Saltworks Water Supply Report - City of Redwood City by xiuliliaofz

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									Redwood City Saltworks
Water Supply Report


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1   Executive Summary .............................................................................................. 1
     1.1   50/50 Balanced Plan Water Demand......................................................... 2
     1.2   50/50 Balanced Plan Water Supply ........................................................... 2
2   Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4
      2.1   50/50 Balanced Plan Description............................................................... 4
      2.2   Report Objectives ...................................................................................... 4
3   Regulatory Setting ................................................................................................ 5
4   Water Supply Context ........................................................................................... 7
     4.1   San Francisco Regional Water System ..................................................... 7
     4.2   Redwood City Municipal Water Supply System ....................................... 10
5   Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Demands.............................................. 14
     5.1   Methodology for Estimating 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Demand .......... 15
     5.2   Water Conservation Measures ................................................................ 15
     5.3   Water Use Estimates for the 50/50 Balanced Plan .................................. 16
6   Potable Water Supply Sources for the 50/50 Balanced Plan........................... 17
     6.1   Local Groundwater .................................................................................. 17
     6.2   Redwood City Municipal Water System ................................................... 21
     6.3   Regional Potable Water Offsets............................................................... 22
7   Non-Potable Water Supply Sources for the 50/50 Balanced Plan................... 26
     7.1   Recycled Water ....................................................................................... 26
     7.2   Graywater ................................................................................................ 29
     7.3   Rainwater Harvesting............................................................................... 31
8   Summary and Conclusion .................................................................................. 34
9   References........................................................................................................... 35


TABLES
Table 1: Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Demand and Supply Sources
Table 2: Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Supply Sources


ATTACHMENTS
Attachment A:             Excerpts from Investigation of Regional Water Supply Option No. 4
                          (URS, 2006)




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COMMON ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AFY – acre-feet per year
AWWARF – American Water Works Association Research Foundation
BAWSCA – Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency
CCWD – Contra Costa Water District
CEQA – California Environmental Quality Act
CII – commercial, industrial, institutional
DPH – Department of Public Health
DWR – Department of Water Resources
EBMUD – East Bay Municipal Utility District
EIR – Environmental Impact Report
ft bgs – feet below ground surface
gal/day – gallons per day
GPM – gallons per minute
IWSAP – Interim Water Shortage Allocation Plan
MCL – maximum contaminant level
MGD – million gallons per day
PEIR – Program Environmental Impact Report
SB – Senate Bill
SBSA – South Bayside System Authority
SFPUC – San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
TDS – total dissolved solids
UCCE/DWR– University of California Cooperative Extension and California Department
     of Water Resources
UWMP – Urban Water Management Plan
WSIP – Water System Improvement Program
WTP – water treatment plant
WWTP – wastewater treatment plant




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1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Redwood City Saltworks site is located within Redwood City and comprises
approximately 1,436 acres of industrial land located east of Seaport Boulevard and
north of Highway 101 along Seaport Boulevard. The site is bordered by the Port of
Redwood City, and several large Class A office, commercial, and industrial facilities as
well as a recently constructed recreational marina.

Portions of the 1,436-acre industrial site have been home to a variety of industrial salt-
making operations since 1901. The present configuration and operation of the Saltworks
site has remained largely unchanged since 1951, and major portions of the site actively
have produced salt since the turn of the century. Heavy industrial equipment and
bulldozers have been used on the site for many years to facilitate the salt-making
process.

Based on a nearly three-year community outreach process, DMB Redwood City
Saltworks has proposed The 50/50 Balanced Plan (“50/50 Plan” or “Plan”) approach to
developing new land uses for the current industrial saltmaking site. The 50/50 Plan will
create a new high standard for the development of open space and community uses.
Half of the site will be dedicated to open space, recreation, and habitat restoration at no
cost to existing taxpayers. This Plan will make it a showcase of environmental
protection and Bayside recreation opportunities for Redwood City residents. The other
half of the site will be dedicated to a precedent-setting transit-oriented community
providing a variety of housing options totaling between 8,000 to 12,000 homes. The
50/50 Plan will bring much-needed housing to existing job centers drastically reducing
vehicle miles traveled by out-of-town workers commuting into Redwood City. This will
significantly reduce greenhouse gases and lessen the City's overall carbon footprint.

The 50/50 Plan will embrace a water-conscious design ethic throughout all aspects of
the 50/50 Plan. The Plan will incorporate specific water conservation and water reuse
measures that will significantly reduce the 50/50 Plan’s need for water as compared to
existing development within Redwood City and elsewhere in the Bay Area and
California. In addition, the 50/50 Plan will meet its water demands through
implementation of an innovative, long-term strategy that incorporates potable and non-
potable sources of supply and reflects a net-zero impact water supply approach based
on the sustainability principle of “reduce and reuse”.

Specifically, the key components to the 50/50 Plan approach to water demand and
supply are:

   (1) Reduce on-site water demand through the use of innovative water conservation
       strategies,
   (2) Minimize the use of potable water by reusing water on-site for non-potable
       purposes, and


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      (3) Participate in the implementation of water conservation actions, recycled water
          use expansion programs, or other projects within Redwood City and/or the San
          Francisco Public Utilities Commission (“SFPUC”) Regional System to offset the
          50/50 Plan’s water demand.

1.1      50/50 BALANCED PLAN WATER DEMAND

Water demand projections for the 50/50 Plan were estimated based on site specific
planning and water conservation information and published water use models. At build-
out, which is expected to occur in 20 to 30 years, the total water demand of the 50/50
Plan is estimated to be approximately 2,510 acre-feet per year (“AFY”), of which 1,080
AFY will be potable demand, see Table 1. The remaining 1,430 AFY of demand will be
met using non-potable supplies such as recycled water, and potentially graywater
and/or rainwater.

Consistent with the 50/50 Plan’s “reduce and reuse” approach, this demand will be
achieved through the incorporation of water-efficient plumbing fixtures and appliances,
efficient landscape and irrigation equipment, and by maximizing the use of non-potable
water for selected non-potable purposes. For example, by using front-loading EPA
WaterSense® clothes washers instead of standard top-loading machines in all homes,
the 50/50 Plan can save an estimated 300 AFY.

Regulatory compliance mechanisms (e.g., water budgets and covenants, codes, and
restrictions) will be put in place to ensure that future water use within the 50/50 Plan is
commensurate with the demand projections.

As a result of implementing the above water conservation efforts, the 50/50 Plan will
achieve the following targets:

      (1) Reduce indoor water use by 30 percent compared to a “business-as-usual”
          development design scenario,
      (2) Reduce indoor potable water use by an additional 20 percent (for a total of 50
          percent) by utilizing non-potable supplies for toilet flushing, cooling and other
          non-potable purposes, and
      (3) Eliminate the use of potable water for irrigation.

1.2      50/50 BALANCED PLAN WATER SUPPLY

Potable water will be supplied to the 50/50 Plan in part from local groundwater produced
and treated on-site. It is anticipated that up to 700 AFY of local groundwater may be
available to meet the 50/50 Plan demands, see Table 2.

It is anticipated that the remainder of the 50/50 Plan potable water supply will be
purchased through Redwood City in connection with the 50/50 Plan’s participation in
conservation actions, expansion of recycled water use or other actions to offset the
50/50 Plan’s demand for potable water within Redwood City and/or the Regional


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System. The SFPUC’s Water System Improvement Program (“WSIP”) demonstrates the
potential to conserve as much as 22,100 AFY of potable water through implementation
of various water conservation, recycling, and groundwater development projects within
the SFPUC Regional System. Approximately 5,000 AFY of these potential savings are
associated with the expansion of Redwood City’s existing recycled water system to
serve recycled water in lieu of potable water for specified non-potable uses in adjacent
communities.

In addition to participation in potable water off-set programs, the 50/50 Plan will
investigate other opportunities to augment existing supplies within Redwood City and
the SFPUC Regional System (e.g., with local groundwater). Further, the 50/50 Plan will
maximize the use of non-potable water supplies to meet selected non-potable uses,
such as irrigation, toilet flushing, and cooling. Recycled water will be supplied to the
50/50 Plan from an on-site and/or off-site treatment plants that produce recycled water
that meets or exceeds Title 22 unrestricted use standards. It is anticipated that the
50/50 Plan will generate and use approximately 1,430 AFY of recycled water.

Alternative supplies such as graywater (i.e., water that is collected from bathroom sinks,
showers, and clothes washers for treatment and reuse on the same property) or
rainwater may also be used to meet a portion of the 50/50 Plan’s non-potable water
needs. The available volume of these supplies depends on a number of factors,
including capture rate and storage tank size. However it is conservatively estimated
that approximately 230 AFY of rainfall may be harvested from residential rooftops for
use within the 50/50 Plan, and that approximately 130 AFY of graywater may be used
for backyard irrigation and toilet flushing within selected residential units, such as low
density rowhouses.

By aggressively reducing its own water demand and by embracing a multi-source water
supply approach in close coordination with Redwood City and others, the 50/50 Plan will
ensure the long-term availability of sufficient water supplies for the people who will live,
work and recreate within the 50/50 Plan, while offering the potential to actually improve
water availability and reliability within Redwood City and elsewhere within the Regional
System.




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2 INTRODUCTION

2.1   50/50 BALANCED PLAN DESCRIPTION

The Redwood City Saltworks site is located within Redwood City and comprises
approximately 1,436 acres of industrial land located east of Seaport Boulevard and
north of Highway 101 along Seaport Boulevard. The site is bordered by the Port of
Redwood City, and several large Class A office, commercial, and industrial facilities as
well as a recently constructed recreational marina. The 50/50 Balanced Plan will create
a new high standard for the development of open space and community uses. Half of
the site will be dedicated to open space, recreation, and habitat restoration at no cost to
existing taxpayers. This plan will make it a showcase of environmental protection and
Bayside recreation opportunities for Redwood City residents. The other half will be
dedicated to a precedent-setting transit-oriented community providing a variety of
housing options totaling between 8,000 to 12,000 homes. The Saltworks 50/50
Balanced Plan (“50/50 Plan” or “Plan”) will bring much-needed housing to existing job
centers drastically reducing vehicle miles traveled by out-of-town workers commuting
into Redwood City. This will significantly reduce greenhouse gases and lessen the
City's overall carbon footprint.

2.2   REPORT OBJECTIVES

This report provides: (1) a summary of the projected potable and non-potable water
demands for the 50/50 Plan, and (2) a description of the 50/50 Plan’s water supply
sources.




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3 REGULATORY SETTING

California has enacted laws that seek to integrate land-use planning more closely with
water supply planning. These laws include the Water Supply Assessment Law, or
Senate Bill (“SB”) 610, which is found in the California Water Code at section 10910 et
seq., and the Water Sufficiency Verification Law, or SB 221, which is found in the
California Government Code at section 66473.7 et seq. In addition, the California
Environmental Quality Act (“CEQA”) requires land-use agencies to consider the
environmental effects of proposed development projects prior to their approval. Among
the effects that must be considered under CEQA are those associated with the
availability of water to serve a proposed development project and the use of that water
as a supply source.

The preceding laws establish certain principles for assessing water supplies for
proposed development projects. Among those principles is the need to assess the
availability of water supplies sufficient to meet the estimated water demand from build-
out of a proposed project. Also among those principles is the recognition that the water
source availability must be identified with more specificity at each step as land use
planning and water supply planning move forward from general phases to more specific
phases. As a result, estimates of existing and planned future water availability that are
appropriate for the SB 610 Water Supply Assessment (“WSA”) and CEQA review
process undertaken for broad land-use planning actions are later replaced by more
specific and firm assurances of water availability at the final residential subdivision map
approval stage under the SB 221 Water Sufficiency Verification procedure.

Thus, California’s water supply and land-use planning laws embrace a broad and
flexible water supply planning approach for initial, broad land-use planning actions,
which typically do not authorize new construction. When those initial broad planning
actions later transition toward specific land-use approvals that allow construction, the
earlier water supply plans and estimates must be replaced by specific, detailed
assurances that the water needed to serve the newly constructed development will be
available when needed.

With respect to the proposed 50/50 Plan, the application to the City seeks approval of
the following land-use entitlements or related actions:

           o   General Plan Amendment;
           o   Specific Plan;
           o   Zoning Change; and
           o   Development Agreement.

The primary land-use entitlement for purposes of water supply planning is the 50/50
Plan Specific Plan. The Specific Plan is a comparatively broad type of land-use
entitlement that does not authorize any land division or construction. Despite the broad
nature of that entitlement, the ability to carefully estimate the 50/50 Plan’s future water


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demand is facilitated by the proposed Zoning Change, which would specify allowed land
uses (i.e., office, commercial, single-family residential, multi-family residential, etc.),
densities, floor area ratios, and other relevant factors.

The land-use entitlements requested in the 50/50 Plan’s application will require
preparation of a SB 610 Water Supply Assessment, or WSA, which will be included and
discussed in the environmental impact report (“EIR”) that will be prepared to inform the
City’s decision on the application. The application does not request approval of any
residential subdivision map, so no SB 221 Water Sufficiency Verification would be
prepared at this time. If the Specific Plan and related entitlements are approved, then at
some point in the future, when a residential subdivision map encompassing more than
500 dwelling units were requested, an SB 221 Water Sufficiency Verification would be
required prior to any final map approval.




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4 WATER SUPPLY CONTEXT

The 50/50 Plan is designed to minimize its reliance on water originating from the City
and County of San Francisco’s (“San Francisco’s”) regional water supply system
(“Regional System”), which is operated by the San Francisco Public Utilities
Commission (“SFPUC”). By maximizing the use of recycled water and other non-potable
sources, and using local groundwater from the site to serve potable water needs, the
50/50 Plan will also minimize its need for potable SFPUC water through Redwood City’s
Municipal Water System.

4.1       SAN FRANCISCO REGIONAL WATER SYSTEM

The San Francisco Regional System, operated by the SFPUC, provides potable water
to retail and wholesale customers in San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Clara
counties. Below is an overview of the SFPUC’s water supply sources, water supply
delivery contracts, and plans for improvements for the Regional System.

4.1.1 Water Supply Sources
The SFPUC derives its water supply from two general sources. The largest single
source of SFPUC water supply is delivered through the Hetch Hetchy aqueduct system
from the Tuolumne River, whose headwaters rise in the Sierra Nevada. The SFPUC’s
existing water right filings on the Tuolumne River system total more than 400 million
gallons per day (“MGD”).1 Since 1968, the SFPUC’s annual Tuolumne River diversions
have averaged approximately 197 MGD, with a maximum annual diversion of 295
MGD.2 The SFPUC’s other major source of supply is runoff captured and treated by the
SFPUC at existing facilities in Alameda and San Mateo counties. The amount of water
available to the SFPUC’s customers through the Regional System is affected by
hydrology, physical facilities, and the institutional parameters affecting the SFPUC’s
ongoing and future exercise of its substantial existing water rights on the Tuolumne
River (SFPUC UWMP, 2005).

The Hetch Hetchy system is supplied by runoff from the upper Tuolumne River
watershed on the western slope of the central Sierra Nevada. Water is diverted from
Hetch Hetchy Reservoir into a series of existing tunnels, aqueducts, and pipelines that
convey the water across the San Joaquin Valley for distribution in the SFPUC’s service
area within the San Francisco Bay Area.

The SFPUC also manages two local systems, the Alameda and Peninsula Systems.
The Alameda System includes two reservoirs, San Antonio Reservoir and Calaveras
Reservoir, which collect water from the upper Alameda Creek watershed in Alameda
County. The Sunol Valley Water Treatment Plant filters and disinfects the water from


1
    SFPUC WSIP Draft PEIR (June 2007), § 2.5.1 at pp.2-36 to 2-37
2
    Id.


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the Alameda System. The Peninsula System includes two reservoirs, Crystal Springs
and San Andreas, which collect runoff from the San Mateo Creek watershed, and can
be supplemented with water from Pilarcitos Reservoir and the Hetch-Hetchy system.
The Harry Tracy Water Treatment Plant filters and disinfects the water from the
Peninsula System.

The SFPUC operates the Hetch Hetchy, Alameda and Peninsula systems as
interdependent components of a single water development and delivery system to serve
retail customers in San Francisco and wholesale customers within the Bay Area. The
SFPUC has concluded that its existing rights for the current water sources of the
Regional System in the Alameda, Peninsula and Tuolumne River watershed are
sufficient to meet current and future demand for the SFPUC water throughout the
Regional System, except during droughts.3

4.1.2 SFPUC Water Supply Contracts
In 1984, 27 Bay Area water suppliers (including Redwood City) signed a Settlement
Agreement and Master Water Sales Contract (“Master Contract”) with San Francisco.
The Master Contract is supplemented by an individual Water Supply Contract between
each wholesale customer and the SFPUC.4 The Master Contract, which expires in July
2009, provides for an overall 184 MGD Supply Assurance5 to the SFPUC’s wholesale
customers collectively.6 Although the Master Contract and accompanying individual
Water Supply Contracts expire in 2009, the Supply Assurance (which quantifies San
Francisco’s obligation to supply water to its individual wholesale customers) survives
their expiration and continues indefinitely.

On April 28, 2009, the SFPUC approved a Water Supply Agreement (“Supply
Agreement”) to replace the 1984 Master Contract between San Francisco and its
wholesale customers. The Supply Agreement resulted from negotiations between the
SFPUC and its wholesale customers and is now awaiting final approval by the individual
wholesale customers. The Supply Agreement incorporates the overall 184 MGD Supply
Assurance and provides for the execution of individual Water Supply Contracts between
wholesale customers and the SFPUC that specify each wholesale customer’s Individual
Supply Guarantee (i.e., each contractor’s portion of the 184 MGD Supply Assurance).

The SFPUC’s existing water rights and facilities are more than sufficient to meet the
current water demands of its retail and wholesale customers in wet and average years.
The Master Contract allows the SFPUC to reduce water deliveries during droughts,
emergencies, and for scheduled maintenance activities. The SFPUC and all wholesale
customers adopted an Interim Water Shortage Allocation Plan (“IWSAP”) in 2000 to

3
  WSIP Draft PEIR, § 3.6, at p. 3-33
4
  The number of entities who purchase water from the SFPUC has changed since the initial signing of the
Master Contract. Presently, there are 27 wholesale customers who receive water from the SFPUC
Regional System.
5
  The 184 mgd Supply Assurance is expressed on an annual average basis.
6
  Approximately 81 mgd of SFPUC water is delivered to retail customers within the City and County of
San Francisco, for a total of service-area-wide annual average delivery rate of 265 mgd.


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address the allocation of water between San Francisco and the wholesale customers in
aggregate, and among individual wholesale customers, during water shortages of up to
20 percent of average system-wide use. Although the IWSAP was set to expire in July
2009, the new Water Supply Agreement incorporates and continues the IWSAP.

4.1.3 Water System Improvement Program
In 2002, the SFPUC initiated the Water System Improvement Program (“WSIP”), am
multi-year, multi-billion dollar capital improvements program to upgrade the SFPUC’s
regional and local drinking water systems and to meet the projected future demands of
the regional system through 2030. A Program Environmental Impact Report (“PEIR”)
was prepared and certified for the WSIP pursuant to CEQA.7 As part of this
environmental review, multiple variations and alternatives to the WSIP were evaluated.
The draft and final versions of the PEIR were published by the San Francisco Planning
Department, in coordination with the SFPUC, in June 2007 and September 2008,
respectively. The Final PEIR was certified and the WSIP was approved on 30 October
2008.8

During the development of the WSIP and the PEIR, the SFPUC worked in conjunction
with its wholesale customers to assess alternative approaches for ensuring the
availability of sufficient water supplies to meet demand growth within the Regional
System through 2030. The PEIR identified baseline demand for SFPUC water as 90
MGD in San Francisco and 171 MGD for all wholesale customers, for a total baseline
SFPUC water demand of 261 MGD.9 The PEIR projected that, in 2030, the SFPUC’s
retail customers in San Francisco would require 80 to 91 MGD of SFPUC water, and its
wholesale customers would require 204 to 209 MGD of SFPUC water, for a total
projected 2030 demand of 284 to 300 MGD for SFPUC water throughout the entire
Regional System.10 Against the 261 MGD baseline, the projected 2030 demand growth
for SFPUC water represents an estimated 10 MGD reduction to 1 MGD increase in
retail demand within San Francisco and a 34 to 38 MGD increase in demand from
wholesale customers, for a 24 to 39 MGD total estimated increase in demand for
SFPUC water.11

Estimated demand growth for SFPUC water ranges widely among the different
wholesale customers due to a range of factors. For example, some service areas are
largely built out, with limited potential for demand growth from new development, and
are projecting that they have more than sufficient water supplies during normal years.
Some service areas have access to alternative sources of water supply, including
groundwater, State Water Project water, Central Valley Project water, and recycled
water. In some cases, the existing conveyance and treatment facilities used to obtain
these alternative water sources allow for the acquisition of additional water from yet


7
   State Clearinghouse No. 2005092026.
8
  See SFPUC Resolution No. 08-0200.
9
  WSIP Draft PEIR, Table 3.4, at p. 3-19
10
   WSIP Draft PEIR, Table 3.3, at p. 3-18
11
   Id.


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other sources that can be wheeled through the existing distribution system on a
temporary or long-term basis. Finally, all service areas estimate varying degrees of
water that will become available for new uses due to: (1) the implementation of
conservation measures within existing development (i.e., high-efficiency toilet retrofits,
high-efficiency clothes washers and dish washers, sophisticated exterior irrigation
controllers, replacement of natural turf with artificial turf, etc); and (2) the use of recycled
water in place of potable water to meet certain demand (i.e., certain exterior irrigation,
industrial process cooling, etc.).

To accommodate demand growth within the Regional System, the WSIP takes a
phased approach that starts with water conservation, expanded use of recycled water,
and use of groundwater within the San Francisco retail service area and the wholesale
customer service areas.12 The WSIP’s “phased implementation of water supply delivery
through 2030” is projected to meet demand growth throughout the Regional System
through 2018, without increasing average annual diversions from the Tuolumne River
system beyond 265 MGD.13 In addition, the phased approach will meet the WSIP’s
drought reliability objective of limiting service reductions to 20 percent during droughts.14
The PEIR analyzed 25 MGD of additional Tuolumne River diversions under San
Francisco’s existing water rights to meet demand growth through 2030, plus a range of
alternative approaches to augmenting 2030 supplies and ensuring drought year
reliability.15 The WSIP’s phased approach recognizes that acquisition of supplemental
supplies, like surface water transfers delivered or wheeled through existing water
conveyance infrastructure, is a potential option for at least some wholesale customers
to meet further demand growth beyond what can be achieved through conservation,
recycled water, groundwater and increased SFPUC deliveries.16

4.2     REDWOOD CITY MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

The Redwood City Municipal Water Supply System provides water to all of Redwood
City and portions of San Mateo County outside the corporate limits, including Cañada
College and the Emerald Lake Hills area. The Redwood City Municipal Water Supply
System currently receives all of its potable water supply from the SFPUC Regional
System. In addition to its potable water supply, in 2003, Redwood City initiated the
development of a recycled water project to meet selected non-potable demands within
its service area.

A summary of the current and projected water demands within the Redwood City
service area and a description of the available supplies, is provided below, based
largely on information included in Redwood City’s 2005 Urban Water Management Plan
(“UWMP”).



12
   WSIP Final PEIR, § 13.4, at pp.13-8 to 13-10 (describing “Phased WSIP Variant”).
13
   Id.
14
   Id.
15
   WSIP Draft PEIR, §§ 3.6.1, 3.6.2., at pp. 3-33 to 3-39
16
   WSIP Final PEIR, § 13.4, at p. 13-25


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4.2.1 Redwood City Water Demands
Redwood City took delivery of approximately 13,000 acre-feet per year (“AFY”) of
potable water from the SFPUC between 1998 and 2007. Although these deliveries
exceeded the City’s 10.93 MGD / 12,243 AFY share of the overall 184 MGD / 206,080
AFY Supply Assurance by approximately 700 AFY, the SFPUC had more than
adequate capacity due to a wholesale demand level that remained well below the
overall 184 MGD / 206,080 AFY Supply Assurance amount reserved for wholesale
customers under the Master Contract. In its 2005 UWMP, Redwood City projects that,
through a combination of water conservation actions and expanded use of recycled
water, its future potable water demand will be approximately 519 AFY less than its
current share of the overall Supply Assurance.17

4.2.2 Redwood City Potable Water Supply
Redwood City now purchases 100 percent of its potable water supplies from the
SFPUC Regional System. Redwood City’s current share of the overall Supply
Assurance (referred to by the new Supply Agreement as “Individual Supply Guarantee”)
is 10.93 MGD (or approximately 12,243 AFY). Although Redwood City has projected
that it will not need additional SFPUC water beyond its current Individual Supply
Guarantee, the SFPUC’s PEIR for the WSIP analyzed a 749 to 1,869 AFY increase in
water deliveries to the City to meet potential demand growth through 2030.18 However,
to meet existing and projected future water demands, Redwood City has invested
significant effort in recent years toward water conservation measures and the expansion
of recycled water use within its service area. The City’s water management approach is
consistent with the SFPUC’s phased approach to the WSIP, which initially seeks to
meet demand growth by carrying out conservation actions and expanding use of
recycled water in order to make the existing SFPUC water deliveries go further.

4.2.3 Redwood City Recycled Water Supply
In 2002, a recycled water feasibility study was conducted on behalf of Redwood City
that evaluated various alternatives for recycled water projects (Kennedy-Jenks, 2002).
Based on the results of that study, Project Alternative D, which, by 2030, would serve
1,995 AFY of recycled water to meet selected non-potable uses in portions of Redwood
City that are located primarily East of Highway 101, was recommended. In August
2003, Redwood City Council approved a broadly defined and flexible recycled water
project to help the City reduce the need for potable SFPUC water (Task Force Report,
2008).

In response to community input regarding the use of recycled water, a Recycled Water
Task Force was also established by the City Council in August 2003 to find additional


17
   Redwood City currently holds a 12, 243 AFY Individual Supply Guarantee. The UWMP projected that
2030 demand for SPFUC water would be 11,742 AFY.
18
   In the initial stages of the WSIP development, Redwood City’s 2030 demand was presented as a
range: between 11.6 and 12.6 MGD. Although Redwood City later indicated that it would be able to meet
future demands with the lesser volume from SFPUC (11.6 MGD), the SFPUC included the higher
estimate (12.6 MGD) in the WSIP PEIR.


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mechanisms to offset potable water demand within Redwood City without using
recycled water at existing schoolyards, parks and playgrounds. The Task Force
succeeded in recommending Recycled Water Project Alternative TF (Task Force
Report, 2004; 2008). Alternative TF seeks to achieve 2,000 AFY of potable water
savings by 2030 through a combination of 1,710 AFY of recycled water use in areas
both East and West of Highway 101, replacement of natural turf playing fields with
synthetic turf, continued use of groundwater at Sequoia High School, and the
implementation of additional water conservation programs (Task Force Report, 2008).

The source of recycled water for Redwood City is the existing South Bayside System
Authority (“SBSA”) sub-regional wastewater treatment plant, of which the City is a part
owner.19 The SBSA has a total wastewater treatment capacity of 29 MGD. In addition,
a 6 MGD recycled water facility has been constructed adjacent to the existing SBSA
plant that treats wastewater to meet Title 22, unrestricted use standards (Kennedy-
Jenks, 2002). This recycled water system has been designed to have an additional
5,000 AFY of treatment and service capacity, if needed (Attachment A).

Construction of Redwood City’s recycled water distribution system is ongoing. In 2007,
93 AF of recycled water was served within Redwood City (Task Force Report, 2008).
Redwood City’s goal is to use 900 AFY of recycled water by 2010 (Task Force Report,
2008). To help achieve that goal, the Redwood City Council adopted Redwood City’s
Recycled Water Use Ordinance in July 2008, which took effect in August 2008. In
addition to a number of voluntary and encouraged uses for recycled water, the Recycled
Water Use Ordinance mandates that future apartments, condominiums, commercial,
industrial, and governmental buildings located within the Recycled Water Service Area
be dual plumbed for indoor and outdoor use of recycled water.

In addition, Redwood City has identified several locations West of Highway 101 that
could potentially use recycled water, if the infrastructure were installed to deliver the
water (Kennedy-Jenks, 2002). Redwood City is also continuing to evaluate the potential
for either selling recycled water to other agencies or trading recycled water for potable
water with other agencies in the future (Task Force Report, 2008). The WSIP identifies
approximately 5,000 AFY of potential potable water savings associated with the
expansion of Redwood City’s existing recycled water system to serve recycled water in
lieu of potable water for specified non-potable uses in adjacent communities. In 2007,
Redwood City installed recycled water delivery pipelines that are sized to provide the
flexibility needed to allow such water exchanges to occur between Redwood City and
adjacent communities that see a benefit in obtaining an additional, drought-proof source
of water supply (Task Force Report, 2008).




19
  The SBSA operates under a joint powers authority (“JPA”) with four member agencies (i.e., Redwood
City, Belmont, and San Carlos, and the West Bay Sanitary District which serves Menlo Park, Atherton,
Portola Valley, and parts of East Palo Alto).


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4.2.4 Redwood City Water Conservation
As part of its efforts to reduce its potable demands, Redwood City has implemented
several aggressive water conservation programs with the goal of saving 815 AFY of
SFPUC water by 2010 (Task Force Report, 2008). These programs include, but are not
limited to, toilet replacement programs, rebate programs for High Efficiency Clothes
Washers, large landscape audit programs, a Water Use Allocation program, replacing
grass playing fields with artificial turf, and running a large-scale public information
campaign (http://www.redwoodcity.org/publicworks/water/water_conservation.htm).

In addition to the water conservation goals established by the Redwood City Council,
the Recycled Water Task Force is evaluating “Other Potential Measures” for achieving
water conservation savings within Redwood City. Measures being evaluated or pilot
tested by the Task Force include the use of ET-controllers to minimize irrigation
demands and subsurface irrigation systems for large grass areas/playing fields (Task
Force Report, 2008). Additionally, the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation
Agency (“BAWSCA”) is currently in the process of updating water demand and
conservation projections for its member agencies, based on assumptions regarding
implementation of an expanded water conservation program, among other things. This
study may identify additional water conservation opportunities within Redwood City as
well as elsewhere within other SFPUC contractors’ service areas.




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5 ESTIMATED 50/50 BALANCED PLAN WATER DEMANDS

The 50/50 Plan will embrace a water-conscious design ethic throughout all aspects of
the 50/50 Plan. The 50/50 Plan will incorporate specific water conservation and water
reuse measures that will significantly reduce the 50/50 Plan’s need for water as
compared to existing development within Redwood City and elsewhere in the Bay Area
and California. In addition, the 50/50 Plan will meet its water demands through
implementation of an innovative long-term strategy that incorporates potable and
nonpotable sources of supply and reflects a net-zero impact water supply approach
based on the sustainability principle of “reduce and reuse”.

As a result of implementing its demand-reduction strategy, Saltworks will achieve the
following targets:

   (1) Reduce indoor water use by 30 percent compared to a “business-as-usual”
       development design scenario,
   (2) Reduce indoor potable water use by an additional 20 percent (for a total of 50
       percent) by utilizing non-potable supplies for toilet flushing, cooling and other
       non-potable purposes, and
   (3) Eliminate the use of potable water for irrigation.

At build out, the total water demand of the 50/50 Plan is estimated to be 2,510 AFY, of
which 1,080 AFY will be potable demand. This annual potable demand level is less than
the average annual amount of rain falling on the Saltworks site, see Table 1. The
remaining 1,430 AFY of demand will be met using non-potable supplies, such as
recycled water and potentially graywater. The 50/50 Plan will be designed to reuse 100
percent of the volume of wastewater that is produced at the site. A detailed description
of the development and basis for the 50/50 Plan water demand estimates is provided in
the Redwood City Saltworks Water Demand Report (EKI, 2009).

Physical development of the 50/50 Plan is expected to occur over approximately 20 to
30 years, resulting in water demands that will arise only as the 50/50 Plan actually
moves forward through planning to physical construction. Therefore, the water
demands presented herein, as well as the availability of the supplies that will be needed
to meet these demands, will also be phased over a 20- to 30-year time-frame. The
50/50 Plan’s water conservation features will be backed by enforceable compliance
mechanisms (e.g., water budgets and covenants, codes and restrictions (“CC&Rs”)
ensuring ongoing use of high efficiency fixtures, appliances and potentially other water-
related systems) to ensure that actual future water use within the 50/50 Plan is
consistent with the demand projections relied upon through the City’s land-use
entitlements review process.




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5.1    METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING 50/50 BALANCED PLAN WATER DEMAND

Residential indoor water uses were estimated on the basis of an inferential model
developed by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF,
1999). Non-residential water uses were estimated on the basis of employee water use
factors that were developed by others for typical commercial and institutional (“C&I”)
accounts (Pacific Institute, 2003). Outdoor water uses for residential and public
landscaping were estimated on the basis of local climate data (i.e., precipitation and
evapotranspiration) and a landscape irrigation model developed by the University of
California Cooperative Extension and California Department of Water Resources
(UCCE/DWR, 2000).

Additional water-saving strategies that will be incorporated into the residential portion of
the 50/50 Plan, but that that were not explicitly accounted for in the AWWARF model
(i.e., the use of very high-efficiency plumbing fixtures), were evaluated using an end-use
model in order to estimate the incremental water savings from incorporating these
strategies into the 50/50 Plan. Similarly, the incremental savings from implementation
of the water-saving strategies that will be incorporated within the C&I portion of the
50/50 Plan were estimated based on the analysis conducted by the Pacific Institute
(2003).

5.2    WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES

State of the art water-efficient technologies and enforcement measures will be
implemented within the 50/50 Plan to achieve the estimated water demand and to
ensure that this demand does not increase over time.

Water Efficiency Measures will include:
  • Water-efficient residential plumbing fixtures and appliances,
  • Water-efficient commercial, industrial, and institutional technologies,
  • Limited use of turf and other high water use plants, and
  • Efficient irrigation systems.

Water Conservation Compliance Mechanisms will include:
  • Public education campaigns,
  • Water budgets,
  • Submetering of multifamily units,
  • Confirming presence of required plumbing fixtures/appliances at the time of
      resale, and
  • Annual leak detection and water audits.

These and other strategies will be incorporated into the design guidelines for the 50/50
Plan and the covenants, codes, and restrictions. Where appropriate, selected
measures will be coordinated with the home owners’ association to reduce the burden
of maintenance and responsibility placed on the individual homeowner.



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5.3   WATER USE ESTIMATES FOR THE 50/50 BALANCED PLAN

Based on the preliminary 50/50 Plan’s land plan and the methodology and water
conservation strategies summarized above, the estimated total water demand for the
50/50 Plan at build-out is expected to be approximately 2,510 AFY, see Table 1. This
demand includes the use of current, state-of-the art water conservation technologies,
which are estimated to reduce the total 50/50 Plan water demand by 25 percent relative
to a “Baseline” scenario (i.e., one that only incorporates minimum water conservation
measures).

The 50/50 Plan will also use non-potable water supplies (e.g., recycled water and
potentially graywater and/or rainwater) for selected end-uses (e.g., landscape irrigation,
toilet flushing, and evaporative cooling) to reduce the potable-portion of the 50/50 Plan’s
water demand by 68 percent relative to the Baseline scenario. After accounting for the
effects of water conservation and the use of non-potable water supplies, the total
potable demand for the 50/50 Plan is estimated to be approximately 1,080 AFY at build-
out.

The average indoor residential per capita water demand for the 50/50 Plan is
anticipated to be 37 gallons per day (“gal/day”), which represents a 38 percent savings
from the Baseline per capita demand estimate of 60 gal/day. The potable portion of this
per capita demand is estimated to be 27 gal/day, after accounting for the use of non-
potable water supplies for toilet flushing and other non-potable uses.

The 50/50 Plan’s water use will be phased in over the next 20 to 30 years, in
accordance with market trends and other factors controlling the pace of actual
construction. Water conservation enforcement mechanisms will be administered to
ensure that the 50/50 Plan’s actual water use remains consistent with the projections
relied upon during the City’s land-use entitlement process.




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6 POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SOURCES FOR THE 50/50 BALANCED
  PLAN

The 50/50 Plan’s construction will occur in step with the availability of potable water
needed to meet demand from each step of the 50/50 Plan’s physical development over
the anticipated 20 to 30 years required for build-out. Initially, it is anticipated that up to
700 AFY of local groundwater will be produced and treated on-site to meet the 50/50
Plan’s potable water needs (see Table 2). Ultimately, it is anticipated that the 50/50
Plan’s remaining need for potable water will be served by Redwood City, in connection
with the 50/50 Plan’s participation in conservation actions, expansion of recycled water
use or other actions to offset the 50/50 Plan’s demand for potable water within
Redwood City and/or the SFPUC’s Regional System. A description of these sources of
supply follows.

6.1    LOCAL GROUNDWATER

Groundwater from the San Mateo Plain Groundwater Subbasin will be extracted on and
near the Saltworks site and will be treated at an on-site water treatment plant to meet a
portion of the potable demand of the 50/50 Plan.

6.1.1 Groundwater Basin Description
Redwood City and the Saltworks site overlie the southern portion of the 48,000-acre
San Mateo Plain Groundwater Subbasin (“subbasin”) of the Santa Clara Valley
Groundwater Basin (DWR, 2004). The subbasin is bounded at the base by relatively
impermeable bedrock, by the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains to the west, and the
bedrock outcrop of Coyote Point to the north. The southern and eastern boundaries of
the subbasin have been politically defined as the Santa Clara–San Mateo County line
and the edge of San Francisco Bay (“the Bay”), respectively. However, the southern
and eastern boundaries, as defined, do not represent hydrogeologic barriers to
groundwater flow (RWQCB, 2003; Fio and Leighton, 1995).              Depending upon
streamflow, recharge, and pumping conditions, groundwater can flow either direction
across the southern and eastern boundaries of the subbasin.

6.1.2 Hydrogeology
The subbasin is filled with alluvial fan deposits formed by tributaries to San Francisco
Bay that drained across the basin, toward the center of the Bay (RWQCB, 2003).
These alluvial fan deposits are interbedded with thick clay aquitards and comprise the
main water-bearing formations within the subbasin. Generally, groundwater flow in the
subbasin is from the western uplands area towards San Francisco Bay (Todd, 2003a;
RWQCB, 2003; Metzger and Fio, 1997; Metzger, 2002).

Broadly speaking, the subbasin can be divided into two aquifer systems, one shallow
(approximately shallower than 120 feet below ground surface; “ft bgs”) and one deep
(greater than 200 ft bgs), that are separated by a low-permeability clay aquitard. Areas
near the foothills, where a clay aquitard is not present, are most likely recharge zones

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for the deeper alluvial aquifers that are present in the subbasin (Metzger, 2002). Closer
to the Bay margins, in the vicinity of the Saltworks site, the subbasin is more clearly
divided into the upper and lower aquifer systems; the shallow one corresponding to the
Holocene and late Pleistocene alluvium, and a deeper one corresponding to the Plio-
Pleistocene age alluvium (possibly the Santa Clara Formation) (Metzger, 2002). The
majority of the groundwater production wells in the subbasin appear to be completed in
the deeper aquifer.

The main sources of natural recharge to the local groundwater aquifers include
infiltration of water along the streambeds in the upland areas (e.g., San Francisquito
Creek, Cordilleras Creek, Redwood Creek, and Arroyo Ojo de Agua) and, to a lesser
extent, percolation of precipitation and return flows from applied irrigation water (DWR,
2004). Also, as mentioned above, depending on seasonal and pumping-induced
changes in the groundwater head gradient, groundwater inflow to the subbasin can
occur along the southern and eastern subbasin boundaries.

6.1.3 Current Groundwater Use
Currently, as much as 2,500 AFY of groundwater is extracted from the subbasin for
irrigation and for public and private drinking water supply (Metzer, 2002). The majority
of the production wells within the subbasin are private wells that are used for landscape
irrigation. Public drinking water wells supply potable water to existing small water
systems located in East Palo Alto (i.e., Palo Alto Park Mutual Water Company) and in
Menlo Park (i.e., O’Connor Tract Mutual Water Corporation).

Redwood City has not developed local groundwater as a source of municipal supply,
although groundwater is used to some degree within Redwood City. Sequoia High
School has a well and uses as much as 27 AFY of groundwater for landscape irrigation
(UWMP, 2005). The Pacific Shores Development, which is located northwest of the
Saltworks site along Seaport Boulevard, reportedly has at least three wells and uses
approximately 55 AFY for landscape irrigation (Todd, 2003a). Located northwest of the
Saltworks site, along Seaport Boulevard, is the former RMC Lonestar Cement Company
(“RMC”) facility, which is now operated by Cemex. This cement-making facility
reportedly has historically pumped multiple groundwater wells. Although current use of
these wells is unknown, Redwood City has indicated that the cement-making facility is
expected to become a recycled water customer in the near future, which would likely
mean that the facility’s use of groundwater would be reduced or stopped altogether.

Generally, groundwater production rates within the subbasin for individual wells appear
to be approximately 200 GPM. The documented pumping rates from the wells drilled
adjacent to the Saltworks site at Pacific Shores and RMC range between 25 and 550
GPM (Poland & Garrett, 1943; Bohley/Maley Associates, 1993; Maggiora, 2001).

6.1.4 Water Balance and Safe Yield Assessment
The availability of groundwater to serve the 50/50 Plan is supported by a preliminary
water balance prepared for the subbasin. The water balance is based on groundwater



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observation data indicating that the subbasin is in a favorable, steady state condition
(i.e., that inflows are equal to outflows; EKI, 2006).20

Inflows from streamflow infiltration, precipitation, groundwater inflows, and irrigation
return flows were estimated to be approximately 8,000 AFY. Groundwater outflows
from evapotranspiration, groundwater extraction, and groundwater outflow were
estimated to be approximately 8,000 AFY. It was estimated that as much as 5,000 AFY
of additional groundwater potentially could be produced from the subbasin without
causing overdraft conditions, if the production caused the capture of additional water
through an increase in groundwater inflows, a reduction in groundwater outflows, and
the additional infiltration of recharge that is currently being rejected under the steady-
state condition.

The availability of groundwater to serve the 50/50 Plan is consistent with a recent study
conducted for Redwood City by Todd Engineers (2003), which estimated that up to
1,000 AFY could be extracted from the aquifer immediately beneath Redwood City
without exceeding its safe yield.

6.1.5 Water Quality
Based on the available data, groundwater from the subbasin is generally hard, and, in
some cases the measured concentrations of total dissolved solids (“TDS”), chloride,
iron, and manganese have been detected above their applicable primary or secondary
maximum contaminant levels (“MCLs”). As a result, use of groundwater to meet potable
water needs would require treatment or blending with higher quality water. As
described below in Section 6.1.7, the 50/50 Plan intends to treat groundwater to meet
all applicable drinking water standards.

6.1.6 Estimated Volume of Groundwater Available to Serve the 50/50 Balanced
       Plan
Based on the available information, it is estimated that the Saltworks site is underlain by
400 feet or more of unconsolidated alluvial deposits.21 Within these deposits, two main
aquifer intervals generally are encountered (a shallow and a deep interval). Each
aquifer interval is made up of a set of relatively thin interbeds of sands and gravels,
each generally less than 10 ft thick, separated by interbeds of clay and silt. The two
main aquifer intervals are separated by a thick aquitard of clay, silt, and sandy clay.
Locally, drilling on the Pacific Shores and RMC properties has encountered the top of
the shallow alluvial aquifer at depths of 40 to 50 ft bgs, and the bottom of the shallow
aquifer between 60 and 90 ft bgs. Deeper drilling has revealed a clay and silt aquitard
extending some 70 to 150 feet vertically below the shallow aquifer. The deeper alluvial
aquifer may be encountered beneath the aquitard at depths as shallow as 130 ft bgs or


20
   The steady assumption is based on review of the available water level data from the U.S. Geological
Survey, which showed a slight upward trend in basin groundwater levels. That trend is consistent with
other groundwater research (i.e., Fio & Leighton, 1995, Metzger & Fio, 1997, and Maggiora, 2001.)
21
   Depth to bedrock in the central area of the Saltworks site is estimated to be 400 ft bgs, based upon
seismic refraction surveying conducted in the 1970s (Hazlewood, 1976).


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as deep as 230 ft bgs. The deeper aquifer varies from approximately 100 to 200 feet in
thickness and probably lies directly upon “bedrock” (i.e., the much older alluvial
sediments of the Santa Clara Formation or the older metasediments of the Franciscan
Complex).

Based upon aquifer property information derived from pumping test results from the
nearby Pacific Shores wells, and assumptions regarding the aquifer thickness at the
Saltworks site, a steady-state analysis using the Theim equation (Lohman, 1972) was
conducted to estimate how much groundwater could be extracted from a 50/50 Plan
supply well, or set of wells, without impacting water levels in neighboring wells (EKI,
2006). Based on the assumptions and criteria outlined below, it appears that total
continuous pumping rates of 60 to 440 GPM (i.e., approximately 100 to 700 AFY) could
potentially be sustained at the Saltworks site. The assumptions used in the calculation
include:

     •   Steady-state groundwater flow, with no local gradient;
     •   12-inch diameter wells;
     •   5,800 feet radial distance from the 50/50 Plan well to neighboring wells;
     •   Maximum allowable drawdown in neighboring off-site wells of 1 foot;
     •   Maximum allowable drawdown in 50/50 Plan well of 160 feet;
     •   40 feet total sand/gravel bed thickness in productive zone; and
     •   Hydraulic transmissivity ranging from 114 ft2/day to 788 ft2/day (Bohley/Maley,
         1993)

These estimates of groundwater production from the Saltworks site are consistent with
pumping rate data from wells on the adjacent Pacific Shores and RMC/Cemex sites,
where groundwater production since the 1920s has varied between 25 to 550 GPM,
with sustained pumping rates ranging from 100 to 180 GPM (Poland & Garrett, 1943;
Bohley/Maley, 1993; Maggiora, 2001). These estimated groundwater production rates
from the Saltworks site are well within the safe yield estimates that have been made for
Redwood City and the larger subbasin (Todd, 2003; EKI, 2006).

6.1.7 Groundwater Treatment
Groundwater will be treated at an on-site water treatment plant (“WTP”). It is
anticipated that the WTP will include a Reverse Osmosis plant, which will reduce the
TDS and hardness of the water, and treat the groundwater to meet all drinking water
standards.22




22
  Brine discharge from the Reverse Osmosis WTP will be disposed of in one of three potential ways: (a)
conveyed to the Cargill salt production facility in Newark via Cargill’s existing transbay pipeline, (b)
discharged directly to the Bay form an outfall located at the Saltworks site, or (c) discharged into the
SBSA wastewater collection system for treatment and discharge as part of the SBSA’s overall
wastewater.


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6.2   REDWOOD CITY MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEM

It is anticipated that the 50/50 Plan’s potable water needs that are not met by local
groundwater will be met by purchases from Redwood City in connection with the 50/50
Plan’s participation in conservation actions, expansion of recycled water use or other
actions to offset the 50/50 Plan’s demand for potable water within Redwood City and/or
the Regional System (see Table 2). As discussed in Section 4.2, the City now receives
100 percent of its potable water supplies from the SFPUC Regional System. If provided
to the 50/50 Plan, potable water from the City would be obtained from the SFPUC
Regional System either (1) based on the City’s existing SFPUC supply, (2) based on an
increased supply obtained from the SFPUC, or (3) based on an increased supply
obtained from another SFPUC wholesale customer, or (4) based on a combination of
these approaches. It is anticipated that obtaining additional potable water through the
City will involve the 50/50 Plan’s participation in off-site conservation, recycled water
use expansion or other measures to offset the 50/50 Plan’s use of additional potable
water (see Section 6.3).

Based on the City’s 2005 UWMP and the SFPUC’s WSIP PEIR, it appears that some
surplus water may be available to the City above and beyond its projected future
demand. According to the 2005 UWMP, Redwood City’s 2030 water demand is
estimated to be some 518 AFY below the City’s current share of Supply Assurance (i.e.,
its current Individual Supply Guarantee). That projected demand level also is some
1,869 AFY less than the 2030 demand level that the SFPUC anticipated for Redwood
City in the WSIP PEIR. Based on these projections, up to 2,387 AFY of potable SFPUC
water may be available to Redwood City from the Regional System, above and beyond
the City’s projected 2030 demand.

In addition to the potable water that may be available to Redwood City from the
Regional System, opportunities may exist to develop potable water offsets within, and
adjacent to, Redwood City. Such opportunities could include the recycled water or
water conservation projects identified by the Recycled Water Task Force, as discussed
in Section 4.2.3, or other yet-to-be identified projects, such as extending recycled water
service to existing and planned new customers located West of Highway 101.

For example, the Water Recycling Feasibility Study for Redwood City (Kennedy-Jenks,
2002) identified potential recycled water demands of as much as approximately 600 to
1,200 AFY, if the recycled water pipelines were extended to Redwood City customers
located West of Highway 101. Although these estimates of potential recycled water use
will be reviewed relative to current circumstances (e.g., restrictions within the City
barring the use of recycled water on existing school playgrounds), it is anticipated that
significant potential exists to offset potable water demand with expanded use of
recycled water in lieu of existing potable water use for certain purposes within the City.

Development of a potable water offset actions within the City’s service area will require
close coordination with Redwood City to identify an appropriate project(s). The 50/50
Plan proposes to work closely with the City to plan and implement one or more offset



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projects to improve water availability and reliability within Redwood City, while also
helping to serve the people living, working and recreating within the 50/50 Plan.

6.3    REGIONAL POTABLE WATER OFFSETS

In addition to developing local water supply sources, such as groundwater, and
participating in one or more potable water offset projects within Redwood City, the 50/50
Plan anticipates its potential participation in water conservation and/or recycled water
projects or programs elsewhere in the SFPUC Regional System. The 50/50 Plan’s
participation in these projects or programs would contribute toward offsetting the 50/50
Plan’s use of SFPUC water to meet any portion of the 50/50 Plan’s potable demand that
cannot be met with local supplies, like treated groundwater.

Whether carried out locally or regionally, the offset approach is a sustainability tool for
making maximum beneficial use of existing water sources. Although it seems likely that
such offsets will be facilitated by the adoption of formal programs in the future, the
mechanisms for applying this sustainability tool are straightforward and typically are
already in place. For example, the SFPUC Master Contract and the new Supply
Agreement already provide for one wholesale customer to have a portion of its SFPUC
water delivered to another wholesale customer. Under those provisions, the 50/50 Plan
could help finance the first wholesaler’s implementation of water conservation, recycled
water use or other actions that make water “available” and/or provide other benefits, like
increased water reliability during droughts. In return for the 50/50 Plan helping to
provide such benefits, the first wholesaler would agree to have a specified amount of
SFPUC water that is not needed during the agreement term delivered to the second
wholesaler according to a schedule and terms negotiated as part of the offset
agreement. Such offset agreements would help the Regional System maximize the
beneficial use of existing SFPUC supply sources.

6.3.1 Regional Conservation and Recycled Water Programs
Various water conservation, recycled water, and local groundwater programs have
already been identified by others for the purpose of conserving potable water within the
SFPUC Regional System. These programs are described in the WSIP PEIR and in the
Investigation of Regional Water Supply Option No. 4 Technical Memorandum (“Tech
Memo”) that URS Corporation prepared in 2006 to support the PEIR process.23

The PEIR and Tech Memo indicate that an estimated 33,400 AFY of potable water
savings is possible within the SFPUC Regional Water System. Approximately 11,200
AFY of these potable water savings already are accounted for in the WSIP’s projection
of 2030 water demand in the Regional System. However, an additional 22,100 AFY of


23
  BAWSCA is now preparing an update on opportunities for its member agencies (SFPUC wholesale
customers) to conserve water, expand recycled water use and take other actions (i.e., groundwater
development) to meet an additional 10 MGD of demand growth without increasing the wholesale
customer’s 184 MGD share of the SFPUC’s 265 MGD baseline water use from the Hetch Hetchy,
Alameda County and Peninsula water development systems.


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potable water savings is described by URS in the Tech Memo prepared for the PEIR
process. Following is a summary of the water conservation, recycled water and local
groundwater programs from the Tech Memo and PEIR (see also Attachment A).

        6.3.1.1 San Francisco Programs Included in the WSIP
According to the PEIR, potable water savings from local conservation, recycled water,
and groundwater programs that will be implemented within San Francisco as part of the
WSIP are estimated to be 11,200 AFY (i.e., 10 MGD). These programs include (1) two
recycled water projects, referred to as the Westside Baseline Project that will treat
effluent from the Oceanside Wastewater Pollution Control Plant and the Harding
Park/Lake Merced Project which will provide recycled water for irrigation of Harding
Park and refilling of Lake Merced, (2) one groundwater project, which includes
development of a new groundwater supply in the Sunset district, and (3) a conservation
program comprised of 38 different measures to be implemented in the San Francisco
retail service area.

Below is a list of the estimated potable water savings from implementation of these
programs.

     •   Recycled Water Programs                                4,500 AFY
     •   Groundwater                                            2,248 AFY
     •   Conservation                                           5,002 AFY
     •   (Program Overlap)24                                    (550 AFY)

A summary of these programs along with the estimated potable water savings that
would result from their implementation is provided in Attachment A. Because the
potable water savings from these programs have been accounted for in the WSIP, they
are likely not available to offset the potable demands of the 50/50 Plan.

      6.3.1.2 Regional Programs Included in WSIP Alternatives
The total potable water savings estimated from implementation of the fifteen Regional
Programs that were identified in the alternatives to the WSIP presented in the PEIR is
approximately 21,300 AFY (i.e., 19 MGD). A description of the fifteen Regional
Programs and their estimated potable water savings is provided in Attachment A and
summarized below.

The previously identified Regional Programs detailed in the Tech Memo include eight
recycled water programs, five groundwater programs, and three water conservation
programs. The identified recycled water programs include projects at varying levels of
planning and implementation in Daly City, Pacifica, Mountain View, Palo Alto, the
Redwood City subregional area, South San Francisco, San Bruno, Sunnyvale, and
Burlingame. The identified groundwater programs include development of new
groundwater supplies in the Cal Water-Bear Gulch, Cal Water-Mid Peninsula, East Palo


24
  Program overlap was reported for the entire collection of programs but is distributed between San
Francisco and Regional Programs above for additive purposes.


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Alto, Menlo Park, and Burlingame service areas. Conservation programs detailed in the
Tech Memo included three different subsets of 23 conservation measures to be
implemented throughout various agencies within the SFPUC Regional System. These
conservation measures focus on increasing public education, irrigation efficiency, and
indoor plumbing fixture and appliance efficiency.

The estimated potable water offsets that may be achieved by carrying out these
regional recycled water, groundwater and conservation programs is listed below.

     •   Recycled Water Programs                         9,570 AFY
     •   Groundwater                                     2,842 AFY
     •   Conservation                                    9,689 AFY
     •   (Program Overlap)                               (800 AFY)

By supporting, or participating, in one or more of the preceding programs in coordination
with the SFPUC, Redwood City and/or BAWSCA, it is anticipated that a potable water
offset could be credited to the supporting or participating entity. For example,
approximately 5,000 AFY of the identified potential savings are associated with the
expansion of Redwood City’s existing recycled water system to serve recycled water in
lieu of potable water for specified, non-potable uses in adjacent communities. Portions
of the recycled water system already have been designed and built to provide the
additional 5,000 AFY of recycled water supply. If the 50/50 Plan were to help expand
the Redwood City recycled water system to actually provide additional recycled water
supply, then a potable water offset credit might be obtained for the 50/50 Plan.

6.3.2 Examples of Other Potable Water Offset Programs
Although the use of conservation and recycled water projects to offset potable water
demand has not been implemented to date within the Regional System, potable water
offsets have been used by the East Bay Municipal Utilities District (“EBMUD”) and the
Soquel Creek Water District (“Soquel Creek WD”) near Santa Cruz, among others.

EBMUD recently provided potable water offsets in connection with its annexation of the
Alamo Creek development project in Danville. EBMUD provided the potable water
offset credit in return for a payment based on the total number of units within the
development. EBMUD used the funding to implement conservation measures that it
selected to at least offset the potable demand projected from the Alamo Creek project at
its build-out. To date, the Alamo Creek development is approximately 25 percent
completed, with an estimated 7 to 10 year build-out expected. Beyond Alamo Creek,
EBMUD has provided potable water offset credits to other developments within its
service area.25



25
   Information on EBMUD’s potable water offset program can be found at
http://www.ebmud.com/about_ebmud/financial_information/FY09_rates_charges_and_fees/FY09%20Sch
edule%20N_Water%20Demand%20Mitigation%20Fees.pdf



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In 2008, Soquel Creek WD implemented a potable water offset program to help meet
demand growth with existing supply sources. Under the Soquel Creek program, the
proponent of a new development project supports the implementation of certain
conservation measures at one or more specific locations in order to generate the water
savings credited to the new project. The Soquel Creek WD potable water offset
program assists new projects by identifying parties seeking assistance in carrying out
conservation measures and helping to coordinate offset projects.26




26
   Information on Soquel Creek WD’s potable water offset program can be found at
http://www.soquelcreekwater.com/WDO_Info.htm.



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7 NON-POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SOURCES FOR THE 50/50
  BALANCED PLAN

The non-potable water supply sources that are available for the 50/50 Plan include
recycled water, graywater, and rainwater that are generated and treated on the
Saltworks site, and recycled water that is imported to the Saltworks site from the SBSA
wastewater treatment plant (see Table 2). A discussion of each of these non-potable
supplies, along with the current regulatory setting and the proposed uses of each supply
within the 50/50 Plan, is included below.

7.1       RECYCLED WATER

Recycled water will be the primary source of non-potable water for the 50/50 Plan. By
maximizing the use of recycled water, the 50/50 Plan will reduce the use of potable
water, and minimize or eliminate wastewater discharge from the 50/50 Plan into the San
Francisco Bay. Recycled water is particularly attractive compared to other non-potable
supplies because of its year-round availability (i.e., in comparison to rainwater, which is
available only during the wet season), its reliability during extended dry hydrologic
periods (i.e., during droughts) and because of the efficient, centralized nature of its
treatment and distribution system (e.g., in comparison to property-based graywater
systems).

7.1.1 Current Allowable Uses for Recycled Water
Recycled water use in California is governed by Title 22 of the California Code of
Regulations (“Title 22), the California Health and Safety Code (“Health and Safety
Code”), and the California Water Code (“Water Code”). These regulations and statutes
outline the acceptable treatment, delivery, and use of recycled water within California.
In particular, allowable uses of recycled water specified in Title 22 (Division 4, Chapter
3, Article 3) include, among other things:

      •   Irrigation,
      •   Cooling,
      •   Recreational impoundments,
      •   Flushing toilets and urinals,
      •   Priming drain traps,
      •   Industrial process water,
      •   Fire fighting,
      •   Decorative fountains,
      •   Commercial laundries,
      •   Artificial snow making for commercial outdoor use,
      •   Commercial car washes,
      •   Dust control, and
      •   Cleaning roads, sidewalks, and outdoor work areas.




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Additional restrictions are emplaced on these uses elsewhere in Title 22 (e.g., Division
4, Chapter 3, Article 5) related to the use of recycled water for indoor purposes at
residential homes, and in the Health and Safety Code (Division 104, Part 12, Chapter 4,
Article 7) related to replenishment of drinking water sources with recycled water.
Approval for the use of recycled water for specific purposes, such as for toilet flushing in
condominium projects, are outlined in the Water Code (Division 7, Chapter 7, Article 7,
Section 13550 et seq.).

In an effort to promote the use of recycled, the State Water Resources Control Board
(“State Board”) has recently adopted a Statewide Recycled Water Use Policy that would
mandate increased use of recycled water throughout the State. In particular, the State
Board’s policy declares that “it is a waste and unreasonable use of water for agencies
not to use recycled water when recycled water of adequate quality is available, subject
to the conditions established in Sections 13550 et seq. of the Water Code.” Appropriate
uses of recycled water listed in the Water Code include, among other things:

   •   Cemeteries, golf courses, parks, highway landscaped areas, and industrial and
       irrigation uses,
   •   Irrigation of residential landscaping,
   •   Floor trap priming, cooling towers, and air-conditioning devices, and
   •   Toilets and urinal flushing in commercial, retail, and office buildings, theaters,
       auditoriums, condominium projects, schools, hotels, and apartments.

In order to expedite permitting of recycled water use throughout the State, the State
Board is drafting a general permit for recycled water landscape irrigation, scheduled for
completion in July 2009. This permit, similar to all permits for recycled water use, will
be vetted by the State Department of Public Health (“DPH”).

Within Redwood City, recycled water is currently used for both indoor and outdoor
commercial and industrial purposes east of Highway 101. In the near future, recycled
water will also be used for irrigation of common area residential landscapes in the
Redwood Shores area. These and other uses of recycled water within the City are
outlined in the Recycled Water Use Ordinance, which was passed in June 2008. In
addition to a number of voluntary and encouraged uses for recycled water that are listed
in the ordinance, the Recycled Water Use Ordinance mandates that future apartments,
condominiums, commercial, industrial, and governmental buildings located within the
Recycled Water Service Area be dual plumbed for indoor and outdoor use of recycled
water.

7.1.2 Intended Uses of Recycled Water within the 50/50 Balanced Plan
Recycled water will be used throughout the 50/50 Plan in a manner that is consistent
with the Recycled Water Use Ordinance, the Water Code, and all existing State Board
and DPH policies. Thus, pending approval by the City of Redwood City, the State
Board, and the DPH, the 50/50 Plan proposes to maximize the use of recycled water for
the following purposes:



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   •   Irrigation of landscapes at apartments, condominiums, townhouses, commercial,
   •   institutional, and public landscape areas,
   •   Toilet flushing in all apartments, condominiums, townhouses, commercial, and
       institutional buildings, and
   •   Cooling purposes in non-residential buildings.

If permitted by the City and relevant State agencies, recycled water will also be used for
other identified appropriate non-potable uses within the 50/50 Plan that are allowed
under current California law (Water Code Section 13550 et seq.).

7.1.3 Availability of Recycled Water to the 50/50 Balanced Plan
Multiple options are being considered to provide recycled water for the 50/50 Plan.
These options include the purchasing recycled water from the South Bayside System
Authority (“SBSA”) or producing recycled water at a new wastewater treatment plant
(“WWTP”) constructed on the Saltworks site (Weiss, 2009).

The SBSA is the current recycled water supplier for Redwood City. The SBSA’s current
wastewater treatment plant currently has the capacity to produce 6 MGD of recycled
water, all of which is owned and controlled by the City. The system has been designed,
however, so that it can be expanded to provide up to an additional 5,000 AFY of
recycled water (Attachment A).

If an on-site WWTP is constructed, a total of 1,430 AFY of recycled water is estimated
to be available from the on-site WWTP based on the current projected water demand
from the 50/50 Plan. However, in order to meet the 50/50 Plan’s goal of balancing the
on-site wastewater production with the volume of on-site recycled water use, even if a
WWTP is constructed on-site a supplemental recycled water supply would be required
during summer months.

This supplemental supply of recycled water would allow the 50/50 Plan to maintain a
net-zero discharge of wastewater from the site. Because recycled water is generated
throughout all months of the year while irrigation demand (the largest end use for
recycled water) occurs primarily during the summer months and early fall, if an on-site
WWTP were constructed, the 50/50 Plan would require an off-site recycled water supply
during peak irrigation months when recycled water demands exceed the supply
generated on-site. Similarly, the 50/50 Plan would need to manage excess recycled
water during nonirrigation months, when the supply generated on-site exceeds the
50/50 Plan’s demand. The primary strategy for accomplishing this balance is through
seasonal recycled water exchanges with the SBSA. If approved by the SBSA and the
City, recycled water from the SBSA would be delivered to the Saltworks site between
the months of April and September, and an equivalent volume would be returned from
the Saltworks site to the SBSA between November and March. The outcome of this
exchange would be an annual net-zero discharge of wastewater from the site. Based
on the current estimated demand for the 50/50 Plan, these supplemental supplies are
expected to be on the order of approximately 370 AFY.



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Because of the 50/50 Plan’s proximity to the existing recycled water distribution pipeline
on Seaport Boulevard, connection to the City’s recycled water system would not require
significant additional infrastructure.

7.2       GRAYWATER

The term graywater refers to the reuse of drain water from bathtubs, showers, clothes
washers, and bathroom sinks. Unlike recycled water, which is treated and distributed
on a community-wide basis through a centralized system, graywater capture, treatment,
and reuse occurs locally, on the same property.          The primary benefit of reusing
graywater is to reduce the 50/50 Plan’s need for potable water. Graywater reuse also
provides the added benefit of reducing sewage flow and treatment demand at the
wastewater treatment plant. Graywater will potentially be used within the 50/50 Plan
for non-potable purposes where recycled water use is prohibited or where the use of
graywater may be preferable for cost, marketability or other reasons.

7.2.1 Current Allowable Uses for Graywater
Graywater reuse in California is currently governed by Sections 14875 et seq. of the
Water Code. In accordance with the Water Code and under the oversight of the
Department of Water Resources (“DWR”), the California Graywater Standards were
adopted in 1992 and updated in 1997 as Appendix G, of Title 24, Part 5 of the California
Code of Regulations. These standards specify requirements for the use of graywater
for irrigation purposes. Specifications for the internal reuse of graywater are not
currently included in the California Graywater Standards.

As of July 2008, however, Senate Bill 1258 amended California law to require the
Department of Housing and Community Development to adopt and submit to the
California Building Standards Commission building standards for the construction,
installation, and alteration of graywater systems for indoor and outdoor use (Section
17922 et seq. of the Health and Safety Code). These standards are to be developed
during the current rulemaking cycle, which commenced on January 1, 2009, and will
replace the DWR’s 1997 graywater standards.

Although Statewide standards currently exist for outdoor graywater reuse and are in the
process of being developed for indoor graywater reuse, actual approval for graywater
systems is granted at the city or county level. According to staff from the City water and
building departments, there are currently not any permitted graywater systems within
Redwood City.27 However, graywater is already being used and promoted in other
areas of California in recent years. For example, in the Bay Area, the Contra Costa
Water District (“CCWD”) is currently embarking upon a pilot program to evaluate the use
of the AQUS system (a point-of-use system for toilet flushing) within its service area and
EBMUD promotes the use of graywater for irrigation as part of their residential water




27
     Personal communication with John La Torra and Justin Ezell, email dated 17 May 2008.


May 2009                                            29
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conservation program.28 In Southern California, the County of San Diego Department of
Environmental Health has recently developed standards for graywater system
permitting and design criteria to facilitate the use of graywater within the county.29 Other
developments similar to the 50/50 Plan are also including the use of graywater as a
means of reducing the potable demand of their projects. For example, the Sonoma
Mountain Village, a residential development in Rohnert Park with plans for 1,900 homes
and 700,000 square feet of commercial and retail use, plans to incorporate the use of
graywater for backyard irrigation at single-family homes within the project.

7.2.2 Intended Uses of Graywater within the 50/50 Balanced Plan
Graywater is being considered for use within the 50/50 Plan in the event that, for
regulatory or marketability reasons, it is determined that graywater would be a preferred
source of supply for toilet flushing and backyard irrigation at the low density rowhouses
that are currently expected to be included within the 50/50 Plan. Although graywater
could also be used to meet selected non-potable demands within the other residential
product types or nonresidential land uses within the 50/50 Plan, it is assumed that
recycled water will be allowed for non-potable uses (e.g., toilet flushing and irrigation)
within the 50/50 Plan’s medium and high density residential units and non-residential
buildings. The final selected uses of graywater within the 50/50 Plan, if any, would
reflect a number of factors, including, among other things:

     (1) Completion and adoption of Statewide standards for indoor graywater systems,
     (2) Approval from the City and/or the DPH for the use of recycled water or graywater
         at select residential units within the 50/50 Plan’s, and
     (3) Approval from the City and/or the DPH for the use of recycled water for
         landscape irrigation at select residential units within 50/50 Plan.

7.2.3 Availability of Graywater to the 50/50 Plan
Graywater supply is directly related to the amount of water that is used for bathing,
showering, lavatory washing, and clothes washing at an individual home. As such, the
volume of graywater that is available for reuse at a given home will vary depending on
the amount of graywater that is generated. Furthermore, because graywater cannot be
stored for long periods of time, it must be used as soon as possible after production or
be discharged into the sanitary sewer (i.e., hold times of 24 to 72 hours are typically
recommended). Since graywater is generated at a relatively uniform rate but is used
more during the summer than during the winter, most discharge of graywater into the
sewer will occur during winter months.

Although graywater will be produced at all of the 50/50 Plan’s residential and non-
residential buildings, only the graywater from low density rowhouses were considered to
be available for use as part of this study, based on the 50/50 Plan’s plans to use


28
   Graywater information provided on the EBMUD website:
http://www.ebmud.com/conserving_&_recycling/residential/graywater/default.htm.
29
   http://www.sandiego.gov/water/pdf/graywatersys.pdf



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recycled water for most other non-potable uses. Thus, using the methodology
summarized in Section 5, it is estimated that approximately 61 gal/day of graywater will
be generated from use of the baths, showers, clothes washers, and bathroom sinks in
the low density rowhouses within the 50/50 Plan.30 The demand for graywater at each
low density rowhouse is estimated to be approximately 38 gal/day (i.e., 25 gal/day for
toilet flushing, and 13 gal/day for backyard irrigation, assuming that backyard irrigation
accounts for 50 percent of the total irrigation demand). Assuming that the graywater
produced at each low density rowhouse is sufficient to meet the estimated graywater
demand at that unit the majority of the time, and assuming the current mix of housing
product types, it is estimated that the 50/50 Plan could potentially use up to 130 AFY of
graywater.

Depending on the actual graywater generation and usage rates, however, some potable
water may be needed to supplement graywater irrigation supplies during peak irrigation
months at some homes, for system backflushing (e.g., cleaning of the graywater filter),
and to provide irrigation water when home occupants are away and graywater is not
actively being generated. Given that the majority of the graywater would be used for
toilet flushing, the total volume of supplemental potable water that is estimated to be
needed for these purposes is expected to be small (i.e., less than 10% of the estimated
backyard irrigation demand).

7.3     RAINWATER HARVESTING

Rainwater harvesting generally refers to capturing rainwater from rooftops, storing it in
an above-ground or underground tanks, and reusing it for non-potable purposes at the
same property.

Rainwater harvesting has two primary benefits: (1) to reduce the use of potable water
for selected non-potable end uses and (2 to reduce the volume of stormwater runoff
from urban development. Rainwater harvesting is one of many strategies described as
“low impact development,” a term that refers to controlling stormwater runoff by
designing buildings and landscapes to produce less runoff than would otherwise be
created. The main drawback of using rainwater as a water supply source is that the
majority of rainfall in California falls during only a portion of the year, between the
months of November and April. Additionally, the availability of rainwater can vary
greatly from one year to the next, making it less reliable than other supplies.

7.3.1 Current Allowable Uses for Rainwater
Rainwater harvesting is permitted in California on the local level. According to
discussions with staff from the Redwood City Building Department, no permitted
rainwater systems have been installed in Redwood City to date.31 Rainwater harvesting
is, however, recommended by the San Mateo Countywide Water Pollution Prevention


30
   Since water generated at kitchen sinks is not considered graywater, it was assumed that only 50% of
the total “faucet” water would be available for graywater reuse.
31
   Personal communication with John La Torra and Justin Ezell, email dated 17 May 2008.


May 2009                                           31
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Program as a stormwater pollution prevention strategy.32 Specific uses of rainwater
harvesting that are described by the San Mateo Countywide Program include irrigation,
toilet flushing, car washing, clothes washing, and swimming pools. Additionally, some
cities in San Francisco County and Santa Clara County are also beginning to encourage
rainwater harvesting. For example, the City of San Francisco and the City of Palo Alto
both offer rebates to residents for the construction of rainwater harvesting systems.33

7.3.2 Intended Uses of Rainwater within the 50/50 Balanced Plan
Because of the availability and reliability of recycled water and graywater supplies,
rainwater harvesting is not currently planned for the 50/50 Plan. As mentioned above,
unlike recycled water and graywater, rainwater is primarily available during the winter
months while the largest demand, driven primarily by irrigation requirements, is
generated during the drier and hotter summer season. This seasonal discrepancy
between the available supply and the peak demand would require significant storage
facilities, making it a less desirable water supply in comparison to recycled water and
graywater, which are generated year-round and are more reliable from one year to the
next.

However, there are still various reasons why rainwater may still be considered for use
within the 50/50 Plan. The reasons include:

     (1) The potential to use rainwater for purposes where use of recycled water or
         graywater may not be as easy to permit,
     (2) The potential to use rainwater for purposes where recycled water or graywater
         are not currently allowed (e.g., clothes washing and swimming pools), and
     (3) The benefits from a stormwater management perspective.

If rainwater is selected for use within the 50/50 Plan, such uses could include irrigation,
toilet flushing, clothes washing, or filling of swimming pools at residential homes or
irrigation, toilet flushing, and process water at commercial, industrial, and institutional
buildings, if permitted by Redwood City.

7.3.3 Availability of Rainwater to the 50/50 Balanced Plan
The amount of rainwater available for use in residential or non-residential buildings
depends on the rooftop area, the efficiency with which the rainfall is harvested, and the
size of available storage. Based on an average annual rainfall in Redwood City of
19.74 inches per year and an assumed site area of 1,436 acres, the total average
annual rainfall estimated for the Saltworks site is approximately 2,362 AFY.34


32
   San Mateo Countywide stormwater guidance, C.3 Stormwater Technical Guidance, updated December
2007, is available online at http://www.flowstobay.org/bs_new_development.php.
33
   Information on San Francisco’s rainwater harvesting program is available at
http://sfwater.org/mto_main.cfm/MC_ID/14/MSC_ID/361/MTO_ID/559. Information for the City of Palo
Alto rainwater harvesting program is available at
http://www.cityofpaloalto.org/depts/pwd/flood_+_storm/stormwater_rebates/default.asp.
34
   Rainfall data is from the Western Regional Climate Center Redwood City station, recorded between
1948 and 2007. Data are available at http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?caredw+sfo.


May 2009                                        32
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For the residential / mixed use sector, assuming a preliminary estimate of 355 acres of
residential land with 185 acres of rooftop area, and assuming a rainfall capture rate of
75%, it is estimated that approximately 230 AFY of rainwater could be harvested from
residential / mixed use rooftops within the 50/50 Plan.35 Storage of this rainwater for
later use would require the construction and maintenance of rainwater storage systems
at residential buildings.

Non-residential rainwater systems may also be considered for the 50/50 Plan.
However, the total commercial office area within the 50/50 Plan is only estimated to
encompass approximately 17 acres. Because this area is significantly smaller than the
355 acres of residential / mixed use land, it is anticipated that significantly less rainwater
would be available for use in commercial office buildings than may be available for the
residential / mixed use sector. Further, because the use of recycled water to meet non-
potable end uses in commercial buildings is widely accepted and expected to be
relatively easy to permit, it is unlikely that rainwater would be used in lieu of the
available recycled water to offset potable demands within the commercial portion of the
50/50 Plan.




35
  A capture rate of 75% was conservatively assumed based on a range of estimates between 75% and
90% provided by the third edition Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting, published by the Texas Water
Development Board in 2005.


May 2009                                         33
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8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The water demand of the 50/50 Plan is estimated to be 2,510 AFY at build-out.
Approximately 1,080 AFY of the total demand is anticipated to be potable, and the
remaining 1,430 AFY demand will be non-potable. The water demand from the 50/50
Plan will arise in step with the 50/50 Plan’s physical construction, which will be phased
over a 20-to-30-year period, in accordance with market trends and other factors.

The 50/50 Plan’s construction will remain in step with the actual availability of potable
water sources, starting with up to 700 AFY of local groundwater potentially produced
and treated at the Saltworks site. As the 50/50 Plan gradually builds out, it is
anticipated that potable water needs not met by local groundwater will be met by
purchases from Redwood City in connection with the 50/50 Plan’s participation in
conservation actions, expansion of recycled water use or other actions to offset the
50/50 Plan’s demand for potable water within Redwood City and/or the SFPUC’s
Regional System.

The 50/50 Plan’s non-potable supply sources will include as much as 1,430 AFY of
recycled water that will be produce and treated at the Saltworks site and/or obtained
from the SBSA. In addition, the 50/50 Plan will potentially use as much as 130 AFY of
graywater that will be produced and treated at the Saltworks site and/or 230 AFY of
rainwater that is harvested from residential rooftops at the Saltworks site. These
alternative sources, if incorporated into the 50/50 Plan, would replace the use of
recycled water for selected, nonpotable end-uses.

By aggressively reducing its own water demand and by embracing a multi-source water
supply approach in close coordination with Redwood City and others, the 50/50 Plan will
ensure the long-term availability of sufficient water supplies for the people who will live,
work and recreate within the 50/50 Plan, while offering the potential to improve water
availability and reliability within Redwood City and elsewhere within the SFPUC
Regional System. In this way, the 50/50 Plan can help realize the state’s policy of
maximizing the beneficial use of existing water sources to provide new jobs, schools
and homes in an environmentally sustainable manner.




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9 REFERENCES

AWWARF, 1999. Residential End Uses of Water. American Water Works Association
    Research Foundation, P.W. Mayer, W.B. DeOreo, E.M.Optiz, J.C. Kiefer, W.Y.
    Davis, B. Dziegielewski, 1999.

Bohley/Maley, 1993, Irrigation Well Report for Pacific Shores Center. Report prepared
      by Bohley/Maley Associates, 16 December 1993.

DWR, 2003, California’s Groundwater: Bulletin 118, Update 2003. California
     Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA, October 2003.

EKI, 2006. Summary of Preliminary Investigation of Groundwater Extraction
      Opportunities. Erler & Kalinowski, Inc., 1 November 2006.

EKI, 2009. Redwood City Saltworks Water Demand Report, Erler & Kalinowski, Inc.
      May 2009.

Fio, J.L., and D.A. Leighton, 1995, Geohydrologic Framework, Historical Development
       Of The Ground-Water System, And General Hydrologic And Water-Quality
       Conditions In 1990, South San Francisco Bay And Peninsula Area, California.
       U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-357, 46 pp.

Kennedy-Jenks, 2002. Water Recycling Feasibility Study for Redwood City. Report
     prepared by Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, 7 August 2002. Lohman, S.W., 1972,
     Ground-Water Hydraulics. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 708, 70
     pp.

Maggiora, 2001, Redwood Shores - Turf Irrigation Water Wells 1, 2 & 3. Report
      prepared by Maggiora Brothers Drilling, Inc., for Rudolph & Sletten, Inc., Foster
      City, CA, 16 Oct 2001, 33 pp.

Metzger, L.F. and J.L. Fio, 1997, Ground-Water Development and the Effects on
Ground-Water Levels and Water Quality in the Town of Atherton, San Mateo County,
      California. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 97-
      4033.

Metzger, L.F., 2002, Streamflow Gains and Losses along San Francisquito Creek and
     Characterization of Surface-Water and Ground-Water Quality, Southern San
     Mateo and Northern Santa Clara Counties, California, 1996–97. U.S. Geological
     Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4078.




May 2009                                   35
Redwood City Saltworks
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Pacific Institute, 2003. Waste Not, Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water
       Conservation in California. Pacific Institute for Studies in Development,
       Environment, and Security, November 2003.

Poland, J.F., and A.A. Garrett, 1943, Ground-Water Conditions in the Redwood City
      Area, California, With Particular Reference to Water Supply for The Pacific
      Portland Cement Company. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report OFR 70-
      264 (republished 1970).

RWQCB, 2003, A Comprehensive Groundwater Protection Evaluation for the South San
    Francisco Bay Basins. Report prepared by the Groundwater Committee of the
    California Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region, 251
    pp.

SFPUC UWMP, 2005. 2005 Urban Water Management Plan for the City and County of
    San Francisco. Prepared for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission,
    December 2005. Errata Sheet for SFPUC 2005 Urban Water Management Plan,
    26 September 2006.

Task Force Report, 2004. Technical Memorandum – Final (REV 1): Recycled Water
      Alternatives for the Community Task Force on Recycled Water. Report prepared
      by Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, 15 March 2004.

Task Force Report, 2008. 2007 Progress Report: Redwood City Recycled Water Task
      Force Recommendations. Report prepared by Kennedy Jenks Consultants,
      March 2008.

Todd, 2003. Feasibility of Supplemental Groundwater Resources Development
      Redwood City, California. Report prepared by Todd Engineers for the City of
      Redwood City, March 2003.

UCCE/DWR, 2000. A Guide to Estimating Irrigation Water Needs of Landscape
     Plantings in California. University of California Cooperative Extension and
     California Department of Water Resources, August 2000.

URS, 2006. Investigation of Regional Water Supply Option No. 4. Technical
      Memorandum prepared by URS Corporation for the San Francisco Public Utility
      Commission, 6 March 2006.

UWMP, 2005. Urban Water Management Plan 2005. City of Redwood City Public
    Works Services Department, 19 December 2005.

Weiss, 2009. DMB Saltworks Infrastructure Report, JMH Weiss, Inc., May 2009.




May 2009                                    36
TABLES
                                                                              Table 1
                                                  Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Demand and Supply Sources
                                                                   Redwood City Saltworks, Redwood City, California



                                                                                 Estimated 50/50 Plan Water Demand and Supply (AFY) (a)

                                                  Potable                                                     Non-Potable                                             Total Annual
                                                                                                                                  Non-Potable Water Supplies
Water Use                                     Water Demand (b)          Potable Water Supplies                 Water (c)                                              Demand (d)
 Indoor                                             1,030                                                         400                                                     1,430
 Outdoor                                              0                                                           960                                                      960
Subtotal Indoor and Outdoor                          890                                                         1,360                                                    2,390
System Losses (e)                                    50                                                           70                                                       120
                                                                 – Groundwater                                                 – Recycled Water
Total Demand (d)                                    1,080        – Redwood City Municipal Water System           1,430         – Graywater                                2,510
                                                                 – SFPUC Regional System                                       – Rainwater

Abbreviations:
AFY - acre-feet per year
CII - commercial, industrial, and institutional
MGD - million gallons per day
SBSA - South Bayside System Authority


Notes:
(a) The annual water demand for the 50/50 Plan is summarized above from the Redwood City Saltworks Water Demand Report (EKI, 2009)
(b) "Potable Water" demands primarily include those related to "Potable Uses" (i.e., dishwashers and showers). Potable water supplies are estimated to be equal to the estimated
    demands, see Table 2.
(c) "Non-Potable" water demands will be met using recycled water supplies that are generated on-site and/or recycled water that is imported from the SBSA wastewater treatment
    plant, and potentially graywater or rainwater supplies.
(d) Values are rounded to the nearest tens digit. Values may add due to rounding.
(e) System losses are assumed to be approximately 5% of the total indoor and outdoor water demand for potable and non-potable water supplies.




                                                                                                                                                                  Erler Kalinowski, Inc.
EKI A40043.11                                                                                                                                                                 May 2009
Water_Supply Tables.xls                                                                 1 of 1
                                                                               Table 2
                                                         Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Supply Sources
                                                                       Redwood City Saltworks, Redwood City, California



                                                                                    Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Supply Sources
                                                     Potential Supply         Potential Use by
                                                                                                                                          Notes
                            Water Supplies             Availability             50/50 Plan
                    Potable Supplies to Meet 50/50 Plan Potable Demand of 1,080 AFY:
                                                                                                        Based on estimated basin safe yield and local well yield information (EKI,
                            Local Groundwater         100 to 700 AFY          100 to 700 AFY
                                                                                                        2006).
                                                                                                        (1) Based on information included in Redwood City's 2005 UWMP and the
                                                                                                        WSIP PEIR, up to 2,387 AFY of potable SFPUC water may be available to
                                                                                                        Redwood City from the Regional System, above and beyond the City's
                                                                                                        projected 2030 demand.
                      Redwood City Municipal Water
                                                        >3,000 AFY              0 to 500 AFY
                               System
                                                                                                        (2) Kennedy-Jenks (2002) identified potential recycled water demands of
                                                                                                        as much as approximately 600 to 1,200 AFY, if recycled water pipelines
                                                                                                        were extended to Redwood City customers located West of Highway 101.


                                                                                                        The PEIR and URS (2006) indicate that an estimated 33,400 AFY of
                                                                                                        potable water savings is possible within the SFPUC Regional Water
                                                                                                        System. Approximately 5,000 AFY of the identified potential savings are
                                                                                                        associated with the expansion of Redwood City's existing recycled water
                                                                                                        system to serve recycled water in lieu of potable water for specified, non-
                          SFPUC Regional System         >5,000 AFY              0 to 500 AFY            potable uses in adjacent communities. Portions of the recycled water
                                                                                                        system already have been designed and built to provide the addtional
                                                                                                        5,000 AFYof recycled water supply. If the 50/50 Plan were to help expand
                                                                                                        the Redwood City recycled water system to actually provide additional
                                                                                                        recycled water supply, then a potable water offset credit might be obtained
                                                                                                        for the 50/50 Plan.

                    Non-Potable Supplies to meet 50/50 Plan Non-Potable Demand of 1,430 AFY:
                                                                                                        Based on estimated 50/50 Plan wastewater flows, after accounting for
                             Recycled Water             1,430 AFY             up to 1,430 AFY
                                                                                                        system losses (EKI, 2009).

                                                                                                        Based on estimated flows from 50/50 Plan showers, bathroom sinks, and
                                Graywater                130 AFY                0 to 130 AFY
                                                                                                        clothes washers and demands for toilet flushing and irrigation (EKI, 2009).

                                                                                                        Assuming a preliminary planning estimate of 355 acres of residential land
                                                                                                        (with some mixed use) with 185 acres of rooftop area, and assuming a
                                Rainwater                230 AFY                    NA                  rainfall capture rate of 75%, it is estimated that approximately 230 AFY of
                                                                                                        rainwater could be harvested from residential rooftops within the 50/50
                                                                                                        Plan (EKI, 2009.)




EKI A40043.11                                                                                                                                                                         Erler Kalinowski, Inc.
Water_Supply Tables.xls                                                                        1 of 2                                                                                             May 2009
                                                                                  Table 2
                                                            Estimated 50/50 Balanced Plan Water Supply Sources
                                                                        Redwood City Saltworks, Redwood City, California




                    Abbreviations:
                    AFY - acre-feet per year
                    SFPUC - San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
                    UWMP - Urban Water Management Plan
                    WSIP - Water System Improvement Program
                    PEIR - Program Environmental Impact Report


                    Sources:
                    Summary of Preliminary Investigation of Groundwater Extraction Opportunities. Erler & Kalinowski, Inc., 1 November 2006.
                    Water Recycling Feasibility Study for Redwood City. Report prepared by Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, 7 August 2002.
                    Investigation of Regional Water Supply Option No. 4. Technical Memorandum prepared by URS Corporation for the SFPUC, 6 March 2006
                    Redwood City Saltworks Water Demand Report , Erler & Kalinowski, Inc. May 2009




EKI A40043.11                                                                                                                                           Erler Kalinowski, Inc.
Water_Supply Tables.xls                                                                      2 of 2                                                                 May 2009
ATTACHMENT A
F I N A L    R E P O R T




SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC
UTILITIES COMMISSION

INVESTIGATION OF
REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY
OPTION NO. 4
TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM




March 6, 2006
Final




Prepared by:
URS Corporation – Oakland, California
San Francisco Public Utilities Commission – San Francisco, California
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Table 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Project Details
                                                                                                                                                                                                               RWSO4 Category 1 - Eligible Projects Likely to be Implemented




                                                                                                                                                                       Estimated Annual Average Project    Estimated Annual Average Project Potential
                                                                                                                                                                      Potential for RWSO4 Program (AFY)           for RWSO4 Program (mgd )                                                                                                                                      Project Delivery Milestones
                                             SFPUC
                                            Customer
                                SFPUC      Service Area
                               Customer       where
        RWSO4                 Service Area purchases                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Conceptual
        Project               where project would be                                                                                                                 Low Range Yield    High Range Yield    Low Range Yield       High Range Yield             Potential Project Constraints or Regional     Feasibility                   Engineering       CEQA                                             Community Support/             Plans &        Estimated Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                1                                      1
        Number Type of Supply    exists       offset                                               General Project Description                                          Estimate            Estimate           Estimate               Estimate                          Implementation Issues                  Study       Cost Estimate     Report        Compliance             Committed Users                 Approval                 Specifications          Time (yrs)


                                                                  A recycled water facility was completed and began delivery of disinfected tertiary water in
                                                                  August 2004 supplying irrigation water to customers who had been using their own well
                                                                  water or secondary recycled water for landscape irrigation. The current users include 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Regionally there would need to be an agreement on
                     Recycled        Daly City,      Daly City,   golf courses, a park, landscape medians, and in house wastewater treatment plant use. In
        RW-6B                                                                                                                                                          -       AFY         12       AFY         -       mgd        0.01       mgd       how /whom to credit (SFPUC/Daly City) for indirect      YES            YES            YES              YES                       YES                           YES                     YES                     1
                      Water           City of         City of     FY 04/05 approximately 1162 AFY of recycled water was used. With the expansion of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        offsets.
                                                                  system in 2006 to include another park and additional landscape medians it is projected
                                                                  that an additional 12 AF will be used. This use will replace an SFPUC potable supply that
                                                                  was not included in the 2030 purchase estimates as a recycled water project.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           YES                           YES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              It is assumed community       It is assumed community
                                                                  The conservation program for the San Francisco Retail Service Area is defined as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Program can start
                                        San            San                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           will support the              will support the
                      Water                                       Program C in the City and County of San Francisco Retail Water Demands and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                immediately when funded.
       CONS-1                        Francisco,     Francisco,                                                                                                         -       AFY       5,002      AFY         -       mgd        4.45       mgd                        NONE IDENTIFIED                        YES            YES             NA              NA              conservation efforts and      conservation efforts and           NA
                   Conservation                                   Conservation Potential Technical Report (SFPUC 2004). This program contains a total of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Specific measure
                                       City of        City of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  participate at the levels     participate at the levels
                                                                  38 conservation measures to be implemented in the San Francisco retail service area.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      implementation plans vary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              identified per measure in     identified per measure in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the modeling.                 the modeling.



                                                                Recycled Water Project Planned for various irrigation users, including one confirmed user -
                                                                Sharp Park Golf Course. Other potential users include Jefferson Unified School District
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARTIAL
                                                                grounds, City of Pacifica, Hwy 1 & Caltrans Irrigation. The customer has applied for Prop                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PARTIAL
                                                   NCCWD and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                But have received letters of
                     Recycled                                   50 funding and has completed an EIR for the project. Low and High yield estimates from                                                                                                                                                                                                                       But have received letters of
        RW-7B                         NCCWD         City of San                                                                                                       171      AFY        652       AFY       0.15      mgd        0.58       mgd                        NONE IDENTIFIED                        YES            YES            YES              YES                                              interest from school            NO                     4
                      Water                                     12/04 Facilities Planning Report were reported as 0.15 and 0.58 mgd, respectively.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           interest from school district,
                                                    Francisco                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 district, Caltrans, Golf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Caltrans, Golf Course.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Course.
                                                                  Note: Sharp Park is included in City of SF Retail Demands (owned and operated by SF
                                                                  Parks & Recs).




                                                                  SF Recycled Water Project Phase A - Westside Baseline Project: This project includes
                                                                  treating secondary effluent from the Oceanside Wastewater Pollution Control Plant for non-
                                                                  potable irrigation use. Water will be distributed through a backbone pipeline system.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        YES
                                                                  Users are primarily parks, the SF Zoo, schools, and playgrounds, with the largest user                                                                                                                                                                                                       NO
                                        San            San                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Survey conducted Fall
                     Recycled                                     being Golden Gate Park.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                EIR estimated for
       RW-15A                        Francisco,     Francisco,                                                                                                         -       AFY       3,100      AFY         -       mgd        2.76       mgd                        NONE IDENTIFIED                        YES            YES            YES                                        YES               2005 showed 82% support              NO                     7
                      Water                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Feb 2009
                                       City of        City of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              for recycled water projects
                                                                  Note: A portion of this project is an indirect offset. To realize this complete offset, 2 mgd of                                                                                                                                                                                          completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in the City
                                                                  groundwater currently being supplied to these users must be converted to potable use as
                                                                  described in project GW-13. Costs for the groundwater conversion are included in GW-13
                                                                  below, but the offset is included here.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        YES
                                                                  SF Recycled Water Project Phase B - Harding Park/Lake Merced Project: This project will                                                                                                                                                                                                      NO
                                        San            San                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Survey conducted Fall
                     Recycled                                     probably require advanced treatment to irrigate Harding Park and recharge Lake Merced.                                                                                                                                                                                                 EIR estimated for
       RW-15B                        Francisco,     Francisco,                                                                                                         -       AFY       1,400      AFY         -       mgd        1.25       mgd                        NONE IDENTIFIED                        YES            YES            YES                                        YES               2005 showed 82% support              NO                     7
                      Water                                       Currently, potable water from the SFPUC system is being used as a supply source to                                                                                                                                                                                                         Feb 2009
                                       City of        City of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              for recycled water projects
                                                                  these users.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              completion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in the City



                                                                  SF Groundwater Project Phase B - Local Groundwater: 4 mgd of new potable
                                                                  groundwater will be developed within the City and County of SF. 2 mgd will be obtained
                                                                  from new wells in the Sunset district to supply potable water needs currently met with
                                                                  system water and represents the offset yield accounted for here.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  YES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          YES
                                                                  Also part of the SF Groundwater Phase B project, an additional 2 mgd of potable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Initially public meetings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Project is proposed to be
                                        San            San        groundwater will be produced from conversion of current irrigation wells once the SF                                                                                                                                                                                                         NO                                       were held on Groundwater
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  injected into local
        GW-13      Groundwater       Francisco,     Francisco,    Recycled Water RW-15A project is implemented to supply the non-potable users. The                    -       AFY        2248      AFY         -       mgd        2.00       mgd                        NONE IDENTIFIED                        YES            YES            NO         EIR estimated for                               Management Plan. Also,                 NO                     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               distribution system and
                                       City of        City of     yield for this additional 2 mgd of potable offset is included as part of the RW-15A project.                                                                                                                                                                                           2008 completion                                 survey conducted in Fall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             replace 2 MGD of imported
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2005 showed 64% support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SFPUC supply
                                                                  Note: Of the current estimated 2.5 mgd of groundwater used in the City to meet non-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     for GW use in the City
                                                                  potable demands, 0.5 mgd (to recharge lakes (in Golden Gate Park and for irrigating
                                                                  sensitive plants.) will continue to be supplied with groundwater. The other 2.0 mgd of
                                                                  supply will come from the recycled water (RW-15A).




                                                                                                                                             Category Total:          171        AFY    12,414      AFY      0.15       mgd       11.04       mgd


        Notes:

      1. Low Range yields are presented and totaled only for projects where provided.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 1 of 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Table 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Project Details
                                                                                                                                                                                            RWSO4 Category 2 - Eligible Projects in Early Planning Stages




                                                                                                                                                        Estimated Annual Average Project       Estimated Annual Average Project
                                                                                                                                                       Potential for RWSO4 Program (AFY)      Potential for RWSO4 Program (mgd )                                                                                                                                Project Delivery Milestones
                                         SFPUC
                              SFPUC     Customer
                             Customer    Service
                              Service  Area where
   RWSO4                    Area where purchases                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Conceptual                                                                    Plans &          Estimated
   Project     Type of        project   would be                                                                                                       Low Range Yield   High Range Yield    Low Range Yield    High Range Yield                                                                                                            Engineering   CEQA                                 Community Support/        Specificatio Implementation Time
   Number      Supply          exists     offset                                        General Project Description                                       Estimate1          Estimate           Estimate1           Estimate        Potential Project Constraints or Regional Implementation Issues       Feasibility Study   Cost Estimate   Report    Compliance      Committed Users            Approval                  ns              (yrs)



                                                        Potential recycled water project for irrigation and industrial usage joint project with City
                                                        of Palo Alto- MOUNTAIN VIEW PORTION. The project is in final design phase (total                                                                                           Although included in potential RWSO4 program, the project may
                                                        yield approximately 1200 AFY) and the potential end users are mainly shoreline                                                                                             not proceed to construction due to water quality concerns and the
                                                        customers (North Bayshore, North of 101 and largest potential end users are Shoreline                                                                                      costs of additional treatment. In addition, consumption will
                                                        Golf Course and Charleston Park. Both of these larget customers currently use                                                                                              depend on quality and the high yield may not be achieved and
                                                        groundwater from the SCVWD-managed basin supplemented with SFPUC Water and                                                                                                 may not be an offset to SFPUC water.                                                                                                                                YES
                                                        could be a potential SFPUC offset.                                                                                                                                         The project is also included in the SCVWD's IWRP and could                                                                                                    City Council has
                                                        This potential recycled water use was not considered by Mountain View when making                                                                                          provide benefits to either the SFPUC regional water system or the                                                                                            adopted a recycled
                                                        2030 Purchase Estimate because of the uncertainty associated with the project at that                                                                                      Santa Clara groundwater basin managed by SCVWD. The                                                                                                         water ordinance and
                                                        time. Although funding has been secured, the project may not proceed to construction                                                                                       allocation of water supply benefits will be clearly identified                                                                                              customer has done
              Recycled       Mountain      Mountain due to water quality concerns and the potential need and cost of additional treatment                                                                                          following additional project design and further discussion with                                                                                             outreach to potential
  RW-8A-2      Water        View, City of View, City of and the SFPUC offset potential has not yet been determined.                                       -      AFY      1,200      AFY        -       mgd       1.07      mgd    affected parties.                                                            YES               YES          YES        YES                 YES                      users                NO            UKNOWN


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 YES                      YES
                                                        The regional conservation program R1 contains 8 conservation measures to be                                                                                                Actual savings highly dependent on customer participation.                                                                              It is assumed            It is assumed
                                                        implemented by a regional body. The High Range yield estimate was derived from                                                                                             Impact of regional program versus local efforts may be hard to                                                                     community will support community will support                    Program can start
                                                        modeling the incremental effects of implementing the additional 8 measures in R1                                                                                           measure.                                                                                                                          the conservation efforts the conservation efforts                   upon funding.
                                                        together with the individual cusotmer baseline programs and includes savings only for                                                                                      Potential overlap with other regional conservation programs                                                                         and participate at the   and participate at the                 Specific measure
                                                        those customers not already considering the regional measures in their baseline                                                                                            offered by SCVWD, or from other RWSO4 projects exists and has                                                                        levels identified per    levels identified per               implementation plans
   CONS-        Water           Various SFPUC           program. Factors considered for the R1 Low Program Yield are summarized in                                                                                                 been considered in developing the RWSO4 Low Range yield                                                                                measure in the           measure in the                       vary and will be
    R1       Conservation     Wholesale Customers       Appendix B.                                                                                     2,608    AFY      6,418      AFY       2.32     mgd       5.71      mgd    estimate.                                                                    YES               YES           NA         NA                 modeling.                modeling.            NA        adjusted as needed.


                                                        The regional conservation program R2 builds on regional conservation program R1 and
                                                        contains 7 additional measures to be implemented by a regional body. The High Range
                                                        yield estimate was derived from modeling the incremental effects of implementing these
                                                        together with the 8 measures in R1 and the individual cusotmer baseline programs. It
                                                        includes savings only for those customers not already considering the regional
                                                        measures in their baseline program. Factors considered for the R2 Low Program Yield                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      YES                      YES
                                                        are summarized in Appendix B.                                                                                                                                              Actual savings highly dependent on customer participation.                                                                              It is assumed            It is assumed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Impact of regional program versus local efforts may be hard to                                                                     community will support community will support                    Program can start
                                                        Note: For purposes of totaling total category yields accurately and avoiding double                                                                                        measure.                                                                                                                          the conservation efforts the conservation efforts                   upon funding.
                                                        counting, only the incremental costs and savings of moving from R1 to R2 are                                                                                               Potential overlap with other regional conservation programs                                                                         and participate at the   and participate at the                 Specific measure
                                                        presented in this table.                                                                                                                                                   offered by SCVWD, or from other RWSO4 projects exists and has                                                                        levels identified per    levels identified per               implementation plans
   CONS-        Water           Various SFPUC           The results for implementing regional program R2 (inclusive of R1) are                                                                                                     been considered in developing the RWSO4 Low Range yield                                                                                measure in the           measure in the                       vary and will be
    R2       Conservation     Wholesale Customers       summarized in Table B-3.                                                                        641      AFY      1,697      AFY       0.57     mgd       1.51      mgd    estimate.                                                                    YES               YES           NA         NA                 modeling.                modeling.            NA        adjusted as needed.



                                                        The potential recycled water project is proposed for irrigation in Palo Alto and E Palo
                                                        Alto and was identified in a 1992 study. A new study is underway to update these                                                                                           Funding: pre-feasibility studies done in 1992 showed the project
                                                        estimates, but it will not be complete until June 2006. Some of the 1992 uses have been                                                                                    was expensive then and updated cost estimates are expected to
                                                        implemented and this revised project description and High Range yield estimate was                                                                                         be much higher. Prelminary results from a new market survey
                                                        provided by the City of Palo Alto staff. It was determined that there is not enough                                                                                        indicate that potential customers are concerned with water quality
              Recycled       Palo Alto,    Palo Alto,   demand for recycled water in the boundaries of East Palo Alto and that a portion of the                                                                                    issues, especially with the salt level in the recycled water and its
  RW-9B-1      Water          City of       City of     project is no longer considered feasible.                                                         -      AFY      1,279      AFY        -       mgd       1.14      mgd    suitability for irrigation uses.                                             YES               YES          YES         NO                  NO                       NO                  NO           UNKNOWN




                             Cal Water     Cal Water
                             Service -     Service -
                               Mid-          Mid-    Cal Water Service is continuing its efforts to locate a site for a viable new groundwater                                                                                     YET TO BE DETERMINED
                             Peninsula     Peninsula well in the Mid-Peninsula District. The potential yield CWS is expecting is approximately                                                                                     No feasibility work completed for this potential project. Test wells
    GW-5     Groundwater      District      District 1 mgd. End users would include the general public in their treated water system.                     -      AFY      1,124      AFY        -       mgd       1.00      mgd    to monitor water levels and water quality are needed.                        NO                NO           NO          NO                  NO                       NO                  NO           UNKNOWN


                          Cal Water
                          Service -                     Cal Water is conducting a joint hydrogeologic study with the City of Menlo Park to
                         Bear Gulch Cal Water           determine the potential for new shared groundwater wells in this portion of the system.
                         District/ City Service -       Capacity estimate is from Cal Water Service. Short and long-term well capacity would                                                                                       YET TO BE DETERMINED
                          of Menlo      Bear Gulch      require additional study. End users would include the general public in their treated                                                                                      No feasibility work completed for this potential project. Test wells
    GW-4     Groundwater     Park         District      water system.                                                                                     -      AFY      1,124      AFY        -       mgd       1.00      mgd    to monitor water levels and water quality are needed.                        NO                NO           NO          NO                  NO                       NO                  NO           UNKNOWN



                                                     East Palo Alto has one 350 gpm groundwater well that is currently not operational. Any                                                                                        Aquifer borders on SCVWD jurisdiction; aquifer boundaries would
                          East Palo     East Palo continuous use of this well will require an assessment to determine if pumping                                                                                                   need to be verified as would safe yield.
   GW-9B     Groundwater Alto, City of Alto, City of continuously will deplete the aquifer. Feasibility studies have not yet been completed.              -      AFY       566       AFY        -       mgd       0.50      mgd    The project feasibility has not been detemined.                              NO                NO           NO          NO                  NO                       NO                  NO           UNKNOWN




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 1 of 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Table 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Project Details
                                                                                                                                                                                                       RWSO4 Category 2 - Eligible Projects in Early Planning Stages




                                                                                                                                                              Estimated Annual Average Project             Estimated Annual Average Project
                                                                                                                                                             Potential for RWSO4 Program (AFY)            Potential for RWSO4 Program (mgd )                                                                                                                                         Project Delivery Milestones
                                           SFPUC
                                SFPUC     Customer
                               Customer    Service
                                Service  Area where
   RWSO4                      Area where purchases                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Conceptual                                                               Plans &          Estimated
   Project       Type of        project   would be                                                                                                         Low Range Yield        High Range Yield       Low Range Yield        High Range Yield                                                                                                                 Engineering   CEQA                                Community Support/    Specificatio Implementation Time
   Number        Supply          exists     offset                                         General Project Description                                        Estimate1               Estimate              Estimate1               Estimate           Potential Project Constraints or Regional Implementation Issues         Feasibility Study   Cost Estimate   Report    Compliance     Committed Users            Approval              ns              (yrs)


                                                      Redwood City Sub-Regional Recycled Water System. This project is outlined in
                                                      Redwood City's UWMP to leverage the value of the RW infrastructure currently being
                                                      constructed as part of RW-10B project. RW-10B incorporates sufficent flexibility to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NO
                                                      allow expansion of treatment/disinfection facilities and pump station/pipeline capacity of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Not for
                                                      up to 5,000 additional AFY. (Low Range Yield Estimate of 2,500 AFY also provided by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NO             specific Redwood City will be
                                  Mid-        Mid-    customer). Redwood City is optimistic that they will be able to find end users for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      However, Redwood City additional        able to export
                               Peninsula   Peninsula additional capacity of the system within the service areas adjacent to the City. Users                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        has obtained approval users. RW- recycled water as
                               customers customers outside Redwood City have not been approached, but the RW-10B feasibility studies                                                                                                                                                                                                  NO                   NO                                                      from it's community for  10B has    early as April 2007
                              surrounding surrounding identified the potential feasibility for serving additional sites and hydraulic evaluations                                                                                                                                                                             Although the option However, costs                                     NO           constructing project RW-    been          (to North /
                               Redwood     Redwood were performed to gain an understanding of available system capacity. Regional                                                                                                                     Project information gaps include (1) Water Balance study, (2)           for additional yield to build the AWT                        Retail customer(s) not    10B. The end users designed to      Northwest) and
                                 City's      City's   participants would need to connect to the planned conveyance pipelines and provide                                                                                                              Facilities & delivery evaluation, (3) Production Rates & peaking         was evaluated in        facility are                       formally approached or      would need to go     eventually   January 2009 (to
                Recycled        Service     Service   operational storage. Depending on the delivery time and flow required, booster                                                                                                                  analysis (SBSA), (4) Institutional arrangements.                            the RW-10B        included in RW-                        committed end users        through their own    supply the South / Southeast /
   RW-10C        Water            Area        Area    pumping may or may not be needed to serve the regional project participants.                           2,500      AFY         5,000       AFY        2.22       mgd         4.45        mgd     Others yet to be determined.                                             Feasibility Study      10B project     NO        NO                identified.          similar exercise.    capacity.      Southwest).

                                                           Potential project to use recycled water to supply existing irrigation users, most of which
                                                           are currently using groundwater. The project is proposed to be implemented in stages.
                                           Cities of       Initially, users closest to the plant will be connected (for approximately 0.5 mgd), then                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NO
                                          South San        the golf clubs (0.8 mgd) before the Colma cemeteries at the top of a hill. The cemetery                                                                                                    The project is in the early planning stages. There seem to be                                                                         Potential end users
                                          Francisco,       phase is assumed to be very expensive as they are far from the plant and up a hill. The                                                                                                    some potential constraints including the non-incentive for current                                                                    include the Colma
                              South SF &     San           total offset potential is uncertain as potential end users with known SFPUC supply                                                                                                         groundwater users to pay for recycled water, and the long uphill                                                                       cemetaries, San
                Recycled      San Bruno, Francisco &       include only the National Cemetery in San Bruno (approx 0.3mgd) and the SF County                                                                                                          transport to the Colma cemeteries. Funding has not been                                                                             Francisco Jail and San
   RW-12         Water         Cities of San Bruno         Jail.                                                                                               -        AFY          337        AFY          -        mgd         0.30        mgd     obtained.                                                                       NO                NO            NO        NO           Bruno Cemetary.               NO                NO           UNKNOWN


                                                                                                                                                                                   -1,675       AFY                              -1.49        mgd
                                                                                                                            Overlap Adjustment

                                                                                                                                                            5,748         AFY      17,071       AFY        5.11       mgd        15.19        mgd
                                                                                                                                 Category Total2:
   Notes:

  1. Low Range yields are presented and totaled only for projects where provided.

  2. The category high range total includes the high ranges provided above minus the potential conservation savings overlap with respect to other RWSO4 projects. Appendix B and Table B-3 present the basis for calculating this overlap which totals1675 AFY (1.49 mgd ) for the two regional programs R1 and R2 included in Category 2.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 2 of 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Table 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Project Details
                                                                                                                                                                                       RWSO4 Category 3 - Potentially Eligible Projects for Future Consideration




                                                                                                                                                       Estimated Annual Average Project                Estimated Annual Average Project
                                                                                                                                                       Potential for RWSO4 Program (AFY)              Potential for RWSO4 Program (mgd )                                                                                                                                     Project Delivery Milestones
                                    SFPUC
                        SFPUC      Customer
                       Customer Service Area
                      Service Area   where
RWSO4                    where     purchases                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conceptual                                                                Plans &          Estimated
Project                 project     would be                                                                                                          Low Range Yield        High Range Yield        Low Range Yield        High Range Yield              Potential Project Constraints or Regional              Feasibility                             Engineering   CEQA                                    Community Support/ Specificatio Implementation Time
Number Type of Supply    exists      offset                                             General Project Description                                      Estimate1               Estimate               Estimate1               Estimate                           Implementation Issues                           Study           Cost Estimate           Report    Compliance      Committed Users               Approval           ns              (yrs)




                                                     This project involves a Menlo Park groundwater well being considered for use in                                                                                                              Although the early planning for this project is fairly
                                                     emergency situations or for irrigation purposes. Menlo Park currently does not                                                                                                               advanced, significant unknowns remain concerning the
                                                     have estimates for irrigation water demand (offset) and would not plan to blend the                                                                                                          potential to offset SFPUC purchases. Funding
                                                     groundwater with SFPUC water for other uses. The full potential yield from                                                                                                                   commitment and project prioritization by City Council is
                                                     preliminary studies was estimated at 971 AFY (0.86 mgd), which Menlo Park                                                                                                                    still required. Further, the lead water agency (SFPUC
                                                     believes to be the maximum estimated instantaneous capacity; although the City is                                                                                                            wholesale customer) does not consider the project an
                             Menlo Park, Menlo Park, not planning to use the well continuously and the average annual offset would be                                                                                                             RWSO4 program candidate because of these important
 GW-9A      Groundwater        City of     City of   considerably less.                                                                  Unknown                   AFY       Unknown        AFY     Unknown       mgd       Unknown       mgd     issues.                                                           YES                 YES                 NO          NO                   NO                       NO              NO           UNKNOWN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        YES                                                  NO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The City of Sunnyvale                                  Users have been
                                                        This is a potential project that includes extension of Sunnyvale's current recycled                                                                                                                                                                                     2000 recycled water                                identified in the City of
                                                        water project to Phase IIc and Phase IId customers. The project would serve a                                                                                                             The lead water agency (SFPUC wholesale customer)                             Program Master Plan                                Sunnyvale 2000 recycled
                                                        redevelopment area, Orchard Park, Fair Oaks Park, Columbia Park, Lakewood                                                                                                                 does not believe the project is cost-effective and thinks                       provides a cost                                  water Program Master
                                                        Park, San Miguel Playground and several users on Kifer Avenue. Customer                                                                                                                   there will be permitting hurdles. Further, the customer                       estimate; however a                               Plan; however users are
              Recycled        Sunnyvale,     Sunnyvale, considers this project visionary and does not have plans to update feasibility                                                                                                            does not consider the project an RWSO4 program                               current estimate is not                                not committed to
RW-14C         Water            City of        City of  studies in the near future.                                                                       -        AFY          809         AFY          -        mgd         0.72        mgd     candidate because of these important feasibility issues.          NO               available.             NO          NO              participating.                NO              NO           UNKNOWN


                                                          The regional conservation program R3 builds on regional conservation program R2
                                                          and contains 8 additional measures to be implemented by a regional body. The
                                                          High Range yield estimate was derived by modeling the incremental effects of
                                                          implementing these measures together with the 15 measures in R2 and the
                                                          individual customer baseline programs. It includes savings only for those
                                                          customers not already considering the regional measures in their baseline
                                                          program. Factors considered for the R3 Low Program Yield are summarized in
                                                          Appendix B.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                NO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NO           It is assumed that the               Program can start
                                                          Note: For purposes of totaling total category yields accurately and avoiding double                                                                                                     This regional conservation program contains a total of                                                                           It is assumed that the number of measures                  upon funding. Specific
                                                          counting, only the incremental costs and savings of moving from R2 to R3 are                                                                                                            23 measures. A program such as this is not considered                                                                           number of measures in in this program will be                      measure
                                                          presented in this table.                                                                                                                                                                feasible (customer participation in such a high number                                                                          this program will be too     too much for the               implementation plans
 CONS-         Water             Various SFPUC            The results for implementing of regional program R3 (inclusive of R2) are                                                                                                               of additional measures is highly unlikely) or cost-                                                                             much for the community         community to                    vary and will be
  R3        Conservation       Wholesale Customers        summarized in Table B-3.                                                                      607        AFY         1,574        AFY       0.54        mgd         1.40        mgd     effective.                                                        YES                 YES                 NA          NA                to support.              support.           NA       adjusted as needed.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Existing well requires rehabilitation and extent of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  distribution facilities need to be determined. Long term
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  supply capacity of the well has not been determined.
                                                     This is a potential future groundwater supply (referenced in Burlingame's 2005                                                                                                               Potential issues related to the water quality have not
                                                     Urban Water Management Plan) that includes an existing groundwater well                                                                                                                      been assessed. Lack of information available on cost-
                                                     currently not in operation and needing rehabilitation. Information on aquifer                                                                                                                benefits. Lack of well operational history.
                                                     recharge capabilities is not available. The capacity estimate presented here is                                                                                                              Further, the lead water agency (SFPUC wholesale
                             Burlingame, Burlingame, based on short-term aquifer testing and preliminary information shows that more                                                                                                              customer) does not consider the project an RWSO4
  GW-3      Groundwater        City of     City of   testing is needed to determine the feasibility of operating this well.                               -        AFY           28         AFY         -         mgd        0.025        mgd     program candidate because of these issues.                        NO                  NO                  NO          NO                   NO                       NO              NO           UNKNOWN




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Costs and permitting requirements have not been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  assessed or developed. Without a feasiblility study
                                                     City of Burlingame plans to do a Feasibility Study in 2007 for the possilbility of a                                                                                                         performed and in the absence of City Council and
                                                     recycled water plant for irrigation of Bay Front commercial landscaping and parks.                                                                                                           Community approval, the lead water agency (SFPUC
              Recycled       Burlingame, Burlingame, The portion of the project which would be available for end-users outside of the                                                                                                             wholesale customer) does not consider the project an
  RW-2         Water           City of     City of   plant would be half the total project yield, or approximately 0.25 mgd annually.                     -        AFY          281         AFY         -         mgd         0.25        mgd     RWSO4 program candidate.                                          NO                  NO                  NO          NO                   NO                       NO              NO           UNKNOWN


                                                                                                                                                                               -157        AFY                               -0.14        mgd
                                                                                                                      Overlap Adjustment

                                                                                                                                                        607         AFY        2,535       AFY        0.54        mgd         2.25        mgd
                                                                                                                            Category Total2:
 Notes:

1. Low Range yields are presented and totaled only for projects where provided.

2. The category total includes the high ranges provided above minus the potential conservation savings overlap with respect to other RWSO4 projects. Appendix B and Table B-3 present the basis for calculating this overlap which totals 157 AFY (0.14 mgd ) for the incremental portion of R3 included in Category 3.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page 1 of 1
                                                                                                             Table B-1 - Summary of Regional Conservation Measures and Regional Program Selections




                                                                                                              Number of SFPUC Wholesale Customers                Modeling Results for Customers Included in Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Regional Program Selection
                                                                                                                           Effected:                                                   Program

                                                                                        Target Water User
    Regional Measure Evaluated1                      Measure Description                                                                                                                                                                                                               Basis for Inclusion in Regional Programs R1, R2, or R3
                                                                                             Group             Measure is      Measure is                                              Percentage of 2030   Total Present Value of
                                                                                                                                                Not Able to     Total Potential 2030
                                                                                                            Already Included Considered Part                                            Total Savings on     Water Utility Costs                    4             5
                                                                                                              in BASELINE     of REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                               Participate in     Water Savings
                                                                                                                                                                                          Outdoor Use              ($1,000)          R1        R2          R3
                                                                                                                                                 Measure3              (mgd)
                                                                                                                Program2         Program                                                       (%)             (25-Year Period)


                                      Residential Water Surveys - Offer indoor
                                      and outdoor water surveys to existing single-                                                                                                                                                                                   Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure offers low savings with high unit
            Measure           1       family and multifamily residential customers         RSF, RMF               20               8                 1                 0.22                 36.4%                  $2,541                                   X         costs. This would be a good program for customer service (if customers complain about
                                      with high water use; provide customized                                                                                                                                                                                         high bills), but is rarely cost effective.
                                      report to homeowner.
                                      Residential Retrofit - Provide owners of pre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure offers low savings, with most
                                      1992 homes with retrofit kits that contain
            Measure           2
                                      easy-to-install low flow showerheads, faucet
                                                                                            RSF,RMF               20               3                 6                 0.02                  0.0%                   $115                                    X         savings applying to showers (retrofit kits include savings on showers, faucets and toilets).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Program is a current BMP requirement and most customers are projected to be
                                      aerators, and toilet tank retrofit devices.

                                      Large Landscape Conservation - All public
                                      and private irrigators of landscapes larger                                                                                                                                                                                     Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure applies to mixed-use meters
            Measure           3       than one acre and separate irrigation                    CII                14               14                1                 0.14                100.0%                  $1,327                                   X         and offers low savings that are not permanent and requires periodic follow-up or new
                                      accounts would be eligible for free                                                                                                                                                                                             audits.
                                      landscape water audits upon request.


                                      Water Budgets - All irrigators of landscapes
                                      larger than one acre and separate irrigation                                                                                                                                                                                    This measure was included in all Regional Programs. It applies to dedicated irrigation
            Measure           4       accounts would receive a monthly irrigation              CII                10               7                12                 1.42                100.0%                   $710             X          X           X         meters and could include measurementt of all associated area. This measure could be
                                      water use budget as information on the                                                                                                                                                                                          implemented with other Bay Area agencies (i.e., SCVWD) to develop aerial measuremen
                                      water bill.


                                      Clothes Washer Rebate - Homeowners                                                                                                                                                                                              Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. High-efficiency washing machines will likely
            Measure           5       would be eligible to receive a rebate on a            RSF,RMF               23               6                 0                 0.01                  0.0%                   $128                                    X         be required after 2007 due to energy regulations and regional program for this measure is
                                      new water efficient clothes washer.                                                                                                                                                                                             already in place.

                                      Public Information Program - Public
                                      education would be used to raise awareness
                                      of other conservation measures available to                                                                                                                                                                                     Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. This measure offers low savings, however,
            Measure           6       customers. Programs could include poster                RSF                 25               3                 1                 0.04                 35.0%                   $555                        X           X         some elements are cost-effective on a regional scale. This measure could possibly be run
                                      contests, speakers to community groups,                                                                                                                                                                                         with the training programs in NM2.
                                      radio and television time, and printed
                                      educational material such as bill inserts, etc.

                                      Commercial Water Audits - High water use
                                      accounts would be offered a free water audit                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure not included in any Regional Program. This measure was replaced by Revised
            Measure           7                                                                CII                12               16                1                 0.28                 38.6%                  $2,761
                                      that would evaluate ways for the business to                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure 7 (RM7).
                                      save water and money.
                                      Commercial Water Audits (revised) -
                                      Commercial Water Audits - original Measure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to all Regional Programs. This measure is efficient to run on a regional
                                      7 - Revised. The target was adjusted from
            Measure           RM7
                                      Top 10% of highest water users to Top 5%
                                                                                               CII                 0               28                1                 1.56                 28.7%                   $451             X          X           X         basis, and is most effective after revising the target to the top 5% of highest water users
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from originally modeled top 10% of highest water users based on BAWSCA surv
                                      of highest water users based on BAWSCA
                                      surveys

                                      Commercial ULF Toilet Rebates - Pre-1994
                                      businesses with high use fixtures, rebates                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure not included in any Regional Program. Only 10 customers are not already running
            Measure           8       would be offered rebates to for: Commercial              CII                16               10                3                 0.02                  0.0%                   $28                                               measure in their baseline program and additional savings is low. The current
                                      ULF Toilets (1.6 gal/flush) and Commercial                                                                                                                                                                                      code/standard requires ULF toilets for retrofits, but CII toilets are rarely changed and
                                      ULF Urinals (1.0 gal/flush)

                                      Residential ULF Toilet Rebate -
                                      Homeowners would be eligible to receive a                                                                                                                                                                                       Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure has high costs and is already
            Measure           9
                                      rebate to replace an existing high volume
                                                                                            RSF,RMF               16               12                1                 0.86                  0.0%                 $17,526                                   X         the only type of toilet sold today, except HETs, so rebate incentives are questionable.
                                      toilet with a new water efficient toilet.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorrandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 1 of 5
                                                                                                                 Table B-1 - Summary of Regional Conservation Measures and Regional Program Selections




                                                                                                                  Number of SFPUC Wholesale Customers                Modeling Results for Customers Included in Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Regional Program Selection
                                                                                                                               Effected:                                                   Program

                                                                                           Target Water User
    Regional Measure Evaluated1                      Measure Description                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Basis for Inclusion in Regional Programs R1, R2, or R3
                                                                                                Group              Measure is      Measure is                                              Percentage of 2030   Total Present Value of
                                                                                                                                                    Not Able to     Total Potential 2030
                                                                                                                Already Included Considered Part                                            Total Savings on     Water Utility Costs                    4             5
                                                                                                                  in BASELINE     of REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                   Participate in     Water Savings
                                                                                                                                                                                              Outdoor Use              ($1,000)          R1        R2          R3
                                                                                                                                                     Measure3              (mgd)
                                                                                                                    Program2         Program                                                       (%)             (25-Year Period)



                                      Require 1.6 gal per flush toilets to be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
           Measure            10      installed at the time of sale of existing                RSF,RMF                2               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      buildings

                                       Home Leak Detection and Repair - Use
                                      Leak detection equipment to determine
                                      whether and where leaks are occurring on                                                                                                                                                                                            Measure not included in any Regional Program. The liablity issues alone make it
           Measure            11
                                      the premises. The Water Utility would then
                                                                                                 RSF                  0               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         unrealistic to implement regionally.
                                      provide a plumber to the customer to repair
                                      leaks for free.

                                      Rebates for 6/3 dual flush or 4 liter toilets -
                                      Provide a rebate or voucher for the retrofit of
                                      a 6/3 dual flush, 4-liter or equivalent very low
            Measure           12      water use toilet. Rebate amounts would                   RSF,RMF                 9               20                0                 1.23                  0.0%                 $11,208            X          X           X         Measure added to all Regional Programs.
                                      reflect the incremental purchase cost and
                                      would be in the range of $50 to $100 per
                                      toilet replaced.

                                      ET Controller Rebates - Use the latest state
                                      of the art irrigation controllers. These
                                      controllers have on-site temperature
                                      sensors or rely on a signal from a central                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. Implementation and savings are still being
            Measure           13
                                      weather station that modifies irrigation times
                                                                                           RSF, RMF, CII, PUB         10               18                1                 0.42                100.0%                  $3,424                       X           X         evaluated through pilot project. Measure is still experimental, but shows promise.
                                      at least weekly (preferably daily) as the
                                      weather changes. Water Utility could
                                      provide a rebate for the controller.
                                      Xeriscape education and staff training at
                                      retail garden/irrigation supply houses -
                                      Water Utility would sponsor training for staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure not included in any Regional Program. This measure savings will be captured in
                                      of stores where plants and irrigation
            Measure           14                                                                 RSF                  12               12                5                 0.94                100.0%                   $944                                              NM2. It makes more sense to run classes regionally to yield higher savings, but with fewer
                                      equipment is sold. The purpose would be to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          classes than previously modeled to make more cost-effective.
                                      educate sales people about the benefits of
                                      native (low water use) plants, efficiently
                                      irrigated.
                                      Homeowner irrigation classes - Water Utility
                                      would sponsor classes at stores where
                                      irrigation equipment is sold or other suitable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure not included in any Regional Program. This measure savings will be captured in
                                      venues. Instruction would be on selection
            Measure           15                                                                 RSF                   3               24                2                 0.83                100.0%                  $1,830                                             NM2. It makes more sense to run classes regionally to yield higher savings, but with fewer
                                      and installation of efficient equipment (drip
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          classes than previously modeled to make more cost-effective.
                                      irrigation, smart controllers, low volume
                                      sprinklers, etc.). Proper plant selection
                                      would be covered.
                                      Promote water efficient plantings at new
                                      homes - Provide information for planting
                                      water-efficient landscaping, including                                                                                                                                                                                              Measure not included in any Regional Program. This measure savings will be captured in
            Measure           16      avoiding strip turf sections that are difficult to         RSF                   2               26                1                 0.06                100.0%                   $412                                              NM2. It makes more sense to run classes regionally to yield higher savings, but with fewer
                                      water-efficiently and using native plants that                                                                                                                                                                                      classes than previously modeled to make more cost-effective.
                                      do not require supplemental watering.
                                      Information would be provided in brochures
                                      Offer incentives for replacement of clothes
                                      washers in coin-operated laundries -
                                      Apartment and coin-op laundry managers                                                                                                                                                                                              Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure offers low savings and is
            Measure           17      would be offered incentives to retrofit or use              CII                  4               19                6                 0.06                  0.0%                   $470                                    X         difficult to implement because machines are often leased and/or part of a master-metered
                                      efficient clothes washers. The rebate would                                                                                                                                                                                         strip mall. In addition, due to state energy regulations, it will likely be a requi
                                      either go to the manager or the washing
                                      machine leasing company.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorrandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Page 2 of 5
                                                                                                           Table B-1 - Summary of Regional Conservation Measures and Regional Program Selections




                                                                                                            Number of SFPUC Wholesale Customers                Modeling Results for Customers Included in Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Regional Program Selection
                                                                                                                         Effected:                                                   Program

                                                                                      Target Water User
    Regional Measure Evaluated1                      Measure Description                                                                                                                                                                                                            Basis for Inclusion in Regional Programs R1, R2, or R3
                                                                                           Group             Measure is      Measure is                                              Percentage of 2030   Total Present Value of
                                                                                                                                              Not Able to     Total Potential 2030
                                                                                                          Already Included Considered Part                                            Total Savings on     Water Utility Costs                    4             5
                                                                                                            in BASELINE     of REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                             Participate in     Water Savings
                                                                                                                                                                                        Outdoor Use              ($1,000)          R1        R2          R3
                                                                                                                                               Measure3              (mgd)
                                                                                                              Program2         Program                                                       (%)             (25-Year Period)



                                      Incentives for retrofitting sub-metering -
                                      Rescind any regulations that prohibit sub-
                                      metering of multi-family buildings. Sub-                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. This measure is difficult to implement and is
            Measure           18
                                      metering would be encouraged through
                                                                                            RMF                  1               23                5                 0.09                  0.0%                   $498                                    X         much easier to require at building construction, although incentives are a good idea.
                                      water audits and direct mail promotions, and
                                      possibly incentives to building owners.

                                      Require sub-metering multifamily units -
                                      Require all new multi-family units to provide
                                      sub-meters on individual units. To help                                                                                                                                                                                       Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
           Measure            19
                                      reduce financial impacts on tenant’s
                                                                                            RMF                 1               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      regulations would be adopted that specify
                                      acceptable methods of metering and billing.
                                      Rebate efficient clothes washers (common
                                      laundry rooms) - New apartment complexes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. This measure is applied to common
                                      over a certain size would be eligible to
            Measure           20
                                      receive a rebate to provide a common
                                                                                            RMF                  6               18                5                 0.18                  0.0%                   $600                        X           X         laundry rooms, and generally offers low savings. However, there is an interest group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pushing common laundry rooms to save water, and is therefore kept as a measure.
                                      laundry room equipped with efficient
                                      washing machines.

                                      Enforce landscape requirements for new
                                      landscaping systems (turf limitations /
                                      regulations) - Enforce existing requirements
                                      on use of low-water-using or native plants
                                      for landscaping purposes. Proof of                                                                                                                                                                                            Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
           Measure            21
                                      compliance would be necessary to obtain a
                                                                                          RMF, CII              8               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      water connection on all new multi family
                                      residential and commercial projects. Non-
                                      compliers would face a surcharge on their
                                      water bill until they complied.

                                      Restaurant low flow spray rinse nozzles -
                                      Provide free installation of 1.6 gpm spray
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure added to all Regional Programs. This measure is part of a new state program that
                                      nozzles for the rinse and clean operation in
            Measure           22
                                      restaurants and other commercial kitchens
                                                                                             CII                19               8                 2                 0.04                  0.0%                   $47              X          X           X         requires all new purchases (starting Jan 2006 with new energy policy act) to be low flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    spray nozzles. Nozzles last a long time, and this measure would help acceler
                                      that did not participate in 2002-3 CUWCC
                                      program.
                                      Focused water audits for hotels/motels -
                                      Proved free water audits to hotels and
                                      motels. Standardize on the types of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure added to Regional Program 3 only. Most savings for this measure were already
            Measure           23      services offered to reduce costs. Included             CII                 9               13                7                 0.19                  0.5%                   $268                                    X         captured by commercial water audits (Revised Measure 7).
                                      would be bathrooms, kitchens, ice
                                      machines, cooling towers, and irrigation
                                      system schedules.
                                      WAVE Program (US EPA) for hotels -
                                      Provide hotels with information about the US
                                      EPA’s WAVE program. This program
                                      encourages hotels to do their own water
                                      audit and then analyze their water use with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure not included in any Regional Program. The WAVE Program is no longer funded by
           Measure            24      the software provided. The software                    CII                1               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         US EPA. They no longer promote it and the software they developed is outdated.
                                      identifies water saving projects and
                                      computes paybacks. Hotels that agree to
                                      participate in the program also agree to
                                      install cost-effective water conserving
                                      equipment.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorrandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 3 of 5
                                                                                                             Table B-1 - Summary of Regional Conservation Measures and Regional Program Selections




                                                                                                              Number of SFPUC Wholesale Customers                Modeling Results for Customers Included in Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Regional Program Selection
                                                                                                                           Effected:                                                   Program

                                                                                        Target Water User
    Regional Measure Evaluated1                      Measure Description                                                                                                                                                                                                              Basis for Inclusion in Regional Programs R1, R2, or R3
                                                                                             Group             Measure is      Measure is                                              Percentage of 2030   Total Present Value of
                                                                                                                                                Not Able to     Total Potential 2030
                                                                                                            Already Included Considered Part                                            Total Savings on     Water Utility Costs                    4             5
                                                                                                              in BASELINE     of REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                               Participate in     Water Savings
                                                                                                                                                                                          Outdoor Use              ($1,000)          R1        R2          R3
                                                                                                                                                 Measure3              (mgd)
                                                                                                                Program2         Program                                                       (%)             (25-Year Period)


                                      Hotel retrofit (w/financial assistance) -
                                      Following a free water audit offer the hotel a
                                      rebate for equipment identified that would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure not included in any Regional Program. Measure was revised to include a higher
            Measure           25      save water. Provide a rebate schedule for                CII                 0               22                7                 0.28                  0.0%                   $924
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      target market. See RM25.
                                      certain efficient equipment such as air-
                                      cooled ice machines so hotels could apply
                                      without an audit.
                                      Hotel-Motel Retrofit (revised) - Hotel Retrofit
                                      w/ Financial Assistance - original Measure                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to all Regional Programs. The target market was revised from 20% in the
            Measure           RM25
                                      25 - Revised. The target market was
                                                                                               CII                 0               22                7                 0.43                  0.0%                  $1,062            X          X           X         previous study to 25%, as setting a higher target seems reasonable.
                                      revised from previous study (20% to 25%).
                                      Award program for water savings by
                                      businesses - Providers would sponsor an
                                      annual awards program for businesses that                                                                                                                                                                                       Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. This measure offers low savings and would
            Measure           26
                                      significantly reduce water use. They would
                                                                                               CII                 1               13               15                 0.30                 19.1%                   $472                        X           X         be a small-scale program.
                                      receive a plaque, presented at a lunch with
                                      the mayor.
                                      Replace inefficient water using equipment -
                                      Provide a rebate for a standard list of water
                                      efficient equipment. Included would be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure not included in any Regional Program. Most savings were already captured with
            Measure           27      icemakers, efficient dishwashers, cooling                CII                 1               27                1                 0.20                  0.1%                  $3,191
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      commercial water audits (RM 7)
                                      towers to replace once through cooling,
                                      irrigation controllers, and certain process
                                      equipment.
                                      Require 0.5 gal/flush urinals in new
                                      buildings - Require that new building be                                                                                                                                                                                        Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
            Measure           28
                                      fitted with 0.5 gal/flush urinals rather than
                                                                                               CII                4               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      the current standard of 1.0-gal/flush models.

                                      Financial incentives for complying with water
                                      use budget - Link a landscape water budget                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to all Regional Programs. Note: this measure requires cooperation
            Measure           29      to a rate schedule that penalizes the account            CII                 4               12               13                 1.00                100.0%                  $1,077            X          X           X         between local retailers and SFPUC (to provide funding). It is difficult for SFPUC to
                                      holder for exceeding its water budget and                                                                                                                                                                                       implement alone because it is tied to local rates.
                                      rewards them for using less than the budget.
                                      Financial incentives for irrigation upgrades -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. This measure offers low savings but is a
            Measure           30      Provide rebates for selected types of                    CII                 3               22                4                 0.06                100.0%                   $251                        X           X         good program to promote for public awareness.
                                      irrigation equipment upgrade.
                                      Require dedicated irrigation meters for new
                                      accounts - Require that new accounts that
                                      plan a substantial amount of irrigated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
            Measure           31      landscape have dedicated landscape meter                 CII                3               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      and be charged on a separate rate schedule
                                      that recognizes the high peak demand
                                      placed on the system by irrigators.
                                      Water Utility / City Department water
                                      reduction goals - Water Utility / City would
                                      provide water use reduction goals for                                                                                                                                                                                           Measure not included in any Regional Program. Not evaluated because it requires city or
            Measure           32
                                      metered City and County accounts.
                                                                                              PUB                 4               NA               NA                   NA                    NA                     NA              NA        NA          NA         county ordinance for implementation.
                                      Assistance in the form of audits and
                                      employee education would be offered.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorrandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Page 4 of 5
                                                                                                                 Table B-1 - Summary of Regional Conservation Measures and Regional Program Selections




                                                                                                                  Number of SFPUC Wholesale Customers                Modeling Results for Customers Included in Regional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Regional Program Selection
                                                                                                                               Effected:                                                   Program

                                                                                            Target Water User
       Regional Measure Evaluated1                   Measure Description                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Basis for Inclusion in Regional Programs R1, R2, or R3
                                                                                                 Group             Measure is      Measure is                                              Percentage of 2030   Total Present Value of
                                                                                                                                                    Not Able to     Total Potential 2030
                                                                                                                Already Included Considered Part                                            Total Savings on     Water Utility Costs                    4             5
                                                                                                                  in BASELINE     of REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                   Participate in     Water Savings
                                                                                                                                                                                              Outdoor Use              ($1,000)          R1        R2          R3
                                                                                                                                                     Measure3              (mgd)
                                                                                                                    Program2         Program                                                       (%)             (25-Year Period)



                                       Direct Install of HETs - Direct Installation of                                                                                                                                                                                    Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. This measure offers significant savings at
              Measure          NM1     High-Efficiency Toilets. High efficiency              RSF, RMF, CII             0               29                0                 1.93                  0.0%                 $72,152                       X           X         high costs. The direct install program is recommended first, followed then with a rebate
                                       toilets can be dual flush (6/3 liter) or 4-liters.                                                                                                                                                                                 program when HETs are more familiar to public and out for sale. This measure

                                       Educational and Training Programs -
                                       Educational/training programs on external
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure added to all Regional Programs. This measure was run as combining efforts with
                                       water-use efficiency. Training classes to be
              Measure          NM2
                                       held including Xeriscape and homeowner
                                                                                                  RSF                  0               28                1                 -1.15               100.0%                  $7,949            X          X           X         previous measures 14, 15, an 16. Fewer classes were run with more sites and higher
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          expected attendance. Training programs are more effective in a regional program. A
                                       irrigation and promotion of water effiecient
                                       plants.


                                       Rain Sensor Giveaway - Rain Sensor Give-                                                                                                                                                                                           Measure added to all Regional Programs. This measure offers savings predominately in
              Measure          NM3
                                       aways for customers to install themselves.
                                                                                             RSF, RMF, CII             0               29                0                 0.48                100.0%                  $4,549            X          X           X         the spring and fall, and is less effective in areas where it does not rain in the summer.


                                       Replacement of Urinals - Rebates for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Measure added to Regional Programs 2 and 3. Urinals are expensive and the current
              Measure          NM4     replacing high use commercial urinals with                  CII                 0               26                3                 0.27                  0.0%                  $4,273                       X           X         requirement is for 1gal/flush.
                                       0.5 gal/flush urinals.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         8          15          23
   mgd - Million Gallons per Day
   1
       When modeled as a regional measure, customer baseline programs were applied to the model to account for overlap in potential savings.
   2
       Measures included in the customer baseline programs were not included in regional program savings.
   3
       Certain measures only apply to those service areas with applicable customer categories or end-uses. For example, measures specific to hotels/ motels (such as measures 23-25) were not applied in service areas without hotel/motel accounts.
   4
       Regional Program R2 includes Regional Program R1 plus additional measures.
   5
       Regional Program R3 includes Regional Program R2 plus additional measures. This regional program is intended to be all-inclusive and excludes only those measures which would be overrided by other measures, or those measures not implementable regionally.

   Notes:
   1. NM2 incremental results include removing Measures 14, 15, and 16 from Baseline Programs.
   2. Revised Measure results (RM7, RM25, RM31) include removal of original measures 7,25,and 31, respectively from the baseline results.
   NA = Not Applicable/Not Included in this Evaluation
   RMF = Residential Multi-Family Account
   RSF = Residential Single-Family Account
   CII = Commercial, Industrial, or Institutional Account

   Key:
   Total Potential 2030 Water Savings - Expressed in mgd and includes total water savings from implementing the measure regionally for the SFPUC Wholesale Customers which did not include it in their RWSO4 Baseline Program.
   Percentage of 2030 Total Savings on Outdoor Use - Includes the percentage of the Total 2030 Water Savings associated with outdoor use.
   Total Present Value of Water Utility Costs ($1,000) - Includes Present Value of Cost to Implement Measure from the Regional Implementation Body perspective. Does not include customer costs associated with purchasing new fixtures, etc.




Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorrandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Page 5 of 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table B-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Description of New Conservation Measures



                                                                                                                       Applicable
     Measure                                                                                                                                 Market Penetration by End Of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Annual Utility Administration &
                                            Measure Description & Questions                                            Customer                                                               Water Use Reductions For Targeted End Uses)                               Program Length, years                     Measure Life, years                 Utility Unit Cost (for contractor), $          Customer Unit Cost
     Number                                                                                                                                           Program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marketing Cost, % per participant
                                                                                                                        Classes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10                                    permanent
                                                                                                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                                 25%                                                                                         ------                                 --------                                    $350/toilet
                                                                                                                                                 -------              Depends on fixture model and average flush volume of Should test program after 10-years         MWM judgment that owner will not                            ---------
                   Direct Installation of High-Efficiency Toilets. High efficiency toilets can be                                  (Based on RC program, also 60% are existing toilets. Every service area will be different and continue if savings and costs are replace retrofitted efficient equipment with   based on avg. cost estimates for HET
       NM1         dual flush (6/3 liter) or 4-liters.                                                               RSF, RMF, CII   already ULF toilets or tankless)            depending on current fixtures.                            effective                          inefficient equipment             installation from Redwood City's program                                                       $0                                      25%


                   Educational/training programs on external water-use efficiency. Training
                   classes to be held including Xeriscape and homeowner irrigation and
                   promotion of water effiecient plants.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Permanent                          Average class price is $920                    $300/account
                   Assume agencies will be split between common class sights. Assumes 20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                --------                                       -------                                  -----
                   sites, 4 class/year, 50 attendees per class. Assume 30% of classes for                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MWM judgment that owner will not           Per class cost: $800 residential, $1400         Includes cost of new                              50%
                   professionals and 60% classes for homeowners. Because savings are hard to                                              4000 RSF accounts/ year spread over                                                                                                                           replace efficient irrigation equipment with                professionals                 plants/landscaping systems and                          ----
       NM2         estimate for CII sector, this measure will assume all savings is in RSF sector.                          RSF                      service area                                                   10% irrigation                                             indefinitely                        inefficient equipment                   Assume site rental is donated               irrigation equipment              Includes staff time and marketing


                    Rain Sensor Give-aways for customers to install themselves.                                                                                                                                                                                                     10                                    Permanent
                   Assume $20-$80 average price per sensor depending on specifications.                                                             15% penetration                                                                                                                ------                                --------
                   Assumes a $50 retrofit on existing non-ET controllers for residential accounts                                                        --------                                                                                                   Should test program after 10-years      MWM judgment that owner will not
                   and $200 RMF and CII accounts because multiple controllers are used in                                                    Assume 30% of the 50% of sites                   Avg water savings 4.7% during a typical irrigation                   and continue if savings and costs are replace efficient irrigation equipment with
       NM3         commercial-grade unit.                                                         RSF, RMF, CII                                assumed to have controllers                         season based on local rainfall analysis                                       effective                          inefficient equipment            $30 to $200 depending on type of account          $0 - self installed                             25%



                                                                                                                                                           25%                                                                                         10                                    permanent
                                                                                                                                                           ------                                                                                     ------                                 --------                                                                                                        $300
                   Rebates for replacing high use commercial urinals with 0.5 gal/flush urinals.                                           Not all CII accounts have urninals. Depends on service area. Urinal fixture models were Should test program after 10-years          MWM judgment that owner will not                                                       $200                                   -----
                   Selectively provide rebates to businesses to convert to efficient urinals subject                                      Realistic goal but could potentially be used based on 2004 study and assumptions for number and continue if savings and costs are replace retrofitted efficient equipment with                                               ---                         based on $500 urinal cost
       NM4         to high use, such as restaurants, theaters, stadiums, etc.                                               CII                           higher                         of male employees and how many uses.                       effective                          inefficient equipment                                          Must be substantial to get participation       including installation                            25%


                                                                                                                                                                                 12% water savings of all site end uses (potential for
                                                                                                                                                                                    30% savings but only implement 40% of the                                                                                                                                                                            $2000/account
                   Commercial Water Audits - original Measure 7 - Revised. The target was                                                                                                             potential)1,3                                                                                                    Permanent                    $4000/account(top 5% of water users)1                 ---------
                   adjusted from Top 10% of highest water users to Top 5% of highest water                                                                                                          -----------                                                                                                        -------                                      -------                   MWM experience, excludes costs
                   users based on BAWSCA surveys.                                                                                        Top 5% (highest water users) of target Default value for BMP 9, see MOU pg 44, also within                                                                       MWM experience that potential is in     In range of costs cited in C&S Study, pg 2- for cost-effective projects paid by                  50%
                   Also this revisions includes an increase in existing use/account for targeted                                            water user group accounts with      range of savings reported in C&S Study pgs 2-62-65,                                                                         equipment changes, likely to be          66, mean analyst surveys adjusted for     facility, covers facility contract               --------
       RM7         accounts based on surveys of those users.                                                                CII                   applicable end use                              allowing for a 40%                                                               10                   permanent, rather than behavioral changes             inflation since 1995                   administration costs            MWM experience, marketing is difficult



                                                                                                                                                          25%                        20% water savings on all Hotel/Motel end uses1                       10                                    permanent                                      $100                            $100/room                                                                25%
                                                                                                                                                         --------                                        -------                                         ------                                 --------                                    --------                         ----------                                                            ----------
                   Hotel Retrofit w/ Financial Assistance - original Measure 25 - Revised. The                                             derived based on billing and census Within range of savings reported in C&S Study pgs 2- Should test program after 10-years            MWM judgment that owner will not          MWM judgment that owner will not replace Balance of cost to retrofit room                               MWM experience, covers other utility costs
                   target market was revised from previous study (20% to 25%); setting the                                                    data, and wholesale customer        62-65, allowing for a 40% implementation of identified and continue if savings and costs are replace retrofitted efficient equipment with   retrofitted efficient equipment with   (new toilet, showerhead, faucet                                 for promoting program and working with
       RM25        higher target seemsmore reasonable at this time.                                                         CII          feedback specific to their service area)      potential plus effects of financial assistance                  effective                          inefficient equipment                       inefficient equipment                      aerator)                                                  hotels to accomplish retrofits

RSF: Residential Single Family; RMF: Residential Multi-Family; CII: Commercial, Industrial, Institutional
Notes:
1
    California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC)BMP Cost and Savings Study, October 2004 version
2
    California Urban Water Agencies (CUWA) Urban Water Conservation Potential, August 2001.
3
    California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC) MOU, December 2002
4
    When NM1 and Measure 12 were run together, the market penetration goal of 25% was spread over the 2 measures. Specifically, the NM1 goal was set at 10% and the Measure 12 goal was set at 15%.

(a) Analyzed several years of daily rainfall records to determine average number of storms in period April 1 through October 31 with a depth of at least 0.25 inches. Assumed such a storm delays scheduled irrigation for two days. 0.5 inch and larger storms.

Note: Measure parameters for Meaures 1 - 32 are summarized in Table 3-2 of SFPUC Wholesale Customer Water Conservation Potential Technical Report (URS 2004).




         Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page 1 of 1
                                                                                                                            Table B-3
                                                                                                              Regional Conservation Program Results




                                                                                                   HIGH PROGRAM RANGE DSS Modeling Results                                           Factors Considered for Low Program Range Development
                                                                  Total Potential 2030
                                           Total Potential 2030
                                                                    Water Savings
                                             Water Savings                                                                                                           I. Modeled Savings Affected II. Modeled Savings Affected           III. Modeled Savings
               Regional Conservation                               Modeling Results       Percentage of   Total Present      Total Present                                                   1
                                                                                                                                            Gross Cost to               by Customer Feedback        by SCVWD Conservation               Affected by Potential
                     Program                                                               2030 Total       Value of           Value of                                                                            2                                          3
                                             LOW RANGE4                              5                                                        Utility for                                                  Overlap                     RWSO4 Project Overlap
                                                                    HIGH RANGE             Savings on Water Utility Costs Community Costs
                                                  (mgd)                                                                                     Water Saved
                                                                          (mgd)           Outdoor Use       ($1,000)           ($1,000)                                                Percent of                       Percent of                    Percent of
                                                                                                                                               ($/AF)
                                                                                                        (25-Year Period)   (25-Year Period)                              (mgd)          Modeled          (mgd)           Modeled          (mgd)        Modeled
                                                                                                                                                                                        Savings                          Savings                       Savings

               Regional Program     R1             2.32                    5.71                51%              $19,307              $32,014             $124             0.16           2.87%            3.26            57.09%           1.37         23.99%

               Regional Program     R2             2.89                    7.22                48%              $62,976             $103,998             $338             0.39           5.37%            3.98            55.12%           1.49         20.64%

               Regional Program     R3             3.43                    8.62                43%              $85,533             $144,945             $367             0.88           10.19%           4.20            48.72%           1.63         18.91%

             Notes:

             1. "Modeled Savings Affected by Customer Feedback" were developed based on customer comments and concerns about feasibility for individual measures, SFPUC wholesale customer feedback, and potential overlap in their baseline programs
             based on changes since the purchase estimates. The savings were evaluated on a per measure per customer basis to develop the affected yields for each regional program presented in Column I above.


             2. "Modeled Savings Affected by SCVWD Conservation Overlap" provides the increment of regional program savings modeled for the eight SCVWD/SFPUC common customers (Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, San Jose, Santa Clara,
             Sunnyvale, Purissima Hills, and Stanford University).

             3. "Modeled Savings Affected by Potential RWSO4 Project Overlap" were developed on a per measure per customer basis to account for potential savings that might be realized by an existing or potential RWSO4 water supply project in the
             customer's service area. An example of this would be large landscape or irrigation conservation measures targeted at a potential end user of and RWSO4 recycled water or groundwater project.

             4. The "Low Range" yields estimated for each regional program were developed based on a collective review of potential affected savings presented in Columns I, II, and III. Overlap within the three cagetories was considered to determine the
             maximum modeled savings affected and develop the low program range potential savings.

             5. The "High Range" yield estimates reflect the maximum potential savings modeled from running the Regional Programs assuming the customer baseline programs were already being implemented (to avoid for overlap in savings from those
             measures already included in their baseline programs).
             6. Regional Program R2 includes Regional Program R1 plus additional measures.
             7. Regional Program R3 includes Regional Program R2 plus additional measures. This regional program is intended to be all-inclusive and excludes only those measures which would be overrided by other measures, or those measures not
             implementable regionally (such as those requiring city or county ordinances).

             8. Regional Program results presented above have been modeled with RWSO4 purchase estimated Baseline Programs in place in order to avoid double counting savings associated with like end uses. In addition, RWSO4 measures which were
             revisions to initial DSS measures have been substituted for those customers with the initial measures in their baseline programs in order to provide the accurate increment of costs and savings due to adding the regional programs on top of the
             individual customer baseline program efforts already in place.

             Key:

             1. Total Potential 2030 Water Savings - Expressed in MGD and includes total water savings from implementing the regional program for all applicable participating customers. High Range includes total modeled results and Low Range takes into
             account the modeled savings affected by Columns I, II, and III.
             2. Percentage of 2030 Total Savings on Outdoor Use - Includes the percentage of the High Range Total 2030 Water Savings associated with outdoor use.
             3. Total Present Value of Water Utility Costs ($1,000) - Includes Present Value of Cost for Regional Implementation Body to Implement regional high range program for applicable customers. Does not include customer costs associated with
             purchasing new fixtures, etc.

             4. Total Present Value of Community Costs ($1,000) - Includes Present Value of Cost for the Community to implement high range regional programs for applicable customers. The community perspective includes both utility (regional
             implementation body) and retail customer costs (associated with purchasing new fixtures, etc.).

             5. Gross Cost to Utility for Water Saved - Expressed in $/AF calculated by dividing the gross costs to the Utility (Regional Implementation Body) to implement the regional program (with future expenditures discounted to present value) by the sum
             of the water saved to the year 2030.



Investigation of SFPUC RWSO4 Technical Memorandum                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Page 1 of 1

								
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