VIEWS: 22 PAGES: 28 POSTED ON: 7/26/2011
Groups Another slight shift • Moving from managing individual to collectives. Up to now focus is on supervising one person at a time. Its important. But individual behavior is a also a function of teams. • Commonly behave differently in different groups. • We will explore why this occurs • Effective team management Trends towards Teams and Groups in Organizations. • Primary advantages—More informed decision making/better decisions (usually). Associated with delegation especially in Service sector where there is more variability of what to do than in production. • Examples Weyerhauser Diaper, Pella and Kaizen (both production). Quality and Quantity of Performance • Everyone has strengths and weaknesses. Utilize talents more effectively. • Teams ensure less lumpy quantity of performance. Share work loads. • Examples—good team projects. Project teams. Motivational • Social Facilitation—people perform harder simply being in the presence of others than by self. Dark Side • Teams do not always work well together and communication needs slows down work (quantity of performance) • Individuals coast (Motivation). • Decision processes sometimes go very wrong (Lousy decision making). Effective Teams Improve organizational performance • Ineffective teams decrease organizational performance. • Following content is designed to make the advantages prevail over the disadvantages. • Need to understand group dynamics. Not so easy see/address. Tend to be abstract. What Influences group behavior • Roles • Norms • Status (not in book) • Cohesiveness • All of these almost an “invisible hand” unlike leadership Roles • Behaviors associated in occupying a given position in a group. • Individual expect you to do certain things (related to norms). • Based on acting roles. One adopts a role. • Identity or Role within a group Uses of Role--Identity • Role of the newcomer? • Role of certain positions on athletic team (point guard) • Role of older employee say 55-60. Functional Roles • Team members often have functional roles--task roles (initiator, agenda setter, critic, advocate role, control role) and maintenance roles (humorist, encourager, conflict manager, social organizer). Role Stress/problems • Role overload Simply having too many demands put on you • In teams can someone play both task and maintenance roles? • Commonly supervisors put role overload on subordinates. Role conflict • Conflict expectations between people • Supervisors naturally have this. • Caught between managers and employees. Role ambiguity • Do not know what is expected of them. Absence of defined role expectations. Not communicated and assumed. Roles and Team effectiveness • Disruptive roles and supportive roles. • Complainer, back stabber etc. • Functional roles are critical to effectiveness. • Role stress is prevalent in new groups or changes in groups. Norms • Difficult to describe—prescribed ways of behaving. But not clear who exactly prescribes them. • Breaking a norm. How do norms develop • Leadership shapes norms directly with statements or indirectly by role modeling behaviors and rewards. How do I make this class different from other classes? • Critical events • Primacy—new group • General expectations Contrast norms in two groups • How do you behave differently in your family than you do at work. How do you behave different in class than at work? Why? • Norms have their positive and negative consequences. Norms are good • Help the group survive • Clarify expectations • Avoid embarrassments • Give a group an identity Asch Study • a b c Groupthink • Read the text. Status • Heirarchical social order. • Pecking order. • Animals naturally have one. • Societies have them. • Groups have them. How is status created? Function of Status Do status differences tend to create the positives or negatives of team performance as discussed earlier? Cohesiveness • Willingness to remain in a group • Book refers to we-ness. • Research suggests effective teams have higher cohesiveness. Linked to communication, trust, and retention. To much can be bad. How do you move to effective teams • Functional roles • Role stress low • Functional norms (how you change them is never easy because they are shared habits). • Lower status • Higher Cohesiveness Case—hot seat • What are the identities • Are functional roles being played? • Status? • What are some of the norms in this group? • Cohesiveness? • What can be done.