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					  Underground Storage Tanks at
• Duke Medical Center
  – 8 permitted USTs located on medical campus
  – Range in size from 2,000 gallons to 30,000

• Proper management of these USTs will
  hopefully prevent a future LUST or a large
  surface spill of petroleum products
             USTs at Duke
• Operating permits are required for all USTs
  in NC (15A NCAC 2N)
  – Associated yearly fee
  – Compliance questionnaire must be completed
    and signed before the permit will be issued.

• 40 CFR 280 - Technical Standards and
  Corrective Action Requirements for Owners
  and Operators of Underground Storage
  Tanks (USTs).
         Underground Storage Tanks
General Standards
• No person may install an UST system for
  the purposes regulated substances unless the
  UST system:
  – will prevent releases due to corrosion or
    structural failure;
  – is cathodically protected against corrosion,
    constructed of noncorrodible material, steel
    clad with a noncorrodible material, or designed
    to prevent the release of any stored substance;
         Underground Storage Tanks
  – Is constructed or lined with material that is
    compatible with the stored substance.

• A UST system may be installed if a
  corrosion expert determines that the site
  will not be corrosive enough to cause a
  release due to corrosion during operating
         Underground Storage Tanks
• Performance Standards for New UST
  – Tanks and Piping
     • must be properly designed and constructed, any part
       underground must be protected from corrosion
     • constructed of fiberglass reinforced plastic, or
     • constructed of steel and cathodically protected in the
       following ways:
        – tank is coated with suitable dielectric material;
        – field installed cathodic protection designed by expert;
        – Impressed current systems are designed to allow
          determination of current operating status and systems
Double Walled Fiberglass Tank
    Underground Storage Tanks
• constructed of steel fiberglass reinforced plastic
  composite; or
• constructed of metal without additional corrosion
  protection measures provided that
   – corrosion expert determines corrosion at site is not a
   – owners/operators maintain records that demonstrate
     compliance with corrosion expert’s findings
   – implementing agency determines tank construction and
     corrosion protection sufficient to prevent the release or
     threatened release of any stored regulated substance in a
     manner that is no less protective of human health and the
       Underground Storage Tanks

– Spill and Overfill Protection
   • to prevent spilling and overfilling associated with
     product transfer to the UST system
     owners/operators must use the following equipment:
      – spill prevention equipment that will prevent a release of
        product when the transfer hose is detached from the fill
      – overfill prevention equipment that will:
          » automatically shut off flow into the tank when the
             tank is no more than 95% full, or
    Underground Storage Tanks
       » Alert the transfer operator when the tank is no more
         than 90% full be restricting the flow into the tank or
         triggering the high-level alarm, or
       » restrict flow 30 minutes prior to overfilling, alert the
         operator with a high level alarm one minute before
         overfilling, or automatically shut off the flow into the
• Owners/operators are not required to use spill and
  overfill prevention equipment if alternated
  equipment is used that is determined by the
  implementing agency to be no less protective of
  human health and the environment or the UST
  system is filled by transfers of no more than 25
  gallons at a time.
       Underground Storage Tanks

– Installation
   • All tanks and piping must be properly installed in
     accordance with a code of practice developed by a
     national recognized association or independent
     testing laboratory and in accordance with the
     manufacturer’s instructions.
– Certification
   • owners/operators must provide certification of
     compliance on the UST notification form
Installation of an
         Underground Storage Tanks
• Upgrading existing USTs
  – Tank upgrading requirements
     • tank may be upgraded to meet one of the following
        – Interior lining - must be installed in accordance with
          280.33 and within 10 years after lining and 5 years
          thereafter, lining must be inspected and found to be
          structurally sound
        – Cathodic protection - must meet the requirements of
          280.20(a)(2) and the integrity of the tank is ensured using:
             » internally inspected and assessed to ensure the tank is
               structurally sound and free of corrosion holes prior to
Underground Storage Tanks

 » tank had been installed for less than 10 years and is
   monitored monthly for releases, or
 » tank has been installed for less than 10 years and is
   assessed for corrosion holes by conducting two
   tightness tests that meet the requirements of
   280.43(2). The first tightness test must be conducted
   prior to installation of system. The second must be
   conducted between 3 and 6 months following first
   operation on the system, or
 » tank is assessed for corrosion holes by a method that
   is determined by the implementing agency to prevent
 Underground Storage Tanks
– Internal lining combined with cathodic protection
    » lining installed in accordance with 280.33
    » cathodic protection system meets requirements of
– Piping upgrades
    » metal piping that routinely contains regulated
       substances and is in contact with the ground must be
       cathodically protected .
– Spill and overfill protection
    » must comply with the new UST system spill and
       overfill prevention equipment requirements specified
       in 280.20(2).
         Underground Storage Tanks
  – Notification Requirements
     • Must notify state and local agency when bringing
       tank system online and certification of compliance
       with regulation
        – NC UST Section Forms UST-6A/B, UST-15, etc.

• General Operating Requirements
  – Owners/operators must ensure that releases due
    to spilling or overfilling do not occur.
  – Cathodic protection systems must be inspected
    for proper operation by a qualified tester.
         Underground Storage Tanks
• Compatibility
  – Owners/operators must use an UST system
    made of or lined with materials that are
    compatible with the substance stored in the
    UST system.
• Repairs Allowed
  – Owners/operators must ensure that repairs will
    prevent releases due to structural failure or
    corrosion as long as the UST system is used to
    store regulated substances.
    Underground Storage Tanks
• Repairs to fiberglass-reinforced tanks may be made
  by the manufacturer’s authorized representative
• Leaking metal pipes must be replaced. Fiberglass
  pipes and fittings may be repaired.
• Repaired tanks and lines must be fit tested.
• Repaired tanks are internally inspected
• Repaired portion of tank must be monitored
  monthly, or
• as specified by implementing agency
• Within 6 months following the repair of any
  cathodically protected UST system must be tested in
  accordance with the regulations to ensure proper
         Underground Storage Tanks

     • Owner/operators must maintain records of each
       repair for the remaining operating life of UST
• Release Detection
  – must provide a method, or combination of
    methods of release detection that:
     • can detect a release from any portion of the tank and
       the connected underground piping that routinely
       contains product,
    Underground Storage Tanks
• Is installed, calibrated, operated, and maintained in
  accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions;
• meet the performance requirements in 280.43 or
• Any existing UST system that can not apply a
  method of release detection must close the system.
• Methods
   – Inventory control, manual tank gauging, tank tightness
     testing, vapor monitoring, groundwater monitoring,
     interstitial monitoring, line leak detectors
• Reference


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