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               and related issues
                          30 June 2004

                Richard Stastny, ÖFEG*
                  Austrian ENUM Platform

  * The opinions expressed here may or may not be that of my company

June 2004                   Richard Stastny                     1
What is ENUM?

   • Electronic or E.164 NUMber mapping
     defined by the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF) in RFC3761

   • mapping of „Telephone Numbers“ to
     Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)
     using the Domain Name System (DNS)

   • URIs are used to identify resources on
     the Internet (e.g. )

June 2004           Richard Stastny            2
ENUM in a nutshell

• take an E.164 phone number                 +43 1 7972840 32

• turn it into a FQDN

• query the DNS

• returns list of URI’s      

            To understand ENUM you must understand the DNS

June 2004                         Richard Stastny                      3
It is even worse

   • To understand ENUM you must not only
     understand the DNS and URIs
   • You also must understand:
        – E.164 numbers
        – VoIP (Voice over IP)
          IP Telephony, Internet Telephony,
          VoB, VON, IP Communications, …
        – IP terminals, clients, servers and applications
        – The global end-to-end philosophy of the
        – Broadband Access

June 2004                Richard Stastny                    4

   •   Some facts on Broadband Access
   •   Types of IP Communications
   •   How does VoIP work? (e.g. SIP)
   •   What is ENUM adding?
   •   How does ENUM work?
   •   ENUM in Austria
        Note: IP Communications is not only IP Telephony
                it is IP based services and applications
                ONE of these applications is VoIP - and others like:
                    Directory, Mobility, Instant Messaging, Presence,
                    Video, Chat, SMS, and, and, …
                will become more and more important

June 2004                      Richard Stastny                          5
Some facts on Broadband Access

   • Broadband is an important enabler for
     real-time IP Communications
   • to be able to use IP Communications
     including Video one needs to have
     Broadband Access
   • the definition of Broadband varies from:
        >ISDN (Bonsai Broadband) – Europe, US
        >1MB Broadband - Asia
        >10 MB Big Broadband (FTTC, FTTH)

June 2004              Richard Stastny          6
Leading broadband economies
             Broadband penetration, subs per 100 inhabitants, by technology, 2002

                  Korea (Rep.)                                                                   21.9
              Hong Kong, China                                               14.6
                                                                                      Korea = 80% of
                       Canada                                        11.1             households
                 Taiw an, China                                9.4
                       Belgium                           8.4

                      Denmark                            8.2                         DSL
                        Iceland                          8.2                         Cable
                      Sw eden                         8.0                            Other
                  United States                    6.9
                   Netherlands                  6.6
                     Singapore                 6.5
                     Bahamas                   6.3
                   Sw itzerland                6.2
                         Japan                 6.2
                       Austria               5.5

                                                               Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database

 June 2004                              Richard Stastny                                                         7
Broadband‟s fast growth

    “Broadband access has quietly grown faster than
    mobile phones in their early stages”
      Broadband and mobile growth, millions, world


       60           Broadband (1999-2002)

       50           Mobile (1989-1992)





                Year 1            Year 2              Year 3                Year 4

                                                Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database

 June 2004                          Richard Stastny                                              8
Broadband networks

  “While most current broadband networks are based
  on copper lines, fiber optic and wireless
  technologies are the broadband of the future”
   • Phone lines (DSL)         Broadband breakdow n, by technology,
                               w orld, 2002      2%

   • Coaxial cables
   • Fibre optic cables                                                          DSL

     (FTTC, FTTH)

   • Wireless
     (WiFi, WiMAX)

                                  Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database

 June 2004             Richard Stastny                                               9
Broadband prices
  Broadband subscription charges, July 2003, US$          Cost of 100 kbit/s as % of m onthly incom e
             Japan      $24.19                                          Japan < 0.01%
     Netherlands           $32.48       Overall                 Korea (Rep.) 0.03%              But factoring in
           Austria         $32.59                                     Belgium 0.06%
    United States          $33.18
                                        subscription       Hong Kong, China      0.06%
                                                                                                the speed of the
        Germany            $33.93       charges are                Singapore      0.12%         connection and
          Belgium           $34.41      important              United States      0.13%         income is the
        HK, China            $38.21                                   Canada       0.17%
           Cyprus             $39.64                             Netherlands       0.17%
                                                                                                more telling story
          Norw ay             $40.61                           Macao, China         0.21%
                  UK            $44.56                              Germany         0.23%
              Israel            $45.20                               Norw ay         0.24%
   Macao, China                  $46.16                                  Israel       0.30%
         Denmark                 $47.63                               Austria         0.30%
    Korea (Rep.)                  $49.23                       New Zealand             0.34%
            Jordan                $49.72                             Slovenia          0.36%
           France                  $50.56                                  Italy        0.39%
         Sw eden                   $51.46                    United Kingdom              0.43%
          Canada                   $51.55                       Luxembourg                0.48%
     Sw itzerland                  $51.82                            Sw eden               0.55%
       Singapore                    $52.99                          Australia              0.55%
               Malta                $53.34                            France                0.60%
         Lithuania                   $57.36                            Ireland              0.61%
         Slovenia                     $57.84                         Portugal                0.62%
           Iceland                    $58.03                     Sw itzerland                   0.80%
   New Zealand                        $58.27                          Cyprus                     0.86%
            Ireland                    $61.69                         Iceland                    0.88%
                Italy                      $73.59                   Lithuania                         1.14%
          Portugal                         $73.66                         Malta                           1.36%
     Luxembourg                              $79.54                    Jordan                              1.42%
         Australia                               $91.77             Denmark                                  1.55%

                                                                                                   Source: ITU research
 June 2004                                      Richard Stastny                                                  10
Example Japan: YahooBB
   “Nothing less than the demolition of
   Japan‟s telecom industry”
   – Wired Magazine, August 2003

                                                              4 Mio VoIP

                                                              40 MB/s

  June 2004                        Richard Stastny                              11

   • Are Telcos/service providers doomed?
        – and the incumbent manufacturers?
   •   What are the Business Models?
   •   What is a service and what is a product?
   •   Where is the beef?
   •   Some proposed solutions

June 2004                 Richard Stastny         12
Types of IP Communications

5 business models:

   • Self-provided „DIY‟ – Skype, Peerio, …
        – but also Asterisks, home gateways, myphonebooth, …
   •   Voice service independent of ISP – Vonage, …
   •   Voice service sold by ISP – Yahoo!BB, …
   •   Corporate internal use – IP PBX, …
   •   Carrier internal use – NGN, …

                                                        Source: Analysis

June 2004                  Richard Stastny                      13
To explain this – an example

What is a PBX?
                              Media Network
                   Station Cards     Trunk Cards
            TDM                   TDM
            PBX                   1010


   A proprietory box       So what is new with an IP PBX?
                                                             Source: Citel

June 2004                  Richard Stastny                           14
What is an IP PBX?
                                 Media Network
                      Station Cards     Trunk Cards
         TDM                        TDM
         PBX                        1010

                                   Media Network
                                             Trunk                      PSTN
       IP                                                        Break it down! Specialize!
       PBX                                                       Set the software free!

 Handset Gateway                                   IP PBX Software
                                                   (w/ Applications)
 (Terminal Adaptor)                         1010

                                                                                  Source: Citel

 June 2004                          Richard Stastny                                       15
Adding Features to TDM PBX
                                Admin                        Admin
                                 Link                        Server
                                            Circuit Trunks
           CTI                                         IP Trunk
         Adaptor       Remote                           Adaptor
                       Access          IP

                    Voice        UM                       or
                   Adaptors      Server                  VPN
                                                                IP T. A.
 What’s wrong with
 this picture??
 Do you think this will work?                                     Branch
                                                                  PBX / KTS
 What will it cost to maintain?                                               Source: Citel

 June 2004                       Richard Stastny                                      16
Adding Features in IP
             1010                         Trunk 1010
                    1010                  Gateway
                                                          WAN            LAN
                                       IP PBX
                                       Plus               VPN                          Add. benefit:
                                  1010 Applications                          1010      Global Access

     Software can be spread across many devices. One company doesn‟t have to make
     all the elements. Different elements can be placed anywhere.

     PC Softphone from Microsoft, Handset Gateway from Citel, phones from new IP PBX
     vendor plus your old phones.

     A Handset Gateway (TA) converts your existing PBX telephones into IP phones
     without doing a LAN upgrade or buying new phones.

     The IP PBX may interwork easily with other applications on the server
     and the clients
                                                                                          Source: Citel

 June 2004                                Richard Stastny                                         17
Integration of IP Communications with MS Office 2003




   Phone call
   IM, voice,
   and data call

 June 2004                  Richard Stastny            18
Siemens Openscape

 June 2004     Richard Stastny   19
SIP Phones 2004

June 2004     Richard Stastny   20
Rent vs. Buy
             An IP PBX is a software application on a server.
             You can buy and operate the service yourself…

                                            Trunk                  PSTN

                                               IP PBX
                                          1010 & Applications

                                                                     Source: Citel

 June 2004                    Richard Stastny                                21
Rent vs. Buy
             An IP PBX is a software application on a server.
             You can buy and operate the service yourself…
             or you can “rent” the service from a service provider.

                  Customer                     Service Provider
                                             (RBOC / CLEC / ISP)
                                              Gateway              PSTN
                                  IP                               Hosted
                         LAN      WAN
                                                 IP PBX            IP
                                            1010 & Applications

                                                                   “IP Centrex”
                                                                     Source: Citel

 June 2004                      Richard Stastny                              22
The “Tokyo Gas Shock”!
 • Tokyo Gas – incumbent utility provider for Tokyo prefecture
 • In December 2002 became Fusion‟s largest IP Centrex
    – 30,000 subscribers over 100 sites
    – Previously implemented PBX’s
    – IP Centrex and VoIP reduces network cost by ¥500 million/year
 • NTT Data resold Fusion service to Tokyo Gas
 • Uniden SIP Phone used on the desktop
    – First enterprise quality IP telephone with
      retail price less than US$100

June 2004                     Richard Stastny                         23
IP Centrex vs. Virtual Operators

   • Virtual Operators are in principle offering a
     „hosted IP PBX“ for a user community
   • So most business models of Analysis are
     implemented with the same SW:
        –   Self-provided „DIY‟ – Skype, Peerio, …
        –   Voice service independent of ISP – Vonage, …
        –   Voice service sold by ISP – Yahoo!BB, …
        –   Corporate internal use – IP PBX, …
        –   Carrier internal use – NGN, …
   • What about DYI and Carrier internal use?
   • Also the distinction between public and private
     networks is blurring on the Internet

June 2004                      Richard Stastny             24
  Do it yourself?

      In January 1994, Analysys asked „How
      long will it be before you can download
      a PBX from the Internet?‟

                                                Source: Analysys

  June 2004
  Source: VoiSpeed, 2004   Richard Stastny                 25
From IP PBX to Gateways

   • Opensource Products
        – IP PBX
            • SIP Express Router
        – Gateway
            • Asterisk (up to 4*E1)
   • Gateways
        – e.g. Epygi Quadro
        – etc, etc.

June 2004                   Richard Stastny   26
or the Intertex IX66,
AVM Fritz!Box Fon

      PSTN      FXO
                      Analogue Terminal Adapter
                          with xDSL Modem
                               FXO Port
      xDSL                    FXS Ports
                WAN            LAN Port           LAN
                         WLAN Access Point

    • May be used as product: DYI
    • or as service by a provider:
        – preconfigured (even „SIM-locked“)
        – external access (Administration)
        – external/automatic SW-update

June 2004                   Richard Stastny             27
or BYO Gateway

   • e.g. the Sipura SPA-3000
        – One FXS/one FXO port;
        – Supports outbound call routing through multiple SIP
        – Supports PSTN-to-SIP and SIP-to-PSTN bridging;
        – Supports routing of incoming calls based on caller-ID
          or pin entry;
        – Single and dual stage dialing;
        – Failover to PSTN on power outage;
        – Supports automatic routing of 911 calls over the
          PSTN line;
        – Supports music-on-hold server;
        – Supports encrypted SIP calls.


June 2004                   Richard Stastny                       28
June 2004   Richard Stastny   29
Carrier internal use?

   • What was said before about IP PBX is also valid for the CO
   • and it will also use internally the same SW
        – and some additional (bottleneck) devices, e.g. Session Border
   • Walled garden (private networks?) approach by
        – Cable operators
        – Mobile operators (3GPP)
        – Fixed operators?
   • Problem:
        – access by mobile and nomadic users
   • Mobile operators have roaming agreements,
        – but also their users want access in WiFi hotspots
        – may use general purpose terminals with VoIP clients via UMTS
   • Dual Mode devices coming out soon

June 2004                     Richard Stastny                        30
Mobile – fixed convergence

                                Source: Longboard

June 2004     Richard Stastny               31
Now the telcos are vertical

             T       T               T     T
             E       E               E     E
 Transport   L       L               L     L
             C       C               C     C
             O       O               O     O
             NGN                     NGN

 June 2004         Richard Stastny                32
Horizontal layering is implied on
the Internet

 Services    SIP      MAIL               IM     WEB     ...

 Transport            Internet

             PSTN     GSM                               ...
 Access                                  xDSL   W-LAN
             ISDN     UMTS

 June 2004             Richard Stastny                   33
The Future of the Telcos?

            TODAY                     FUTURE

June 2004           Richard Stastny            34
Being a Wireline Telco

   • How to survive the collapse of the

June 2004         Richard Stastny         35
So what can a Telco/ISP provide?

   •   The broadband access to the Internet
   •   Part of the backbone
   •   The gateway to the PSTN
   •   Routing of the E.164 number to this gateway
   •   ENUM Registrar and ENUM Tier 2 NS Provider
   •   SIP Server hosting (residential and IP centrex)
   •   Domain Name Hosting
   •   Circle of Trust for Accounting and Billing
   •   Intelligent Packaging for Joe Doe Users
   •   Carrier Preselection through Prefixing
   •   Carrier Preselect-Billing for IP-PSTN Gateways
   •   Enterprise carrier interconnect

June 2004               Richard Stastny                  36
Where is the beef?

• VoIP and Video Users need Broadband
     – Boosts DSL Rollout - $$/month
• SIP Server hosting - $/month
• ENUM hosting - $/month
• Gateway operation
     – Incoming calls - $/call on PSTN
     – Outgoing calls - $/call on Internet (via assertion)
• Participation in Trust Circle
     – % on each transaction
     – Certificates $/month
• Sell books, info, sex and flowers (transfer
  premium rate services to assertions)

June 2004                   Richard Stastny                  37
So there is life after death!

   • It is not as much $ as now
        – But not "yet" the Apocalypse Now
   • The bad news is
        – Everbody can do this
   • The good news is
        – Everbody can do this
        – also the Incumbent!
   • So this is "only" The Perfect Storm

June 2004             Richard Stastny        38

   • Why is this change in business models
     and structure?
   • because VoIP (SIP) just works like
   • VoIP is just another application on the

June 2004           Richard Stastny            39
How does VoIP work?

                                       DNS Server              Location

DNS QUERY SRV          DNS                        jiri@
                                             next slide
                   Outbound                                      Inbound
                  Proxy Server                                 Proxy Server

 INVITE                                                       SIP        SIP                                    SIP “Trapezoid”
                                           Media (RTP)

                  User Agent A                              User Agent B

June 2004                                 Richard Stastny                             40
Basic SIP Call-Flow (Proxy Mode)

                                                                                 Location Database

DNS SRV Query ?                        #2                                  #3
Reply: IP Address of SIP Server
                                                                                      INVITE sip:jiri@

          INVITE                                                   From:;tag=12
          From:;tag=12                                             To: sip:       #4
          To: sip:      #1                                             Call-ID:

               OK 200                                                                       OK 200                         #5
               From:;tag=12                                              From:;tag=12
               To: sip:;tag=34                Proxy                          To: sip:;tag=34
               Call-ID:                                                      Call-ID:

             #7     ACK sip:jiri@                                                                                              sip:jiri@

                  Media streams #8

  June 2004                                           Richard Stastny                                                           41
So what is ENUM adding?

   • Enabling the interworking between
     PSTN and IP-networks
        – Terminals on the PSTN may dial only
          numbers and not URIs
   • Linking to together VoIP islands on the
        – IP PBX
        – Hosted IP PBX („IP Centrex“)
        – „Carrier“ islands

June 2004               Richard Stastny         42

   • Separates Names and Addresses
   • Location Independence compared to E.164

   • Historical chance to sell multiple services for
     one communication line.
        – e.g. multiple number appearence for
        – different family members
        – or office and home representation.

   • Trust and authentication services tied to
     different namespaces

June 2004                  Richard Stastny             43
ENUM - Two Deployment Lines

      • Infrastructure ENUM
      • Only Operator Access
            – Number Portability
            – Carrier Selection
            – Number- /Name- Plan Hosting        etc.

      • User ENUM
      • User opt in feature
      • ENUM users can advertise their (ENUM) services
        e.g. Tel, Fax, H.323, SIP, SMS etc.
            – Calling users/Terminals can select
            – Telco provides selection services
              least cost routing etc.

      Currently the Swedish regulator tries to add
      Postal and Geographic address information

June 2004                      Richard Stastny           44
Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan

 •   ENUM could unite global private
     VoIP dialing plans across existing
     VPN and Intranet Links on diverse
     vendor Platforms
 •   ENUM unites them through
     common administration and
     access plan

                                                Public or

 June 2004                                Richard Stastny   45
MSO Market : Optimal Service Routing

MSO - Multiple System Operators
• MSO‟s could optimize VoIP
  call termination strategies
  by routing calls directly
  from one operator to
• Essentially “Friends and
  Family” dialing plans
  among MSO‟s


 June 2004                      Richard Stastny    46
NGN Japanese DSL VOIP Operators

•   The story of the year is
    Japan’s explosive VoIP-DSL
•   Greenfield SP‟s could
    optimize VoIP call
    termination strategies by
    routing calls directly from
    one operator to another          Operator

June 2004                         Richard Stastny   47
Why E.164 Numbers ?

• Addressing is the most important asset in ANY network service!
• People know how to use Telephone Numbers
    • Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable global and reliable)
• Billions of devices only use numeric key pads, especially wireless
    • In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC First Order and Report), MCI
      has stated that, based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent of
      business customers and 80 percent of residential customers would be
      unlikely to change service providers if they had to change their telephone
• ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number portability
• VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging, Video) can use Real
  Telephone Numbers!
• URIs like sip:user@domain have advantages and disadvantages
    • Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN
        • In fact they cannot be dialed at all …
    • URI‟s and telephone numbers will co-exist for the indefinite future

 June 2004                        Richard Stastny                              48
Structure of ITU-T E.164 Numbers

   • Structure very suitable for delegation in DNS

             CC            NDC                          SN

         1-3 digits      N digits                Max (15-N) digits

                                 National (significant) number

                  International public telecommunication
                      Number for geographical areas

             CC – Country Code
             NDC – National Destination Code
             SN – Subscriber Number

 June 2004                          Richard Stastny                  49
How does ENUM work ?

     Telephone Number (TN): +43 1 979 33 21 translates to:


        Tier 1 resolution to NS of authority ( pointer only) IN NS

 Tier 2 resolution to NAPTR record and SIP URL controlled at the end office
      IN NAPTR 10   10 "u" “E2U+sip“ !^.*$!“! .

                                             set up call

June 2004                      Richard Stastny                         50
Name Space + .arpa


     com              org    net   info    int          at          de         se   uk         arpa
                  gTLDs                    mil

                                                                                               Tier 0
            stastny   microsoft                             co       oefeg          in-addr    e164

                                                                                               Tier 1
                                                            oefeg        atc
                                                                      Tier 2

June 2004                                 Richard Stastny                                             51
The ENUM "Tiers"


       Tier-0             International-RIPE-NCC and ITU-TSB

    CC 43          CC 1                     Directs the DNS query to the customer’s
        Registry              Registry      Tier-2 providers. An NS* record is
       Tier-1                Tier-1         provided for each subscriber’s telephone

                             Stores a list of service specific internet addresses in the
                             form of URI’s in a DNS resource record called NAPTR for
                             each subscriber. Returns the full list of Internet
       Tier-2                addresses associated with the E.164 number being
                                  *An NS record is an authoritative Name Server DNS record
                                  used to delegate to subordinates

June 2004                                Richard Stastny                                52
  ENUM and VoIP
                                                 ENUM DNS


                                   ... NAPTR ... "!^.*!!"


                                               DNS SRV lookup
                          server                                             server


  June 2004                                   Richard Stastny                                            53
(Very short) ENUM History

 •      – IETF ENUM WG formed
 •      – IETF ENUM WG – RFC2916
 •      – Various Workshops (ITU-T, Europe, US, Asia, …)
 •      – ITU-T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE-NCC)
        – ITU-T generic TLD Investigation
        – ETSI TS 102 051 "ENUM Administration in Europe"
 • 2003 – ETSI TS 102 172 "Minimum Requirements for
          Interoperability of European ENUM Trials"
        – Various ENUM Trials
 • 2004 – ETSI ENUM Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest (E2004)
        – IETF New RFC 3761
        – Enumservices registration with IANA
        – ETSI TS 102 172 v2, TS 102 055 “Infrastructure ENUM”
        – 1st Commercialization in Austria

 June 2004                Richard Stastny                  54
ENUM Delegations
Delegations in as of June 1st, 2004
•   31      Netherlands                  •   246 Diego Garcia
•   33      France                       •   247 Ascension
•   353     Ireland                      •   290 Saint Helena
•   358     Finland                      •   55 Brazil
•   36      Hungary                      •   65 Singapore
•   374     Armenia                      •   86 China
•   40      Romania                      •   88234 Global Networks
•   41      Switzerland                  •   87810 VISIONng UPT
•   420     Czech Republic               •   971 UAE
•   421     Slovakia
•   423     Liechtenstein                •   1 North America gains
•   43      Austria                          momentum
•   44      UK                           •   additional Asian countries (Korea,
•   46      Sweden                           Japan, Australia, …)
                                             soon to come ?
•   48      Poland
•   49      Germany

June 2004                        Richard Stastny                             55
ENUM in Austria

   •   Background and History
   •   Legal Framework
   •   Main Use Cases
   •   ENUM-driven number range
   •   The generic gateway
   •   Identification and Validation
   •   Planned activities 2004

June 2004             Richard Stastny   56
ENUM Background in Austria
2000-09     Start of activities within Telekom Austria
2001-08     First consultation by Austrian regulator (RTR)
2002-02     ENUM Workshop RTR, group of interested partners formed
2002-05     Delegation request by RTR to RIPE, ITU-TSB for
2002-06     Tier 1 Registry in operation by NIC.AT (the Austrian ccTLD)
2002-09     Austrian ENUM Trial Platform established officially
2002-09     ENUM Tier 2 Nameserver (Telekom Austria) in operation
2002-11     Policy Framework available, official start of trial
2002-11     First Live Demo in Atlanta, GA (Fall VON/TIPHON/VISIONng)
2002-12     Ready to invite friendly ENUM subscribers and users
2003-02     Conversion to ETSI TS 102 172 compliance
2003-10     1st part of trial completed, 2nd phase (business customers)
2003-12     Large Scale ENUM and VoIP Pilot started at the Uni Vienna (AT43)
2003-10     Decision to start preparation for commercial deployment
2004-05     New Numbering Ordinance defines ENUM-driven number range
2004-10     Target date for commercial ENUM start

June 2004                        Richard Stastny                          57
Legal Framework
 • New Austrian Telecommunication Law (TKG 2003)
     – based on the New European Framework (NRF)
 • New Numbering Ordinance in Austria
     – in force since May 12th, 2004
     – taking VoIP and ENUM already into account
     – +43 720 for national portable numbers and
                 VoIP (semi-nomadic)
     – +43 780 for VoIP and ENUM (nomadic)
 • Contract between NRA (RTR) and Tier 1 Registry (
     –   contains the policy framework for ENUM
     –   the charter for the domain
     –   the validation guidelines for the Registry and Registrars
     –   basic technical, operational and administrative requirements
 • Consulting on VoIP and ENUM issues by the Austrian ENUM
   Platform and the AK-TK (Intercarrier Platform)

June 2004                      Richard Stastny                          58
Main Use Cases for ENUM
 1.   Business: „IP PBX“ and „IP Centrex“
      –      with geographic and/or corporate numbers (ENUM opt-in)
      –      linking VoIP islands together globally via the Internet
      –      will be reached from the PSTN via private or public gateways
 2.   Residential and Business: ENUM-driven numbers
      –      IP device can be reached from IP and PSTN (via generic gateways)
      –      calls may be routed to IP directly from the originating PSTN network
 3.   Residential: mobile numbers (ENUM opt-in)
      –      terminate IP originated calls on IP, plus evenually forwarding or forking
             to the mobile phone
      –      PSTN operators may provide forced ENUM access from the PSTN via GG
 4.   Residential: geographic numbers (ENUM opt-in)
      –      secondary line (separate termination on PSTN and IP)
      –      primary line attached via terminal adapter or SIP-server with FXO port
      –      primary line (ported out), reached from PSTN via PoI

 June 2004                            Richard Stastny                               59
ENUM-driven Number Range

   • Format: +43 780 abcdef (ghi)
   • the registration of the ENUM domain IS the number
   • a cancellation of the ENUM domain will relinquish the
   • easy, cheap, one-step process
   • decoupling of number range allocation and gateway
   • any gateway may route the whole number range,
     just needs to be able to query ENUM
   • any gateway may route similar number ranges
     (e.g. +87810, +42360, +260510, …)
   • these gateways are called generic gateways (GG)

June 2004                Richard Stastny                     60
The Generic Gateway

                                             ENUM        ENUM
                                             Tier 1     Registry

                         Generic                        IPCSP
                         Gateway             ENUM       Registrar
                         Operator            Tier 2
          ENUM-driven                                          Subscription
          number range                       Internet
          e.g. +43 780

Calling                                                  Called
Party A                                                  Party B
June 2004                  Richard Stastny                             61
Identification and Validation
 • Identification of E.164 number assignees within the ENUM
    – depends on identification required for E.164 number
 • (Re-)Validation: (re-)checks the right to use the E.164 number
    – this does not necessarily require identification within ENUM
 • Validation methods therefore depend on the number range
    – ENUM-driven numbers (+43780)
         • only identification may be required (pre-paid?), validation is implicit
         • phone book entry required
    – Mobile numbers (opt-in)
         • validation via SIM-Card (e.g. SMS)
    – numbers directly assigned to end-user (e.g. private networks)
         • validation via assignment document
    – geographic numbers (opt-in)
         • validation via credentials under investigation, ev. call back,
 • If Registrar=TSP: Identification and Validation internal matter
 June 2004                         Richard Stastny                                   62
Austrian National Activities 2004

 • Establish a national policy framework 2Q2004
 • Start commercial deployment of ENUM 3Q2004
     – Residential customers
         •   ENUM-driven number range +43780 (and also +87810 VISIONng)
         •   Mobile numbers (opt-in)
         •   geographic numbers (terminating on IP) (opt-in)
         •   geographic numbers primary line on PSTN (opt-in)
     – Corporate Customers (IP PBX and IP Centrex)
         • Geographic/network numbers (opt-in, IP PBX)
         • Geographic/network numbers (opt-in, ported out, IP Centrex)
 • Deploy Generic Gateways (GG) and ENUM access codes from
 • Planned:
     – Make numbers in ENUM SMS- and MMS-enabled
     – Provide trusted identification on SIP for CLI (emergency service)
     – Provide certificates for E.164 numbers
         • to be used in signaling and validation
     – Usage of SIM-Cards and IMSI for mobile IP Communications
     – Provide location information and emergency service routing proxies

 June 2004                          Richard Stastny                       63
ENUM Myths
       • DNS is not fast enough..
          • no appreciable effect on call setup times             RFID
       • DNS won’t scale?!?!
            • 10 billion data items already
            • More data in intranets than outside
            • Over 100,000,000 delegations                        numbers
            already                                               (ENUM)
            • Every E-Mail including spam has to
            query DNS                                         Windows 2000

                                                             Intranet Hosts

                                                            Internet Hosts
                                                            (machine names)

1983        1988         1993         1998          2003   2008
June 2004                            Richard Stastny                          64
The End

              Thank you

             Richard Stastny
              +43 664 420 4100

June 2004          Richard Stastny     65

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