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         Another slight shift
• Moving from managing individual to
  collectives. Up to now focus is on
  supervising one person at a time. Its
  important. But individual behavior is a
  also a function of teams.
• Commonly behave differently in different
• We will explore why this occurs
• Effective team management
Trends towards Teams and Groups
         in Organizations.
• Primary advantages—More informed
  decision making/better decisions (usually).
  Associated with delegation especially in
  Service sector where there is more
  variability of what to do than in production.
• Examples Weyerhauser Diaper, Pella and
  Kaizen (both production).
       Quality and Quantity of
• Everyone has strengths and weaknesses.
  Utilize talents more effectively.
• Teams ensure less lumpy quantity of
  performance. Share work loads.
• Examples—good team projects. Project
• Social Facilitation—people perform harder
  simply being in the presence of others
  than by self.
              Dark Side
• Teams do not always work well together
  and communication needs slows down
  work (quantity of performance)
• Individuals coast (Motivation).
• Decision processes sometimes go very
  wrong (Lousy decision making).
      Effective Teams Improve
     organizational performance
• Ineffective teams decrease organizational
• Following content is designed to make the
  advantages prevail over the
• Need to understand group dynamics. Not
  so easy see/address. Tend to be abstract.
    What Influences group behavior
•   Roles
•   Norms
•   Status (not in book)
•   Cohesiveness
•   All of these almost an “invisible hand”
    unlike leadership
• Behaviors associated in occupying a given
  position in a group.
• Individual expect you to do certain things
  (related to norms).
• Based on acting roles. One adopts a role.
• Identity or Role within a group
       Uses of Role--Identity
• Role of the newcomer?
• Role of certain positions on athletic team
  (point guard)
• Role of older employee say 55-60.
           Functional Roles
• Team members often have functional
  roles--task roles (initiator, agenda setter,
  critic, advocate role, control role) and
  maintenance roles (humorist, encourager,
  conflict manager, social organizer).
       Role Stress/problems
• Role overload Simply having too many
  demands put on you
• In teams can someone play both task and
  maintenance roles?
• Commonly supervisors put role overload
  on subordinates.
             Role conflict
• Conflict expectations between people
• Supervisors naturally have this.
• Caught between managers and
           Role ambiguity
• Do not know what is expected of them.
  Absence of defined role expectations. Not
  communicated and assumed.
 Roles and Team effectiveness
• Disruptive roles and supportive roles.
• Complainer, back stabber etc.
• Functional roles are critical to
• Role stress is prevalent in new groups or
  changes in groups.
• Difficult to describe—prescribed ways of
  behaving. But not clear who exactly
  prescribes them.
• Breaking a norm.
      How do norms develop
• Leadership shapes norms directly with
  statements or indirectly by role modeling
  behaviors and rewards. How do I make
  this class different from other classes?
• Critical events
• Primacy—new group
• General expectations
   Contrast norms in two groups
• How do you behave differently in your
  family than you do at work. How do you
  behave different in class than at work?
• Norms have their positive and negative
             Norms are good
•   Help the group survive
•   Clarify expectations
•   Avoid embarrassments
•   Give a group an identity
            Asch Study

    a   b   c
• Read the text.
•   Heirarchical social order.
•   Pecking order.
•   Animals naturally have one.
•   Societies have them.
•   Groups have them.
How is status created?
Function of Status
Do status differences tend to create
 the positives or negatives of team
performance as discussed earlier?
• Willingness to remain in a group
• Book refers to we-ness.
• Research suggests effective teams have
  higher cohesiveness. Linked to
  communication, trust, and retention. To
  much can be bad.
   How do you move to effective
• Functional roles
• Role stress low
• Functional norms (how you change them
  is never easy because they are shared
• Lower status
• Higher Cohesiveness
             Case—hot seat
•   What are the identities
•   Are functional roles being played?
•   Status?
•   What are some of the norms in this group?
•   Cohesiveness?
•   What can be done.

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