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									Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT

Writing - 2

            WORD     PARTS                         DEFINITION                                                 SAMPLE SENTENCE                                    SYNONYM        ANTONYM


valuable             adj     to have value or importance                             Gold is a very valuable metal.                                        priceless       worthless
spoil                v       to weaken by treating too well                          If you spoil a child, they will often misbehave.                      indulge         neglect
cheer (someone) up   v       to make someone happy who is sad                        The flowers really seemed to cheer up your mother.                    entertain       depress
otherwise            adv     differently                                             You must study, otherwise you might fail.                             or else
                                                                                     It is important to carefully check each component before putting
component            n       a part or piece of something                                                                                                  constituent     auxillary
                                                                                     them together.
attempt              v       to try to do something                                  The soccer player scored a goal on his first attempt.                 try             avoid
                                                                                     Families that have sympathy for each other are often strongest and
sympathy             n       knowing the feelings of another                                                                                               empathy         disdain
                                                                                     happier than families that don’t.
                                                                                     The nurse told him to take two aspirin to relieve the symptoms of
suffer               v       to feel less pain                                                                                                             alleviate       aggravate
                                                                                     his headache.
                                                                                     If you do not study for your test, you are likely to suffer serious
relieve              v       to lessen a feeling of pain or sickness                                                                                       agonize
                                                                                     consequences like failing the class.
fall                 v       the weakening or defeat of something                    The fall of the city happened after it was attacked for three days.   defeat          triumph
                                                                                     In the ancient battle of Thermopylae, the Spartan king fought with
troops               n       people in the military; soldiers                                                                                           soldier            civilians
                                                                                     only 300 troops.
loyal                adj     willing to support                                      Many people like to own dogs because they are such a loyal pet.       faithful        disloyal
                                                                                     It is usually considered an act of war if a country's army invades
invade               v       to take an army into a country to attack it                                                                                attack             defend
                                                                                     another country.
                                                                                     The decline of the economy changed when the stock market
decline              v       to become worse                                                                                                            decent             progress
                                                                                     There has been a stability in crime in the area after the police
stability            n       a state in which few things go wrong                                                                                       perserverance      instability
                                                                                     began to guard it.
sustain              v       to keep something going                                 Runners find it hard to sustain a fast pace through a long race.      maintain        unsustain
                                                                                     Many people say that someone's personality is more important
external             adj     coming from outside                                                                                                      exterior             internal
                                                                                     than his or her external features.
                                                                                     The Internet works because of a huge infrastructure of connected
infrastructure       n       the set of systems that lets something work correctly                                                                    foundation
Unit 2

repay         v     to pay back after borrowing money                   Many students must find work to repay their student loans.             pay back      loan
stranger      n     someone you do not know                             A stranger is a person you do not know.                                outsider      acquaintence
feelings      n     emotions                                            Actors are skilled at showing many different feelings.                 emotion
loan          n     money that is borrowed                              A mortgage is a type of loan used to buy a house.                      lend          borrow
disrupt       v     to upset                                            Natural disasters can disrupt the smooth flow of an economy.           interrupt     assist
                                                                        A person's nature, more than their abilities, shapes their attitude
nature        n     somebody's character                                                                                                    attributes
                                                                        toward life.
                                                                        The boy felt guilty after he was caught stealing candy from the
guilty        adj   feeling very ashamed                                                                                                    condemned        innocent
hinder        v     to make difficult or to block                       Lack of sleep will hinder a student's ability to do well in school.    prevent       facilitate

retain        v     to continue to have or hold                         Many families think that it is important to retain their traditions.   hold          give up
                                                                        Bricks and stones were popular materials used in many historical
materials     n     the different things used to make something                                                                                ingredient
                                                                        Our memories are not perfect, but they are fairly good at
fairly        adv   not completely; somewhat                                                                                                   quite         barely
                                                                        remembering facts.
                                                                        An air conditioner is a machine used to circulate cool air through a
circulate     v     to move around something without stopping                                                                                  move around   stop
dirt          n     the soil of the ground                              When dirt is mixed with water, it becomes mud.                         grime
alter         v     to change something in order to make it difficult   Some people alter pieces of clothing to make them fit better.          change        retain
                                                                        Some businesses make meetings a fundamental part of their daily
fundamental   adj   related to the most important part of something                                                                            basic         secondary
                                                                        The student studied very hard, thus she got a good grade on her
thus          adv   as a result; therefore                                                                                                     accordingly   conversely
evolve        v     to change slowly over a long period of time         Plants and animals can evolve over thousands or millions of years.     advance
                                                                        Many people predicted that the Internet would completely
transform     v     to make something completely different                                                                       change                      stagnate
                                                                        transform the way we do business.
Unit 3

polite          adj   behaving correctly                                  Saying "please" and "thank you" is one way of being polite.               courteous     impolite
elders          n     older people                                        Many people feel that children must obey their elders.                    senior        minor
worse           adj   more unpleasant or bad                              A tornado is much worse than a thunderstorm.                                            better
naughty         adj   to be bad or troublesome                            Parents should punish their children for naughty behavior.                mischeivous   good
obvious         adj   easy to notice or understand                        It is quite obvious that if you eat too many sweets, you will feel ill.   apparent      inconspicuous

overall         adv   considering everything; in general                  Although it rained for a few days, I enjoyed the vacation overall.        general
                                                                          In the old days, women wore more modest clothing than they do
modest          adj   not proud or boastful                                                                                                         humble        flamboyant
                                                                          I enjoy being in the school play because I get to pretend to be
pretend         v     to act as if doing something                                                                                                  imitate
                                                                          someone else.
                                                                          There is nothing worse than criticism from people you thought
criticism       n     saying what is bad about something                                                                                            disapproval   compliment
                                                                          were your friends.
cure            n     a medicine given to a sick person                   Many scientists are searching for a cure for cancer.                      solution
treat           v     to use medicine to make a sick person better        Doctors are people who are trained to treat people who are sick.          heal          harm

illness         n     a disease; sickness                                 The flu is an illness that begins to spread in the winter each year.      disease       good health
                                                                          Surveys are used to find out what the general public thinks about
public          n     people in general                                                                                                     community             private
                                                                          various issues.
                                                                          The telephone is a way to facilitate communication between people
facilitate      v     to help the progress of something                                                                                     assist                complicate
                                                                          who are apart.
comprehensive   adj   including many or all parts of something            A dictionary is a comprehensive book of the words in a language.          extensive     imcomprehensive
medical         adj   relating to curing diseases                         Surgery is a type of medical study.
                                                                          Getting a job is just one part of the transition from childhood to
transition      n     the process of changing from one thing to another                                                                      shift                stagnation
                                                                          Libraries often catalog their collections so people can find books
catalog         v     to make a list of a group of things                                                                                    organize
Unit 4

value            n     importance or worth                              The spread of the Internet has shown the value of information.           importance    insignificance
                                                                        Some people think that night games in baseball go against the spirit
spirit           n     sense or feeling                                                                                                      meaning
                                                                        of the game.
unite            v     to come together                                 When you unite hydrogen and oxygen, you can make water.              combine           separate
accomplishment   n     a completed goal                                 Being accepted to Harvard is a great accomplishment.                 acheivement       failure
team             n     a group of people working for the same goal      When you are part of a team, you are expected to participate.            group

point of view    n     opinion                                          The man clearly did not agree with my point of view on the matter. opinion
                                                                        The group used teamwork to accomplish their tasks faster than
teamwork         n     cooperation in a group                                                                                         cooperation              noncooperation
                                                                        they each could alone.
assist           v     to help                                          If you can assist me, I will be very grateful for your help.  help                     impede
regardless       adv   in spite of                                      Regardless of his unfriendly appearance, he is a very kind person.       despite
                                                                        When a research team find an artifact, it is first studied and then it
artifact         n     an object that was made in ancient times                                                                                  artifact
                                                                        is sometimes displayed in a museum.
decay            v     to be naturally destroyed over time              After a plant dies, its leaves will quickly begin to decay.              deteriorate   flourish
                                                                        Many businesses allow you to pay a fixed amount of money each
fixed            adj   not changing                                                                                                              settled       flexible
                                                                        month for an expensive product.
                                                                        Most companies will not sell a product if it is flawed in even a small
flawed           adj   having problems or lacking something important                                                                            imperfect     perfect
radiation        n     a form of energy caused by chemical reactions    The sun sends out radiation in the form of ultraviolet rays.
                                                                        Doctors can derive a patient's diagnosis by studying their
derive           v     to learn something by using other information                                                                             take away     supply
                                                                        Words that have identical spellings but mean different things are
identical        adj   exactly the same                                                                                                          alike         different
                                                                        called homonyms.
                                                                        To find the length of a triangle's side, you must use an equation
equation         n     a mathematics problem used to find a number                                                                               formula
                                                                        called the Pythagorean theorem.
                                                                        The stock market crash of 1929 caused a definite change in how
definite         adj   clearly decided and unchanging                                                                                            precise       indefinite
                                                                        people spent money.
Unit 5

volunteer    v     to do something without payment                       Many charity groups rely upon volunteer workers.                      offer services   force
rebel        v     to go against something                               Teenagers sometimes rebel against teachers and parents.               defy             obey
free time    n     time not spent working                                Many people take up hobbies in their free time.                       spare time
                                                                         Freezing weather can be unpleasant in the winter. Similarly, it can
similarly    adv   likewise                                                                                                                    equally
                                                                         be unpleasant if it is too hot in the summer.
                                                                         Many people regard Christmas as the most joyous holiday of the
regard       v     to consider                                                                                                                 consider         disregard
                                                                         More people should engage in regular exercise and fitness
engage       v     to become involved in an activity                                                                                           participate      elude
integrate    v     to bring together or combine                          New students often find it hard to integrate into a new school.       incorporate      exclude'
                                                                         Clearly, typewriters are not relevant to business like they once
relevant     v     to be meaningful or interesting                                                                                        applicable            irrelevant
                                                                         I fulfill my obligation to my church by helping to feed homeless
fulfill      v     to meet a goal or complete something                                                                                   accomplish            unfulfill
                                                                         Many new business owners choose to run their business with close
run          v     to manage a business                                                                                                   operate               delegate
                   a large area where people go to play games and go on
theme park   n                                                          Paying for repairs is one of the many costs of owning a theme park.    amusment park
                                                                        Many people make a budget to control how much money they
control      v     to keep something at the correct level                                                                                      regulate
ride         n     a machine that people go in to have fun              A roller coaster is a popular type of ride.
                                                                        A merchant must not only sell products but buy many products as
merchant     n     a person or business that sells products                                                                                    tradesman        customer
                                                                        Much of the revenue that a business makes is spent paying
generate     v     to make; to make money
                                                                        Some businesses have found that a minor revenue in spending can
revenue      n     the money that a business makes                                                                                             profit
                                                                        have major effects.
adjustment   n     a change to make something better                    The adjustment of most traffic laws is to keep drivers safe.           adaptation
objective    n     a goal that a person or business has                  Advertising is a great way to help a business objective more money. purpose
Unit 6

                                                                            Many people believe that animals should roam free instead of
roam           v     to walk around freely                                                                                               wander                  cage
                                                                            being kept in zoos.
threatened     adj   likely to be harmed or destroyed                       Every year people in Kansas are threatened by seasonal tornadoes.

endangered     v     to be in danger of disappearing                        The World Wildlife Fund works to protect endangered animals.          threatened     protected
                                                                            Scientists are only now beginning to understand the importance of
importance     n     the quality of being important                                                                                           significance       unimportance
                                                                            global warming.
                     the number of people or animals living in a particular
population     n                                                            The population of the world is growing very fast.
decade         n     a ten-year period                                      We have seen many changes in this city over the last decade.          ten years
                                                                            As cities grow, conservation of trees is more important than ever
conservation   n     the protection of natural things                                                                                         preservation       destruction
domestic       adj   not wild                                               Most farms have a few domestic animals like sheep, pigs, and cows. tame              wild
eliminate      v     to get rid of                                           A good gardener must eliminate all the weeds in his garden.          eradicate      accumulate
                     a layer of rock that forms a part of the surface of the Even though Europe and Asia are considered different continents,
plate          n
                     Earth                                                   they share the same plate.
                                                                             The movement of the surface of the Earth is called tectonic
tectonic       adv   relating to the movement of the Earth's surface
                                                                             Much of the world's oil must be found deep below the Earth's
crust          n     the thick outer layer of the Earth                                                                                           surface        core
                                                                             Some would say that electricity is the most important discovery in
discovery      n     an act of finding something for the first time                                                                               finding
                                                                             Many cooks add spices that complement their food to make a
complement     v     to go together well
                                                                             better taste.
visible        adj   able to be seen                                         From Earth, the stars are only visible at night.                     seeable        invisible
                                                                             While the preliminary version of an essay may have problems, they
preliminary    adj   coming before something else                                                                                                 introductory
                                                                             can be fixed in later versions.
                                                                             When two people disagree about an issue, their views may
contradict     v     to disagree with something                                                                                                   discord
                                                                             contradict each other.
amendment      n     a change or addition made to something                 Some laws can be changed slightly by adding an amendment.             revision
Unit 7

lung                n     the organ used for breathing                         Smoking can damage the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
                                                                               There is evidence to suggest that second-hand smoke is just as
second-hand smoke   n     smoke released into the air when a cigarette burns
                                                                               dangerous as smoking.
non-smoker          n     a person who doesn’t smoke                           Many non-smokers want smoking banned in public places.                             smoker
cancer              n     a kind of disease                                    Cancer is a serious disease with no cure.
alike               adj   the same                                             People always say my brother and I look alike, but I do not think so. similar      dissimilar
                                                                               When I read a newspaper, I look for the sports statistics before
statistic           n     a numerical fact or data
                                                                               anything else.
deprived            adj   lacking something                                    A person deprived of food will soon become ill and die.          lacking           prosperous
favor               n     an act of helping                                    If you do a favor for someone, that person would be thankful.          good turn
                                                                               Many teenagers rebel against the mainstream culture and try to be
mainstream          adj   what is the most common or normal                                                                                           popular
                                                                               Many historians who study ancient cultures must decide if a story is
myth                n     an ancient story told for many years                                                                                        fable       recount
                                                                               history or just a myth.
                                                                               A common quest for a story's main character is to leave on a
quest               n     a long and difficult journey or search                                                                                      task        request
                                                                               journey in search of a magical item.
                                                                               The hero of many stories must battle with an enemy before the
hero                n     a main character that does good and brave things                                                                            paladin     villain
                                                                               story is complete.
royalty             n     someone related to a king or queen                   The king, queen and their relatives are all considered royalty.                    peasantry
legend              n     a story in history that is not true                  One Greek legend involves a mythical hero named Hercules.              myth        biography
                                                                               Many story writers prefer to first write the plot, while some prefer
plot                n     a group of events in a book or movie                                                                                        storyline
                                                                               to start with the characters.
                                                                               His interest in the school project was evident from his hard,
evident             n     easy to see                                                                                                                 apparent    unclear
                                                                               enthusiastic work.
                                                                               After the fire, the family made sure their house was protected
tragedy             n     a very sad event                                                                                                            calamity    joy
                                                                               against fire in order to prevent a similar tragedy.
                                                                               It is much easier to understand people when you know the motive
motive              n     the reason that someone does something                                                                                      reason
                                                                               that causes them to act a certain way.
Unit 8

suburb            n      a community around a city                               Many people prefer to work in the city but live in the suburbs.     town              city
                                                                                 A long commute to work can leave you feeling tired at the end of
commute           n      the trip from home to a workplace                                                                                            travel
                                                                                 the day.
                                                                                 The more traffic there is on the road, the more pollution there will
traffic           n      the vehicles moving on a road                                                                                                motor vehicles   pedestrians
distance          n      the amount of space between two places                  The distance from the Earth to the Sun is millions of kilometers.   length

downtown          n      the center or main part of a city or town               If you want to see skyscrapers, you will have to go downtown.       central city      uptown
                                                                                 When I get home from work, I am usually too exhausted to cook
exhausted         adj    feeling tired                                                                                                         tired                   energetic
maximize          v      to increase something as much as possible               By planning carefully, you can maximize your studying time.   increase                minimize
                                                                                 After the race, George was overcome with fatigue and nearly
fatigue           n      the feeling of being tired                                                                                            weariness               energy
                                                                                 passed out.
to sum up         v      to review the main points; in conclusion                To sum up, our plan is to build a park that everyone can enjoy.     in conclusion     to begin
                         a chemical that is made from plants and can be used as
ethanol           n                                                             The largest source of ethanol in the United States is corn.          alcohol
fossil fuel       n      a fuel such as gasoline or coal                        Coal is a fossil fuel that was used even in the Middle Ages.
refine            v      to remove things from a substance to make it better     In order to refine oil, certain chemicals must be added to it.      purify            contaminate
                                                                              Before oil can be used as a fuel, it must go through a process of
refinement        n      the process of removing something from a substance                                                                           purification     contamination
                         something that is used when a similar thing can't be If a school teacher is sick for a day, the school must ask a substitute
substitute        n                                                                                                                                   replacement
                         used                                                 to teach the class.
negate            v      to make something not have an effect                    Some people negate global warming the world's biggest problem.      annul             aggravate
                                                                                 Hydrogen power is one of the many possibilities in the search for a
sustainable       adj    able to be continued for a long time                                                                                        maintainable
                                                                                 sustainable energy source.
label             v      to use a word or phrase to describe something           I labelled the jars to differentiate between them.                  tag
notwithstanding   prep   despite                                                 Notwithstanding their experience, they were an immediate success. despite
Unit 9

                      the person who decides what to include in a
editor          n                                                 The editor of a newspaper decides which stories will be printed.
                      newspaper or magazine
report          n     a written description of something                     Scientists must write up reports describing their experiments.        document
democratic      adj   letting everyone participate                         The US has a democratic system of government.                           public            capitalist
accept          v     to take something offered to you                     Children should not accept gifts from strangers.                        take              refuse
                                                                           The most reliable people are the ones the company cannot do
reliable        adj   something that can be trusted, dependable                                                                                    dependable        unreliable
                      to write or film something in order to record it for The teacher asked the students to document every step of their
document        v                                                                                                                                  corroborate
                      future use                                           science projects.
assert          v     to state firmly that something is true                 If you do not assert the truth then many people will never know it.   affirm

professional    n     someone who has specialized skills or training         When a computer breaks down, it is better to call a professional.     expert            novice
                      the job of writing new reports for newspapers, TV, or
journalism      n                                                            People say that I should study journalism and become a reporter.
                                                                             Many people who look at computer screens all day can have
chronic         adj   happening often and in a regular way                                                                                         prolonged         temporary
                                                                             chronic headaches.
                                                                             If a person's body does not have enough insulin, doctors can
hormone         n     a natural chemical produced by the human body
                                                                             provide a shot to help.
                      a disease that makes the body unable to store sugars When a person has diabetes, his or her body does not control
diabetes        n
                      correctly                                              sugars properly.
                      a substance in the body that controls how much sugar
insulin         n                                                            A hormone is a chemical that carries messages in the body.
                      is in the blood
                                                                             Some scientists worry about the psychological effects of television
psychological   adj   involving how the mind works                                                                                                 mental            physical
                                                                             A good night's sleep can make a person more mentally aware
mental          adj   having to do with the mind                                                                                                   psychologically   physically
                                                                             throughout the day.
                                                                             The body is naturally able to regulate a person's breathing when he
regulate        v     to control something in order to make it work properly                                                                       control
                                                                             or she is asleep.
logic           n     the ability to connect ideas                           Many examinations are designed to test a student's logic.             intelligence      illogic
acquisition     n     the process of learning new things                     The process of learning acquisition begins very early in a child's life. acquirement
Unit 10

stingy           adj   unwilling to share or give to others                    Stingy people don't like to share things.                         miserly             genourous
                                                                               Bill Gates is becoming famous for his philanthropy as well as his
philanthropy     n     the practice of giving away a lot of money                                                                                charity
generous         adj   willing to share or give to others                      Generous people often have many friends.                          giving              miserly
market economy   n     an economic system not controlled by government         Communist countries do not believe in a market economy.

proper           adv   correct                                                 When you receive a gift, the proper thing to do is say "thank you."    appropriate    improper
                       money or gifts given to a person in exchange for their I want to work for a company that gives its employees excellent
compensation     n                                                                                                                                    remuneration
                       work                                                   compensation.
                                                                              Someday, I hope to have enough wealth to build a museum for my
wealth           n     the amount of money a person owns                                                                                              fortune
                                                                              Sarah has been practicing singing so she can get the lead role in the
role             n     the function of something in an activity                                                                                       part
                                                                              school play.
                                                                              The proportion of people who are rich is small compared to
proportion       n     a number or amount in relation to a whole                                                                                      degree
                                                                              everyone in the country.
                       a part that controls the electricity inside electronic
transistor       n                                                            Some computer chips can contain over one billion transistors.
                                                                              The progress of computers has so far followed an expected process
expected         adj   believed to happen soon or at a certain future time                                                                            anticipated    unxpected
                                                                              of development.
trend            n     the general movement of events in a likely way          The trend of fast computers is likely to continue for many years.      craze
                                                                            Someday, we may have automobiles that can drive themselves to
someday          adv   at a certain time in the future                                                                                                One day
                       the amount of something that a thing can have inside The capacity of computer hard drives is now often over 100
capacity         n                                                                                                                                    capability
                       of it                                                gigabytes.
                                                                            Only the results of credible polls and surveys are likely to be trusted
credible         adj   able to be believed                                                                                                            authentic      fake
                                                                            by the public.
                                                                            While some see credit card debt as a mere annoyance, it can be a
mere             adj   small or unimportant                                                                                                           small          grand
                                                                            very serious problem.
                       a statement that says how someone should do Lawyers must follow a set of guidelines in order to practice law in a
guideline        n                                                                                                                                    rules          suggestions
                       something in the future                              state.
                                                                            A science teacher usually teaches classes solely about the various
solely           adj   only for the reason stated                                                                                                     primarily
Unit 11

value          n     what something is worth                                 The value of gold is steadily increasing.                               price
college        n     a school that students can go to after high school      Many people want to attend college after high school.                   university   kindergarten
plenty         adv   a lot of                                                If you travel in the desert, you should take plenty of water.           lots         little
point          n     reason                                                  The point of studying is to be prepared for tests.                      reason       excuse
former         adj   coming before; previous                                 Bill Clinton is a former president of the US.                           previous     future
circumstance   n     the condition that affects a situation                  Can you think of a circumstance in which it is OK to lie?               occurrence
contribution   n     something you give to help something be successful      Taking the photographs was my contribution to the project.              donation     deduction
                                                                             Many people of the older generation are not comfortable using
generation     n     all the people of about the same age
framework      n     the structure or organization of something              Once you prepare the framework, you can then fill in the details.       structure
                                                                             People in democracies choose someone to be their voice in
voice          n     the right to express opinions                                                                                             communicate        stay quiet
                                                                             The power in most countries is given to a group of people called
power          n     control over a place                                                                                                      authority
                                                                             the government.
                                                                             Power of Attorney is something that gives a person the ability to
represent      v     to speak or act for another person or group of people                                                                     stand for
                                                                             represent someone else.
useless        n     having no use or purpose                                A new product will certainly fail if consumers find it to be useless.   worthless    useful
                                                                             The agreement was mutually beneficial; both people involved were
mutually       adv   for two people or groups equally                                                                                         reciprocally
                                                                             able to solve their problems.
                                                                             The notion that the Earth is warming is becoming more widely
notion         n     an idea about something                                                                                                  idea                fact
                                                                             accepted by people around the world.
reject         v     to refuse to accept something                           Many people reject the idea that coffee is good for your health.        refuse       accept
                                                                             Depending on a person's perspective, many laws can seem helpful
perspective    n     a way of thinking about something                                                                                       point of view
                                                                             or harmful.
                                                                             Many legal documents have a clause stating the rules of the
clause         n     a rule that says that something must be done                                                                            rule
Unit 12

                      the combination of traits and features that define a The bright lights and tall buildings of New York give the city its
character       n                                                                                                                             personality
                      person or a thing                                    character.
image           n     the way something is seen                              If you behave badly, you will hurt your image.                        public viewpoint
                                                                             If you throw chewing gum on the ground, it may get stuck to
stuck           adj   unable to move                                                                                                     glued                        free
                                                                             someone's shoe.
ruin            v     to break                                               If you are not careful with delicate technology, you could ruin it.   destroy            mend
conversely      adv   oppositely                                             My aunt is very tall; conversely, my uncle is quite short.            oppositely         equally
                                                                             It is important to maintain your car's engine so that it lasts a long
maintain        v     to continue something                                                                                                        sustain            erode
construct       v     to build                                               They are going to construct a new library at my school next year.     build              demolish
constant        adj   not changing                                           His visits to his grandparents are as constant as the tides.    consistent               inconsistent
unrelated       adj   not connected or sharing a relationship                The color of the car is unrelated to its performance.           different                related
                                                                             While a parrot is able to say words, it does not know what they
parrot          n     a brightly colored bird that can be taught to speak
                                                                             An animal can only be said to use language when it is able to
combine         v     to put different things together                                                                                       join                     disconnect
                                                                             combine different words together.
                                                                             When animal experiments yield surprising results, the researchers
yield           v     to produce                                                                                                               hold
                                                                             often repeat the experiments to check their results.
                                                                             Sign language was invented as a way for deaf people to
sign language   n     a language that uses hand motions to make words                                                                                                 speech
                                                                             Learning to sit when a human commands it is a feat that some dogs
feat            n     an impressive thing that someone does                                                                                    triumph
                                                                             struggle to learn.
                                                                             Many animals exhibit a desire to learn new abilities taught by
exhibit         v     to show a particular thing or things                                                                                     display
symbol          n     something that is used to represent something else     In sign language, a closed fist is the symbol for the letter "s."     sign
                                                                        To make a good argument, you should reinforce your opinions with
reinforce       v     to support an idea or argument by making it stronger                                                                justify
                                                                        facts or examples.
                      to watch something in order to find out something When an animal is sick, owners should monitor it closely and note
monitor         v                                                                                                                         watch                       neglect
                      about it                                          any changes in behavior.

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