LASER SAFETY MANUAL Environmental Health _ Safety Department by wanghonghx

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									       LASER SAFETY MANUAL

Environmental Health & Safety Department
        Radiation Safety Division
        Updated: February 2010
                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Chapter Title                                                                                                                Page
 1.0     INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1

 2.0     ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................... 3
            2.1      University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio ............................. 3
            2.2      Laser Safety Organization and Policy ............................................................... 3
            2.3      Laser Safety Committee (LSC) ......................................................................... 3
               2.3.1       Function .....................................................................................................3
               2.3.2       Appointments.............................................................................................3
            2.4      Laser Safety Officer (LSO) ................................................................................ 4
               2.4.1       Role of the Laser Safety Officer ................................................................4
               2.4.2       Emergency Authority .................................................................................4
            2.5      Laser Users ....................................................................................................... 4
               2.5.1       Laser User Function and Responsibility....................................................4
            2.6      Incidental personnel .......................................................................................... 5
               2.6.1       Incidental Personnel Function and Responsibility ....................................5
            2.7      Purchasing and Receiving ................................................................................ 5
 3.0     LASER HAZARD CLASSIFICATION ................................................................................ 6
            3.1      Purpose of Laser Hazard Classification ............................................................ 6
            3.2       Class 1 and 1M ............................................................................................... 6
               3.2.1      Class 1 Administrative Classification ........................................................6
               3.2.2      Repair of Class 1 Devices .........................................................................7
            3.3      Class 2 .............................................................................................................. 7
            3.4      Class 2M ........................................................................................................... 7
            3.5      Class 3R ............................................................................................................ 7
            3.6      Class 3B ............................................................................................................ 7
            3.7      Class 4 .............................................................................................................. 8
 4.0     VIEWING LASER RADIATION .......................................................................................... 9

 5.0     BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LASER EXPOSURE ......................................................... 10
            5.1         Eye Effects ...................................................................................................... 10
            5.2         Skin Effects ..................................................................................................... 11
            5.3         Respiratory Risks Associated with Laser Use…………………………….…….11
 6.0     LASER EXPOSURE CONTROL MECHANISMS............................................................ 12
            6.1      Purpose of Laser Exposure Control Mechanisms ............................... 12
            6.2       Engineered Control of Laser Exposures ....................................................... 12
            6.3      Administrative Controls ................................................................................... 12
            6.4      Personal Protective Equipment ....................................................................... 13
               6.4.1       Protective Eyewear..................................................................................13
               6.4.2       Skin protection………………………………………………………………..14
            6.5      Postings and Labels ........................................................................................ 14
               6.5.1       Area .........................................................................................................14
               6.5.2       Temporary Controlled Area .....................................................................14
               6.5.3       Equipment ...............................................................................................15
            6.6      Invisible Lasers ............................................................................................... 15
 7.0     LASER SAFETY EVALUATIONS BY THE RADIATION SAFETY DIVISION................ 16
            7.1         Laser Safety Evaluations ................................................................................ 16
            7.2         Results of Evaluations..................................................................................... 16

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              7.2.1           Corrective Action .....................................................................................16
8.0    LASER SAFETY TRAINING ............................................................................................ 19

9.0    EMERGENCY PROCEDURE FOR LASER ACCIDENTS .............................................. 20

10.0   DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................... 21

11.0   APPENDIX A – ACCESSIBLE EMISSION LIMITS ......................................................... 24
          11.1        Table A1. Continuous-Wave Lasers and Laser Systems .............................. 24
          11.2        Table A2. Single Pulse Laser and Laser System Classification .................... 25
12.0   APPENDIX B – POSTINGS AND LABELS..................................................................... 26

13.0   APPENDIX C – LASER SAFETY EVALUATION CHECKLIST ...................................... 27

14.0   APPENDIX D – INCIDENTAL PERSONNEL SAFETY TRAINING RECORD ............... 29
15.0   APPENDIX E - SAMPLE LASER SOP ……………………...………………………………30
16.0   REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 37




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                               1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The objective of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Laser
    Safety Program is to assist all levels of management in fulfilling the UT Health Science
    Center commitment to furnish a place of employment and learning that is as free as
    possible from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause harm to UT Health
    Science Center at San Antonio personnel or the surrounding community. It is vital that
    faculty, staff and students have enough information available to aid them in the safe
    conduct of their daily work activities relating to lasers and laser-producing devices.

    To that end, the Texas Department of State Health Services issues a certificate of laser
    registration to the UT Health Science Center at San Antonio authorizing the use of lasers
    and laser producing devices. An essential component of that registration is this Laser
    Safety Manual. A significant factor in being allowed the flexibility of a laser registration
    by the Texas Department of State Health Services is that UT Health Science Center
    implicitly accepts the responsibility to regulate and control the broad use of lasers and
    laser producing machines within its education, clinical care and research. This
    responsibility is not to be taken lightly.

    The purpose of the UT Health Science Center Laser Safety Manual is to assist both
    personnel and management in complying with the objectives of the Texas Department of
    State Health Services, Bureau of Radiation Control regulations and UT Health Science
    Center Health and Safety Policies. The Radiation Safety Division addresses many of
    the items in this manual through the Radiation Safety Division’s Laser Safety training
    course.

    This manual is not intended to be an exhaustive or fully comprehensive reference, but
    instead a guide for registered users and other technically qualified individuals. Further
    advice concerning hazards associated with specific substances, devices and the
    development of new or unfamiliar activities should be obtained through consultation with
    the Radiation Safety Committee, the Laser Safety Officer or the Radiation Safety
    Division.

     All users of lasers and laser-producing devices must be familiar with the requirements
    set forth in this manual and applicable regulations of the Texas Department of State
    Health Services, and must conduct their operations in accordance with them.


    ________Signature on File_______                   ________Signature on File_______ _
    Jennifer Watson, M.S.                              Michael A. Charlton, Ph.D.
    Laser Safety Officer                               Assistant Vice President of Risk
    The University of Texas                            Management and Safety
    Health Science Center at San Antonio               The University of Texas
                                                       Health Science Center at San Antonio

    ________Signature on File_______                   ______Signature on File___________
    William Moore, D.D.S., M.S.                        William Henrich, M.D.
    Chair, Radiation Safety Committee                  President
    The University of Texas                            The University of Texas
    Health Science Center at San Antonio               Health Science Center at San Antonio

                                                                                              1
1.2 Additional Information

   This manual is designed to support the safe and effective use of laser-producing
   equipment in research, education, and medical practice. This manual addresses
   specific actions and procedures required of its users as they function within the
   administrative, technical, and physical environments located within the University
   of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

   This manual is not intended to replace the official regulations as enforced by the
   Texas Department of State Health Services, Radiation Control in the form of the
   Texas Regulations for Control of Laser Radiation (TRCLR). All individuals
   employing laser-producing equipment should familiarize themselves with TRCLR
   sections pertaining to laser-producing equipment (25 TAC §289.301).
   References to applicable ANSI standards & state regulations are provided where
   appropriate. As a State of Texas registrant, UT Health Science Center shall
   comply with all applicable provisions of the TRCLR.

   In keeping with the definition used by the National Council on Radiation
   Protection and Measurement, the verb “shall” denotes that the ensuing
   recommendation is necessary or essential to meet the currently accepted
   standards-of-protection. The verb “should” indicates advisory recommendations
   that are applied when feasible




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       2.0 ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES
2.1 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

   The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio is a dynamic
   institution of higher learning located in the South Texas Medical Center. Laser-
   producing equipment is employed at the institution predominantly as tools for
   research and patient care.

2.2 Laser Safety Organization and Policy

   The fundamental objective of a laser safety program is to ensure the safety of UT
   Health Science Center faculty, staff, and employees while enjoying the scientific
   benefits available through the use of laser-producing machines. No less
   imperative is the need for protecting the general public and the environment from
   unnecessary laser exposure resulting from registered activities at UT Health
   Science Center.

2.3 Laser Safety Committee (LSC)

   2.3.1 Function

   The Laser Safety Committee (LSC) is a component of the institutional Radiation
   Safety Committee. The LSC is responsible for formulating policy about the use
   of laser-producing equipment and for regulating their use in compliance with
   Texas Department of State Health Services regulations and UT Health Science
   Center policy. In this regard, the LSC serves as the primary regulatory body for
   the institution in all matters related to the use of lasers in health-related
   investigative research and patient care.

   2.3.2 Appointments

   The President appoints committee members. In general, committee
   appointments are for a three-year term. Members of the Committee include:

             •   One faculty representative from the Dental School
             •   One faculty representative from the Graduate School of Biomedical
                 Sciences
             •   One faculty representative from the School of Allied Health
                 Sciences
             •   One faculty representative from the School of Nursing
             •   Five faculty representatives from the Medical School
             •   One representative of the administration (ex officio)
             •   The Laser Safety Officer (ex officio)

          Other members may be appointed at the discretion of the President.

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2.4 Laser Safety Officer (LSO)

   2.4.1 Role of the Laser Safety Officer

   The Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is responsible for investigating incidents,
   monitoring and implementing established policies on matters relating to laser
   safety and is the Laser Safety Committee’s authorized representative regarding
   radiation protection within UT Health Science Center. The LSO may designate
   an Assistant Laser Safety Officer (ALSO) pending appropriate qualifications
   pertaining to these assigned duties (ANSI Z136.1-2007 1.3.2, ANSI Z136.5-2009
   1.2.2, ANSI Z136.3-2005 1.3).

   2.4.2 Emergency Authority

   The LSO shall have the responsibility and authority during a suspected or
   confirmed emergency to take prompt remedial action without prior approval of the
   LSC or the President of UT Health Science Center (25 TAC §289.301(q)(2)).
   Should such independent action be required, the LSO shall promptly report
   details of the situation to the Laser Safety Committee and/or the President of UT
   Health Science Center.

2.5 Laser Users

   2.5.1 Laser User Function and Responsibility

   One of the basic tenets of safety programs is that individuals must take
   responsibility for their own safety in daily activities, and must ensure that any
   personal actions do not contribute to increased hazard to coworkers or to the
   environment (ANSI Z136.5-2009 4.7). The responsibilities of the individual
   include:

          A. Maintain awareness of and compliance with applicable regulations,
             laser registration requirements, Laser Safety Committee restrictions,
             and standards of good safety practice.
          B. Notify the Radiation Safety Division or Laser Safety Officer promptly of
             incidents or emergencies resulting from laser-producing equipment
             within UT Health Science Center facilities.
          C. Ensure the proper use of appropriate personal protective equipment
             during laser-use protocols.
          D. Assist in the maintaining of proper posting of work areas and labeling
             of laser-producing equipment.
          E. Be familiar with the laser safety precautions and training required in
             their specific work areas. This includes the correct operating
             procedures for safe use of laser-producing equipment. Completion of
             an approved laser safety course must be documented prior to initiating
             work with the laser.


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          F. Not bypassing or disengaging safety interlocks.
          G. Routinely conduct safety evaluations, interlock checks, and hazard
             zone exclusions for laser facilities under their control.
2.6 Incidental personnel

    2.6.1 Incidental Personnel Function and Responsibility

    While lasers are to be operated in a controlled and restricted environment, there
    may be occasions when non-laser users must work near laser-producing
    devices. Incidental personnel are individuals that have responsibilities that result
    in the potential, although unlikely, to be exposed to laser energy sufficient to
    result in tissue damage. Incidental personnel shall not be present during high
    risk operations including laser maintenance and alignment. The responsibilities
    of incidental personnel include:

           A. Incidental personnel shall receive documented training to the
              awareness level on topics related to safety procedures while working
              near laser-producing devices. The required form is available on the
              EH&S website.
           B. Incidental personnel working within the nominal hazard zone are
              required to properly wear appropriate personal protective equipment.

2.7 Purchasing and Receiving

    Purchasing and Receiving personnel will advise the LSO of all proposed laser
    purchases and hold all lasers until released by the LSO. This is intended to
    ensure that lasers are only installed in areas where the required hazard controls
    are provided.




                                                                                        5
            3.0 LASER HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Purpose of Laser Hazard Classification

    In order to provide a basis for laser safety requirements, all lasers and laser
   systems and/or devices in the United States are classified into one of several
   classes. The UT Health Science Center at San Antonio’s Laser Safety Program
   follows the hazard classification system outlined in ANSI Z136.1-2007. The ANSI
   Z136.1-2000 standard utilized an alternate classification scheme which may still
   be found on warning signs & labels. Table 1 compares the two hazard
   classification systems. Of note, the ANSI Z136.1-2000 standard allowed for the
   use of both Roman and Arabic numerals, whereas the current ANSI Z136.1-2007
   standard only uses Arabic numerals.

   Corresponding labels are affixed to the laser or laser system. As required by the
   Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health
   Regulations, the manufacturer classifies commercially produced lasers. For
   custom-built and modified lasers, the LSO can provide appropriate classification
   prior to sale. It is the responsibility of the Principal Investigator to supply the
   appropriate parameters of the laser system. Accessible Emission Limits for
   continuous-wave and single pulsed laser and laser systems can be found in
   Appendix A.

   Table 1. Comparison of Laser Classifications:

                     ANSI Z136.1 – 2000      ANSI Z136.1 - 2007
                          Class 1                 Class 1
                                                 Class 1M
                           Class 2                Class 2
                                                 Class 2M
                           Class 3a              Class 3R
                           Class 3b              Class 3B
                           Class 4                Class 4

3.2 Class 1 & 1M

   Most lasers in this class maintain an enclosure, which, by virtue of engineering
   design, prohibits access to laser radiation. These lasers are safe under
   reasonably foreseeable conditions of operation. These lasers are exempt from
   control measures.
   3.2.1 Class 1 Administrative Classification
          The ANSI hazard classification system is based on accessible laser
          emissions. Some manufacturers of embedded laser devices maintain
          their hazard classification at the higher level, despite the presence of
          engineering safety features that prevent access to laser energy. In this


                                                                                     6
         case, the LSO can administratively re-classify the device at a lower hazard
         classification level (ANSI Z136.1-2007 4.3.6.2.1). Administratively re-
         classified laser devices will have a sign affixed to them by the Radiation
         Safety Division signifying their status. These lasers are exempt from
         control measures that would normally apply to Class 3b or Class 4 lasers.
         Please notify the Radiation Safety Division at (210) 567-2955 if you would
         like any laser-producing equipment to be evaluated for possible
         administrative reclassification.

   3.2.2 Repair of Class 1 Devices
         Environmental Health & Safety must be notified of any repair work that
         requires opening the laser housing on an administratively classified Class
         1 laser device that contains embedded Class 3b or Class 4 lasers prior to
         the initiation of the work. Notification can be made in person in 1.343T, by
         calling EH&S at (210) 567-2955 or by email to
         EnvHealthAndSafety@uthscsa.edu The Radiation Safety Division, under
         the direction of the LSO or ALSO, will perform a hazard evaluation and if
         needed, setup a temporary laser controlled area (ANSI Z136.1-2007
         4.3.12).

3.3 Class 2

   Class 2 lasers emit accessible, visible laser light and are capable of creating eye
   damage. In general, the human eye will blink within 0.25 seconds when exposed
   to Class 2 laser light. This blink reflex provides adequate protection. However, it
   is possible to overcome the blink reflex and stare long enough to cause damage
   to the eye. Class 2 lasers have power levels less than 1 mW.

3.4 Class 2M

   Class 2M lasers pose the same ocular hazards to the unaided eye as a Class 2
   laser, however viewing Class 2M lasers through optical aids is potentially
   hazardous.

3.5 Class 3R

   Class 3R lasers and laser systems are normally not hazardous when viewed
   momentarily with the naked eye, but pose severe eye hazards when viewed
   through optical instruments that collect and focus the laser onto the eye or skin.
   These emit visible wavelengths with a power of 1-5 mW or invisible wavelengths
   up to 5 times the Class 1 AEL.

3.6 Class 3B




                                                                                     7
   Class 3B laser light will cause injury upon direct viewing of the beam and
   specular reflections. The shortest intrabeam exposure can cause injury. The
   power output of Class 3B lasers is 5-500 mW for continuous wave lasers, or less
   than 10 J cm-2 for a ¼ second pulsed system. Hazard control measures
   mentioned in this manual must be implemented.

3.7 Class 4

   Class 4 lasers may present a serious fire, skin and diffuse reflection hazard.
   Output is greater than 500 mW for continuous wave and 10 J cm-2 for a ¼
   second pulsed system. Hazard control measures mentioned in this manual
   must be implemented.




                                                                                 8
                    4.0 VIEWING LASER RADIATION
 Due to the unique properties of laser beams, several types of primary and
 secondary intrabeam viewing are considered safety hazards. Appropriate eye
 protection and other safety controls should be implemented when working with
 lasers and laser systems under the conditions shown below.




 Figure 1: Intrabeam viewing of direct (primary) beam. This type of viewing is most hazardous




 Figure 2: Intrabeam viewing of a specularly reflected (secondary) beam from a flat surface reflector. Specular
 reflections are most hazardous when the reflecting surface is flat.




Figure 3: Intrabeam viewing if a specularly reflected (secondary) beam from a curved surface reflector, less
hazardous than that of a flat source reflection.




 Figure 4: Extended source viewing of a normally diffuse reflection. Diffuse reflections are not normally
 hazardous, except with very high power Class 4 lasers.




                                                                                                            9
   5.0 BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LASER EXPOSURE
5.1 Eye Effects

   The human eye is composed of several parts; these tissues are susceptible to
   injury from viewing laser radiation (Figures 1-4). Damage is dependent on beam
   parameters, viewing duration, and tissue affected. The tissues of concern
   include the retina (Figure 5), cornea (Figure 6), and lens (Figure 7) of the eye.




                        Figure 5: Visible and Near-infrared (400-1400 nm) radiation.




   Figure 6: Mid-infrared and far-infrared (1400 nm – 1 mm) and middle ultraviolet (180-315 nm) radiation.




                              Figure 7: Near-ultraviolet (315-390 nm) radiation.



                                                                                                        10
   Retinal damage can occur when viewing visible and near infrared radiation. At
   these wavelengths, 400-1400 nm, radiation is transmitted and focused to a 10-20
   μm diameter spot on the retina (Figure 5). This can produce thermal burns,
   photoretinitis, retinal photodisruption, and scotoma.

   The corneal hazard region ranges from 1400 nm-1 mm and 180-315 nm. As
   shown in Figure 6, the cornea absorbs the laser radiation thus resulting in
   photokeratoconjunctivitis, thermal damage, superficial damage, and deep burns.
   Damage may be temporary with lesions healing in 1-2 days, or permanent
   requiring corneal transplant for repair.

   The lens of the eye is susceptible to chronic effects such as cataracts or acute
   thermal burns. Figure 7 shows the laser radiation interaction with the human eye
   at near-ultraviolet wavelengths, 315-390 nm.

5.2 Skin Effects

   Skin injury includes thermal skin burns, ultraviolet erythema, and ultraviolet
   radiation delayed effects. Thermal skin burns are rare but most commonly occur
   when working with CO2 (10.6 μm) lasers. These effects are progressive
   beginning with first degree erythema to third degree skin charring. Delayed
   effects such as skin cancer and accelerated skin aging are usually due to
   accidental skin exposure to UV lasers.

5.3 Respiratory Risks Associated with Laser Use

   The use of lasers on biological specimens may result in the vaporization of
   biohazardous or potentially infectious materials. These particles are referred to
   as Laser Generated Airborne Contaminants (LGAC). LGAC have been shown to
   contain toxic compounds, bio-aerosols, dead and living cellular material, and
   viruses. It is necessary for laser users to be aware of the potential for exposure
   to such potentially bio-infectious materials and proper control measures shall be
   put in place to prevent exposure.

   Because of the extremely small size of the generated particles, the use of
   respiratory protection devices such as half-mask respirators is ineffective. Thus,
   the primary line of defense should be the use of local exhaust ventilation as close
   to the point of generation as possible. Most modern lasers designed for use on
   patients are equipped with a local exhaust ventilation system built in (in-line
   system). Laser users shall verify that the in-line local exhaust ventilation system
   is operating as designed prior to initiating the procedure. If an in-line system is
   not present on the laser, or is not functioning as designed, then an external
   smoke evacuator shall be used.

   Due to the potential exposure to potentially infectious material, the Blood-Borne
   Pathogen Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) applies (ANSI Z136.3-2005 7.4).

                                                                                       11
      6.0 LASER EXPOSURE CONTROL MECHANISMS

6.1 Purpose of Laser Exposure Control Mechanisms

   These parameters are implemented to minimize the potentiality of a hazardous
   exposure associated with the use of laser-producing equipment.

6.2 Engineered Control of Laser Exposures

   Research laboratories and clinics employing laser-producing equipment should
   utilize the following engineered controls to minimize employee laser exposure:

          A.    Use beam blocks to terminate beams at the end of their useful
                path.
          B.    Secure laser-producing equipment against operation by
                unauthorized personnel through the use of key-controlled actuators
                or computer authentication. If a key-controlled actuator, the key
                must be removed and stored securely when not in use (25 TAC
                §289.301(r)(4)).
          C.    Each laser, regardless of classification, should have a protective
                housing, which prevents human access during normal operation,
                unless the housing would interfere with the intended operation of
                the laser device (25 TAC §289.301(r)(3)(A)).
          D.    Laser products or installations should visually or audibly indicate
                defeated interlocks during laser use. An audible or visual indicator
                shall indicate that accessible laser radiation is being emitted.
                Visible indicators must be clearly visible through protective eyewear
                (25 TAC §289.301(r)(3)(D)).
          E.    Use a barrier system to protect against energized conductors
          F.    Electrical terminals will remain covered and properly insulated,
                except during necessary maintenance.
          G.    Maintain proper grounding of laser equipment.
          H.    Excessive wires and cables should have guards to prevent fall or
                slip hazards.
          I.    All viewing portals and optical instruments in the protective housing
                should be equipped with filters and attenuators to preclude the
                emission of laser light in excess of the Maximum Permissible
                Exposure (MPE) as recommended by the Radiation Safety Division.

6.3 Administrative Controls (ANSI Z136.1-2007 4.4)

          A.    Do not wear jewelry around high voltage power supplies.
          B.    Be sure hands are completely dry when working around high
                voltage powers supplies.
          C.    Never look directly into the laser beam.


                                                                                   12
         D.       Use shutters, collimators, and curtains for beam control.
         E.       During laser operation, access to laser facility is restricted to laser
                  users for “open beam” configurations.
         F.       Protect against lasing material fume plumes during surgical
                  procedures (i.e. exhaust ventilation, process isolation).
         G.       Warning lights shall remain unobstructed from conspicuous view.
         H.       No maintenance or service should be performed alone.
         I.       A Standard Operating Procedure shall be written for any laser
                  system. This written SOP will include information related to
                  operation, maintenance and emergency procedures. A sample
                  SOP is found in Appendix E & a template may be downloaded from
                  the EH&S website. All laser users must be familiar with the SOP
                  and have documented training on the SOP.
         J.       Only authorized and properly trained personnel will operate laser
                  producing devices.

6.4 Personal Protective Equipment

   6.4.1 Protective Eyewear
         Wear protective eyewear during beam alignments, laser procedures, and
         wherever possible and appropriate (TAC §289.301(t)(1)).

              •   It is the responsibility of the Principal Investigator (PI) to provide
                  proper eyewear for spectators viewing Class 3B and Class 4 lasers.
              •   Choose the appropriate optical density based on the wavelengths
                  of the beams encountered, beam intensity, and anticipated
                  exposure conditions. The need for laser eye protection must be
                  balanced by the need for adequate visible light transmission.
              •   Inspect the eyewear for scratched, pitted, or cracked lenses &
                  verify the appropriateness of the eye protection for the laser being
                  used prior to use. Do not use if blemishes are found.
              •   Protective eyewear shall be clearly marked and associated with the
                  laser product for which it is intended.

              Protective eyewear markings should include the optical density (OD) of
              the lens as well as the wavelength of laser that the filter is effective
              against (ANSI Z136.1-2007 4.6.2.7). Determination of the appropriate
              OD and filter type should be performed under the direction of the LSO
              and can be based upon recommendations of the laser manufacturer.
              Figure 8 shows an example of appropriate markings on laser protective
              eyewear.

              Protective eyewear will be inspected annually by the Radiation Safety
              Division to ensure reliability and integrity of the eyewear.
              Documentation of eyewear inspections will be maintained for a

                                                                                       13
              minimum of 5 years by EH&S (25 TAC §289.301(ee)). For eyewear
              selection guidance, contact the Radiation Safety Office at (210) 567-
              2955.




                          Figure 8: Appropriate identification markings on
                                      laser protective eyewear

   6.4.2    Skin Protection
           When there is a possibility of exposure to laser radiation that exceeds the
           MPE limits for skin, appropriate personal protective equipment such as
           gloves, clothing or shields will be used to minimize skin exposure to laser
           radiation (25 TAC §289.301(t)(2)).


6.5 Postings and Labels
   6.5.1 Area
           An essential component of any laser safety program is the postings and
           labels that notify individuals of the hazards present. Class 3b and Class 4
           laser areas shall be a restricted area to prevent unauthorized or accidental
           exposure to the laser radiation. All access points to a laser facility with
           Class 3b or Class 4 lasers must be marked with ANSI standard laser
           hazard signs (Figures B1 and B2) (25 TAC §289.301(v)). Refer to
           Appendix B for the approved ANSI laser warning sign. It is the
           responsibility of the Primary Investigator or the Custodian of the laser to
           ensure that the laser area is appropriately posted.            For posting
           requirements guidance, contact the Radiation Safety Office at (210) 567-
           2955.
           6.5.1.1      Temporary Controlled Area
                 For Class 1 lasers, it is required that a temporary laser controlled
                 area be designated if repair work that requires accessing the
                 embedded Class 3b or Class 4 laser housing is performed. These
                 temporary lasers controlled areas can be either the room itself or a
                 part of the room cordoned off with laser barrier curtains. The
                 entrance to the temporary laser controlled area must be posted with
                 ANSI compliant sign with the signal word “Notice” in addition to the

                                                                                     14
                ANSI compliant sign with the signal word “Danger” specific for the
                hazard classification of the laser. Within the Temporary Controlled
                Area, all hazard control methods appropriate for the internal laser
                classification must be utilized (ANSI Z136.3-2005 4.5.1.3).
   6.5.2 Equipment
          Equipment warning labels (Figure B3) with the sunburst logo with the
          appropriate cautionary statement (Appendix B) will be conspicuously
          affixed to the laser housing or control panel. Laser enclosures must be
          labeled to alert users to laser hazards. It is the responsibility of the
          Primary Investigator or the Custodian of the laser to ensure that the laser
          area is appropriately posted. For equipment labeling guidance, contact
          the Radiation Safety Office at (210) 567-2955.

6.6 Invisible Lasers

   Infrared and Ultraviolet lasers produce no visible light. They require special signs
   and warning lights to alert the user when the laser is in operation. Signage and
   labels shall include notification that the laser is invisible (25 TAC
   §289.301(v)(3)(H)). The use of laser eyewear is recommended at all times. In
   addition, the use of long-sleeved coats, gloves and face protectors is
   recommended. Special considerations and procedures for invisible lasers should
   be accounted for during protocol design. The Radiation Safety Division can offer
   assistance in the design of protocols for “open beam” invisible lasers.




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              7.0 LASER SAFETY EVALUATIONS
7.1 Laser Safety Evaluations


   In order to assist and support the safe use of laser-producing equipment at UT
   Health Science Center San Antonio, as well as to ensure compliance with Texas
   law, the Radiation Safety Division conducts routine audits of laser use activities.
   Radiation Safety Division staff shall perform the routine evaluations at the laser
   use site. This evaluation will evaluate emergency response information, postings
   and labels, facilities, records, laser handling and use, laser safety training, and
   other safety issues as needed. This evaluation shall be performed twice per
   calendar year (once by the investigator and once by the Radiation Safety
   Division) (25 TAC §289.301(w)). Records of all evaluations performed must be
   maintained for a minimum of 5 years (25 TAC §289.301(ee)). The laser safety
   evaluation performed by the investigator must be documented and kept on file for
   review by the Radiation Safety Division.

   The Principal Investigator (PI) or Custodian of the Laser equipment is ultimately
   responsible for compliance with safety and health issues in facilities or protocols
   under their jurisdiction. The intent of safety audits and subsequent observed
   deficiencies is to notify the PI of potential safety issues within the research or
   clinical environment.

   The Laser Safety Evaluation criteria used by the Radiation Safety Division can be
   found in Appendix C of this manual.

7.2 Results of Evaluations

   Evaluations conducted by the Radiation Safety Division will be used to determine
   compliance with Texas Department of State Health Services, Bureau of Radiation
   Control regulations and conditions outlined in this document. The Radiation
   Safety Division will retain their audit record. Permanent records of laboratory
   inspections will be available for inspection at any time by laser users, the Laser
   Safety Officer, members of the Laser Safety Committee, or representatives of the
   Texas Department of State Health Services, Bureau of Radiation Control.

   Laboratory safety audit results will be transmitted to the responsible PI.
   Observed deficiencies will generally require prompt rectification by the
   responsible parties. A summary of on-site laser safety audits will be presented to
   the Laser Safety Committee.

   7.2.1 Corrective Action
          Items of non-compliance or deficiency noted during a laser safety
          evaluation, an inspection, or a walk through will generate corrective


                                                                                    16
actions depending upon the severity of the deficiency noted. The
following action will be taken:

7.2.1.1   Serious deficiency: Any corrected deficiency deemed to be
          serious in the opinion of the Safety Specialist will be evaluated
          by the LSO. The LSO will establish a corrective action plan,
          which may include an on-site re-evaluation within a specified
          time period or additional training.
              a) Failure by the PI or supervisor to correct a serious
                    deficiency within the time frame specified will result in
                    an Escalated Deficiency Notification follow-up as noted
                    in item 7.2.1.3(a)
7.2.1.2   Other deficiencies: Other deficiencies observed will be
          followed up by an e-mail (preferred) or written notification to the
          respective PI or Supervisor by the evaluating safety specialist.
          The evaluating Safety Specialist will retain documentation of this
          notification in the appropriate investigator file.
              a) Repeat deficiencies: Any deficiencies from a previous
                    evaluation that are noted as a repeat violation during
                    the evaluation process will be treated with greater
                    severity, and will be noted on the Deficiency Notification
                    letter. Any repeat deficiencies which are not addressed
                    by the PI / supervisor with a plan for corrective action
                    within the required time frame (normally 30 days) listed
                    on the deficiency report will result in an Escalated
                    Deficiency Notification follow-up as noted in item
                    7.2.1.3(a), this section.
7.2.1.3   Disputed Deficiencies: If a Principal Investigator disputes a
          noted deficiency, and the dispute cannot be resolved by
          discussion with the LSO, or Director of Environmental Health &
          Safety, then the dispute will be forwarded to the Chair of the
          Laser Safety Committee for resolution as outlined in the UT
          Health Science Center Handbook of Operating Procedures.
              a) Escalated Deficiency Notification: Deficiencies posing
                    an unusual hazard, or those of a serious nature that
                    have not been resolved after a 60 day period, will use
                    the following notification methods and time line.
                     i. A letter from the Director of Environmental Health &
                          Safety to the PI / Supervisor – (30 days to respond)
                     ii. A letter from the Laser safety Committee Chair to PI
                          / Supervisor – (30 days to respond)
                     iii. A letter from the Environmental Health & safety
                          Director to Department Chair – (30 days to respond)
                     iv. A letter from the Environmental Health & Safety
                          Director to Dean of supervising School – (30 days to
                          respond)


                                                                            17
                          v. A letter from the Environmental Health & Safety
                             Director to the Vice President for Research – (30
                             days to respond)
                          vi. Letter to the UT Health Science Center President –
                             (30 days to respond)

Extenuating or mitigating circumstances will be considered by the Laser Safety
Committee.

      7.2.1.4   Imminently Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH): If a Safety
                Specialist notes any condition where there is a risk of imminent
                danger to life, health, or facilities, this condition will be brought
                to the immediate attention of the Laser Safety Officer or
                appropriate Safety Manager(s) and the Environmental Health &
                Safety Director. Corrective action may include immediate shut
                down of all operations as outlined in the January 1, 1995
                memorandum from the UT Health Science Center at San
                Antonio President titled, Responsibility and Authority of the
                Institutional Safety Officer.




                                                                                    18
                8.0 LASER SAFETY TRAINING
All operations in which there is the probability of exposure to registered laser
radiation shall be supervised or directed by an individual who is competently
aware of the potential hazards involved and who is capable of minimizing these
hazards. The Laser Safety Committee encourages Principal Investigators to
avail themselves of every opportunity to improve the proficiency of their
technicians, research associates, students, and other laboratory personnel under
their supervision through formal and informal instruction in the practice of laser
safety.

The Radiation Safety Division offers instruction sessions or seminars in the
fundamentals of laser safety for clinical and research personnel.             It is
emphasized that completion of a formal course in laser safety does not absolve a
laser user of the obligation for instructing technicians in the principles of good
laser safety practice. The Basic Course in Laser Safety includes the following
topics:

       A.     Fundamentals of Lasers
       B.     Characteristics of Laser Light
       C.     Biological Effects of Laser Light
       D.     Hazards Associated with Laser Usage
       E.     Laser Safety
       F.     Emergency Procedures
       G.     Rights and Responsibilities as a Worker

Personnel performing laser protocols (laser users) using Class 3B or Class 4
equipment are required to complete one of the following initial training options,
with refresher training for completed every two years (ANSI Z136.1-2007 5.1-
5.5):
       A.     Provide to the Radiation Safety Division a copy of a certificate or
              letter of completion for a course in laser safety from another
              institution; or
       B.     Complete successfully the Basic Course of Laser Safety given by
              the Radiation Safety Division.

Incidental personnel are required to have documented awareness level safety
training specific for the laser they will be working near. An Incidental Personnel
Training form sample is provided in Appendix D. Hard copies are available from
the Environmental Health & Safety office as well as from our website. This
training is to be provided by their supervisor or Primary Investigator and it should
include the following topics:

       A.     Beam & Non-Beam Hazards specific to the laser
       B.     Personal protective equipment required when in the area
       C.     Emergency procedures when working in the area
       D.     Required engineering & administrative controls


                                                                                    19
      9.0 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
In the event of a laser accident, perform the following:

1. Shut down the laser system
2. Provide for the safety of the personnel, i.e. first aid, CPR, etc.
3. Obtain medical assistance. In the event of a suspected eye injury,
   have the injured person keep their head upright and still to restrict any
   bleeding in the eye. A physician should evaluate laser eye injuries as
   soon as possible.

         Emergency Dispatch                911 (from campus phone)
         UT Medicine                            (210) 450-9100

4. If necessary, contact the fire department by dialing 911. State your
   name, location and the type of emergency.
5. Inform the Radiation Safety Division.

        During normal working hours:            (210) 567-2955
        After normal working hours:         UT Police – (210)567-2800

6. Inform the Principal Investigator.
7. Do not resume use of the laser system without approval of the Laser
   Safety Officer.




                                                                           20
                          10.0 DEFINITIONS

ANSI: American National Standards Institute; provides the American National
Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2007), American National
Standard for Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities (Z136.3-2005) and the
American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers in Educational Institutions
(Z136.5-2009).

Attenuation: The decrease in the radiation flux as it passes through an
absorbing or scattering medium.

Beam: A collection of rays, which may be parallel, divergent, or convergent.

Blink Reflex: The closure of the eyelid or movement of the head to avoid an
exposure to a noxious stimulant or bright light. Also known as Aversion
Response.

Continuous Wave: The output of a laser, which is operated in a continuous
rather than a pulsed mode.

Controlled Area: An area where the occupancy and activity of those within, is
subject to control and supervision for the purpose of protection from radiation
hazards.

Diffuse Reflection: Change of the spatial distribution of a beam of radiation
when it is reflected in many directions by a surface or by a medium.

Electromagnetic Radiation: Xray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio waves
occupy various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and differ only in
frequency, wavelength, or photon energy.

Erythema: Reddening of the skin, a.k.a. “sunburn”

Infrared Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths, which lie within
the range of 0.7μm to 1mm.

Intrabeam viewing: When the eye views or is exposed to a laser beam directly.
This includes most collimated beams and point sources.

J: see Joule

Joule (J): A unit of energy, where 1 joule = 1 watt*second.

Laser: A device which produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light
by stimulating electronic or molecular transitions to lower energy levels. An
acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

                                                                                  21
Laser Safety Committee (LSC): Appointed members who review, approve and
enforce laser safety policies and regulations.

Laser Safety Officer (LSO): One who has authority to monitor and enforce the
control of laser hazards and effect the knowledgeable evaluation and control of
laser hazards.

Laser System: An assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components,
which includes a laser.

LSC: see Laser Safety Committee.

LSO: see Laser Safety Officer.

Maintenance: Performance of those adjustments or procedures specified in
user information provided by the manufacturer with the laser or laser system,
which are to be performed by the user to ensure the intended performance of the
product.

Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE): The level of laser radiation to which a
person may be exposed without hazardous effect or adverse biological changes
in the eye or skin.

MPE: see Maximum Permissible Exposure.

mW: milliWatt, see Watt

Operation: The performance of the laser or laser system over the full range of
its intended functions (normal operation).

Optical Density (Dλ ): Logarithm to the base ten of the reciprocal of the
transmittance. (Dλ= -log10 τλ, where τλ is transmittance).

Photokeratoconjunctivitis: Photochemical injury of the corneal epithelium by
ultraviolet radiation (Welder’s Flash, Snowblindness).

Photoretinitis: Photochemical, “blue light” retinal injury due to a greater than
ten second eye exposure to a 400-500 nm wavelength light.

PI: Principal Investigator.

Power: The rate at which energy is emitted, transferred, or received.

Protective Housing: An enclosure that surrounds the laser or laser system that
prevents access to laser radiation.

                                                                                   22
Pulsed Laser: A laser, which delivers its energy in the form of a single pulse or
a train of pulses, with the duration of a pulse <0.25 seconds.

Reflection: Deviation of radiation following incidence on a surface.

Retinal Photodisruption: Retinal hemorrhage including lesions, burns,
bleeding, an bleaching.

Service: The performance of those procedures or adjustments described in the
manufacturer’s service instructions which may affect any aspect of the
performance of the laser or laser system.

Scotoma: blind spot in the field of vision.

Spectator: An individual who wishes to observe or watch a laser or laser system
in operation, and who may lack the appropriate laser safety training.

Specular Reflection: A mirror-like reflection.

Transmission: Passage of radiation through a medium.

Ultraviolet Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths smaller than
those of visible radiation; 0.18 to 0.4 μm.

Viewing Portal: An opening in an experimental system, allowing the user to
observe the experimental chamber. All viewing portals and display screens
included as an integral part of a laser system must incorporate a suitable means
to maintain the laser radiation at the viewing position at or below the applicable
MPE for all conditions of operation and maintenance. It is essential that the
material used for viewing portals and display screens not support combustion or
release toxic vapors following exposure to laser radiation.

Visible Radiation (light): Electromagnetic radiation which can be detected by
the human eye; 0.4 to 0.7μm.

Watt: The unit of power, where 1 watt = 1 joule per second.

Wavelength: The distance between two successive points on a periodic wave,
which have the same phase.




                                                                                 23
11.0 APPENDIX A – ACCESSIBLE EMISSION LIMITS

11.1   Table A1. Continuous-Wave Point Source Lasers




                                                       24
11.2   Table A2. Single Pulse Point Source Lasers and Classification




                                                                       25
12.0 APPENDIX B – POSTINGS AND LABELS




    Figure B1. Template Warning Sign for Class 2 and Class 3a Lasers.




    Figure B2. Template Warning Sign for Class 3b and Class 4 Lasers.




           Figure B3. IEC Warning Logo and Information Label.




                                                                        26
13.0 APPENDIX C – LASER EVALUATION CRITERIA
    Posting, Labeling, Security                                                   Y   N N/A
    Outside entrances properly posted?
    Laser properly labeled?
    Laser Safety guidelines posting present?
    Emergency procedures and phone numbers posting present?
    Access to controlled area restricted?
    Unit Safety Controls                                                          Y   N N/A
    Controlled area established for Class 3b or 4 laser radiation > MPE?
    Documentation of NHZ calculation for the present setup?
    Protective housing in place (when human access is unnecessary)?
    Housing interlock available and functioning properly (for removable
    protective housing)?
    Class 4: Measures to prevent unauthorized access (i.e. interlock)?
    Class 4: Measures allow rapid egress?
    Class 4: If interlock inappropriate (i.e. medical procedures), barrier upon
    entry and at entryway visible or audible sign that laser is energized?
    If utilized, do viewing port and collecting optics attenuate < MPE?
    Key or computer actuated master control available?
             If key controlled, is key removed when not in use?
    Laser activation indicator on console?
    All visual/audible indicators functioning, visible through eyewear?
    Visible/audible indication given sufficiently prior to exposure?
    Visible indicator viewing does not require access to laser radiation
    in excess of MPE?
    Engineering Controls                                                          Y   N N/A
    Beam stops in place?
    Class 4 diffuse reflective hazards minimized?
    IR laser: beam termination fire resistant?
    Physical evidence of stray beams absent?
    Beam not at eye level when sitting/standing?
    Protective Equipment                                                          Y   N N/A
    Appropriate laser eye protection available (open lasers)?
    Appropriate skin protection available (when necessary)?
    Eyewear worn by all personnel with access to 3b/4 laser levels?
    Protective Eyewear requirements:



                                                                                          27
Provides an appropriate fit?
OD appropriate for full range of power/wavelengths?
Is exhaust ventilation started prior to beginning laser procedure?
Eyeware specific to wavelength?
Optical densities/wavelengths labeled on eyewear?
Eyewear inspected within last year?
Administrative Safety Controls                                             Y   N N/A
Authorization posted or documented?
Current laser safety manual available?
         Have all laser users signed form showing they have read manual?
Appropriate laser safety training documented for all personnel?
Annual laser safety evaluation performed by PI?
Current standard operating procedures available?
         Have all laser users signed acknowledging they understand SOP?
Emergency procedures available?
Additional Safety Concerns?

         Comments: __________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________




                                                                                  28
14.0 APPENDIX D – INCIDENTAL PERSONNEL
        SAFETY TRAINING RECORD




                                         29
          15.0 APPENDIX E – SAMPLE LASER SOP
                University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
                             Standard Operating Procedures For
                        (insert campus, building and room number)
                                      Laser Controlled Area

                               ver #. (Indicate version number)
                                     (Current Date of Version)

Prepared by:

Laser Custodian:

________
Name Printed             Signature                     Date


Laser Safety Officer:

Jennifer Watson
Name Printed            Signature                      Date


INTRODUCTION

Indicate in a paragraph the physical location of this laser, include the building, room, etc.
Provide a brief description of the overall mode of operation of this Laser Control Area (LCA),
indicating the total number of active lasers. If diagrams or floor plans are available for this
LCA, the descriptions should be noted here, and included as Appendix A at the end of this
document.

Laser Custodian

Indicate the laser custodian, including their badge number and how to contact him/her (i.e.,
phone extension and email address if available).

Alternate Contact




                                                                                                  30
Indicate the alternate contact in the event that the laser custodian cannot be reached,
including their badge number and how to contact him/her (i.e., phone extension and email
address if available).




Authorized Users

While an important part of your SOP, this list of all Authorized Users, including their badge
number, should appear as Appendix C of this document and users should sign the document
to verify that they have read and understand the Standard Operating Procedure for the LCA.
Appendix C can be updated as frequently as needed.

Incidental Personnel

Define what an Incidental Personnel is and under what conditions will they be allowed in your
laser control area. An Incidental Personnel is a visitor or employee in the room who does not
participate in the experiment. Define circumstances under which they are allowed in and
what they will do. Typically, they will be allowed in only if lasers are off or all beams are
enclosed.

Normal Laser Operation

Indicate the General Setup of your laser control area. This should provide a detailed
description of what the essential system consists of; how it is set-up on the tables; how the
output is directed; where the optical components are located; how the beam is terminated;
where the emergency stop is located, if applicable; how and where the beam is enclosed, or
unenclosed; and the height of the beam. Unenclosed beams have to be fully justified by the
needs or nature of the experiment.

List each laser in use in your LCA: 1) Indicate the UTHSCSA Property # (or other tracking
number if not UTHSCSA property); 2) Indicate the serial number; 3) Indicate the class of the
laser; 4) Indicate the type of eyewear appropriate for that laser. For each laser, provide a
brief paragraph describing the essential technical specifications, such as wavelength(s),
power, repetition rate, beam shape and dimensions, divergence, O.D. of eyewear needed for
protection from a direct hit. An example follows:

Example:

                                                                                                31
Lambda Physik COMPex 102 Excimer Laser


                     Property #          Serial #    Class      Eyewear


                         P065553     9512E4280         4          O.D. 7


This laser is capable of pulsed operation up to 20 Hz and can emit a variety of UV
wavelengths that depend on the excimer gas, as listed below:
                  Gas:
                                   F2          ArF      KrF         XeCl         ZeF

            Wavelength (nm):
                                   157         193      248         308          351

            Pulse energy (mJ):
                                   10          200      350         200          150


The laser is currently optimized for fluorine operation, and thus its use with XeCl is not
recommended at this time. The main purpose of this laser is to photodissociate the sample
molecular beam, although it can be used to pump one of the dye lasers (IHID# 1234 and
#44443 above).

Eyewear section

This section contains the calculation or specification for the calculation of O.D. for eyewear
appropriate to your operating conditions. If several types of eyewear are normally used in the
LCA, indicate the different types and the laser for which they are needed. If there is a simple
solution for eyewear (such as eyewear X is always worn when laser Y is on) list it here.
However, if it is complex consider providing the information in a table or graph form, (as
Appendix B to this document) indicating the types of eyewear appropriate to the lasers used
in this LCA. The supervisor should consider posting such a graph or chart in the lab. Also,
indicate spectator and collaborator eyewear here, if different than that of the operator.

Note that eyewear shall be physically inspected at least annually for damage or deterioration.
Indicate your testing procedure including intervals and your procedures for logging of this
practice.

Alignment Hazard Control




                                                                                                 32
Indicate the General Setup for the alignment procedure of your LCA. Describe internal
(manufacturer procedures can be deferred to the respective laser manuals) and external
alignments of the beams separately. If possible, break down this information according to
each laser.

Describe in adequate detail alignment procedures, listing the changes in set-up that may
occur. Provide a detailed description of changes that are made to shielding, housing etc., to
access the beam, how is alignment done, and what is monitored/viewed to optimize
alignment etc. Indicate what type of eyewear is used if different than normal, and give a
calculation supporting a lower O.D. Include spectator and collaborator policy during this
procedure here.

Indicate all other non-routine work here.

Example:
Laser 02346 - Lambda Physik COMPex 102 Excimer Laser This laser is factory aligned and
generally does not require any addition internal adjustments. Routine minor adjustments are
to be performed at the lowest power feasible and in complete accord with the manufacturer's
maintenance manual.

Laser Hazard Control
               1.      Door Interlocks: Describe in detail all the interlock systems used to
               control entry to the LCA.Indicate your testing procedure, including intervals,
               and how you document this practice. Note that interlocks must be tested at
               least quarterly for proper operation.

               2.       Window/Door Covers: Describe all covers and materials used for
               control. Indicate your testing procedure including intervals and your
               procedures for logging of this practice.

               3.      Warning Signs: Describe all signs posted,especially at the entrance
               for control. Indicate your testing procedure including intervals and your
               procedures for logging of this practice.

               4.      Unauthorized Operation (Class 4): Describe the methods used in the
               LCA to prevent unauthorized operation (e.g.,lab is locked when nobody is in,
               and/or laser keys removed, etc.)

               5.     Invisible Laser Beam "ON" Indicator: Describe the methods used in
               the LCA to indicate that invisible beams are on.


                                                                                                33
                6.      Emergency Cut-off Switch (Class 4) : Describe the panic switch
                operation and location in the LCA.


Provide some general discussion regarding the type of activities that are permitted when the
laser is on under normal conditions. Discuss proper training, adequate care, and laboratory
practices. Include the additional use of computers and monitors and the positioning and/or
shielding of the these items. Note in this area the additional hazard controls used for
chemicals, high voltage, hot plates, glassware, cryogenic fluids, other equipment.

Control of Additional LCA hazards

Indicate other possible hazards associated with the lasers in your LCA.

Example :
Some of the lasers listed above pose additional hazards over and above those associate
with the laser light output. These include:

Laser 02346 - Lambda Physik COMPex 102 Excimer Laser The high voltage circuitry
associated with this laser is contained within the laser cabinet, and cannot be accessed
except by removing the cover (as performed during maintenance and repair). An interlock
switch on the cabinet prevents the high voltage circuits from charging when the cover is
opened, except when this switch is deliberately defeated.

Compressed gases are used to generate the lasting medium for this laser. Compressed He,
Ne , Ar, Kr, Xe, 5% Hcl - 1% H2 in He, and other necessary gases or mixture are contained
either in full-size or reduced-size standard high pressure tanks fitted with appropriate
regulators. Typically, the tanks are located in the dedicated space along the east wall. At all
time the tanks are rigidly secured using standard straps and/or chains. When appropriate
form the safety viewpoint, the smaller size cylinders can be located in the adjacent hood. All
corrosive gases are fed into the laser inlet using tubing made of compatible materials. In
particular, tubing used for mixtures containing elevated concentrations of F2 has to be
properly passivated prior to routine use.

Associated Chemical Hazard Control

List chemicals used in this LCA include a list MSDS numbers, or attach MSDS's to the end of
the document (not required to attach MSDS sheets). If you prefer, provide the chemical list
section from your Project Review Document as an Appendix. Indicate in this section if there

                                                                                              34
is a registered Satellite Waste Accumulation Area in the LCA and where it is located.
Discuss any site-specific chemical hazards for this LCA in this section.

Control of Emergencies & Abnormal Situations

Describe some of the general emergencies (fire, explosion, personal injury, etc.,) that are
possible with the site specific hazards in the laboratory. This section provides some guidance
for other extraordinary situations that may require immediate action in order to avoid the
possibility of personal injury or equipment damage.

In any emergency or unusual situation, the main rule of thumb is to act conservatively, and
protect personnel and equipment as much as possible. Action can be taken only if it is safe
to do so. If a situation is out of your control, get help by dialing 911.

Appendix A

Floor Plan Diagram

If diagrams or floor plans are available for this LCA, the descriptions should be noted and
included.

Appendix B

Eyewear section

Shall contain the calculation of O.D. for eyewear. A chart or graph indicating the types of
eyewear appropriate to the lasers used in this LCA.

Appendix C

Authorized Users

List all Authorized Users, include their badge number. Users should sign the document to
verify that they have read and understand the Standard Operating Procedure for the LCA.
                          Name(printed)                    Signature
                                            Badge




                                                                                              35
This SOP has been adapted with permission from Argonne National Laboratories.




                                                                                36
                          16.0 REFERENCES
American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Safe Use
      of Lasers. Orlando, FL: Laser Institute of America; ANSI Z136.1: 2007.

American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Safe Use
      of Lasers in Health Care Facilities. Orlando, FL: Laser Institute of America;
      ANSI Z136.3: 2005.

American National Standards Institute. American National Standard for Safe Use
      of Lasers in Educational Institutions. Orlando, FL: Laser Institute of
      America; ANSI Z136.5: 2009.

International Standards Organization. Revision of ISO/IEC Guide 51: Safety
       Aspects-Guidelines for Their Inclusion in Standards, ISO\IEC Guide 51-
       1996.

Laser Institute of America. Laser Safety Guide. 9th ed. Orlando, FL; 1993.

Texas Department of State Health Services. Title 25 Texas Administrative Code
      Section 289.301 Texas regulations for the control of laser radiation
      hazards. Austin, TX; 2008.




                                                                                 37

								
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