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Basic Skills for the TOEFL® iBT Writing - 2 WORD PARTS DEFINITION SAMPLE SENTENCE SYNONYM ANTONYM UNIT 1 valuable adj to have value or importance Gold is a very valuable metal. priceless worthless spoil v to weaken by treating too well If you spoil a child, they will often misbehave. indulge neglect cheer (someone) up v to make someone happy who is sad The flowers really seemed to cheer up your mother. entertain depress otherwise adv differently You must study, otherwise you might fail. or else It is important to carefully check each component before putting component n a part or piece of something constituent auxillary them together. attempt v to try to do something The soccer player scored a goal on his first attempt. try avoid Families that have sympathy for each other are often strongest and sympathy n knowing the feelings of another empathy disdain happier than families that don’t. The nurse told him to take two aspirin to relieve the symptoms of suffer v to feel less pain alleviate aggravate his headache. If you do not study for your test, you are likely to suffer serious relieve v to lessen a feeling of pain or sickness agonize consequences like failing the class. fall v the weakening or defeat of something The fall of the city happened after it was attacked for three days. defeat triumph In the ancient battle of Thermopylae, the Spartan king fought with troops n people in the military; soldiers soldier civilians only 300 troops. loyal adj willing to support Many people like to own dogs because they are such a loyal pet. faithful disloyal It is usually considered an act of war if a country's army invades invade v to take an army into a country to attack it attack defend another country. The decline of the economy changed when the stock market decline v to become worse decent progress crashed. There has been a stability in crime in the area after the police stability n a state in which few things go wrong perserverance instability began to guard it. sustain v to keep something going Runners find it hard to sustain a fast pace through a long race. maintain unsustain Many people say that someone's personality is more important external adj coming from outside exterior internal than his or her external features. The Internet works because of a huge infrastructure of connected infrastructure n the set of systems that lets something work correctly foundation computers. Unit 2 repay v to pay back after borrowing money Many students must find work to repay their student loans. pay back loan stranger n someone you do not know A stranger is a person you do not know. outsider acquaintence feelings n emotions Actors are skilled at showing many different feelings. emotion loan n money that is borrowed A mortgage is a type of loan used to buy a house. lend borrow disrupt v to upset Natural disasters can disrupt the smooth flow of an economy. interrupt assist A person's nature, more than their abilities, shapes their attitude nature n somebody's character attributes toward life. The boy felt guilty after he was caught stealing candy from the guilty adj feeling very ashamed condemned innocent store. hinder v to make difficult or to block Lack of sleep will hinder a student's ability to do well in school. prevent facilitate retain v to continue to have or hold Many families think that it is important to retain their traditions. hold give up Bricks and stones were popular materials used in many historical materials n the different things used to make something ingredient buildings. Our memories are not perfect, but they are fairly good at fairly adv not completely; somewhat quite barely remembering facts. An air conditioner is a machine used to circulate cool air through a circulate v to move around something without stopping move around stop room. dirt n the soil of the ground When dirt is mixed with water, it becomes mud. grime alter v to change something in order to make it difficult Some people alter pieces of clothing to make them fit better. change retain Some businesses make meetings a fundamental part of their daily fundamental adj related to the most important part of something basic secondary activities. The student studied very hard, thus she got a good grade on her thus adv as a result; therefore accordingly conversely test. evolve v to change slowly over a long period of time Plants and animals can evolve over thousands or millions of years. advance Many people predicted that the Internet would completely transform v to make something completely different change stagnate transform the way we do business. Unit 3 polite adj behaving correctly Saying "please" and "thank you" is one way of being polite. courteous impolite elders n older people Many people feel that children must obey their elders. senior minor worse adj more unpleasant or bad A tornado is much worse than a thunderstorm. better naughty adj to be bad or troublesome Parents should punish their children for naughty behavior. mischeivous good obvious adj easy to notice or understand It is quite obvious that if you eat too many sweets, you will feel ill. apparent inconspicuous overall adv considering everything; in general Although it rained for a few days, I enjoyed the vacation overall. general In the old days, women wore more modest clothing than they do modest adj not proud or boastful humble flamboyant today. I enjoy being in the school play because I get to pretend to be pretend v to act as if doing something imitate someone else. There is nothing worse than criticism from people you thought criticism n saying what is bad about something disapproval compliment were your friends. cure n a medicine given to a sick person Many scientists are searching for a cure for cancer. solution treat v to use medicine to make a sick person better Doctors are people who are trained to treat people who are sick. heal harm illness n a disease; sickness The flu is an illness that begins to spread in the winter each year. disease good health Surveys are used to find out what the general public thinks about public n people in general community private various issues. The telephone is a way to facilitate communication between people facilitate v to help the progress of something assist complicate who are apart. comprehensive adj including many or all parts of something A dictionary is a comprehensive book of the words in a language. extensive imcomprehensive medical adj relating to curing diseases Surgery is a type of medical study. Getting a job is just one part of the transition from childhood to transition n the process of changing from one thing to another shift stagnation adulthood. Libraries often catalog their collections so people can find books catalog v to make a list of a group of things organize easier. Unit 4 value n importance or worth The spread of the Internet has shown the value of information. importance insignificance Some people think that night games in baseball go against the spirit spirit n sense or feeling meaning of the game. unite v to come together When you unite hydrogen and oxygen, you can make water. combine separate accomplishment n a completed goal Being accepted to Harvard is a great accomplishment. acheivement failure team n a group of people working for the same goal When you are part of a team, you are expected to participate. group point of view n opinion The man clearly did not agree with my point of view on the matter. opinion The group used teamwork to accomplish their tasks faster than teamwork n cooperation in a group cooperation noncooperation they each could alone. assist v to help If you can assist me, I will be very grateful for your help. help impede regardless adv in spite of Regardless of his unfriendly appearance, he is a very kind person. despite When a research team find an artifact, it is first studied and then it artifact n an object that was made in ancient times artifact is sometimes displayed in a museum. decay v to be naturally destroyed over time After a plant dies, its leaves will quickly begin to decay. deteriorate flourish Many businesses allow you to pay a fixed amount of money each fixed adj not changing settled flexible month for an expensive product. Most companies will not sell a product if it is flawed in even a small flawed adj having problems or lacking something important imperfect perfect way. radiation n a form of energy caused by chemical reactions The sun sends out radiation in the form of ultraviolet rays. Doctors can derive a patient's diagnosis by studying their derive v to learn something by using other information take away supply symptoms. Words that have identical spellings but mean different things are identical adj exactly the same alike different called homonyms. To find the length of a triangle's side, you must use an equation equation n a mathematics problem used to find a number formula called the Pythagorean theorem. The stock market crash of 1929 caused a definite change in how definite adj clearly decided and unchanging precise indefinite people spent money. Unit 5 volunteer v to do something without payment Many charity groups rely upon volunteer workers. offer services force rebel v to go against something Teenagers sometimes rebel against teachers and parents. defy obey free time n time not spent working Many people take up hobbies in their free time. spare time Freezing weather can be unpleasant in the winter. Similarly, it can similarly adv likewise equally be unpleasant if it is too hot in the summer. Many people regard Christmas as the most joyous holiday of the regard v to consider consider disregard year. More people should engage in regular exercise and fitness engage v to become involved in an activity participate elude activities. integrate v to bring together or combine New students often find it hard to integrate into a new school. incorporate exclude' Clearly, typewriters are not relevant to business like they once relevant v to be meaningful or interesting applicable irrelevant were. I fulfill my obligation to my church by helping to feed homeless fulfill v to meet a goal or complete something accomplish unfulfill people. Many new business owners choose to run their business with close run v to manage a business operate delegate friends. a large area where people go to play games and go on theme park n Paying for repairs is one of the many costs of owning a theme park. amusment park rides Many people make a budget to control how much money they control v to keep something at the correct level regulate spend. ride n a machine that people go in to have fun A roller coaster is a popular type of ride. A merchant must not only sell products but buy many products as merchant n a person or business that sells products tradesman customer well. Much of the revenue that a business makes is spent paying generate v to make; to make money workers. Some businesses have found that a minor revenue in spending can revenue n the money that a business makes profit have major effects. adjustment n a change to make something better The adjustment of most traffic laws is to keep drivers safe. adaptation objective n a goal that a person or business has Advertising is a great way to help a business objective more money. purpose Unit 6 Many people believe that animals should roam free instead of roam v to walk around freely wander cage being kept in zoos. threatened adj likely to be harmed or destroyed Every year people in Kansas are threatened by seasonal tornadoes. endangered v to be in danger of disappearing The World Wildlife Fund works to protect endangered animals. threatened protected Scientists are only now beginning to understand the importance of importance n the quality of being important significance unimportance global warming. the number of people or animals living in a particular population n The population of the world is growing very fast. area decade n a ten-year period We have seen many changes in this city over the last decade. ten years As cities grow, conservation of trees is more important than ever conservation n the protection of natural things preservation destruction before. domestic adj not wild Most farms have a few domestic animals like sheep, pigs, and cows. tame wild eliminate v to get rid of A good gardener must eliminate all the weeds in his garden. eradicate accumulate a layer of rock that forms a part of the surface of the Even though Europe and Asia are considered different continents, plate n Earth they share the same plate. The movement of the surface of the Earth is called tectonic tectonic adv relating to the movement of the Earth's surface movement. Much of the world's oil must be found deep below the Earth's crust n the thick outer layer of the Earth surface core crust. Some would say that electricity is the most important discovery in discovery n an act of finding something for the first time finding history. Many cooks add spices that complement their food to make a complement v to go together well better taste. visible adj able to be seen From Earth, the stars are only visible at night. seeable invisible While the preliminary version of an essay may have problems, they preliminary adj coming before something else introductory can be fixed in later versions. When two people disagree about an issue, their views may contradict v to disagree with something discord contradict each other. amendment n a change or addition made to something Some laws can be changed slightly by adding an amendment. revision Unit 7 lung n the organ used for breathing Smoking can damage the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. There is evidence to suggest that second-hand smoke is just as second-hand smoke n smoke released into the air when a cigarette burns dangerous as smoking. non-smoker n a person who doesn’t smoke Many non-smokers want smoking banned in public places. smoker cancer n a kind of disease Cancer is a serious disease with no cure. alike adj the same People always say my brother and I look alike, but I do not think so. similar dissimilar When I read a newspaper, I look for the sports statistics before statistic n a numerical fact or data anything else. deprived adj lacking something A person deprived of food will soon become ill and die. lacking prosperous favor n an act of helping If you do a favor for someone, that person would be thankful. good turn Many teenagers rebel against the mainstream culture and try to be mainstream adj what is the most common or normal popular different. Many historians who study ancient cultures must decide if a story is myth n an ancient story told for many years fable recount history or just a myth. A common quest for a story's main character is to leave on a quest n a long and difficult journey or search task request journey in search of a magical item. The hero of many stories must battle with an enemy before the hero n a main character that does good and brave things paladin villain story is complete. royalty n someone related to a king or queen The king, queen and their relatives are all considered royalty. peasantry legend n a story in history that is not true One Greek legend involves a mythical hero named Hercules. myth biography Many story writers prefer to first write the plot, while some prefer plot n a group of events in a book or movie storyline to start with the characters. His interest in the school project was evident from his hard, evident n easy to see apparent unclear enthusiastic work. After the fire, the family made sure their house was protected tragedy n a very sad event calamity joy against fire in order to prevent a similar tragedy. It is much easier to understand people when you know the motive motive n the reason that someone does something reason that causes them to act a certain way. Unit 8 suburb n a community around a city Many people prefer to work in the city but live in the suburbs. town city A long commute to work can leave you feeling tired at the end of commute n the trip from home to a workplace travel the day. The more traffic there is on the road, the more pollution there will traffic n the vehicles moving on a road motor vehicles pedestrians be. distance n the amount of space between two places The distance from the Earth to the Sun is millions of kilometers. length downtown n the center or main part of a city or town If you want to see skyscrapers, you will have to go downtown. central city uptown When I get home from work, I am usually too exhausted to cook exhausted adj feeling tired tired energetic dinner. maximize v to increase something as much as possible By planning carefully, you can maximize your studying time. increase minimize After the race, George was overcome with fatigue and nearly fatigue n the feeling of being tired weariness energy passed out. to sum up v to review the main points; in conclusion To sum up, our plan is to build a park that everyone can enjoy. in conclusion to begin a chemical that is made from plants and can be used as ethanol n The largest source of ethanol in the United States is corn. alcohol fuel fossil fuel n a fuel such as gasoline or coal Coal is a fossil fuel that was used even in the Middle Ages. refine v to remove things from a substance to make it better In order to refine oil, certain chemicals must be added to it. purify contaminate Before oil can be used as a fuel, it must go through a process of refinement n the process of removing something from a substance purification contamination refinement. something that is used when a similar thing can't be If a school teacher is sick for a day, the school must ask a substitute substitute n replacement used to teach the class. negate v to make something not have an effect Some people negate global warming the world's biggest problem. annul aggravate Hydrogen power is one of the many possibilities in the search for a sustainable adj able to be continued for a long time maintainable sustainable energy source. label v to use a word or phrase to describe something I labelled the jars to differentiate between them. tag notwithstanding prep despite Notwithstanding their experience, they were an immediate success. despite Unit 9 the person who decides what to include in a editor n The editor of a newspaper decides which stories will be printed. newspaper or magazine report n a written description of something Scientists must write up reports describing their experiments. document democratic adj letting everyone participate The US has a democratic system of government. public capitalist accept v to take something offered to you Children should not accept gifts from strangers. take refuse The most reliable people are the ones the company cannot do reliable adj something that can be trusted, dependable dependable unreliable without. to write or film something in order to record it for The teacher asked the students to document every step of their document v corroborate future use science projects. assert v to state firmly that something is true If you do not assert the truth then many people will never know it. affirm professional n someone who has specialized skills or training When a computer breaks down, it is better to call a professional. expert novice the job of writing new reports for newspapers, TV, or journalism n People say that I should study journalism and become a reporter. radio Many people who look at computer screens all day can have chronic adj happening often and in a regular way prolonged temporary chronic headaches. If a person's body does not have enough insulin, doctors can hormone n a natural chemical produced by the human body provide a shot to help. a disease that makes the body unable to store sugars When a person has diabetes, his or her body does not control diabetes n correctly sugars properly. a substance in the body that controls how much sugar insulin n A hormone is a chemical that carries messages in the body. is in the blood Some scientists worry about the psychological effects of television psychological adj involving how the mind works mental physical violence. A good night's sleep can make a person more mentally aware mental adj having to do with the mind psychologically physically throughout the day. The body is naturally able to regulate a person's breathing when he regulate v to control something in order to make it work properly control or she is asleep. logic n the ability to connect ideas Many examinations are designed to test a student's logic. intelligence illogic acquisition n the process of learning new things The process of learning acquisition begins very early in a child's life. acquirement Unit 10 stingy adj unwilling to share or give to others Stingy people don't like to share things. miserly genourous Bill Gates is becoming famous for his philanthropy as well as his philanthropy n the practice of giving away a lot of money charity business. generous adj willing to share or give to others Generous people often have many friends. giving miserly market economy n an economic system not controlled by government Communist countries do not believe in a market economy. proper adv correct When you receive a gift, the proper thing to do is say "thank you." appropriate improper money or gifts given to a person in exchange for their I want to work for a company that gives its employees excellent compensation n remuneration work compensation. Someday, I hope to have enough wealth to build a museum for my wealth n the amount of money a person owns fortune city. Sarah has been practicing singing so she can get the lead role in the role n the function of something in an activity part school play. The proportion of people who are rich is small compared to proportion n a number or amount in relation to a whole degree everyone in the country. a part that controls the electricity inside electronic transistor n Some computer chips can contain over one billion transistors. equipment The progress of computers has so far followed an expected process expected adj believed to happen soon or at a certain future time anticipated unxpected of development. trend n the general movement of events in a likely way The trend of fast computers is likely to continue for many years. craze Someday, we may have automobiles that can drive themselves to someday adv at a certain time in the future One day destinations. the amount of something that a thing can have inside The capacity of computer hard drives is now often over 100 capacity n capability of it gigabytes. Only the results of credible polls and surveys are likely to be trusted credible adj able to be believed authentic fake by the public. While some see credit card debt as a mere annoyance, it can be a mere adj small or unimportant small grand very serious problem. a statement that says how someone should do Lawyers must follow a set of guidelines in order to practice law in a guideline n rules suggestions something in the future state. A science teacher usually teaches classes solely about the various solely adj only for the reason stated primarily sciences. Unit 11 value n what something is worth The value of gold is steadily increasing. price college n a school that students can go to after high school Many people want to attend college after high school. university kindergarten plenty adv a lot of If you travel in the desert, you should take plenty of water. lots little point n reason The point of studying is to be prepared for tests. reason excuse former adj coming before; previous Bill Clinton is a former president of the US. previous future circumstance n the condition that affects a situation Can you think of a circumstance in which it is OK to lie? occurrence contribution n something you give to help something be successful Taking the photographs was my contribution to the project. donation deduction Many people of the older generation are not comfortable using generation n all the people of about the same age computers. framework n the structure or organization of something Once you prepare the framework, you can then fill in the details. structure People in democracies choose someone to be their voice in voice n the right to express opinions communicate stay quiet government. The power in most countries is given to a group of people called power n control over a place authority the government. Power of Attorney is something that gives a person the ability to represent v to speak or act for another person or group of people stand for represent someone else. useless n having no use or purpose A new product will certainly fail if consumers find it to be useless. worthless useful The agreement was mutually beneficial; both people involved were mutually adv for two people or groups equally reciprocally able to solve their problems. The notion that the Earth is warming is becoming more widely notion n an idea about something idea fact accepted by people around the world. reject v to refuse to accept something Many people reject the idea that coffee is good for your health. refuse accept Depending on a person's perspective, many laws can seem helpful perspective n a way of thinking about something point of view or harmful. Many legal documents have a clause stating the rules of the clause n a rule that says that something must be done rule agreement. Unit 12 the combination of traits and features that define a The bright lights and tall buildings of New York give the city its character n personality person or a thing character. image n the way something is seen If you behave badly, you will hurt your image. public viewpoint If you throw chewing gum on the ground, it may get stuck to stuck adj unable to move glued free someone's shoe. ruin v to break If you are not careful with delicate technology, you could ruin it. destroy mend conversely adv oppositely My aunt is very tall; conversely, my uncle is quite short. oppositely equally It is important to maintain your car's engine so that it lasts a long maintain v to continue something sustain erode time. construct v to build They are going to construct a new library at my school next year. build demolish constant adj not changing His visits to his grandparents are as constant as the tides. consistent inconsistent unrelated adj not connected or sharing a relationship The color of the car is unrelated to its performance. different related While a parrot is able to say words, it does not know what they parrot n a brightly colored bird that can be taught to speak mean. An animal can only be said to use language when it is able to combine v to put different things together join disconnect combine different words together. When animal experiments yield surprising results, the researchers yield v to produce hold often repeat the experiments to check their results. Sign language was invented as a way for deaf people to sign language n a language that uses hand motions to make words speech communicate. Learning to sit when a human commands it is a feat that some dogs feat n an impressive thing that someone does triumph struggle to learn. Many animals exhibit a desire to learn new abilities taught by exhibit v to show a particular thing or things display humans. symbol n something that is used to represent something else In sign language, a closed fist is the symbol for the letter "s." sign To make a good argument, you should reinforce your opinions with reinforce v to support an idea or argument by making it stronger justify facts or examples. to watch something in order to find out something When an animal is sick, owners should monitor it closely and note monitor v watch neglect about it any changes in behavior.