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					                                                                                                                                                11/11/2010




                                                                                          Exemplos de aplicações
        Construindo Aplicações na Web Semântica
                                   Aplicações em EaD                                      1. UnA-SUS
                                                                                             Catalogação e busca de objetos de aprendizagem
                                                                                             para a área de saúde
                                                                                             Generalização para outros domínios de aplicação

                                                               Renato Fileto              2. Semantic Learning Objects
                                                                 fileto@inf.ufsc.br
                                                                                             Expansão de consultas com uso de ontologias
                   Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Computação – PPGCC                Negociação entre agentes com apoio de
                                  Departamento de Informática e Estatística – INE            (mapeamentos entre) ontologias
                                                       Centro Tecnológico – CTC

                                                                                          3. DLNotes
                                                                                             Anotação semântica em bibliotecas digitais
                                                                                             Estudo de caso com a Biblioteca Digital de Literatura
                                                                                      1
                                                                                             Brasileira




     UnA-SUS – Universidade Aberta do SUS                                                 Metas da UnA-SUS

                                                                                           Desenvolver um
        Programa do Ministério da Saúde para atender
        necessidades de            e
        permanente dos                                                                       plataforma          para            de


        Ações focadas em                           :
                                                                                             composição                 e                de
           formulação de conteúdo
           bibliotecas digitais                                                            Montar e oferecer cursos para
           cursos a distância                                                              formação continuada de
                                                                                           profissionais da saúde

                                                                                                                                                     4




     O processo de produção,                                                              O processo de produção,
     catalogação e reuso de OAs                                                           catalogação e reuso de OAs


             requisições

                         Design, revisão e                        Conteúdo
                           publicação
  Concepção e            OAs
validação de OAs                          Metadados
                                                               Busca e reuso




                           OA Metadados

             OAs            Repositório             OAs
                                                              SGA, outros reps.




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                SGA                  Repositórios   Repositórios   Reuso é essencial
                                        OAs         Conteúdo
                                                    Multimídia

                          OA1
                                                       Vídeo       • OAs são caros para produzir !!!
Curso A
                                                                   • Demandas emergenciais na saúde pública
                                                                     exigem agilidade e pronta resposta com
                           OA2
                                                     Imagens         cursos, para a qualificação de profissionais

Curso B

                                                                                                      H1N1 ?!

                           OA3




                                                                   Navegação hiperbólica no DeCS
                      Apoplexia




                                     gripe suína
                                       gripe A
                                      influenza
                                        H1N1
                                           …




  Catalogação de Objetos de Aprendizagem
  (OAs) usando Vocabulários Controlados                            Seleção via contexto ontológico



   •      Seleção de termos do DeCS, CID-10,
          SNOMED, ...
           – via fornecimento de palavras-chave que
              são pesquisadas na base de
              conhecimento
           – via navegação em uma visão do
              conhecimento em forma de árvore




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Protótipo (catalogação com entrada                    Protótipo (catalogação com navegação
de palavra-chave)                                     na base de conhecimento)




        DSpace:Catalogação de OA.swf                                         DSpace:Recuperação de OA.swf




                                                                                                   DeCs
Recuperação de Objetos de Aprendizagem (OAs)
                                                                                                                                                                anônimas (DeCs)




Baseada em Conhecimento
                                                                                                                                                              padrão (sinônimo)
                                                                                Doenças                               Anatomia

                                                                                                                                                                    anota

                                                        Doenças                             Doenças do Sistema                       Sistema
                                                    Cardiovasculares                             Nervoso                             Nervoso               específica de domínio


                                                      Doenças                                                                             Sistema Nervoso
                                                     Vasculares                     Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
                                                                                             Central                                           Central


•   Vocabulários e relações semânticas:               Transtornos
                                                   Cerebrovasculares
                                                                                                                                                Encéfalo
                                                                                                Encefalopatias
                                                    Acidente Vascular
                                                        Cerebral
                                                                                                  Transtornos
    – Oriundos do DeCS                                              Icto
                                                                  Cerebral
                                                                                               Cerebrovasculares                               Prosencéfalo




    – Definidos pelos catalogadores de OAs         Acidente
                                                                                              Acidente Vascular
                                                                                                  Cerebral                                      Telencáfalo
                                                   Vascular
                                                  Encefálico
    – Gerados pelo cruzamento de informações                                                                                                          Cérebro
                                                  Acidente
      com o CID-10 (Classificação Internacional   Vascular
                                                     do                           AVC
                                                  Cérebro
      de Doenças)
                                                   Acidente
    – Ex: sinônimos, é um(a), parte de, causa,     Vascular
                                                   Cerebral


      efeito, sintoma, etc.                          Acidente                     Ictus
                                                                                                          Apoplexia              O.A. 1                          Hemisférios
                                                                                                                                                                  Cerebrais
                                                  Cerebrovascular                Cerebral

                                                                    Apoplexia                Apoplexia                Derrame
                                                                                          Cerebrovascular             Cerebral               O.A. 2
                                                                     Cerebral




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                                                                                                                          Busca de OAs na área de saúde
                                                 DeCs




                                                                                                                          usando conhecimento de domínio
                              Doenças                             Anatomia


      Doenças                             Doenças do Sistema                     Sistema
  Cardiovasculares                             Nervoso                           Nervoso


    Doenças                                                                           Sistema Nervoso
   Vasculares                     Doenças do Sistema Nervoso
                                           Central                                         Central

    Transtornos
 Cerebrovasculares
                                               Encefalopatias                               Encéfalo

    Acidente Cerebral
       Vascular(1)
                                               Transtornos
                                            Cerebrovasculares                               Prosencéfalo
                  Icto
                Cerebral

                                           Acidente Cerebral Vascular
 Acidente                                                                                   Telencáfalo
                                                      (1)
 Vascular
Encefálico

                                                                                              Cérebro
Acidente
Vascular                                                                                        (2)
   do                           AVC
Cérebro


 Acidente
 Vascular
 Cerebral

                                                      Apoplexia              O.A. 1                       Hemisférios
   Acidente                     Ictus                                                                      Cerebrais
Cerebrovascular                Cerebral

                  Apoplexia                Apoplexia
                                        Cerebrovascular
                                                                  Derrame              19 2
                                                                                        O.A.
                   Cerebral                                       Cerebral




    Semantic Learning Objects                                                                                             Problem 1: Heterogeneous
    (VIAN, J. ; SILVEIRA, R. A. ; FILETO, R . , WCCE 2009)                                                                metadata standards for LOs



                                                                                                                        LOM              Dublin              IMS LRM             ISO MLR             AICC
                                                                                                                                         Core                                                        Metadata
                                                                                                                        Title            Title               Title               Title               Title
                                                                                                                        Description      Description         Description         Description         Description
                                                                                                                        Keyword          Subject             Keyword             Subject             Keyword
                                                                                                                        Contribute,      Contributor,        Contribute,         Contributor,        Contribute,
                                                                                                                        role             Creator,            Role                Role                Role
                                                                                                                                         Publisher
                                                                                                                        Format           Format              Format              Format              Format




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2




                  Proposal                                                                                                       Proposal

                                                                                                                          The Multi-agent system proposed have two type of
       • Communication between the search interface                                                                       agents: Indexer and Searcher.
         (Web application) and the Searcher agent via
         xmlrpc protocol.
       • Agents message exchange based on FIPA ACL
         (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents -
         Agent Communication Language) agents
         language.
       • Agents communication with ontology using
         the Jena Framework




                                                                                                                    2                 Agent Diagram – O-MASE methodology draw with eclipse’s plugin AgentTool III     2
                                                                                                                    3                                                                                                 4




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        Proposal                                                                     Proposal

 Indexer (one instance per repository):
                                                                              Example of LO description
 • It indexes LOs in the repository, using the                                     LOM (Scorm 1.2 object made with EXelearning tool; file
 vector model for information recovery (i.e.,                                      imslrm.xml)
 counting word occurrences in the metadata                                    …….
 values) extended with weights for different                                  <?xml version="1.0"?>
                                                                              <lom
 metadata elements                                                             xmlns="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsmd_rootv1p2p1"
                                                                               xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 • It receives messages from searcher agents                                   xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.imsglobal.org/xsd/imsmd_rootv1p2p1
 looking for LOs described with specific terms in                                imsmd_rootv1p2p1.xsd">
                                                                               <general>
 specific metadata elements                                                         <title>
                                                                                              <langstring>Stroke and tabagism</langstring>
 • It is able to map LO metadata standards and                                      </title>
 retrieve LOs from the repository regardless of                               ……
 the metadata standards used for their
 description
                                                                          2                                                                        2
                                                                          5                                                                        6




        Proposal                                                                     Proposal

  Example of LO description                                                   Indexing – Vector model extended with weights for metadata
                                                                                 elements
     Dublin Core (IMS object made with the EXelearning tool;
     file dublincore.xml)
  <metadata                                                                        N = n1*f1 + n2*f2 + ... + nx*fx)
    xmlns="http://www.exelearning.org/metadata/dc/"                                    N = weighted frequency of the term in the LO description
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"                              ni = number of occurrences of the term in the metadata
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.exelearning.org/metadata/dc/                           element i
    http://www.exelearning.org/metadata/dc/schema.xsd"                                 f i = relevance factor for the metadata element i
   xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
   xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/cd/terms/">
                                                                                   P = N * log (NO/ NOC)
  <dc:title>Stroke and tabagism</dc:title>
                                                                                       N = Weighted frequency of the term in LO
  .......
                                                                                       NO = Total number of LOs in the repository
                                                                                       NOC = Number of LOs in the repository that contain the term
                                                                                       P = Relevance of the term in the LO description
                                                                          2                                                                       2
                                                                          7                                                                       8




        Proposal                                                                     Proposal

                                                1. Access the LO and          Searcher (one instance per User):
   Indexing                                     recover it metadata
                                                values based on
                                                                              • It receives requests from the user, preprocess them
                                                mapping standards
                                                                              using a domain ontology (to solve ambiguities and
               LO
                                                                              extend queries with related concepts and instances),
                LO
                                                                              and communicates with indexing agents to look for LOs
                                                                              to answer the request
                                                  2. Calculate the
                                                  weighted relevance of       • It waits for responses from indexers, informing the
                                                  metadata values used        existence of LOs related to the search, ranks the
                                                  to describe the LO          resulting list of objects and presents it to the user

Term {                                                                        • Present options for refinement and expansion of the
   LO - A (Weight_A)                                                          search if necessary and options for downloading and
   LO - B (Weight_B)                                                          presenting the LOs.
}                                             3. Record the LO’s
                                              description entry into
                                              the index                   2                                                                        3
                                                                          9                                                                        0




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  Semantic searching                                                Case study: health sciences

                                Stroke = CVA,                       Developing e-learning facilities for UnaSUS (Open
                                    Cerebrovascular Accident,
                                    Cerebrovascular Apoplexy,       University of the Brazilian Health System)
                                     ...
                                    DUE_TO                          Techniques based on metadata and ontologies to
        Stroke                      BRAIN ISCHEMIA,                 provide semantic means for:
                                    INTRACRANIAL
                                           HEMORRHAGES                Cataloguing LOs from several heterogeneous data
                                                                      sources and repositories (LOR)
                   “AVC” OR “Stroke”                                  Searching for LOs with better levels of precision and
                                                                      recall
                       LO - A                                         Defining contents for courses that target specific
                                                                      audiences and needs (e.g., professionals like doctors and
                       LO - B
                                                                      nurses, specific themes like swine flu treatment)
                                                                      Support the reuse of LOs in the composition of different
                                                                      courses
   LO - A                        LO - B                         3                                                                 3
                                                                1                                                                 2




  Health Science Descriptors
                                                                    Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  (DeCS)
                                                                      MeSH Heading: Stroke
                                                                      Entry Term: Apoplexy
                                                                      Entry Term: Cerebral Stroke
                                                                      Entry Term: Cerebrovascular Accident
                                                                      Entry Term: Cerebrovascular Accident, Acute
                                                                      Entry Term: Cerebrovascular Apoplexy
                                                                      Entry Term: Cerebrovascular Stroke
                                                                      Entry Term: CVA (Cerebrovascular Accident)
                                                                      Entry Term: Stroke, Acute
                                                                      Entry Term: Vascular Accident, Brain
                                                                      Scope Note: A group of pathological conditions
                                                                      characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of
                                                                      neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or
                                                                      INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by
                                                                      the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic
                                                                      location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the
                                                                      affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-
                                                                      hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of
                                                                3     Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)                               3
                                                                3                                                                 4




MeSH structure 1                                                    MeSH structure 2

                                                                                        Another
                 More general                                                           context




                                                                       siblin
                                                                            g                               More specific
   siblin                                                             terms
        g                                 More specific
  terms

                                                                3                                                                 3
                                                                5                                                                 6




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     Conclusions

  Our proposal provide interoperability between                                Supporting Collaborative Learning
  repositories of LOs described with a variety of
                                                                              Activities with a Digital Library and
  metadata standards and vocabularies.
  It includes facilities for semantic searching LO
                                                                                                       Annotations
  repositories, with a potential to improve search
                                                                                                                                  Saïd Tazi2,3
  results and foster the reuse of LOs                               Tiago Rios da ROCHA1
                                                                    Roberto WILLRICH1                        2LAAS-CNRS,    Toulouse, F-31077
  An ongoing work, with lots tasks to do yet:                       Renato FILETO1                             3Université Toulouse; UT1, UPS,
                                                                                                               INSA, INP, ISAE; LAAS, Toulouse
    Finish implementation                                           1PPGCC,   UFSC, Florianopolis-SC                                   FRANCE
    Make empirical tests to evaluate the benefits in real           BRAZIL
    applications
    Take into account the specific user preferences to
    generate customized search results
    Use ontologies also in the indexers in order to enrich the
    possibilities of negotiation between indexer and search
                                                               3
    agents                                                     7                                                                                 38




     Table of Contents                                                            Introduction

                                                                        Digital Libraries (DLs)
     Introduction                                                             Information systems for supporting the organization and
     Annotation and learning                                                  easy access to collections of digital contents (documents,
                                                                               image, video, etc.)
     The DLNotes annotation system
                                                                               Contents are described by metadata
     Case study: Digital Library of Brazilian
                                                                                   Dublin Core (DC): Title, Creator, Date,
      Literature (DL-BL)
                                                                                   Subject, Publisher, Format, Description,
     Conclusions and future work                                                  Contributor, Identifier, Type, Rights,
                                                                                   Language, Source, Relation, and Coverage




                                                                                                                                                 40




        Introduction                                                              Annotations and learning

 Digital libraries and learning                                        One annotation has two parts:
    DLs are sources of documents for learning                                  The anchor
        Scientific papers, literature, etc.                                        Identifies the annotated portion of the
    They can provide easy access to documents                                      document
    independent of time (always available) and                                     One passage of a text, one region of an
    space (on the Web)                                                             image or graphic, or a position in a video, ...
    Just providing access to documents is not                                  Attached information
    enough. New functionalities are also required:
        Allow the individual and collective construction of                        Additional information: comment, criticism,
        knowledge (sharing information)                                            questions, examples, review aid, …
        Support communication among DL’s users (students                           Organize information: identify concepts,
        and instructors)
                                                                                   instances, their properties and relations
    Adopted solution: Annotation system on
    DL’s
                                                               41                                                                                42




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       Annotations and learning                                                     Annotations and learning

 Annotation types                                                              Annotation Types
                                                                                 – Semantic annotations (based on ontologies)
      Free-text annotations
                                                                                    • Associate an anchor to one or more semantic
         Associate an anchor to additional                                            descriptions (e.g., "Roberto Willrich " instance of
         information (text which is freely defined by                                 professor)
         the annotator)
         Comparable to the activity of reading and                                                             Author
                                                                                                                  Surname: Willrich
         freely writing notes on the paper                                                                        FirstName: Roberto
                                                                                                                  Institution: UFSC
                                 Title: Free-text annotation example
                                 Author: Renato Fileto
                                 Contents:
                                     These slides were originally
                                 produced by Roberto Willrich in                                                         Knowledge Base
                                 French for a presentation in Tolouse

                                                                                                           – Semantic descriptions can be stored in
                                                                                                             an ontology or in a knowledge base
                                                                        43                                                                            44




       Annotations and learning                                                    Annotations and learning

   Annotation Types                                                            Annotation Types
    – Semantic annotations (based on ontologies)                                 – Semantic annotations (based on ontologies)
       • Associate an anchor to one or more semantic                                • Associate an anchor to one or more semantic
         descriptions (e.g., "Roberto Willrich " instance of                          descriptions (e.g., "Roberto Willrich " instance of
         professor)                                                                   professor)

                                   – Ontology
                                       • Formal and explicit
                                         conceptualization of an                                               – Knowledge Base
                                         universe of discourse                                                    • Collection of knowledge
                                       • Concepts, relations,                                                     • For our work, it is an
                                         instances, and axioms                                                      ontology populated with
                                       • RDF, OWL: W3C’s                                                            individuals (instances
                                         standards to represent                                                     de concepts)
                                         and exchange knowledge
                                         and ontologies
                                                                                                                         Knowledge Base

                                                                        45                                                                            46




        The DLNotes System                                                           The DLNotes System

 DLNotes : Annotation System for DLs                                         DLNotes : Annotation System for DLs
      Supports the creation and management of                                      Fosters the communication among users
      annotations on the DL’s contents                                                Via discussion threads that can be associated to each
         free-text annotations                                                        annotation
         semantic annotations (referring to an ontology)                           Supports the specification and execution of
             The majority of the annotation systems support just                   « annotation activities »
             either free-text annotations or semantic annotations,
                                                                                      Activities consisting of the creation of annotations
             though both types of annotations are useful for
             learning                                                                 The students must analyze the DL’s contents
      Enables knowledge construction and sharing                                      (e.g., a document) and create a set of specific
      for learning activities (enriching the DL)                                      annotations
         private annotation set and knowledge base for each                           Examples:
         user                                                                             Identify and classify the characters (personages) from a
                                                                                          book
         public annotations and knowledge base shared by
                                                                                          Identify the figures of speech in a passage
         all users
                                                                        50                                                                            51




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       The DLNotes System                                                                                                The DLNotes System

                                                                                                                  DLNotes annotation schema
 DLNotes : Annotation System for DLs                                                                                  Extends W3C’s Annotea annotation schema (based on RDF)
    Can be easily integrated with DLs, via its API                                                                                                                                                                               http://..x.g
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      if
    Adaptable to the domain of the DL
         By changing the ontology used for semantic annotation                                                                               Public or
                                                                                                                                              Private
                                                                                                                                                                            Annotation
                                                                                                                                                                             (or some                                                “Bob”
                                                                                                                                                                            sub-classs)

    The users can cooperatively feed the public




                                                                                                                                                                               rdf:type
    knowledge base with                                                                                                         2008-10-27T15:11:51Z                                                                 annotates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Document


         individuals (instances of the concepts described in the                                                                                                             #id annot.
         ontology) identified in the contents                                                                               2008-10-27T15:11:51Z
                                                                                                                                                           dc:date




                                                                                                                                                                                          root-of-thread
         semantic annotations referring to these instances or                                                                                 “Title of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             postit.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  l

         concepts                                                                                                                                the
                                                                                                                                             annotation
                                                                                                                                                  ”

    Case study : DLNotes integration with the                                                                                                                                #id annot.

    Digital Library of Brazilian Literature (DL-BL)                                                                                     “Alice”                                                                                                reply.html


                                                                                                                                  2008-10-27T15:11:51Z
                                                                                                                                                                       “Title of                                 Reply
                                                                                                                                                                      the reply”
                                                                                                            52




       The DLNotes System                                                                                                The DLNotes System
 DLNotes annotation schema                                                                                       DLNotes semantic annotations
    Extends W3C’s Annotea annotation schema (based on RDF)                                                             Allow the user to associate a portion of the text (anchor) to
         A new annotation type (“Semantic Annotation”)                                                                 concepts or instances
         and its property “semantics” which points to a                                                                When a new term is identified by the user, he can generate an
         class or instance                                                                                             instance in the knowledge base by creating an annotation
                              Annotation
                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotated document
                                                                               http://..s                                                                      Annotatio                                   Juliet. Ay, pilgrim, lips that they
                                                                                em.gif                                                                           n #1                                      must use in prayer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Romeo. O, then, dear saint, let
                                                                                                                                                   Annotatio
                                                                                                                                                                                                           lips do what hands do;
                                             Semantic                                                                                                                                                      They pray, grant thou, lest faith
                                            Annotation                                                                                               n #2
                                                                                                                                                                                                           turn to despair.
                                              rdf:type




                                                                            Document
                                                              annotates

                                            #id annot.                                                                                             Knowledge Base
                                                                                                                                                               Juliet                                                                Ontology
                                                                                                                                                          Rome                                                                           Document
                                                                                                                                                            o

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     hasCharacter
                                                                                                                                                         Romeo and
                                                                          “Class or                                                                        Juliet                                                                                    dc:creator
                                                                          instance”                                                                                                                                      Character

                                                                                                                                                     Schakespeare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Creator

                                                                                                            54                                                                                                                                                      56




 DLNotes Architecture                                                                                              The DLNotes user interface
                                                                                                                 Semantic Annotation                                                                                         Free-text Annotation
                     User                                Client Side                        Administrator

                                  DLNotes                                  Administration
                                   Client                                    Interface
                                                                                                                                                                     Juliet. Ay, pilgrim, lips that
                                                                                                                                                                     they must use in prayer.
                                                                                                                                                                     Romeo. O, then, dear saint, let
                                                                                                                                                                     lips do what hands do;


                                                                                            Server Side
                                                                 DL Notes
                                                                  Server                                                                                             Juliet     . Ay, pilgrim, lips that
                                                                                                                                                                     they must use in prayer.
                                                                                                                                                                     Romeo . O, then, dear saint,
     Document                                                                                                                                                        let lips do what hands do;
     Repository

                              Annotation                                                       User
                                Base                                                         Database

                                                                             Personal
                                                                              Personal
                                                          Public KB            Personal
                                                                                KB
                                                                                 KB
     Legend:                                                                      KB
                  Data flow
                  Reference
                                                     DC                      Domain
                                                   Ontology                  Ontology



                                                                                                            5                                                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                            7                                                                                                                                                       8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9
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    The DLNotes user interface                                        The DLNotes Prototype

Discussion thread about an particular annotation
                                                                 Implementation
 Juliet . Ay, pilgrim, lips that                                    LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL et PHP)
 they must use in prayer.
 Romeo. O, then, dear saint, let lips
 do what hands do;
 They pray, grant thou, lest faith
                                                                    AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript et XML)
                                                                    RAP API (RDF API for PHP)
 turn to despair.



                                                                 Integration with a DL
                                                                    Requires code changing in the DL to call
                                                                    DLNotes API
                                                                    All links (URL-doc) which can be annotated
                                                                    must be changed with a call to the DLNotes
                                                                    annotation method
                                                                       startAnnotationSession(user, annotActiv, URL-doc)


                                                                                                                                         60
                                                            5
                                                            9




                  Case study                                          Case study

 The Digital Library of Brazilian Literature (DL-BL)            DLNotes integrated with the Digital Library of
             Only literary works in public domain                 Brazilian Literature (DL-BL)
                    63112 works                                     The goal is to demonstrate the use of DLNotes and make
                                                                    tests
                    676 digitized (HTML) and reviewed
                                                                    We are developing an ontology about literature teaching
             Information about the Brazilian writers
                                                                       The first portion defines classes of
                    15930 writers
                                                                       personages, their relationships, and
             Literary reviews
                                                                       geographic links.
                                                                          Based on the Ethnographic Thesaurus of the American Folklore
                                                                          Society




                                                        6
                                                        1                                                                                62




                  Case study                                          Case study




                                                        63                                                                               64




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           Case study                                                                                  Case study

  Literary Analysis                                                                              Literary Analysis
        Interpretation of a literary work                                                            Stage 1 « Personages Identification »
        Made in several stages                                                                          The student must identify the personages for
            Each stage corresponds to an                                                                creating semantic annotations by
            annotation activity                                                                         instantiating individual of the Character
                                                                                                        class or one of its sub-classes (Actor,
                                                                                                        Antagonist, Villain, Caricature,...)
                                                                                                        The notes can be associated to the
                                                                                                        personages with free text annotation (e.g.
                                                                                                        comments)




                                                                                            65                                                                                66




           Case study                                                                                  Case study
                                                                             Character
Example for English Literature                                                                    Literary Analysis
                                                   Montaigu
                                                                      wife                           Stage 2 « Figures of Speech »
   Romeo and Juliet
   …Juliet………………………………………………
                                                                                                        The student can identify the figures of
                                                        father
   ……………………Romeo…………………………
   …………………………………………………………
                                                                          Misses
                                                                          Montaigu
                                                                                                        speech used in the contents and associate
   …………………Montaigu……Dame                       Romeo              mother                                the respective passages in the text with the
   Montaigu……………
   …………………………………………………………
                                                   Character
                                                                                                        correspondent subclasses of FigureOfSpeech
   ……………………………………………Capulet…
   …………………………………………………………
                                                      name: Tybalt
                                                      …                                                 in the ontology (e.g., antithesis, apostrophe,
   ……………………………………Tybalt……………                          description: He arises in the
   …………………………………………………………                          scene, but his language is plenty of
                                                   choler …
                                                                                                        rhetorical question).
   …………………………………………………………
   ………Dame Capulet……………
   …………………………………………………………                                             wife
   ……………………………………………………                               Capulet
                                                                             Misses
                                          nephew                             Capulet
                                                                    father
                                            Tybalt
                                                                                  mother
                                                     cousin      Juliet
                                                                                            6                                                                                 68
                                                                                            7




    Case study                                                                                         Case study

                                                                                                  Literary analysis
   …………………………………………………………                                  FigureOfSpeech                            Stage 3 « The Plot »
   …………………………………………………………
   …………………………………………………………                               isa                      isa                    Describe the sequence of events and actions
   …………………………………………………………                                                                                  Make semantic annotations to identify instances of the classes
   ………………………………………………………                       Antithesis                      Apostrophe
   the young men can be handsome                                                                           Event and Action in the contents
   and strong, but the older one can be                               isa                                  Instances of Event and Action can be related to
   wiser ...
   …………………………………………………………                                Rhetorical Question                                    instances of Character (e.g., in order to indicate who does
   …………………………………………………………                                                                                       an action)
   …………………………………………………………                                                                                       Other instances of Event and Action (e.g., in order to
   …………………………………………………………
   …………………………………………………………                                                                                       indicate causality or conflicts)
   …………………………………………………………
   ………………………




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                                                                                            9




                                                                                                                                                                                   11
                                                                                                                                                                           11/11/2010




    Case study                                               Action                 Event                       Conclusions
                                                                      The reencounter of
  Romeo and Juliet                                                     Romeo et Juliette
                                                                                                           DLNotes
  ………………………………………..………I,
  5….…………………………………………                                       Romeo                           Juliet            An annotation system for DLs intended to support
  …………………………………………………………                                                                                      learning
  ……………………………..………II,
  2……………………………………………                                                  The pledge of loyal
  ……………………..…………………………                                                       love                                 Supports free-text and semantic
  II, 6……………………………………………
  …………………..………………………………………                                  Romeo                           Juliet
                                                                                                                  annotations, public and private, on the
  ……..………………………………
  III, 5…..………………………………………
                                                                                                                  contents of a DL
  ……..………………………………………………...                                             The marriage
  ………………………………………                                                                                                 Provides means for educators and their
  V, 3…………………………………………
  …………………………………………………………
                                                            Romeo                           Juliet                students to share knowledge and foster their
  ……………………………
                                                                       The night of love                          communication
                                                                        and the adieu
                                                                                                                  Not coupled to the DL
                                                            Romeo                           Juliet
                                                                                                                      But can be easily integrated with a variety of DLs

                                                                      The union in death

                                                            Romeo                           Juliet
By Hong-Minh Grosset, Collège Michel-Vignaud, 91 MORANGIS
                                                                                                     7                                                                           72
                                                                                                     1




              Conclusions                                                                                 Referências: Web Semântica e EaD

 Future work                                                                                                Demetrios G. Sampson, Miltiadis D. Lytras, Gerd Wagner and
          Finish the implementation of all functionalities                                                   Paloma Diaz (editors). Special Issue on Ontologies and the
          Integration with Moodle                                                                            Semantic Web for E-learning. Journal of Educational Technology
                                                                                                             & Society, 7(4), 2004.
          Use the knowledge base for
               Semantic search based on the acquired                                                         Anderson, T. and Whitelock, D. The Educational Semantic Web:
                                                                                                             Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of
               knowledge,                                                                                    Interactive Media in Education, 2004 (1), Special Issue on the
               One module for creating inference rules on                                                    Educational Semantic Web. ISSN:1365-893X [www-
                                                                                                             jime.open.ac.uk/2004/1]
               the knowledge base,
               Treating incompatibilities and inconsistencies                                                Devedzic, V. Education and the Semantic Web. International
                                                                                                             Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 14 (2004) 39-65.
               in the knowledge base (specially the public
               one)                                                                                          Ohler, J. The Semantic Web in Education. EDUCAUSE
                                                                                                             Quarterly, 31(4 ), 2008.



                                                                                                     73




    Alguns projetos na UFSC                                                                                Perguntas?

        http://www.lisa.ufsc.br/projetos

        http://www.unasus.ufsc.br

        http://www.literaturabrasileira.ufsc.br




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