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					Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
      Specialized Application software features (100)
          o The focus of this chapter will center on the following categories of specialized
              applications.
                   Graphics programs
                   Audio and video software
                   Multimedia software
                   Web authoring tools and programs
                   Artificial intelligence
    Graphics (101)
          o Desktop publishing
                   Used to create publications of professional quality
                   Focus on page design and layout
                   Used to create newsletters, brochures, and textbooks.
                   Popular programs are Adobe PageMaker, Microsoft Publisher, and
                     QuarkXPress.
          o Image editors
                   Used to edit and modify digital photos
                   Used with bitmap or raster images
                   Popular programs are MicrosoftPaint, Adobe Photoshop, Corel
                     PhotoPaint, and Paint Shop Pro.
          o Illustration programs
                   Used to create and/or edit vector images
                   Popular programs are Adobe Illustrator, Corel-Draw, Macromedia
                     FreeHand, and Micrografx Designer.
          o Image galleries
                   Libraries of electronic images
                   Used to help with added pictures to documents
                   Either stock photographs or clip art
          o Graphic suites
                   Companies combining their graphics software
                   It is better because users can buy a variety of packages at a lower cost
                   The most popular suite is CorelDraw Graphics Suite, others are Adobe’s
                     Creative Suites and Macromedia’s Studio.
    Audio and Video (103)
          o User can create their own movies and compilations without a professional being
              involved.
          o Video editing software
                   Allows users to reorganize, add effects, and more to digital video footage.
                   Designed to allow users to assemble and edit new home videos and
                     movies from raw digital video footage.
                   Popular programs are Apple’s iMovie and Windows Movie Maker.
          o Audio editing software
                   Allows users to create and edit audio clips.
                   Most audio editing software has features that allow users to add audio
                     effects, like filters, to tracks.
                   Use this software to create MP3s.
                   Popular programs are Ableton’s Live and Sony’s ACID.
    Multimedia (104)
Chapter Outline                                                             Page 1 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
          o The integration of all sorts of media into one presentation
          o May include video, music, voice, graphics, and text.
          o Effective multimedia presentations incorporate user participation or interactivity
          o Figures 4-10 and 4-11 on page 105 illustrate the difference between linear
            multimedia and interactive multimedia.
         o Links and buttons
                  An interactive multimedia presentation is typically organized as a series of
                    related pages.
                  Links are connections to related material
                  Buttons can link you to related material and/or navigate you through the
                    presentation or program.
         o Developing multimedia presentations
                  Plan and analyze - Determine the overall objective of the project,
                  Design - The creation of a story board is essential to the development of
                    the project.
                  Create - Use a multimedia authoring program to create the interactive
                    multimedia presentation
                  Support - Evaluate effectiveness, identify errors, and revise as needed.
         o Multimedia Authoring programs(108)
                  Bring together all the video, audio, graphics, and text elements into an
                    interactive framework.
                  Popular programs Macromedia Director, Authorware, and Toolbook.
      Making it work for you (105)
         o Digital video editing
         o How to capture video
         o Editing video once it has been captured
         o Creating a DVD
      Web Authoring(110)
         o The process of creating a web site
         o Web site design
                  Begins with determining the site’s overall content.
                  Then breaks the content down into a series of related pieces of
                    information.
                  Graphical map - The overall site design
                  Figure 4- 16 on page 110 is an excellent illustration of a graphical map
                    and the structure of a web site.
         o Animations - moving graphics which can be simple moving text or complicated
            interactive features.
         o Flash by Macromedia is usually full-screen, highly dynamic, and interactive
            animation.
         o Morphing is a special effect in which one image seems to melt into another.
         o Web authoring programs are used to create more sophisticated sites and create the
            HTML code for you.
         o Popular programs are Macromedia Dreamweaver, NetObjects Fusion, and
            Microsoft FrontPage.
      Emerging Applications (111)
         o Artificial Intelligence

Chapter Outline                                                            Page 2 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                    Attempts to develop computer systems that can mimic or simulate human
                     senses, thought processes, and actions.
                  Artificial intelligence that corresponds to human intelligence is still a long
                     way off.
                  Several tools that emulate human senses, problem solving, and
                     information processing have been developed.
                  Helps to solve unstructured problems
          o Virtual Reality (113)
                  An artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a computer.
                  Figure 4-20 on page 113 illustrates that the virtual reality hardware
                     including headgear and gloves.
                  The headgear has earphones and three-dimensional stereoscopic screens
                  The gloves have sensors that collect data about your hand movements
                  Virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is used to create real-time
                     animated 3-D scenes.
                  Recently, several lower-cost yet powerful authoring programs have been
                     introduced.
          o Knowledge-based (Expert) Systems (113)
                  A type of artificial intelligence that uses a database that contains specific
                     facts, rules to relate these facts, and user input to formulate
                     recommendations and decisions.
                  The sequence of processing is determined by the interaction of the user
                     and the knowledge base.
                  Some current expert systems: Oil Spill Advisor, Bird Species
                     Identification, and Midwives Assistant.
          o Robotics (114)
                  The field of study concerned with developing and using robots, computer-
                     controlled machines that mimic the motor activities of living things.
                  Some robots can even solve unstructured problems using artificial
                     intelligence.
                  Robots are used in factories, manufacturing, home security, the military,
                     and many other fields of human endeavor.
                  Three types of robots:
                          Perception system robots - imitate some of the human senses.
                          Industrial robots - used to perform a variety of tasks.
                          Mobile robots - act as transports and are widely used for a variety
                              of different tasks.
      Careers in IT (115)
          o Desktop Publishers
          o use computers to format and create publication-ready material.
          o They may create books, magazines, newsletters, and newspapers on home
             computers using special application software.
          o Desktop publishing positions usually require completion of a program at a
             vocational school or a university.
          o Desktop publishers can expect to earn an annual salary of $20,000 to $40,000.
      A Look to the Future (115)
          o Robots can look, act, and think

Chapter Outline                                                              Page 3 of 15
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
          o Researchers are currently at work on robots with the artificial intelligence needed
            to perform tasks and more.
          o The Saya robot, with its artificial skin and muscles, is currently under
            development in Tokyo.
          o Other research is being conducted that will give robots a sense of values, so that
            they will be able to make decisions independently based on this set of values.
          o All of these projects are designed to move beyond simple computing and into a
            decidedly human realm of emotional intelligence.




Chapter Outline                                                             Page 4 of 15
Computing Essentials 2007
Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
      Specialized Application software features (100)
          o The focus of this chapter will center on the following categories of specialized
              applications.
                   Graphics programs
                   Audio and video software
                   Multimedia software
                   Web authoring tools and programs
                   Artificial intelligence
      Graphics (101)
          o Emphasize that there are four types of graphics applications
          o Desktop publishing
                   You can have a lab using one of the popular software, Adobe PageMaker,
                     Microsoft Publisher, and QuarkXPress.
                   During the lab you have them create a newsletters, brochures, or textbooks
                     that illustrates layout design techniques and standards, graphic placement
                     and overall cohesion of a publication.
                   You can refer to the Careers in IT on page 115 for more options.
          o Image editors
                   Most students are familiar with these types of applications because they
                     have been using them since elementary school. What they sometimes
                     don’t understand is the difference in the types of graphics files.
                   You can have a lab that utilizes one of the popular programs,
                     MicrosoftPaint, Adobe Photoshop, Corel PhotoPaint, and Paint Shop Pro.
                     You can then show the students what a raster images is and how it can be
                     manipulated.
          o Illustration programs
                   If you have one of the popular programs, Adobe Illustrator, Corel-Draw,
                     Macromedia FreeHand, and Micrografx Designer, you can use a lab with
                     one of these applications.
                   You can compare and contrast the different types of images and have the
                     students see which is easier to manipulate.
          o Image galleries
                   The students are very familiar with clip art, what you can show them is
                     how to add one of their pictures to the gallery or to a documents itself.
          o Graphic suites
                   You can emphasize that they are cost effective, as was mentioned in
                     Chapter 3.
      Audio and Video (103)
          o Students find this aspect very interesting and have done a lot of this type of work
              already.
          o Video editing software
                   You could use one of the following software packages, Apple’s iMovie
                     and Windows Movie Maker, in a lab and have the students edit their own
                     movie.
                   If you don’t have access to one of these applications you can show
                     examples of video clips in a lecture and point out the different features.

          o Audio editing software
Teaching Tips                                                              Page 5 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                     You could use one of the following software packages, are Ableton’s Live
                      and Sony’s ACID, in a lab and have the students edit their own music.
                     If you don’t have access to one of these applications you can show
                      examples of edited music in a lecture and point out the different features.

      Multimedia (104)
         o Figures 4-10 and 4-11 on page 105 illustrate the difference between linear
             multimedia and interactive multimedia.
         o You can emphasize the difference between linear multimedia and interactive
             multimedia by showing an example of a PowerPoint presentation with video clips
             and then an interactive web site.
         o Developing multimedia presentations
                  Emphasize that the process is the same for all types of computer projects,
                    just some techniques are different.
                  You can show clips from documentaries on how motion pictures with a lot
                    of CGI handle storyboarding and other project management techniques.
                  If you have a digital video editing software, you can use the Making it
                    work for you (105) as a lab to help illustrate video editing techniques.
      Web Authoring(110)
         o You can use one of these applications, Macromedia Dreamweaver, NetObjects
             Fusion, and Microsoft FrontPage, in a lab to help illustrate web authoring
             techniques
         o You can have the students create their own web site using a graphical map and
             pages.
         o In the lab you can also switch to the code page to show the students how the
             HTML code is being generated as they design their pages and site.
         o You can use the Applying Technology exercise #2 Shockwave on page 124 to
             have the students research the different technologies out there and how they work.
      Emerging Applications (111)
         o Artificial Intelligence
                  You can emphasize that AI is here already and list the different uses that
                    employs it.
                  State that Artificial intelligence that corresponds to human intelligence is
                    still a long way off.

          o Virtual Reality (113)
                 You can state the different types of VR in today’s society.
                 You can use Figure 4-20 on page 113 to illustrate the virtual reality
                    hardware including headgear and gloves.
                 Emphasize that this is a growing field because of several lower-cost yet
                    powerful authoring programs have been introduced.
          o Knowledge-based (Expert) Systems (113)
                 You can have the students visit a Expert System online, such as WebMD.
                 You can have them ask questions and note the results of them. You can
                    also have them go into more depth as they progress.

          o Robotics (114)
                You can emphasize the three main types of robots used today.
Teaching Tips                                                                Page 6 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                     Three types of robots:
                          Perception system robots - imitate some of the human senses.
                          Industrial robots - used to perform a variety of tasks.
                          Mobile robots - act as transports and are widely used for a variety
                             of different tasks.
                     You could refer to A Look to the Future (115) the students discuss the
                      implications of robotics and is all of it necessary and why.




Teaching Tips                                                               Page 7 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
Crossword Puzzle Answers:

Across
 Num.                                  Clue                                        Answer
   1      Allows responses like “OK” and “Great!”                     Fuzzy Logic
   6      Type of robot used by police and military.                  Mobile
   7      Used to create real-time 3-D animation.                     VRML
   8      Representation of overall site design.                      Graphical map
   9      Attempt to develop computers that mimic human senses.       AI
  11      Image recorded as a collection of objects.                  Vector image
  12      Composed of thousands of pixels.                            Raster (or Bitmap) image
  13      Connection between pages in a multimedia presentation.      Link
  14      Design tool used to plan multimedia presentations.          Story Board

Down
 Num.                                  Clue                                        Answer
   2      User participation.                                         Interactivity
   3      Special effect that blends images together.                 Morphing
   4      Creating a site.                                            Web authoring
   5      Widely used type of Web animation.                          Flash
  10      Dots that make up an image.                                 Pixels
  15      Editing software used to create MP3s.                       ACID

Num      Multiple Choice             Matching
           Answers                   Answers
  1              A                       I
  2              A                       G
  3              A                       D
  4              A                       E
  5              A                       C
  6              B                       F
  7              C                       H
  8              B                       B
  9              A                       J
 10              B                       A


Open Ended Questions:
   1. Describe graphics, including desktop publishers, image editors, illustration programs,
      image galleries, and graphics suites.
      Graphics programs used by professionals in the graphic arts profession. The include the
      following types of applications: Desktop publishing programs, or page layout programs, that
      allow users to mix text and graphics to create publications, Image editors which are specialized
      graphics programs for editing or modifying bitmap or raster images, Illustration programs that are
      used to create and to edit vector images, Image galleries are libraries of electronic images, and
      graphics suites which companies bundle their separate graphics programs in groups so users can
      purchase them at a lower cost than if purchased separately.


Answers to End of Chapter materials                                               Page 8 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
   2. Discuss audio and video editing software.
      Video editing software allows you to reorganize, add effects, and more to your digital video
      footage. These programs are designed to allow you to assemble and edit new home videos and
      movies from raw digital video footage. Two commonly used video editing software programs are
      Apple’s iMovie and Windows Movie Maker.

       Audio editing software allows you to create and edit audio clips. Most audio editing software also
       has features that allow you to add audio effects, like filters, to your tracks. For example, you can
       use this type of software to filter out pops or scratches in an old recording. Some commonly used
       audio editing software programs are Ableton’s Live and Sony’s ACID.

   3. What is multimedia? How are multimedia presentations developed?
      Multimedia is the integration of all sorts of media into one presentation. For example, a
      multimedia presentation may include video, music, voice, graphics, and text. They are developed
      using the following steps:
          a. Plan and analyze: Determine the overall objective of the project, the resources required,
              and the person or team of people who will work on the project.
          b. Design: The creation of a story board is essential to the development of the project.
          c. Create: Use a multimedia authoring program to create the interactive multimedia
              presentation.
          d. Support: Evaluate effectiveness, identify errors, and revise as needed.

   4. Describe Web authoring, including Web site design and Web authoring programs.
       Creating a site is called Web authoring. It begins with site design followed by creation of a
       document file that displays the Web site’s content. Designing a Web site begins with determining
       the site’s overall content. The content is then broken down into a series of related pieces of
       information. The overall site design is commonly represented in a graphical map. Web authoring
       programs, are typically used to create sophisticated commercial sites. Also known as Web page
       editors and HTML editors, these programs provide support for Web site design and HTML
       coding
   5. Discuss three areas of artificial intelligence.
      The first area of AI is virtual reality. Virtual reality is an artificial, or simulated, reality
      generated in 3-D by a computer. Virtual reality is also commonly known as VR, artificial
      reality, or virtual environments. To navigate in a virtual space, you use virtual reality
      hardware including headgear and gloves. The headgear has earphones and three-
      dimensional stereoscopic screens. The gloves have sensors that collect data about your
      hand movements

       The second area of AI is knowledge-based (or expert) systems. Knowledge-based
       systems, also known as expert systems, are a type of artificial intelligence that uses a
       database to provide assistance to users. These systems use a database, or knowledge base,
       that contains specific facts, rules to relate these facts, and user input to formulate
       recommendations and decisions. The sequence of processing is determined by the
       interaction of the user and the knowledge base.

       The third are of AI is robotics. Robotics is the field of study concerned with developing
       and using robots. Robots are computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor
       activities of living things. There are three types of robots. • Perception systems:
       Perception system robots imitate some of the human senses. • Industrial robots:


Answers to End of Chapter materials                                                 Page 9 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
       Industrial robots are used to perform a variety of tasks. • Mobile robots: Mobile robots
       act as transports and are widely used for a variety of different tasks.




Answers to End of Chapter materials                                         Page 10 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                   Applying Technology           Expanding Your             Writing About
     Focus                                         Knowledge                  Technology
Ethical                                                                  HTML Source Code
                                                                         Online Expert
                                                                         Systems
Web Tools        Shockwave                    Personal Web Site
Software Tools   Digital Video Editing        How Digital Video
                 Streaming Multimedia         Editing Works
                 Players
Writing Skills                                How Digital Video          Streaming Multimedia
                                              Editing Works              Online Expert
                                              Personal Web Site          Systems
Ethical focus
  1. Writing About Technology exercise #1 HTML Source Code deals with the ethical issues
      surrounding copying HTML code from web sites.
  2. Writing About Technology exercise #2 Online Expert Systems has the students research
      web based expert systems and reflect on the “harm” they may cause, and the
      responsibilities of the system providers.
Web Tools
  1. Applying Technology exercise #2 Shockwave has the student explore the features of
      Macromedia’s Shockwave and how it can be integrated into web pages.
   2. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #2 Personal Web Site has the students explore web
      logs, describe how to create one, and what are its uses.
Software Tools
   1. Applying Technology exercise #1 Digital Video Editing explores the technology of
      creating DVDs. It works in conjunction with the Making it Work for You on page 105
      helping the students create a video and familiarize them with the process and
      terminology.
   2. Applying Technology exercise #3 Streaming Multimedia Players has the students
      research the different types of players, how they function, and their role may change with
      new Internet technologies.
   3. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #1 How Digital Video Editing Works has the
      students research the hardware requirements for digital editing and reflect on how they
      can improve videos.
Writing Skills
  1. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #1 How Digital Video Editing Works has the
      students research the hardware requirements for digital editing and reflect on how they
      can improve videos.
   2. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #2 Personal Web Site has the students explore web
      logs, describe how to create one, and what are its uses.
   3. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #3 Streaming Multimedia has the student research
      the different types of streaming multimedia, who is the intended audience, and the
      advantages and disadvantages of using them.


Focus tables to End of Chapter materials                                   Page 11 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
   4. Writing About Technology exercise #2 Online Expert Systems has the students research
      web based expert systems and reflect on the “harm” they may cause, and the
      responsibilities of the system providers.




Focus tables to End of Chapter materials                               Page 12 of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                                              Key Terms
            Key Term                                              Definition
                                       moving graphics, a common multimedia element, found
                  animation (110)      on most Web sites.
                                       The development of computer systems that can mimic or
 artificial intelligence (AI) (111)    simulate human senses, thought processes, and actions.
                                       An artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a
            artificial reality (113)   computer. (See also virtual reality, VR, or virtual
                                       environments)
    audio editing software (103)       Allows a user to create and edit audio clips.
                                       Use thousands of dots or pixels to represent images.(See
              bitmap image (101)
                                       also raster image)
                                       Short for web logs, own personal sites used to keep in
                        blog (110)
                                       touch with friends and family. (See also Web log)
                                       Special areas in a multimedia presentation that when
                      button (105)     clicked on make appropriate links and navigate through a
                                       presentation to locate and discover information.
                   clip art (102)      Graphic illustrations representing a wide range of topics.
     desktop publishing program        Allow you to mix text and graphics to create publications
                            (101)      of professional quality. (See also page layout program)
                                       People who use computers to format and create
         desktop publisher (115)       publication-ready material, such as books, magazines,
                                       newsletters, and newspapers.
                                       Used to create and to edit vector images. (See also
          drawing program (101)
                                       illustration program)
                                       A type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to
             expert system (113)       provide assistance to users. (See also knowledge based
                                       system)
                                       A type of web animation that is usually full-screen, highly
                       Flash (110)     dynamic, and interactive.
                                       Allows users to respond to questions in an expert system
                fuzzy logic (113)      in a very humanlike way.
             graphical map (110)       Representation of the overall web site design
                                       Companies bundling their separate graphics programs in
             graphics suite (103)      one package
                                       Programs that provide support for Web site design and
              HTML editor (110)        HTML coding. (See also Web authoring program and Web
                                       page editor)
                                       Used to create and to edit vector images. (See also
       illustration program (101)
                                       drawing program)
                                       Are specialized graphics programs for editing or
              image editors (101)
                                       modifying digital photographs. (See also photo editors)
              image gallery (101)      libraries of electronic images.
                                       Allowing a user to walk into a virtual reality room or view
     immersive experience (113)
                                       simulations on a virtual reality wall.
                                       used to perform a variety of tasks, such as machines used
            industrial robot (114)     in automobile plants to do welding, polishing, and
                                       painting.
                                       Allows users to choose the information to view, to
               interactivity (105)     control the pace and flow of information, and to respond to
                                       items and receive feedback in a presentation.
Key Terms                                                                          Page 13of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
                                      A database used in an expert system that contains specific
            knowledge base (113) facts, rules to relate these facts, and user input to formulate
                                      recommendations and decisions.
                                      A type of artificial intelligence that uses a database to
  knowledge-based system (113)
                                      provide assistance to users. (See also expert system)
                         link (105)   Connections to related information.
                                      Act as transports and are widely used for a variety of
               mobile robot (114)     different tasks, such as the police and military use them to
                                      locate and disarm explosive devices.
                                      a special Web animation effect in which one image seems
                  morphing (110)      to melt into another.
                multimedia (104)      The integration of all sorts of media into one presentation.
                                      special programs used to bring together all the video,
  multimedia authoring program
                                      audio, graphics, and text elements into an interactive
                          (108)       framework.
                                      Allow you to mix text and graphics to create publications
      page layout program (101)       of professional quality. (See also desktop publishing
                                      program)
                                      imitate some of the human senses, such as robots with
   perception system robot (114)      television-camera vision systems
                                      Are specialized graphics programs for editing or
               photo editors (101)    modifying digital photographs. (See also image editors)
                       pixel (101)    Thousands of dots used to represent images.
                                      Use thousands of dots or pixels to represent images.(See
                raster image (101)
                                      also bitmap image)
                                      Computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor
                       robot (114)
                                      activities of living things.
                                      the field of study concerned with developing and using
                    robotics (114)    robots.
                                      Photographs on a variety of subject material from
         stock photograph (102)       professional models to natural landscapes.
                                      A design tool used to record the intended overall logic,
                 story board (108)    flow, and structure of a multimedia presentation.
                                      Problems that can be broken down into a series of well-
        structured problem (112)      defined steps.
                                      Problems that need to be solved using intuition, reasoning,
     unstructured problem (112)       and memory.
                      vector (101)    A common type of graphic file
                                      Geometric shapes or objects used to represent images.
         vector illustration (101)
                                      (See also vector image)
                                      Geometric shapes or objects used to represent images.
               vector image (101)
                                      (See also vector illustration)
                                      Allows users to reorganize, add effects, and more to digital
    video editing software (103)
                                      video footage.
                                      An artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a
       virtual environment (113)
                                      computer. (See also virtual reality, VR, or artificial reality)
                                      An artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a
              virtual reality (113)   computer. (See also artificial reality, VR, or virtual
                                      environments)
virtual reality modeling language     A programming language that is used to create real-time
                   (VRML) (113)       animated 3-D scenes.
Key Terms                                                                            Page 14of 15
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Chapter 4: Specialized Application Software
        virtual reality wall (113) A wall where virtual reality images are projected
                                    An artificial, or simulated, reality generated in 3-D by a
                       VR (113) computer. (See also virtual reality, artificial reality, or
                                    virtual environments)
            Web authoring (110)     Creating a Web site
                                    Programs that provide support for Web site design and
   Web authoring program (110)      HTML coding. (See also HTML editor and Web page
                                    editor)
                                    Short for web logs, own personal sites used to keep in
                  Web log (110)
                                    touch with friends and family. (See also blog)
                                    Programs that provide support for Web site design and
          Web page editor (110)     HTML coding. (See also Web authoring programs and
                                    HTML editor)




Key Terms                                                                         Page 15of 15

				
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