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Name: Period: Chapter 2 Study Guide – Chemistry and Macromolecules 1. What three particles make up an atom? 2. The nucleus of an atom contains what two particles? 3. Where do you find electrons? 4. What type of ion forms: a. -When an atom loses an electron? b. -When an atom gains an electron? 5. What are uses of radioactive isotopes? - - - - 6. The atomic number of an element is equal to what? 7. How do the physical and chemical properties of a compound compare to those of the elements from which it is formed? 8. How does a covalent bond form? 9. How does an ionic bond form? 10. What is the most abundant compound in most living things? 11. What makes up a molecule of water? a. Observe Ms. Smith perform an electrolysis experiment!!! i. What happens when she adds the splint to the test tube filled with Hydrogen? ii. What happens when she adds the splint to the test tube filled with Oxygen? 12. Why is water important to life? 13. What is cohesion? Adhesion? 14. Why did water move up the pipe cleaner and spread out the marker on the filter paper? 15. What types of bonds are present between water molecules? 16. What happens to water when soap is added? Why? 17. In salt water: a. -Which is the solute? b. -Which is the solvent? 18. What is the pH range of acids (stomach acid)? 19. What is the pH range of bases (soaps, oven cleaners, and drain cleaners)? 20. What is the pH of each of the following? a. -a strong acid b. -a weak acid c. -a strong base d. -a weak base 21. If I have oily hair what pH of shampoo should I use to make my hair less oily? Why? 22. If I have dull hair what pH of shampoo should I use to make my hair more oily? Why? 23. The pH of the fluids within most cells in the human body must generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5. if the pH is lower or higher, it will affect the chemical reactions that take place within the cells. Thus, controlling pH is important for maintaining homeostasis. One of the ways that organisms control pH is through dissolved compounds called buffers. Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. Blood, for example, has a normal pH of 7.4. Sudden changes in blood pH are usually prevented by a number of chemical buffers, such as bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Buffers dissolved in life’s fluids play an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms. What is the purpose of buffers? 24. Procedure: Observe the possible pH changes by following the steps below. We will be using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as our acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as our base. I. Measure out 20 ml of water into a clean beaker. Record its original pH ____________ A. Add 1 mL of acid to the water. Chart 1 Swirl. mL of acid pH value Record the pH in Chart 1. added to Repeat until you have added 5 mL water of acid. 1 2 3 4 5 B. Wash out the beaker. Chart 2 Refill with 20 mL of water. mL of base pH value Add 1 mL of base to the water. added to Swirl. water Record the pH in Chart 2. 1 Repeat until you have added 5 mL 2 of base. 3 4 5 II. Measure out 20 mL of a buffer into a clean beaker. Record its original pH. ______________ A. Add 1 mL of acid to the buffer. Chart 3 Swirl. mL of acid pH value added to Record the pH in Chart 3. buffer Repeat until you have added 5 mL 1 of acid. 2 3 4 5 B. Wash out the beaker. Chart 4 Refill with 20 mL of buffer. mL of base pH value Add 1 mL of base to the buffer. added to Swirl. buffer Record the pH in Chart 4. 1 Repeat until you have added 5 mL 2 of base. 3 4 5 25. What were the effects of HCl (acid) & NaOH (base) on the tap water? Use your data and be specific! 26. What were the effects of HCl (acid) and NaOH (base) on the buffer? Use your data to answer this question! 27. Based on your lab data, what does a buffer do? (hint: compare the effects of HCl and NaOH on the tap water vs. the buffer) 28. Blood has a pH of 7.4, which is tightly regulated by a buffering system in the body. Acidosis occurs when the blood pH falls below 7.4 and alkalosis occurs when the blood pH is above 7.4. From what you have learned from this lab, what will happen to blood pH if more acid is introduced? Will it change from 7.4 or dive to a pH of 5? Explain your answer using concepts introduced during this lab knowing blood has buffers. 29. Water molecules are polar. Explain this. 30. Why do many molecular and ionic compounds dissolve in water? 31. How do you calculate the mass number of an atom? 32. What is a solution? 33. What is a compound? 34. What is an isotope? 35. How many electrons can a carbon atom share? (How many bonds can carbon form?) 36. What is the term given to carbon compounds that come from living organisms? 37. All organic compounds contain what element? 38. What are some inorganic compounds? 39. What are some organic compounds? 40. Due to carbon having four electrons in its outer energy level, carbon can bond easily to what? 41. What is a monomer? 42. Of what are polymers made? 43. Name some molecules that are polymers. 44. What kinds of bonds are found in polymers? 45. What are the four major classes of macromolecules? - - - - 46. What elements are found in ALL FOUR macromolecules? - - - 47. What is the scientific term for each of the following? a. -simple sugar— b. -double sugar— c. -starch or cellulose— 48. To what group of macromolecules do the above substances belong? 49. Sucrose is what kind of molecule? 50. The formula C6H12O6 represents what kind of molecule? 51. Of what monomers is a polysaccharide made? 52. All carbohydrates contain what three elements? - - - 53. What are the simplest carbohydrates called? 54. Of what monomers is a lipid made? 55. What is an unsaturated lipid? 56. Draw an unsaturated fatty acid. 57. What is a saturated lipid? 58. Draw a saturated fatty acid. 59. What are the basic building blocks of proteins? 60. What four elements do you find in proteins? - - - - 61. What are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids? 62. Of what monomers are RNA and DNA molecules made? 63. What kind of macromolecule are RNA and DNA? 64. What group of organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things? 65. What is the function of a carbohydrate? 66. In what polysaccharide do plants store glucose that can be used for energy? 67. How do animals store energy for long term use ? 68. The body can release the greatest amount of energy from what compounds? 69. What kind of macromolecule are earwax and bee’s wax? 70. What kind of macromolecule are fats and oils? 71. What kind of macromolecule is cholesterol? 72. What is the primary function of a lipid? 73. What are the most abundant organic compounds in living animal cells? 74. Antibodies which fight disease belong to what group of macromolecules? 75. Which macromolecules are the main components of tissues such as bones and muscles? 76. Which macromolecules control the rate of reactions and control cell processes? 77. What organic compounds control the making of proteins and contain the genetic message of heredity? 78. In the following reaction: 2H2 + O2 2H2O - Reactants? - Products? 79. The enzymes in our bodies belong to what group of macromolecules? 80. How do you write the name of an enzyme? 81. What is a molecule that serves as a catalyst in living things? 82. What is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction? 83. Are catalysts/enzymes used up during a chemical reaction? 84. What do enzymes do to chemical reactions in living cells? 85. Are all catalysts enzymes? 86. Are all enzymes catalysts? 87. Enzymes do what to the activation energy of a reaction? 88. How do enzymes react in the presence of: a. Bases? b. Acids? c. Heat? 89. What elements do you find in carbohydrates and in what proportions? 90. What elements do you find in lipids and in what proportions? 91. What reagent do you use to test for starch? What does a positive test look like? 92. What reagent do you use to test for sugar? What does a positive test look like? 93. What reagent do you use to test for protein? What does a positive test look like? 94. What does a positive test look like for a fat? 95. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a monosaccharide. 96. In the space below draw a structural formula for a disaccharide. 97. In the space below draw a structural formula for a polysaccharide. 98. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a dipeptide. 99. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a fatty acid.
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