response personnel are provided for in: WCSOP-101, "Radiation Exposure Control and Dosimetry". This procedure includes details for tracking radiation exposures during emergency response activities, and also provides instructions for record keeping and communication with the county EOC. 165 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 8 ATTACHMENT 1 - SUPPLIES Some of the recommended supplies and equipment necessary for personnel monitoring and decontamination operations at shelters/RM&D locations are: 1. Signs to designate monitoring and decontamination areas, entrances, exits, etc. 2. Paper, plastic or drop cloths to cover the floor in monitoring/decontamination areas 3. Barricade tape for traffic flow control in the shelter 4. Forms, paper supplies, pencils, etc. for recording, addresses and survey information 5. Two low-range GM survey meters (CDV-700) with headsets 6. Two low-range self-reading dosimeters (0-200mR) 7. One dosimeter charger (CDV-750) 8. Baggies or disposable gloves 9. Plastic bags or containers for suspected contaminated articles 10. Labels for tagging personal belongings 11. Masking Tape 12. Fixed or improvised shower facilities 13. Non-abrasive soap/shampoo 14. Q-tips or similar swabs for ear and nose cleaning and wipe testing 15. Clean clothing 16. "CAUTION RADIATION AREA" signs for designation of contaminated areas Some of the recommended supplies and equipment necessary for vehicular monitoring/ decontamination are: 1. Two low-range GM survey meters (CDV-700) with headsets 2. One medium-range self-reading dosimeter (0-20 R) 3. One low-range, self-reading dosimeters (0-200mR) 4. One dosimeter charger 5. Equipment for vehicle wash down 6. Baggies and disposable gloves 166 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 8 ATTACHMENT 2 - ESSENTIAL FACILITIES Among others, the state of and criticality of the facilities listed should be constantly monitored and evaluated during emergency situations in order to return to operational status as soon as possible. 1. Water supply 2. Food supply 3. Hospitals 4. Electric power supply 5. Public works 6. Fire departments 7. Telephone services 8. Natural gas pump stations 9. Gas service bulk storage tanks 10. Law enforcement 167 COMMON FUNCTION 10 - HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 9 REPORTING PROCEDURES FOR NUCLEAR ATTACK HAZARDS I. GENERAL A. When nuclear attack occurs, information on effects is initially reported by a network of local Weapons Effect Reporting Stations (WERS). Reports are made to the Emergency Operations Center (EOC). B. The EOC immediately relays damage reports (which include nuclear detonations [NUDET] sightings) to the state EOC, which establishes the location of NUDETS by analysis of the local reports. If reports are received of fallout occurring in downwind areas, the NUDET is assessed as a surface burst; whereas lack of fallout reports would lead to assessment as an air burst. The state EOC sends reports on NUDETS to Region IV, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). C. Similarly, reports on fallout are received by EOC's from WERS and are transmitted to the state EOC. The state EOC reports fallout conditions to the FEMA radiological control using the following color code: 1. "Red" means over 50 R/hr.; 2. "Yellow" means between .5 and 50 R/hr.; and 3. "White" means under .5 R/hr. D. On the basis of damage information, the state develops fallout alert reports. These provide initial warning to downwind localities and states that fallout may occur, and include an estimated time of arrival. E. Fallout warning reports are a follow-on to the fallout alert and contain information as to fallout intensity and accurate arrival times. A fallout warning report will be developed and disseminated by the state EOC after confirmation of a surface burst. The report identifies areas which will be subjected to fallout, as well as expected exposure rates and arrival times. Additional reporting procedures are found in Civil Preparedness Guidance (GPG) 2-10 series. 168 COMMON FUNCTION 10 -HAZARDOUS MATERIALS APPENDIX 10 EMERGENCY ACTION CHECKLIST FOR NUCLEAR THREAT/ATTACK HAZARD Chairman, County Commissioners Increase Readiness o Assess initial intelligence. o Ascertain if additional resources are needed. Response o Provide operational guidance relative to survival and recovery efforts. o Authorize media releases. Recovery o Oversee recovery activities. Director of Public Safety/Emergency Management Director Increase Readiness o Review in-place and evacuation plans. o Determine readiness of communication and warning systems. o Equip key worker shelters. o Relocate unassigned radiological instruments to host areas. o As appropriate, initiate upgrading, marking and stocking of shelter facilities. Response o On order, effect the appropriate phase of the sheltering plan. o Continue essential services including public information announcements. o Resolve conflicting demands for resources. o Initiate the detailing of plans to effect the return of shelters and foster an orderly return to normalcy. 169 Recovery o Coordinate the recovery of essential service and governmental functions. Communications Center Increase Readiness o Determine operational status of communication and warning systems. o Assure the availability of necessary personnel assets, for round the clock operations. o Review applicable procedures. Response o On call, activate appropriate siren warning systems. o Within available assets, maintain maximum operation efficiency throughout the emergency response system. Recovery o Maintain a continued state of effectiveness throughout recovery phase. Emergency Public Information Increase Readiness o Prepare to distribute Emergency Public Information. o Initiate actions to assure the prompt and accurate issuance of information updates and guidance announcements to the general public. Response o Continue the issuance and monitoring of appropriate public service announcements, updates and general instruction. o Stress resource conservation. o Deal effectively with disquieting and unconfirmed rumors (rumor control). Recovery o Provide public guidance relative to re-entry into evacuated areas and recovery operations. o Advise public on resource locations. o Instruct public on contaminated areas. o Inform public on economic stabilization activities. 170 Sheriff Increase Readiness o Review/update evacuation security and traffic control plans. o Augment law enforcement assets where needed. o Plan for prison inmate movement and execute where deemed advisable. o Establish a pass system for entering evacuation areas (Ref. Appendix 1, Annex E). o Arrange for availability of wrecker services. Response o On order, assist in the implementation of the evacuation order. o Control access, prevent looting. o Secure vital facilities. o Plan recovery action. Recovery o Maintain essential communications. o Maintain adjacent jurisdictions contact. o Oversee public movement home. o Ensure traffic control surveillance, and wrecker service. o Continue vital security for facilities and resources. o Return inmates to original facility. Fire Marshal Increase Readiness o Alert and brief all fire departments. Response o Fix fire watches. o Assist in the safe movement of public. o Oversee fire prevention in shelters. o Place mobile units in key staging areas. Recovery o Continue fire services. o Maintain fire support of communications capabilities. o On request, assist the law enforcement authorities with traffic control/security. 171 EMS Director Increase Readiness o Bring into a readiness state all emergency medical/rescue assets under Wake County's jurisdiction. Response o Place emergency response assets at key staging areas. o Assist in the movement of all non-ambulatory personnel. o On call, assist in medical services at the reception areas and shelters. Recovery o Continue emergency medical/rescue services throughout recovery stage. o Assist in the movement of non-ambulatory personnel. o Maintain EMS and Rescue support of communications. o Assist the law enforcement authorities with traffic control/security. Community Services Administrator Increase Readiness o Assist with emergency shelters marking and upgrading. o Identify non-essential public services to be discontinued in the event of a general evacuation. Response o Assist with the identification of resources to construct and upgrade necessary emergency shelters within Wake County. o Provide support for upgrading shelters in host areas. Recovery o Assist with emergency repair and restoration of roads, vital facilities and utilities. o Assist with debris removal and landfill operations. o Assist in damage assessment. 172 General Services Administrator Increase Readiness o Assist in location of vehicular refueling and supply point. o Assist in the identification and placement of emergency services, similar to the following-potable water; portable lights, heat, tentage, and toilets; garbage disposal and wrecker support. o Plan for emergency shelter marking and upgrading Response o Continue identification and placement of emergency services. o On call, provide emergency maintenance, fuel and wrecker support. o Supervise the construction and upgrading of emergency shelters. Recovery o Coordinate the reactivation of critical facilities and services. o Assist in the identification and availability of essential supplies and support services. o Assist with debris removal. Environmental Health Director Increase Readiness o Review evacuation and sheltering plans. o Project special health and medical needs. o Alert appropriate medical personnel. o Inventory medical resources. o Plan for shelter care of aged and medically dependent citizens. Response o Assist in medical evacuation and consolidation. o Identify suitable medical facilities in the host areas and assist in the assignments. o Wake County medical personnel, supplies, and equipment. o Furnish medical care, sanitation and vector controls at the reception areas and within the shelters. o Plan recovery activities to include resupply of necessary supplies and medicines. 173 Recovery o Assist in the return of medically dependent citizens. o Monitor all sanitation interests. Transportation Coordinator Increase Readiness o Review evacuation and transportation plans. o Identify all available transportation assets and place them in a standby status. Response o On call, subject to availability, assist in the transportation of evacuees. Recovery o On call, provide available transportation assets in the support of necessary efforts. American Red Cross Representative Increase Readiness o Maintain liaison with Wake County Emergency Management for coordination of response planning and operations. o Participate in planning, preparedness and operational meetings. o Alert available personnel. Response o Assist with mass care and emergency operations activities. o Provide available blood and blood products when needed. Recovery o Continue to address needs appropriate to mission and assets. Damage Assessment Officer Increase Readiness o Review SOP. o Alert damage assessment personnel and place on standby status. 174 Response o Activate damage assessment procedures. o Compile casualty and damage reports. o Following review by County authorities, submit damage assessment report to designated State agencies. Recovery o As appropriate, continue damage assessments and effect submissions of updated reports to the State. RADPRO System Increase Readiness o Inventory equipment and supplies and prepare distribution. o Alert monitors into a standby status. o Report or verify previously reported shortages to the NCDEM and request fulfillment of needs. o Tentatively assign resources and effect necessary refresher training of monitors. Response o Distribute available radiation detection equipment. o Assign radiation monitors to check radiation levels at predetermined sites within and outside the affected area. o Compile and maintain records as to verified radiation exposure levels. Recovery o Coordinate decontamination procedures. Budget and Management/Finance Department Directors Increase Readiness o Effect centralized fiscal and requisitioning/procurement procedures. Response o Assist in the procurement of essential supplies, materials, and services. o Maintain fiscal accountability of all identified expenditures. 175 Recovery o Continue necessary fiscal support during recovery stage. o Support Economic Stabilization Board activities. o Consolidate records of related expenditures. NOTE: The emergency services required may not be confined to the above agencies. 176 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 11: DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES I. PURPOSE This common function involves coordination of assistance to local residents and municipalities in identifying and meeting the medical needs of victims of a major emergency. This function includes assessment of medical needs, management of medical care personnel, mental health and crisis counseling, and emergency medical services. This function also provides care for large numbers of casualties from an overseas war. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Earthquakes, tidal waves, volcanic eruptions, storms, fires, industrial accidents and many other disasters have struck the United States. These have not caused the massive casualties of similar incidents in other parts of the world. No single city, county or state can be fully prepared for such catastrophic events. Although many cities of the nation are well provided with health resources, those resources would be overwhelmed by a sudden surge of disaster injuries proportional to the population. 2. In the event of a conventional overseas war involving American forces, the military medical system could be overwhelmed by casualties returning to the United States for hospitalization. To meet the need, military casualties would need to be distributed among Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and United States non-federal hospitals for treatment. B. Assumptions: 1. A large-scale emergency may result in increased demands on hospitals, Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/rescue, and medical personnel services. 2. Many of the injured will be transported to medical facilities by people other than medical personnel. 3. EMS/rescue is most critical within the first 30 minutes of the emergency. 4. Existing mutual aid agreements will provide additional medical services. 177 5. When local resources can no longer meet the demand of the situation, state agencies will provide assistance appropriate to the needs. 6. Catastrophic disasters involving large areas of the county may adversely affect response capabilities of local medical resources. 7. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to relocate hospital facilities and patients. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATION A. Wake County government will provide direction and control of National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) activities within Wake County. B. On-scene management organization will be in accordance with the Wake County Incident Command Master Plan and this procedure. C. NDMS may compensate participation hospitals and medical care providers. Participating NDMS hospitals, physicians and other providers of care and services may be reimbursed on the basis of billed charges. D. Military and civilian aircraft will be utilized to transport injured persons to Raleigh-Durham International Airport. Coordination of arrival of these flights will be in accordance with NDMS procedures. E. EMS/Rescue will provide field medical care as needed and coordinate necessary medical transportation. EMS/Rescue capabilities will be expanded by available volunteer rescue squads services. During mass casualty incidents, EMS/Rescue will establish necessary patient triage, holding, treatment and transportation areas. F. When appropriate, an EMS or rescue squad official will be located at established command posts and staging areas to coordinate responding medical units and establish communication links with hospitals, the county communications center and the Emergency Operations Center (EOC). IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The initial and primary responsibility for the protection of health, safety and property in the event of an NDMS natural disaster operation, rests locally with Wake County government. In some cases, assistance must be obtained from out-of-county resources. Wake County Emergency Management will have the lead role in working with various state agencies to obtain all necessary assistance. 178 2. The EMS director will coordinate emergency field medical service operations. 3. Emergency medical teams will be provided with safety equipment and associated training for response to hazardous materials incidents. 4. An organizational chart for Medical Services is found at Appendix 1, Medical Services Organization Matrix. B. Assignment of Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. See National Disaster Medical System Operations Procedure for specific responsibilities. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Overall direction and control will be the primary responsibility of the Director of Public Safety or his designee. B. The EMS director will coordinate EMS/rescue operations. For on-scene incidents, the senior representative will assume direction and control over such activities. (Reference: Wake County Incident Command Master Plan.) C. The EMS Director will maintain communications with his field forces and will keep the EOC informed of activities, including personnel and equipment needed to maintain adequate response and recovery efforts. D. Support agencies/departments will follow established internal procedures for direction and control. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT Lines of succession within each agency are established either by statutory requirements or by the agencies' internal procedures. Upon activation of the EOC, lines of succession for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are as follows: 1. County EMS Director 2. County EMS Operations Officer 3. EMS Shift Supervisor (On Duty) 179 VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. General: All departments with responsibilities related to medical services will arrange for the collection, processing and security of vital records, statistics and other documentation. B. Logistical Support: The county EMS Director and supporting agencies will: 1. Assist in the effecting of mutual aid agreements leading to availability of additional medical response teams. 2. Prepare for the emergency requisition of medical equipment and supplies. 3. Determine the availability of and arrange for support assets, such as: a. Aircraft, helicopters, trucks, four wheel vehicles; b. Private and public ambulance companies; VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE A. Under the guidance of the Emergency Management Director, this common function will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis. B. Involved agencies will maintain current internal notification rosters and updated departmental SOPs. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. C. National Disaster Medical System Operations Procedure COMMON FUNCTION 11 - DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES 180 APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX NDMS Wake Medical Center State Emergency Mgt. Area Hospitals Wake County EM Out of County EMS/ Rescue Public Safety Dir. State OEMS Area Rescue Squads Wake EMS Area Fire Depts. Wake County FM Wake County Sheriff Highway Patrol RDU Law Enforcement RDU Airport Auth. SBI FBI Raleigh PD Cary PD Morrisville PD American Red Cross Triangle Transit COMMON FUNCTION 11 - DISASTER MEDICAL SERVICES 181 APPENDIX 2 LISTING OF MEDICAL FACILITIES Hospitals 1. Wake Medical Center, 3000 New Bern Avenue, Raleigh 2. Rex Health Care, 4420 Lake Boone Trail, Raleigh 3. Raleigh Community Hospital, 3400 Wake Forest Road, Raleigh 4. Southern Wake Day Hospital, 400 Ransom Street, Fuquay-Varina 5. Eastern Wake Hospital, 320 Hospital Drive, Zebulon 6. Western Wake Medical Center, 1900 Kildaire Farm Rd., Cary 182 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 12: ENERGY This function will facilitate restoration of energy systems following an emergency; coordinate the provision of emergency power and fuel to support response operations, as well as provide power and fuel to normalize community function. This function includes assessing energy system damage, energy supply demand and requirements for restoration of such systems and will be coordinated and staffed by Common Function 3 personnel. As appropriate, this function will provide emergency information education and conservation guidance to the public. This function is to be further developed. Information on the Harris Nuclear Power Plant can be found in “Common Function 10 - Hazardous Materials” in this plan and under separate cover in North Carolina Emergency Response Plan: Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP). 183 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 13: PUBLIC INFORMATION I. PURPOSE This common function will provide emergency information to the general public in the event of an emergency. This function will develop, maintain, and conduct a program for dissemination of information to the media and the public related to specific emergency actions and recommendations for protective measures. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: 1. Notification and Warning a. The county warning point will normally initiate notification and warning. b. Broadcast media will be relied upon to assist in the dissemination of warning and general instructions to the public. c. Operational telephone and/or radio communication systems will be utilized to notify public officials, Emergency Operations Center (EOC) staff, emergency personnel and others as required. d. A limited number of emergency vehicles are available for warning purposes. e. Special care groups or persons in group quarters may have to be provided special warning notification. 2. Public information a. Wake County is vulnerable to a variety of hazards. Media resources exist which, if effectively utilized, can inform the population of the events that are occurring and how they may best respond to them. b. During periods of emergency, the public needs detailed information regarding protective action to be taken for minimizing loss of life and property. There are times, however, when disaster strikes without warning and the public information system cannot respond rapidly enough to 184 properly alert/inform the public about the hazard. For this reason, it is important that prior to the occurrence of an emergency, that every reasonable action is taken to ensure that the public is made aware of potential hazards and the protective measures that can be taken. c. When a disaster/emergency situation occurs, hearsay could develop which may cause unnecessary fear, confusion and undesired public reactions. B. Assumptions: 1. Local print and broadcast media will cooperate to provide accurate information. Such efforts will serve to inform the public of the presence and nature of emergencies and serve to provide disaster related instructions, minimizing fear and rumor circulation. 2. Due to the emergency, current warning and information capabilities may require augmentation to provide sufficient warning and information to the general public and special populations. 3. Use of mobile public address systems and/or house to house alert warning may be desirable when the hazard requires immediate evacuation actions. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. General: 1. Emergency Public Information (EPI) efforts should focus on specific, event- related information. 2. The information generally will be of an instructional or advisory nature, focusing on such things as warning, evacuation, shelter and recovery. It is equally important to keep the public informed of the general progress of events. A special effort must be made to report the facts as accurately as possible and provide advice concerning necessary protective actions. Rumor control will be a major aspect of the information program and will be coordinated by the County PIO. B. Emergency Warning Origin Emergency warning may originate at the national, state or local level of government. Timely warning requires dissemination to the public by all available means: 1. National Warning System (NAWAS) 185 2. National Weather Service (NWS) 3. Emergency Alert System (EAS) 4. State Operated Two Way Radio Systems 5. N. C. Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) [Formerly PIN] 6. Local Government Radios 7. Sirens, horns, or mobile public address systems 8. Telephone C. Receipt and Dissemination of Warning: 1. The N. C. Department of Crime Control and Public Safety operates the state warning point in Raleigh. 2. Warning received from the site of an emergency is normally reported to the county warning point. Raleigh/Wake County Communications Center (911) is designated as the county warning point. 3. Notification of governmental officials and emergency response personnel from the county warning point will follow established procedures. D. Dissemination of Warning to the General Public: The general public will be notified of major emergencies by one or more of the following: 1. Fixed Sirens 2. Emergency Alert System (EAS) 3. Weather alert radios (NWS) 4. Mobile public address systems 5. House to house alert E. Dissemination of Warning to Special Populations: 186 1. Wherever possible, identified hearing impaired, special care groups, persons in group quarters and non-english speaking groups are to be notified by means consistent with their needs. 2. When necessary, public schools, hospitals and other similar facilities are notified through the county warning point or the EOC. F. EPI documents speaking to major hazards will be maintained during normal periods of readiness, for immediate publication and dissemination. When evacuation is imminent, public information capabilities must be expanded to answer public inquiries and prepare new or modified public announcements. G. For Nuclear threat/attack hazards, information about relocation will be distributed to the population via the print and electronic media. Maps and emergency instructions will also be used. A camera-ready EPI supplement is on file at the Emergency Management office. H. Public Education: 1. Ongoing public education programs will be conducted to increase public awareness of potential hazards and preparedness measures. 2. The Emergency Management Director (EMD) and Public Information Director will coordinate with county media to provide information and education programs relating to emergency management. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: 1. The county warning point serves on a continuous 24 hour basis from which key officials and the public can be alerted. The county warning point has the capability to simultaneously activate multiple warning systems. (Reference Appendix 1, Notification and Warning Flow Chart). 2. The Emergency Alert System (EAS) provides an operational public warning capability to national, state and local governments. (Reference State Emergency Alert System Plan (EAS)). 3. Upon activation of the Wake County EOC, responsibilities for emergency public information (EPI) efforts are delegated to the Public Information Director who serves as the county PIO. 187 4. When appropriate to the occasion, Wake County will establish an emergency information center as a point of contact for the media during an emergency. The County Public Information Officer (PIO) is to designate and will train additional staff to support such needs. 5. An organizational matrix for emergency public information (EPI) appears at Appendix 4 - Public Information Organizational Matrix. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. In the EOC the Public Information Common Function’s specific responsibilities include: a. Continually evaluate the effectiveness of the county emergency alert/warning system. b. Coordinate county warning resources. c. Upgrade procedures to warn areas not covered by fixed warning systems. d. Develop procedures which define agency responsibilities, describe activation procedures and detail the warning systems for notifying both emergency response personnel and the general public. e. Provide for periodic testing and exercising of the county warning and alerting systems. f. Develop procedures for activation of the EAS and the NOAA systems. (Weather alert) g. Upgrade warning procedures for special locations such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, major industries and institutions. h. Arrange with appropriate governmental and public service agencies to augment county warning capabilities. i. Coordinate with and assist the EPI efforts in dissemination of public information. j. Maintain an ongoing public information/education program. k. Establish and maintain a working relationship with the media. 188 l. Prepare procedures for the coordination of emergency public information (EPI). m. Establish procedures for the flow of information to the public, which includes support for activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) and NOAA weather radio. n. Prepare and distribute appropriate pre-scripted EPI material to the media (e.g. newspapers, radio and television). o. Ensure statements of agreement with the media to provide for dissemination of essential emergency information and warning to the public. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, or designee, has overall jurisdiction over the county warning system. B. The Raleigh/Wake Communications Director and Sheriff's Communications Supervisor are designated as the county warning point coordinators and will follow established county warning procedures. C. The Public Information Director, under the direction of the County Manager, is responsible for all public education and information programs relating to emergency oriented concerns. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Signal Officer is: 1. Sheriff's Communication Supervisor 2. Assistant Supervisor 3. Shift Supervisor B. Lines of succession for agencies that support the warning operation are in accordance with their respective policies. C. Line of succession for the county emergency public information: 189 1. Public Information Director 2. Administrative Services Coordinator 3. Deputy County Manager VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. The county has the following warning systems available for use in an emergency: 1. Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNPP) Siren System 2. Raleigh Flood Warning Sirens 3. County Fire Sirens 4. Emergency Alert System (EAS) 5. National Weather Service (NOAA) 6. National Warning System (NAWAS) B. As feasible, special needs populations in the county (e.g. handicapped, hearing impaired, non-english speaking) will be identified for the purpose of providing alert/warning notifications consistent with their needs. C. Media Organizations: A current list of media organizations involved in county/local emergency public information programs must be maintained by the Public Information Director. D. Audio Visual Aids and Publications: Numerous films, slides, video tapes and informational brochures concerning various aspects of emergency preparedness are available from federal, state and local sources, through the county Emergency Management agency. E. Pre-scripted News Releases: Sample EPI materials (news releases) for nuclear threat attack and natural/technological hazards are maintained by the county Emergency Management agency. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE 190 A. The county EMD is responsible for coordinating a periodic review of all plans and SOPs. Such efforts will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and departments. The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes based upon periodic tests, drills and exercises. B. Emergency response agencies with designated warning assignments will develop and maintain supportive SOPs, mutual aid agreements, personnel rosters and emergency telephone lists suitable to their mission. C. The siren systems will be tested and maintained in accordance with an established procedure. D. Development and Coordination: The Public Information Director will develop and coordinate EPI programs to support this plan. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. Emergency Management Act of 1977, N. C. General Statutes 166-A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. C. Part 73, Sub-part G and H, Federal Communications Commissions Rules and Regulations. D. North Carolina General Statutes, 166A. COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION 191 APPENDIX 1 NOTIFICATION AND WARNING FLOWCHART Incident Scene State Warning State EOC Point NAWAS/NWS Central Region Office On-Scene County Warning County Designated Incident Point Emergency Mgt. County Officials Coordinator (OIC) Emergency Designated Responders County Staff Warning to Public Special Facilities 192 COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION APPENDIX 2 NATIONAL WARNING SYSTEM (NAWAS) NORAD Colorado Springs, CO (24 hour) Federal Emergency Management Washington D.C. (24 hour) Federal Emergency Management Region IV Atlanta, GA North Carolina Division of State Warning Point National Weather Service Emergency Management Raleigh, NC Raleigh Raleigh, NC (24 hour) (24 hour) (24 hr.) County Warning Point Raleigh, NC (24 hour) Coordination of Inadvertent Activation 193 COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION APPENDIX 3 NOAA/NWS SYSTEM Wake County National Weather Service Emergency Mgt.. NOAA Weather Radio System Primary Transmitter Alternate Transmitter Raleigh-Durham Airport Fayetteville, NC In-Home NOAA Receivers 194 COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION APPENDIX 4 PUBLIC INFORMATION ORGANIZATION MATRIX Chairman, Board of County Commissioners County Manager Public Safety Director Public Information Director EOC Emergency Management Director Siren System(s) NWS/NOAA Emergency Alert System (EAS) Media Contacts State/Federal PIOs 195 COMMON FUNCTION 13 - PUBLIC INFORMATION APPENDIX 5 MEDIA CONTACTS A current list of printed and broadcast media is maintained by the office of Emergency Management. EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) STATIONS: NOTE: Supplementary broadcasting stations, when instructed by FCC Emergency Action Notification, will suspend normal operations after notifying the public to tune to the EAS station(s) serving designated areas. The stations listed below are the primary and alternate Common Programming Control Stations (CPCS) for EAS in the Wake County listening area: CPCS-l WQDR-FM 94.7FM Raleigh CPCS-2 WDCG-FM l05.1FM Raleigh 196 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 14: VOLUNTEERS AND DONATIONS This common function will expedite the delivery of donated goods and voluntary service to support relief efforts and manages monetary donations. This function is to be further developed. 197 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 15: MILITARY SUPPORT The military support function will coordinate the use of military assets (federal and state) in supporting all other ESFs. This function is to be further developed. 198 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 16: LAW ENFORCEMENT I. PURPOSE A. This common function provides for maintenance of law and order, and traffic control during emergency situations and describes the operational policies to be implemented for the purpose of minimizing the impact of civil disturbances upon the citizens and the property of Wake County. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: During emergencies, law enforcement agencies must expand their operations to provide the increased protection required by disaster conditions. Numerous federal, state and county law enforcement agencies are available to support local law enforcement agencies. There are twelve (12) municipalities in Wake County which could be subject to a civil disorder. Raleigh, the state capital, is located in Wake County. Quite often, citizens gather to promote their cause. Business and industry in Wake County is both union and non-union. B. Assumptions: Activities of local law enforcement agencies will increase significantly during emergency operations and civil disturbances. In most incidences, adequate law enforcement resources and services will be available through existing mutual aid agreements. However, if local capabilities are overtaxed, support must be obtained from state and federal sources. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. Emergency law enforcement operations will be an expansion of normal functions and responsibilities. These responsibilities will include maintenance of law and order, traffic control, crowd control and security. B. Other than by statutory requirements, law enforcement activities will remain under the control of the senior law enforcement officer for the jurisdiction in which the emergency operation is taking place. 199 C. Law enforcement agencies will have responsibility for both warning and assisting the public relative to an evacuation, for traffic control in and near an evacuated area and for the security of such areas pending the return of the populace. D. During emergency situations, the Wake County Sheriff or designee may coordinate County law enforcement operations from the County Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In cooperation with the EOC, municipal law enforcement agencies will direct their law enforcement activities within respective command posts. E. Coordination among law enforcement agencies will ensure security for vacated hazard areas, essential industries, prisoners, evacuating populations and congregate care facilities. F. Civil Disturbances: 1. When groups with conflicting viewpoints form, law enforcement agencies may gather intelligence by both overt and covert means. 2. By monitoring the conditions, the responsible officials may sense when such gatherings are most likely to precipitate a commotion. 3. By pre-planning and utilizing mutual aid agreements, responsible officials can have reasonable assurance that adequate support is available to counter a civil disturbance and maintain/or restore order. 4. Once a "State of Emergency" proclamation is issued by a municipality or Wake County, the issuing governmental body has the additional authority to effectively address the situation. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Organization: The county Sheriff is responsible for coordinating law enforcement operations within the county. (Reference Appendix 1, Organization Matrix). Other law enforcement agencies will provide necessary support. B. Responsibilities: 1. See Basic Plan paragraph IV - B for general responsibilities. 2. In the EOC the Law Enforcement Common Function’s specific responsibilities include: 200 a. Provide direction and control for law enforcement operations. b. Assist in warning and notifying the affected population of an existing or impending emergency, as well as subsequent events of note. c. Provide necessary traffic control during emergencies. d. Assist in evacuation of the disaster area and movement to shelter. e. Provide security and protection for evacuated areas, damaged or critical facilities, to include controlled access of affected areas. f. Relocate and house prisoners when necessary. g. Coordinate law enforcement support with State Highway Patrol, other counties and/or municipalities during response activities. h. Deliver radiological monitoring resources, potassium iodide (KI) and similar items upon request by proper authorities. i. Maintain law and order missions within local jurisdictions. j. Provide mobile units for warning operations. V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL A. Other than statutory requirements, the Sheriff is responsible for the coordination of law enforcement activities within the county during emergencies. B. There are twelve municipalities within Wake County. Each municipality should exercise its full authority in the execution of locally designed emergency operations plans and procedures. However, such activities should be coordinated with the Wake County EOC. C. Major emergency situations affecting the unincorporated portions of the county will be under the auspices of Wake County government. Emergencies which affect multi-jurisdictional areas, the county and municipalities, will be managed in a cooperative effort, each entity providing mutual support as required. Unless the county EOC is activated, Wake County Emergency Management Agency will serve in the role of coordination. D. As the situation dictates, the Wake County ICS shall be implemented as a joint, 201 coordinated endeavor, serving to effect inter and intra-agency cooperation between all authorities having responsibilities for public safety and protection during emergency operations. VI. CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT A. The line of succession for the Board of County Commissioners is from the Chairperson to the Vice-Chairperson, continuing through the remaining board members according to seniority. In the absence of any commissioners, this line of succession would pass to the County Manager. B. The line of succession for the County Manager passes to the Public Safety Director or his designee. C. The line of succession for county emergency preparedness and coordination is from the Emergency Management Director (EMD) to the Assistant EMD or other designated staff. D. The chain of command within each enforcement organization/department/agency is established by their respective internal procedures E. Upon activation of the EOC, the line of succession for the Wake County Sheriff's Department is: 1. Sheriff 2. Patrol Major 3. Administration Major F. Measures to maintain documents and accountability of operations, including the preservation of records, will be taken to ensure continued operation and/or reconstitution, if necessary, of county government. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Records and Reports: The Sheriff will initiate and maintain essential records relative to emergency expenditures, law enforcement operations, and other allied activities occasioned by the emergency. B. Communications: The communications network between county, municipal and state law 202 enforcement agencies will be structured so as to obtain maximum benefit of radio and telephone communication resources. C. Emergency Access Passes: The decision as to the occasions that require passes will rest with the Chairman, Wake County Board of Commissioners--such orders, along with administrative guidance will be issued from the county EOC. A sample, temporary personnel pass and a vehicle pass, is shown at Appendix 2, Sample Access Passes. VIII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE The county EMD is responsible for coordinating a periodic review of plans and SOPs. Such efforts will be coordinated with appropriate agencies and departments. The revision process will include incorporation of necessary changes based up periodic tests, drills, exercises and actual events. IX. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES A. N. C. General Statutes, 166A. B. Wake County Emergency Management Ordinance. 203 COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT APPENDIX 1 ORGANIZATION MATRIX EOC Sheriff Law Enforcement Support Law Enforcement Support Sheriff's Department State Other Counties SHP Cary Police (Local) Raleigh Police Apex Police Garner Police Fuquay-Varina Police Knightdale Police Rolesville Police Morrisville Police Wake Forest Police Wendell Police Zebulon Police RDU Police Coordination of Inadvertent Activation 204 COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT APPENDIX 2 SAMPLE ACCESS PASSES VEHICLE PASS TEMPORARY PASS _________________________________________ Driver’s Name ____________________ ____________________ Social Security # Drivers License # __________________________________________ Vehicle Type Vehicle License # This vehicle is authorized to enter or remain in the Emergency Area during the following period: From: ___________ ___________ Date Time To: ___________ ___________ Date Time ___________________________________________ Authorized Signature Title (Back) 1. This is a temporary pass to enter or remain in the Emergency Area on official business/duty during the specified period only. 2. This Pass shall be surrendered to the issuing authority upon exit from the Emergency Area. This pass will be issued to the driver of the vehicle entering the emergency area. The vehicle pass is to be posted prominently in the lower right-hand corner of the window and remain on the vehicle while it is in the emergency area. In addition, the driver and passengers must have on their person a valid "Personnel Pass". Issuing authorities will maintain a record of all passes insured and surrendered. 205 COMMON FUNCTION 16 - LAW ENFORCEMENT APPENDIX 2 SAMPLE ACCESS PASSES PERSONNEL PASS TEMPORARY PASS _________________________________________ Name _________________________________________ Social Security # The bearer of this pass is authorized to enter the Emergency Area. From: ___________ ___________ Date Time To: ___________ ___________ Date Time ___________________________________________ Authorized Signature Title (Back) 1. This is a temporary pass to enter the Emergency Area on official business/duty only. 2. The authorized person must carry this pass at all times while in the Emergency Area. 3. This pass shall be surrendered to the issuing authority upon exit from the Emergency Area. This pass will be issued to any individual that is authorized to enter the Emergency Area. 206 WAKE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN FOR MULTI-HAZARDS COMMON FUNCTION 17: ANIMAL PROTECTION I. PURPOSE This function will provide direction and coordination of animal issues before, during and after an actual or potential disaster situation to facilitate overall animal related activities. This function will protect wild and domesticated animal resources, the public health, the public food supply, the environment, and to ensure the humane care and treatment of animals in case of a large-scale emergency that causes animal suffering. II. SITUATION AND ASSUMPTIONS A. Situation: This common function is intended for use by local government to take immediate action in providing a means of care and control to minimize animal suffering in the event of a large-scale emergency. This action will be aimed at animals that may need help whether such animals are owned, stray, domestic, or wild. Within Wake County, the Director of Public Safety or his authorized representative(s) may place into effect established plans and procedures and direct both the emergency and recovery aspects of the incident. He may deviate from these procedures when, in his judgment, immediate and direct action is necessary to protect the public safety. B. Assumptions: 1. The owners of pets or livestock, when notified of an upcoming emergency, will take reasonable steps to shelter and provide for animals under their care and/or control. 2. Natural, technological, or manmade disasters could affect the well-being of domesticated or nondomesticated animals. 3. The County should plan both for emergency situations and to carry out response and recovery operations utilizing local resources. Outside animal care and rescue assistance would likely be available in most major situations affecting the County. 4. Animal protection planning should ensure the proper care and recovery of 207 animals impacted during an emergency. These plans may include measures to identify housing and shelter for animals, communicating information to the public, and proper animal release. 5. Public information statements will be issued through the various media outlets. This information will include locations where domestic and nondomestic animals (including livestock and wild animals) may be accepted during emergency situations. 6. A large-scale emergency in Wake County may warrant immediate response from state and local personnel, agencies, and organizations. However, emergency situations may become compounded due to the nature of the emergency and also require activation of additional specialized agencies through mutual aid. 7. Through effective animal protection planning and organization, disaster relief efforts would be more expedient. III. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A. General: 1. The primary and support agencies identified in the Wake County Animal Protection Plan will manage and coordinate local animal protection activities. Responsibility for situation assessment and determination of resource needs in the event of a large-scale emergency lies primarily with the Wake County Department of Public Safety in cooperation with the Wake County Department of Human Services and local incident coordinators. 2. Requests for animal protection assistance and resources such as food, medicine, shelter material, specialized personnel, and additional veterinary medical professionals, will be transmitted from the local Emergency Management office to the State Emergency Management office. Should the need for Federal or State resources exist, the State Emergency Operations Center will coordinate the requests for assistance. 3. Animal protection operations will be managed under the Incident Command System (ICS). Public Health concerns will be managed in accordance with appropriate Wake County plans and procedures. 4. Animals Included Under the Plan: a. The sheltering and protection of domestic and nondomestic animals (including livestock) are the responsibility of their owners. 208 b. Domestic and nondomestic animals that are lost, strayed, incapable of being cared for by their owners, or in danger to themselves or the public will be the responsibility of municipal or Wake County animal control officials, the Wake County SPCA, or other identified agencies. These animals will be sheltered, fed, and, if possible, returned to their owners. If the animals cannot be returned to their owners, they will be disposed of in accordance with established animal control procedures. c. Wild animals should be left to their own survival instincts. Wild animals out of their natural habitats that are in danger either to themselves or the public will be the responsibility N. C. Wildlife Resource Commission personnel, in cooperation with local animal control officials, and returned to their natural habitat if possible. B. Response and Recovery: Response and recovery efforts are explained in The Wake County Animal Protection Plan. IV. ORGANIZATION AND ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES A. Primary Agencies 1. Wake County Human Services, Environmental Health Division, Animal Control Program: Coordinate support agencies to manage animal protection in major emergencies. Provide and coordinate personnel, equipment, and shelter as required to protect domestic and sick and/or injured nondomestic animals. 2. Wake County Department of Public Safety: Activate the Emergency Operations Center, if necessary. Responsible for overall direction and control of the emergency incident. B. Support Agencies / Additional Resources: Support agencies and additional resources are detailed in section 2.0 of the Wake County Animal Protection Plan. 209 V. DIRECTION AND CONTROL This plan and implementing procedures will be activated in the event of a large-scale emergency causing a significant need for animal protection. The Wake County Animal Control Director in cooperation with the Wake County Department of Public Safety will determine when these procedures will be implemented and notify the appropriate primary, support, and mutual aid agencies. A call down notification system will be maintained by the Wake County Animal Control Director. VI. ADMINISTRATION AND LOGISTICS A. Communications: Communications between the primary and support agencies will occur primarily through telephone, facsimile and cellular telephone transmission. Amateur radio will be used as a backup system if other communication is impossible due to the nature of the emergency situation. B. Public Information (PI): A spokesperson from Wake County will be responsible for the coordination of media activities and press releases associated with the protection of animals. PI responsibilities may include: 1. Notifying the public of appropriate shelters to drop lost/stray animals, animals that they cannot care for, or animals that need immediate medical assistance. 2. Delivering instructions to the public to prepare their pets for an impending emergency (See attached Annex A) and/or instructions for minor “at home” medical responses for pets injured in an emergency situation (Annex to be developed). 3. Initiating a system to direct inquiries on lost pets to the appropriate shelters. 4. Other information as appropriate to the situation. VII. PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE On a regular basis, this function will be reviewed and updated as appropriate by Wake County Animal Control, the Wake County Department of Public Safety, and other affected agencies. This procedure will be periodically tested by an appropriate exercise method. 210 VIII. AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCES Wake County Animal Protection Plan 211 COMMON FUNCTION 17 - ANIMAL PROTECTION APPENDIX 1 WAKE COUNTY DISASTER PLANNING TIPS FOR PETS, LIVESTOCK, AND WILDLIFE Domestic Pets • If you evacuate your home, DO NOT LEAVE YOUR PETS BEHIND. Pets most likely cannot survive on their own, and if by chance they do, you may not be able to find them when you return. • For public health reasons, many emergency shelters cannot accept pets. Find out which motels and hotels in your area allow pets. Include your local animal shelter's number in your list of emergency numbers—they will be able to provide information concerning pets during a disaster. • Make sure identification tags are up to date and securely fastened to your pet's collar. If possible, attach the address and/or phone number of your evacuation site. Make sure you have a current photo of your pet for identification purposes. • Make sure you have a secure pet carrier, leash or harness for your pet so that if the animal panics, it cannot escape. • Take pet food, bottled water, medications, veterinary records, cat litter/pan, can opener, food dishes, first aid kit and other supplies with you in case they are not available later. • Make sure you have a copy of your pets medical records. If you are unable to return to your home right away, you may need to board your pet. Most boarding kennels, veterinarians, and animal shelters require that your pets vaccinations are current. • If it is impossible to take your pet with you to temporary shelter, contact friends, family, veterinarians, or boarding kennels to arrange for care. Make sure medical and feeding information, food, medicine and other supplies accompany your pet to its foster home. Livestock • Evacuate livestock whenever possible. The evacuation sites should have or be able to readily obtain food, water, veterinary care, handling equipment and facilities. 212 • If evacuation is not possible, a decision must be made whether to move large animals to available shelter or turn them outside. This decision should be determined based on the type of disaster and the soundness and location of the shelter. • All animals should have some form of identification that will help facilitate their return. Wildlife • Wild animals often seek higher ground which, during floods, eventually become submerged (i.e., island) and the animals become stranded. If the island is large enough and provides suitable shelter, you can leave food appropriate to the species. Animals have a flight response and will flee from anyone approaching too closely. If the animal threatens to rush into the water, back away from the island. • Wildlife often seek refuge from flood water on upper levels of a home and may remain inside even after the water recedes. If you meet a rat or snake face to face, be careful but don't panic. Open a window or other escape route and the animal will probably leave on its own. Never attempt to capture a wild animal unless you have the training, protective clothing, restraint equipment and caging necessary to perform the job. • Beware of an increased number of snakes and other predators who will try to feed on the carcasses of reptiles, amphibians and small mammals who have been drowned or crushed in their burrows or under rocks. • Often, during natural disasters, mosquitoes and dead animal carcasses may present disease problems. Outbreaks of anthrax, encephalitis and other diseases may occur. Contact your local emergency management office for help. Further Assistance • If you see any injured or stranded animal in need of assistance, or if you have any other questions or concerns about animal protection during an emergency situation, contact the Wake County Public Information Officer at 856-7036 or 856-7044. 213 COMMON FUNCTION 17 - ANIMAL PROTECTION APPENDIX 2 WAKE COUNTY ANIMAL PLAN ORGANIZATIONAL MATRIX 214 Commodity Flow In 1995 the Wake County Emergency Management office conducted a commodity flow study. This study was designed to identify the kinds and amounts of chemicals being transported throughout the major transportation systems in Wake County and characterizes the movement of hazardous materials through the County. The study analyzes commodity flow from three distinct perspectives: Historical The historical research encompassed all data from 1987-1994. The intention behind the historical research was to document the past in order to better anticipate the probabilities of future HAZMAT incidents. Further, all historical information is now stored in a user- friendly computerized database for easy accessibility and for further documentation of HAZMAT problems. Field Site Survey The Field Site Survey was a study of placarded vehicles traveling along major transportation routes in Wake County. This is a representative sample of what is being transported throughout the Wake County system at any given time. Fixed Site Survey The Fixed Site Survey was conducted to identify the major chemicals shipped and received by Wake County businesses. The difference between this survey and the Field Site Survey is that trucks observed in the Field Site Survey may not have had a Wake County destination. Thus, the Fixed Site Survey’s purpose was to identify the consumption of hazardous materials by the County exclusive of the flow of materials traveling through the County. Although trucks were the major focus for this study, rail transportation was also examined. Wake County is serviced by two rail companies, Norfolk-Southern and CSX. Shipment reports were obtained from the companies, each providing information on the number of cars in the train; the number of tons being transported; the products being transported; and, when and what route was being taken by the train. Estimates of the amounts of each chemical being transported were based on DOT requirements and tanker capacity which is usually 80% full. In 1993, industry and retail in the County reported a total quantity of chemicals in excess of 3.7 billion pounds; Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) exceeded 53 million pounds. In 1994, 2,874 businesses in Wake County reported having chemicals, of which 215 have EHSs. Along with having this large industry base comes the need to transport large volumes of chemicals and raw materials, and to transport the waste products including hazardous waste. With 305.53 miles of road (the largest in the state), 460,492 people (the second largest in the state), a total area of 833.9 square miles, and a population density of 507.66 persons per square mile – the danger to people, property, and the environment is ever present. The County averages 111 HAZMAT incidents per year. Wake County’s most heavily traveled route is Interstate 40. This is a major route between the East and West Coasts of the United States. I-40 is also a major route between the Triangle and the Triad communities; it is a link between communities in the Triangle area; and it feeds into the I-440 Beltline passing through Raleigh, as do all of the County’s major highways. This, in turn, brings most hazardous materials within range of the largest population center in the county. US Highway 64 North connects traffic between Raleigh and eastern Wake communities and North Carolina industrial centers like Wilson and Rocky Mount. This route is also an important connection with the coast, especially the Outer Banks and Southern Virginia coastal areas. US Highway 1 North connects northern Wake County to I-85 and also routes to I-95. US 1 North is also a major traffic connection between northern Wake communities and Raleigh. US 1 South is in close proximity to the Harris Nuclear Power Plant and connects southern Wake communities with Raleigh. This study enables emergency responders to prepare for several types of hazardous material transportation incidents involving railroad, pipeline, and road transportation. Firefighters and HAZMAT personnel can use the top ten chemicals listed in the study as a basis for their training (Reference: Wake County HMTUSA Commodity Flow Study).
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