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									Low Energy Printing
 P1004: Open Source / Open Architecture
Printing Architecture

             Input                                       Output
           (Energy)                                  (Printed Paper)

                       Central Processing Unit

         Paper         Printer             Printer          Data
         Feed           Head               Driver          Stream

       Xerography                         Thermal Inkjet

                 Piezoelectric Inkjet

•   Team Members
    –   Dean Culver
    –   Shawn Hoskins
    –   Derek Meinke
    –   Tim Salter
•   Stakeholders
    – John Knapp, Research Fellow, Xerox Corp. – Marking Elements & Integration Lab
    – Rochester Institute of Technology
    – End user: Party that needs printing technology, but has very little electrical
      infrastructure to support it
•   Faculty Guides
    – Gerry Garavuso
    – Bill Nowak
    – Dr. Marcos Esterman


• Optimize Performance; Minimize Consumption
      • Identify areas of significant power consumption
      • Innovate and Substitute
• Key Terminology
      • Xerography (Electrophotography)
      • Piezo Applications
      • Injet Printing
• Challenges
• What has already been done before?
      • Fuser Test Beds and Optimization
      • Electrophotographic Transfer Station


• Previous Locations of Research
      • Past MSD projects stored on EDGE
      • Prototype and test fixtures at RIT
• Current Technology Development
      • Continuing research at manufacturer locations and academic
      • Research performed by company employees and students alike
• Widespread knowledge base
      • Universities
      • Research facilities

•   Utilization
     – End product could be utilized immediately
     – Growing demand for technology in less developed countries with little
•   Previous Projects
     – P09503: Electrophotographic Development and Transfer Station (2008-1 to 2008-2)
     – P09505: Low-Energy Printing (2008-2 to 2008-3)
•   Current Project
     – P10505: Concurrent Low-Energy Printing (2009-1 to 2009-2)
•   Innovation & Creativity Festival
     – May 1, 2010


• Importance of Technology Developement
        • Multidisciplinary involvement (ME, EE, IE)
        • New product design is the life blood of competing companies
        • Stakeholder interests: students, manufacturers customers
• Impact on Current Society
        • Push towards low energy technology
        • RESOURCES
        •   RIT neighbors graphic imaging companies
        •   Involves multiple engineering departments
        •   Opportunity to prepare students for career after graduation
        •   Low-energy is a hot industry


• Previous approaches to this concept include the
   – Extensive fuser research; measurement and PUGH analysis

   – Attributes of a successful project

   – Attributes of an unsuccessful project

   – “How to approach our project…”

 Xerography (Electrophotography)

                   Image Exposure           Develop Latent Image

Charge Photoconductor                                  Transfer Latent Image to Medium

               Restore Photoconductor           Fuse Image

Xerography (cont.)
•   Energy Demands (Standard Xerox 50 ppm Unit)

        • Illumination and Document Handling

        • Controls and Solonoids           19%
        • Internal Losses       5%                 25%
        • Electronics

        • User Interface       11%
        • Mechanical Systems               17%
        • Photoconductor and Image Transfer

Thermal Inkjet Printing

• Print cartridge has 300 to 600 ink nozzles
• Each nozzle is electrically heated
• The ink is an aqueous solution
• The heat causes the ink to boil, which forms a bubble
  inside the nozzle
• The bubble propels the ink forward out of the nozzle
  toward the paper
• The contraction of the bubble and the ink’s surface
  tension pulls more ink from the reservoir

Piezoelectric Continuous Printing
•   Electrically Reactive Material
         •   Deflection caused by voltage (and vise versa)
         •   Pulse generation (similar to thermal inkjet) causing ink release
         •   Ink droplets charged while exiting nozzle
         •   Continuous stream with interval between droplets; wave effect
•   Application of Ink
         •   Continuous discharge, unlike piezoelectric on-demand
         •   Electrically charged ink is deflected by electrical field between plates
         •   Charge intensity determines placements of ink droplets
         •   Up to ~165,000 drops per SECOND!
•   Continuous Ink Discharge
         • Ink is deflected by plates onto media
         • Unused droplets are collected by gutter and recycled
         • Continuous discharge prevents clogging of ink nozzle

Piezoelectric Continuous Printing
• Applications
   •   Wide range of media materials
   •   Ink deflection pattern compensates for different shapes
   •   Often used to print expiration dates, bar codes, labels
   •   Commercial/industrial applications; high-speed printing
The Piezoelectric Process
Piezoelectric Continuous Printing
•   Benefits
     •   Prints on many types of materials
     •   Allows for large distance between media and ink nozzle
     •   Prints on materials of different textures and shapes
     •   High speed
     •   Low maintenance (low risk of clogging)
• Disadvantages
     •   High cost of print head
     •   Large size, complexity
     •   Limited print resolution
     •   ENERGY: Only a small fraction of ink droplets are applied to media
          • Unused ink droplet ejection
          • Ink return pump
Piezoelectric On-Demand Printing

• Piezoelectric materials deform under electric potentials
    – Process can be reversed
•   Uses up to 600 nozzles, similar to thermal inkjet
•   Piezoelectric material sits inside ink chamber
•   Material vibrates and deforms under electric potential
•   Ink becomes forced out of nozzle
•   Many different inks can be used
•   Epson currently holds patent on printing technology

Low Energy Printing Projects

• P09505
  – Fusing System
  – Low-Power, Non-Thermal
  – Conclusion: Conventional Fusing System Optimized

• P10505
  – In Progress
  – Conclusion: Collaboration Mutually Advantageous

Experimental Printing Test Fixture

• P07501: Laser Fuser Test Bed
   –   Continuously variable to simulate different conditions
   –   Test reactions of toners
   –   Effects of speed, pressure, and temperature
   –   All aspects combined determine image quality
• Issues and Resolutions
   –   Unable to accurately measure applied toner temperature
   –   Bring toner temperature to equilibrium before application
   –   Accurate pressure profile curve concerns
   –   Use linearly actuated cam to vary pressure

Experimental Printing Test Fixture

• P08501: Roller Fuser Test Bed
   – Goal: Develop methods to improve current printing systems
   – Combine research and development from past project
   – Rollers resemble current in-use printers
• Control Conditions
   –   Vary pressure, temperature and speed of rollers
   –   Test fusibility of toner under different conditions
   –   Difficult to precisely control roller pressure
   –   Suggest more refined linear actuators

The MSD “State of the Art”
•   Fuser Optimized as of ’09

•   Electrophotography Attributes
    Not Yet Investigated

•   Typical Ink Application
    Systems (i.e. jet interruption)
    Not Yet Investigated

                                           *P09505: Low Energy Printing (Xerox), Joshua Jones and Team


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