Unit 4 by jizhen1947

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									        Chapter 13
Performance enhancement from a psychological perspective
 Text Sources
 1.   Nelson Physical
      Education VCE Units
      3&4: 4th Edition –
      Malpeli, Horton, Davey
      and Telford 2006.


 2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition –
      Smyth, Brown, Judge,
      McCallum and Pritchard
      2006.


                                  VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Psychological Skills Training
  Performance enhancement from a psychological
                  perspective
     Sports Psychology
Sports Psychology; Study of people’s
    behaviour in the field of sport.
There are three main fields of sport
    psychology
1.  Social Psychology –
    Social/personal interactions
    determine behaviour
2.  Psychophysiology –
    Physiological effect of the brain
3.  Cognitive-behavioural Psychology
    – How an individual’s thoughts
    affect their behaviour.


                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
       Psychological Skills Training
Focuses on cognitive behavioural aspects of sports psychology.
   Psychological skills, like physical skills, can be learnt via training
    (PST).
   PST can dramatically improve performances
   PST programs are individualised
Techniques include; Goal setting, arousal, mental rehearsal,
    confidence and concentration
PST has three main stages;
1.  Education – What techniques are currently used and being told
    about other options
2.  Acquisition – Taught how to use the technique
3.  Practice – Use of the technique in training and competition.



                          VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
           Goal Setting
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
      Goal Setting
Goal setting is where athletes set down clear targets, priorities
   and expectations.
  Goal setting has been shown to increase work out put up
   to 40-50%.
  Goals need to be set up for both training and competition.
  Long term goals aim at the broader target, whereas short
   term goals provide more manageable focus points.
See Fig 13.2 p.313
Types of goals;
1. Outcome goals – Focus on end results, times, finishing
   places or medals.
2. Performance goals – Focus on comparing present
   performance levels with those obtained previously.
   Independent to other competitors.
3. Process goals – Focus on physical movements and game
   strategies.         VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
       Goal Setting - SMARTER
The National Coaching Association has set down the following ‘SMARTER’
   way of setting goals;
Specific – Clear goals to focus on
Measurable – Need to be assessed against previous performances
Accepted – Acceptance by the all parties involved
Realistic – Goals need to be within the athlete’s capacity
Time Phased – Specific date for completion needs to be set
Exciting – Challenged, inspired and rewarding goals
Recorded – Goals should be written down and kept
Goal setting improves performance by;
 Focusing attention on important elements of the skill/s being performed
 Activating and organising an athlete’s efforts
 Encouraging athlete perseverance
 Promoting the development of new learning strategies
 Refining movements and set plays
 Contributing towards a positive psychological state

                           VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Goals (Short and Long Term)




        VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Coursework 13.1

   Complete the case study task on page 317
    of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &
    4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
              Arousal
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
       Arousal
Arousal is the amount of readiness or activation a person experiences
   when faced with a task.
Athletes need an optimal level of arousal to experience success.
Moderate level is ideal zone.
Note. Arousal levels and performance outcomes vary in athletes




                         VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Coursework 13.2

   Complete the structured questions on
    page 318 of Nelson Physical Education
    VCE Units 3 & 4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Checkpoints

   Complete questions 1-3 page 314 of Nelson
    Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Arousal Regulation
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
      Arousal Regulation
Arousal reduction techniques;
 Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
 Breath control – Used to relax and refocus
 Biofeedback – Sensors detect raised tension or stress in the body
 Stress-inoculation training (SIT) – Building immunity to stress via
  training.

Arousal promotion techniques;
 Elevated breathing rate – Increases state of awareness in CNS.
 Act energetic
 Positive talk and sounds: ‘Talk it Up!’
 Energising imagery
 Pre-competition workout




                         VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Checkpoints

   Complete questions 1-5 page 319 of Nelson
    Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
         Mental Imagery
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
     Mental Imagery
Mental Imagery, or visualisation, is used by athletes when they
  imagine themselves performing skill before actually doing them.
 It is a form of simulation
 Sensory experience which occurs in the mind via thought
 Strengthens neural pathways
 Images can be kinaesthetic, auditory and tactile.
 Mental rehearsal needs to be done in a relaxed state for 5-10
  minutes at a time.
 Simulation training is considered more effective than mental
  imagery in that it replicates the game situation.
 Visuo-motor behaviour rehearsal (VMBR) – Requires a relaxed
  state to perform mental imagery and then conducting the skill
  under simulated conditions.



                       VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Checkpoints

   Complete questions 1-4 page 322 of Nelson
    Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Coursework 13.3

   Complete the laboratory task on page 321
    of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &
    4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
         Concentration
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
     Concentration
Concentration contains three parts;
1.  Focusing on relevant environmental clues
2.  Maintaining attention focus over time
3.  Having awareness of the situation
Note. Concentration and attention are used
    interchangeably in sports psychology.
Attention can be described in terms of width and direction.
   Broad-internal – Focus on thoughts and feelings
   Broad-external – Focus outwards on an opponents
    actions
   Narrow-internal – Mentally rehearse movements
   Narrow-external – Focus on very few external cues
                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Concentration




       VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
       Concentration and Choking
Factors leading to a lack of attention;
 Focus on past experiences
 Can’t ‘let things go’
 Future orientated thinking
 ‘What if’ questions
 Focusing on negative aspects of their game
Concentration can improved via;
 Simulation
 Use of cue words
 Having set routines
 Over-learning skills
Choking can also cause concentration to falter.
 Occurs when pressure is built up
 A lot is riding on the next phase of play
 Causes attention to narrow and become internal
 Can impair timing and coordination
See figure 13.7 p.324
                          VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
The Choking Process




       VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
    Confidence Building
Performance enhancement from a psychological
                perspective
      Confidence Building
Self-confidence is the belief individuals possess in
   becoming successful.
Self-confident athletes;
 Believe in themselves and their skills
 Exhibit positive emotions
 Remain calm under pressure
 Work towards their goals
 More likely to take risks during games
See fig 13.8 p.325
Improving confidence
 Achieving success at training and during
   competition
 Thinking more positively
 Using positive imagery
 Ability to follow and understand game plans

                          VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Confidence Levels




        VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Checkpoints

   Complete questions 1-6 page 326 of Nelson
    Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Test Your Knowledge

   Complete the review questions 1-6 page 329
    of Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3 &
    4.




                  VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     Peak Performance

   Complete the chapter questions on page
    109-118 of Nelson Peak Performance
    Physical Education VCE Units 3 & 4.




                  VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
     PHYS ED Notes

   Read the summarised information of pages
    116-121 of PHYS ED Notes and complete
    the revision questions.




                 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
       Web Links – Chapter 13
     •Australian Institute of Sport – Performance psychology research:
    •Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au
    •Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au
    •Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com
     http://www.ais.org.au/psychology/research.asp
    •Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz
     •Athletic Insight – online journal of sport psychology: http://www.athleticinsight.com
    •The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/
    •Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au
     •Australian Psychological Society (information about sport psychologists):
    •World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int
    •Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au
    •VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au
     http://www.psychology.org.au/psych/special_areas/2.4_9.asp
    •Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au
     •Psych web – Sport psychology: http://www.psywww.com/sports/index.htm
    •Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au
    •Physical Activity Resources for Health Professionals – Introduction (Centre for disease control and prevention – USA):
     •Sport psychology resrouces (Psychwatch.com):
    http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/health_professionals/index.htm
    •Health Promotion (Public Health Agency of Canada): http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html
    •Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH): http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/
     http://www.psychwatch.com/sport_psychology.htm
    •Healthy youth (Centre for disease control and prevention (USA): http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/
     •Sports science library (Gatorade Sports Science Institute):
    •America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org
    •Papers from the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity: http://www.ijbnpa.org/home
    •Department of health and aging (Australian government): http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home
     http://www.gssiweb.com/sportssciencecenter/topic.cfm?id=62
    •Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au
     •Peak performance sports – mental resources:
    •National Public Health Partnership: http://www.nphp.gov.au
    •Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au
    •Sport and Recreation Australia: http://www.sport.vic.gov.au
     http://www.peaksports.com/tips_resources.php
•Article – In the zone: Training your mind as well as your body (CNN):
http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/SM/00001.html


                                                     VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

								
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