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BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE MACROMOLECULES

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       Chapter 2 Study Guide – Chemistry and
                  Macromolecules
1. What three particles make up an atom?

2. The nucleus of an atom contains what two particles?

3. Where do you find electrons?

4. What type of ion forms:
     a. -When an atom loses an electron?

      b. -When an atom gains an electron?

5. What are uses of radioactive isotopes?
   -
   -
   -
   -
6. The atomic number of an element is equal to what?

7. How do the physical and chemical properties of a compound compare
   to those of the elements from which it is formed?



8. How does a covalent bond form?

9. How does an ionic bond form?

10. What is the most abundant compound in most living things?

11. What makes up a molecule of water?

      a. Observe Ms. Smith perform an electrolysis experiment!!!
            i. What happens when she adds the splint to the test tube
               filled with Hydrogen?

            ii. What happens when she adds the splint to the test tube
                filled with Oxygen?
12. Why is water important to life?




13. What is cohesion? Adhesion?




14. Why did water move up the pipe cleaner and spread out the marker on
    the filter paper?



15. What types of bonds are present between water molecules?



16. What happens to water when soap is added? Why?



17. In salt water:
       a. -Which is the solute?

      b. -Which is the solvent?

18. What is the pH range of acids (stomach acid)?

19. What is the pH range of bases (soaps, oven cleaners, and drain
    cleaners)?

20. What is the pH of each of the following?
      a. -a strong acid
      b. -a weak acid
      c. -a strong base
      d. -a weak base

21. If I have oily hair what pH of shampoo should I use to make my hair
    less oily? Why?



22. If I have dull hair what pH of shampoo should I use to make my hair
    more oily? Why?
   23. The pH of the fluids within most cells in the human body must
       generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5. if the pH is lower or higher, it
       will affect the chemical reactions that take place within the cells.
       Thus, controlling pH is important for maintaining homeostasis. One of
       the ways that organisms control pH is through dissolved compounds
       called buffers. Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with
       strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH. Blood,
       for example, has a normal pH of 7.4. Sudden changes in blood pH are
       usually prevented by a number of chemical buffers, such as
       bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Buffers dissolved in life’s fluids play
       an important role in maintaining homeostasis in organisms.

      What is the purpose of buffers?



   24. Procedure: Observe the possible pH changes by following the steps
       below.
We will be using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as our acid and sodium
hydroxide (NaOH) as our base.

I. Measure out 20 ml of water into a clean beaker. Record its original pH
____________
     A. Add 1 mL of acid to the water.
                                                         Chart 1
        Swirl.                                mL of acid      pH value
        Record the pH in Chart 1.             added to
        Repeat until you have added 5 mL      water
        of acid.                                    1

                                                      2

                                                      3

                                                      4

                                                      5
      B. Wash out the beaker.                            Chart 2
         Refill with 20 mL of water.          mL of base     pH value
         Add 1 mL of base to the water.       added to
         Swirl.                               water
         Record the pH in Chart 2.                  1
         Repeat until you have added 5 mL
                                                     2
         of base.
                                                     3

                                                     4

                                                     5



II. Measure out 20 mL of a buffer into a clean beaker. Record its original
pH. ______________
      A. Add 1 mL of acid to the buffer.                 Chart 3
         Swirl.                               mL of acid     pH value
                                              added to
         Record the pH in Chart 3.
                                              buffer
         Repeat until you have added 5 mL
                                                    1
         of acid.
                                                    2

                                                     3

                                                     4

                                                     5


      B. Wash out the beaker.                            Chart 4
         Refill with 20 mL of buffer.         mL of base     pH value
         Add 1 mL of base to the buffer.      added to
         Swirl.                               buffer
         Record the pH in Chart 4.                  1
         Repeat until you have added 5 mL
                                                     2
         of base.
                                                     3

                                                     4

                                                     5
25. What were the effects of HCl (acid) & NaOH (base) on the tap
   water?
   Use your data and be specific!




26. What were the effects of HCl (acid) and NaOH (base) on the buffer?
   Use your data to answer this question!




27. Based on your lab data, what does a buffer do? (hint: compare the
   effects of HCl and NaOH on the tap water vs. the buffer)




28. Blood has a pH of 7.4, which is tightly regulated by a buffering
   system in the body. Acidosis occurs when the blood pH falls below 7.4
   and alkalosis occurs when the blood pH is above 7.4. From what you
   have learned from this lab, what will happen to blood pH if more acid
   is introduced? Will it change from 7.4 or dive to a pH of 5? Explain
   your answer using concepts introduced during this lab knowing blood
   has buffers.




29. Water molecules are polar. Explain this.


30. Why do many molecular and ionic compounds dissolve in water?



31. How do you calculate the mass number of an atom?
32. What is a solution?

33. What is a compound?

34. What is an isotope?

35. How many electrons can a carbon atom share? (How many bonds can
    carbon form?)

36. What is the term given to carbon compounds that come from living
    organisms?

37. All organic compounds contain what element?

38. What are some inorganic compounds?

39. What are some organic compounds?

40. Due to carbon having four electrons in its outer energy level, carbon
    can bond easily to what?



41. What is a monomer?

42. Of what are polymers made?

43. Name some molecules that are polymers.



44. What kinds of bonds are found in polymers?

45. What are the four major classes of macromolecules?
    -
    -
    -
    -
46. What elements are found in ALL FOUR macromolecules?
    -
    -
    -
47. What is the scientific term for each of the following?
       a. -simple sugar—
       b. -double sugar—
       c. -starch or cellulose—
48. To what group of macromolecules do the above substances belong?

49. Sucrose is what kind of molecule?
50. The formula C6H12O6 represents what kind of molecule?

51. Of what monomers is a polysaccharide made?



52. All carbohydrates contain what three elements?
    -
    -
    -
53. What are the simplest carbohydrates called?

54. Of what monomers is a lipid made?

55. What is an unsaturated lipid?



56. Draw an unsaturated fatty acid.




57. What is a saturated lipid?

58. Draw a saturated fatty acid.




59. What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
60. What four elements do you find in proteins?
    -
    -
    -
    -
61. What are the basic building blocks of nucleic acids?

62. Of what monomers are RNA and DNA molecules made?

63. What kind of macromolecule are RNA and DNA?



64. What group of organic compounds is the main source of energy for
    living things?

65. What is the function of a carbohydrate?

66. In what polysaccharide do plants store glucose that can be used for
    energy?

67. How do animals store energy for long term use ?

68. The body can release the greatest amount of energy from what
    compounds?

69. What kind of macromolecule are earwax and bee’s wax?

70. What kind of macromolecule are fats and oils?

71. What kind of macromolecule is cholesterol?

72. What is the primary function of a lipid?

73. What are the most abundant organic compounds in living animal cells?

74. Antibodies which fight disease belong to what group of
    macromolecules?

75. Which macromolecules are the main components of tissues such as
    bones and muscles?
76. Which macromolecules control the rate of reactions and control cell
    processes?

77. What organic compounds control the making of proteins and contain
    the genetic message of heredity?

78. In the following reaction: 2H2 + O2  2H2O
    - Reactants?
    - Products?
79. The enzymes in our bodies belong to what group of macromolecules?

80. How do you write the name of an enzyme?

81. What is a molecule that serves as a catalyst in living things?

82. What is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction?

83. Are catalysts/enzymes used up during a chemical reaction?

84. What do enzymes do to chemical reactions in living cells?

85. Are all catalysts enzymes?

86. Are all enzymes catalysts?

87. Enzymes do what to the activation energy of a reaction?

88. How do enzymes react in the presence of:

      a. Bases?
      b. Acids?
      c. Heat?

89. What elements do you find in carbohydrates and in what proportions?



90. What elements do you find in lipids and in what proportions?



91. What reagent do you use to test for starch? What does a positive
    test look like?
92. What reagent do you use to test for sugar? What does a positive
    test look like?



93. What reagent do you use to test for protein? What does a positive
    test look like?



94. What does a positive test look like for a fat?



95. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a monosaccharide.




96. In the space below draw a structural formula for a disaccharide.




97. In the space below draw a structural formula for a polysaccharide.




98. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a dipeptide.




99. In the space below, draw a structural formula for a fatty acid.

								
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