Another slight shift
• Moving from managing individual to
collectives. Up to now focus is on
supervising one person at a time. Its
important. But individual behavior is a
also a function of teams.
• Commonly behave differently in different
• We will explore why this occurs
• Effective team management
Trends towards Teams and Groups
• Primary advantages—More informed
decision making/better decisions (usually).
Associated with delegation especially in
Service sector where there is more
variability of what to do than in production.
• Examples Weyerhauser Diaper, Pella and
Kaizen (both production).
Quality and Quantity of
• Everyone has strengths and weaknesses.
Utilize talents more effectively.
• Teams ensure less lumpy quantity of
performance. Share work loads.
• Examples—good team projects. Project
• Social Facilitation—people perform harder
simply being in the presence of others
than by self.
• Teams do not always work well together
and communication needs slows down
work (quantity of performance)
• Individuals coast (Motivation).
• Decision processes sometimes go very
wrong (Lousy decision making).
Effective Teams Improve
• Ineffective teams decrease organizational
• Following content is designed to make the
advantages prevail over the
• Need to understand group dynamics. Not
so easy see/address. Tend to be abstract.
What Influences group behavior
• Status (not in book)
• All of these almost an “invisible hand”
• Behaviors associated in occupying a given
position in a group.
• Individual expect you to do certain things
(related to norms).
• Based on acting roles. One adopts a role.
• Identity or Role within a group
Uses of Role--Identity
• Role of the newcomer?
• Role of certain positions on athletic team
• Role of older employee say 55-60.
• Team members often have functional
roles--task roles (initiator, agenda setter,
critic, advocate role, control role) and
maintenance roles (humorist, encourager,
conflict manager, social organizer).
• Role overload Simply having too many
demands put on you
• In teams can someone play both task and
• Commonly supervisors put role overload
• Conflict expectations between people
• Supervisors naturally have this.
• Caught between managers and
• Do not know what is expected of them.
Absence of defined role expectations. Not
communicated and assumed.
Roles and Team effectiveness
• Disruptive roles and supportive roles.
• Complainer, back stabber etc.
• Functional roles are critical to
• Role stress is prevalent in new groups or
changes in groups.
• Difficult to describe—prescribed ways of
behaving. But not clear who exactly
• Breaking a norm.
How do norms develop
• Leadership shapes norms directly with
statements or indirectly by role modeling
behaviors and rewards. How do I make
this class different from other classes?
• Critical events
• Primacy—new group
• General expectations
Contrast norms in two groups
• How do you behave differently in your
family than you do at work. How do you
behave different in class than at work?
• Norms have their positive and negative
Norms are good
• Help the group survive
• Clarify expectations
• Avoid embarrassments
• Give a group an identity
a b c
• Read the text.
• Heirarchical social order.
• Pecking order.
• Animals naturally have one.
• Societies have them.
• Groups have them.
How is status created?
Function of Status
Do status differences tend to create
the positives or negatives of team
performance as discussed earlier?
• Willingness to remain in a group
• Book refers to we-ness.
• Research suggests effective teams have
higher cohesiveness. Linked to
communication, trust, and retention. To
much can be bad.
How do you move to effective
• Functional roles
• Role stress low
• Functional norms (how you change them
is never easy because they are shared
• Lower status
• Higher Cohesiveness
• What are the identities
• Are functional roles being played?
• What are some of the norms in this group?
• What can be done.