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					Sociology- Final Exam Review- sp2010 (chapters 1,2,3,5,9,22,24 ONLY)
        1) Which perspective developed by the psychologist John B. Watson claims human behavior is
           not instinctive but learned within a social environment?
              A) behaviorism                                      B) biological psychology
              C) evolutionary psychology                          D) naturalism
        2) Based on both the Harlows' research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna, the isolated
           child, one might reasonably conclude that:
              A) the two species react differently to social isolation.
              B) both monkeys and humans "bounce back" from long-term isolation.
              C) even a few days of social isolation permanently damages both monkeys and humans.
              D) long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys
                  and humans.
        3) In Freud's model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the
           individual?
              A) id                      B) ego                   C) superego              D) thanatos
        4) Applying Freud's thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would
           conclude that:
              A) human behavior is basically random.
              B) humans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of
                  society.
              C) societies encourage people to become self-centered.
              D) humans can never become cultural creatures.
        5) Jean Piaget's focus was on:
              A) how children develop their motor skills.
              B) how children are stimulated by their environment.
              C) the role of heredity in shaping human behavior.
              D) cognition: how people think and understand.
        6) The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was:
              A) cognition.
              B) the importance of gender in socialization.
              C) moral reasoning.
              D) All of the above are correct.
        7) Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg's research, showing that:
              A) girls and boys typically use different standards in assessing situations as right and
                  wrong.
              B) girls are more interested in right and wrong than boys are.
              C) boys are more interested in right and wrong than girls are.
              D) the ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young
                  people enter the teenage years.
        8) Carol Gilligan's work on the issue of self-esteem in girls showed that:
              A) girls begin with low self-esteem, but it gradually increases as they progress through
                  adolescence.
              B) at all ages, girls have higher self-esteem than boys.
              C) at all ages, boys have higher self-esteem than girls.
              D) girls begin with high levels of self-esteem, which gradually decrease as they go
                  through adolescence.
        9) Mead placed the origin of the self in:
              A) biological drives.                               B) culture.
              C) social experience.                               D) the functioning of the brain.
       10) When Cooley used the concept "looking-glass self," he meant to say that:
              A) people are self-centered.
              B) people see themselves as they think others see them.
              C) people see things only from their own point of view.
              D) our actions are a reflection of our values.
       11) Based on your reading, it would be correct to say that biological approaches offer:
              A) a very limited understanding of crime.
              B) a good explanation of most crimes.
              C) a good explanation of violent crime.
              D) a good explanation of property crime.
       12) Walter Reckless and Simon Dinitz claimed that "good boys" have the ability to rein in
           deviant impulses. They called their approach:
              A) differential opportunity theory.                 B) containment theory.
       C) libido theory.                                  D) differential association theory.
13) The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because:
       A) very few people experience an "unsuccessful socialization."
       B) there has been very little research of this kind.
       C) there is no way to distinguish "normal" from "abnormal" people.
       D) most people who commit crimes have normal personalities.
14) Assume you were listening to a lecture on Durkheim's approach to deviance. Which of the
    following statements would be the focus of the lecture?
       A) Deviance is a normal element of social organization.
       B) Deviance is a dysfunctional element of social organization.
       C) Deviance is less common in modern societies.
       D) Deviance is defined by the rich and used against the poor.
15) Robert Merton's strain theory of deviance uses which of the following concepts to refer to the
    process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting conventional means to achieve them?
       A) innovation              B) ritualism             C) retreatism            D) rebellion
16) Using the terms in Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly
    describes the behavior of a radical who rejects cultural goals and means in favor of some
    alternative system?
       A) innovator               B) ritualist             C) retreatist            D) rebel
17) Using Robert Merton's strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively
    conforming bank teller who never seems to do anything wrong?
       A) innovator               B) ritualist             C) retreatist            D) rebel
18) Cloward and Ohlin extended Merton's theory of deviance, stating that crime:
       A) reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate
           opportunity.
       B) is more common among the rich who have more opportunity.
       C) is defined in such a way as to overly criminalize the poor.
       D) is typically a result of drug dependence or other substance addiction.
19) The basic idea behind labeling theory is that:
       A) deviance is actually useful in a number of ways.
       B) deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they
           do.
       C) power has much to do with how a society defines deviance.
       D) All of the above are correct.
20) What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly
    changes a person's self-concept and social identity?
       A) a deviant ritual                                 B) a degradation ceremony
       C) a secondary identity                            D) stigma
21) Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to:
       A) how others respond to the behavior in question.
       B) the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the
           behavior in question.
       C) how able a person is to contain deviant impulses.
       D) how others respond to the race, ethnicity, gender, and class of the individual.
22) Which of the following concepts refers to crime committed by persons of high social position
    in the course of their occupations?
       A) victimless crime                                 B) white-collar crime
       C) organized crime                                 D) street crime
23) In Mead's model, what are the correctly ordered stages of the developing self?
       A) imitation, play, game, generalized other
       B) imitation, generalized other, play, game
       C) imitation, game, play, generalized other
       D) imitation, generalized other, play, game
24) Mead considered the "generalized other" to be:
       A) important individuals in the child's life.
       B) a person who provides complete care for a child.
       C) any "significant other."
       D) widespread cultural norms and values people take as their own.
25) Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson's view of
    socialization?
       A) Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages.
       B) Personality involves tensions between the forces of biology and forces of culture.
         C) We come to see ourselves as we think others see us.
         D) Most of our personality development takes place in childhood.
26)   Critics of Erikson's theory of personality development point out that:
         A) not everyone confronts the stages in the exact order given by Erikson.
         B) failing to meet the challenge of one stage of development may not mean failing at later
            challenges.
         C) this process may unfold differently in other times and places.
         D) All of the above are correct.
27)   Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that:
         A) childhood is a time of play and learning everywhere.
         B) rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do.
         C) poor societies extend childhood much longer than rich societies do.
         D) biological immaturity is the main factor that defines childhood.
28)   Based on what you have read in this chapter, how would sociologists explain the fact that
      many young people in the United States experience adolescence as a time of confusion?
         A) There are cultural inconsistencies in defining this stage of life as partly childlike and
            partly adultlike.
         B) Hormones affect young people as they mature.
         C) Growth always involves change.
         D) All of the above are correct.
29)   Based on the text's survey of the life course, you might conclude that:
         A) life-course stages are shaped by society and have nothing to do with biology.
         B) life-course stages are much the same throughout the world.
         C) while life-course stages are linked to biology, they are largely a social construction.
         D) life-course stages have changed little over recent centuries.
30)   According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is:
         A) to help integrate a troubled patient into the outside world.
         B) to give a person greater choices about how to live.
         C) to radically alter a person's personality or behavior.
         D) to encourage lifelong learning in a supervised context.
31)   Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to:
         A) information that is based on a society's traditions.
         B) information that squares with common sense.
         C) information we can verify with our senses.
         D) information that most people agree is true.
32)   Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a
      survey. As you record the data, you are using the concept "age" as:
         A) a theory.                                        B) a hypothesis.
         C) a variable.                                      D) an axiom.
33)   What process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a
      variable?
         A) operationalization                               B) reliability
         C) conceptualization                                D) validity
34)   In the process of measurement, reliability refers to:
         A) whether you are really measuring what you want to measure.
         B) how dependable the researcher is.
         C) whether or not everyone agrees with the study's results.
         D) whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results.
35)   With regard to the process of measurement, which of the following is true?
         A) For measurement to be reliable, it must be valid.
         B) For measurement to be valid, it must be reliable.
         C) Measurement that is reliable is always accurate.
         D) All of the above are correct.
36)   Two variables are said to display correlation if:
         A) they are caused by the same factor.              B) one occurs before the other.
         C) both measure the same thing.                     D) they vary together.
37)   An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third
      variable is called:
         A) a spurious correlation.                          B) an unproven correlation.
         C) an unreliable correlation.                       D) an invalid correlation.
38)   The ability to neutralize the effect of one variable in order to assess the relationship between
      two other variables is called:
         A) making the correlation spurious.                B) making the correlation reliable.
         C) scientific control.                             D) interpreting the correlation.
39)   Which of the following is true about cause-and-effect relationships in the social world?
         A) Most patterns of behavior have one major cause.
         B) Most patterns of behavior have no cause at all.
         C) Most patterns of behavior are caused by many factors.
         D) None of the above is correct.
40)   Three of the following statements below are part of the definition of a cause-and-effect
      relationship. One is not. Which one is not?
         A) Both variables must be shown to be independent.
         B) The independent variable must come before the dependent variable in time.
         C) The two variables must display correlation.
         D) There must be no evidence that the correlation is spurious.
41)   The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:
         A) must not care personally about the topic being studied.
         B) must adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research.
         C) must study issues that have no value to society as a whole.
         D) must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change.
42)   Interpretive sociology is sociology that:
         A) focuses on action.
         B) sees an objective reality "out there."
         C) focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.
         D) seeks to bring about change.
43)   In making judgments about how society should be improved, the ________ approach in
      sociology rejects Max Weber's goal that researchers be value-free.
         A) interpretive                                    B) critical
         C) scientific                                      D) positivist
44)   Which German word meaning "understanding" was used by Max Weber in describing his
      approach to sociological research?
         A) Gemeinschaft.                                   B) Gesellschaft.
         C) Verstehen.                                      D) Verboten.
45)   Drawing conclusions about all of humanity based on research using only males as subjects is
      the problem called:
         A) androcentricity.                                B) overgeneralization.
         C) gender blindness.                               D) using double standards.
46)   If you are conducting sociological research that closely follows the logic of science, which
      research method are you most likely to be using?
         A) interviews                                      B) the experiment
         C) questionnaires                                  D) participant observation
47)   "An unverified statement of a relationship between variables" is the definition of which
      concept?
         A) theory                                          B) correlation
         C) spurious correlation                            D) hypothesis
48)   Three researchers wish to test the effects of playing soft music during an exam on the test
      performance of their sociology students. They conduct an experiment in which one test-
      taking class hears music and another does not. In experimental terms, the class hearing the
      music is called:
         A) the placebo.                                    B) the control group.
         C) the experimental group.                         D) the dependent variable.
49)   What term refers to any change in a subject's behavior caused by the awareness of being
      studied?
         A) invalid response                                B) unreliable response
         C) the Stanford effect                             D) the Hawthorne effect
50)   Counterculture refers to:
         A) people who differ in some small way.
         B) popular culture.
         C) high culture.
         D) cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held.
51)   The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:
         A) the rate of cultural change has been slowing.
         B) some societies advance faster than others do.
         C) some people are more cultured than others.
       D) some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
52) A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses and a
    plow instead of a tractor is displaying:
       A) ethnocentrism.                                   B) cultural relativism.
       C) cultural diffusion.                              D) cultural integration.
53) The practice of understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards is
    called:
       A) ethnocentrism.                                   B) cultural relativism.
       C) cultural diffusion.                              D) cultural integration.
54) Which theoretical approach states that the stability of U.S. society rests on core values shared
    by most people?
       A) the structural-functional approach               B) the social-conflict approach
       C) the symbolic-interaction approach                D) the sociobiology approach
55) Which theoretical approach is linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism?
       A) the structural-functional approach               B) the social-conflict approach
       C) the symbolic-interaction approach                D) the sociobiology approach
56) A theory that explain how schooling helps prepare young people for the work they will do as
    adults represents the:
       A) structural-functional approach.                  B) social-conflict approach.
       C) symbolic-interaction approach.                   D) sociobiology approach.
57) The theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality is the:
       A) structural-functional approach.                  B) social-conflict approach.
       C) symbolic-interaction approach.                   D) sociobiology approach.
58) Culture acts as a constraint, limiting human freedom because:
       A) much culture is habit and is repeated again and again.
       B) humans cannot create new culture for themselves.
       C) culture discourages change.
       D) All of the above are correct.
59) The United States and Canada are both ________; however, Canadian culture is more
    ________ than U.S. culture.
       A) monocultural; individualistic                    B) multicultural; collectivist
       C) ethnocentric; individualistic                    D) monocultural; collectivist
60) Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an
    interview?
       A) secondary research                               B) participant observation
       C) the experiment                                   D) the survey
61) Why are sex rations usually below 100?
       A) Because many societies abort male fetuses.
       B) Because more women than men are born.
       C) Because women typically outlive men.
       D) All of the above are correct.
62) Thomas Robert Malthus believed that:
       A) the world could sustain an ever-larger population.
       B) population increase would eventually bring chaos to the world.
       C) industrialization would reduce the birth rate.
       D) population decrease threatened the world in the future.
63) The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is:
       A) population patterns reflect a society's level of technological development.
       B) population increase will outstrip the planet's ability to support us.
       C) population increase is now mostly in high-income nations.
       D) All of the above are correct.
64) In the United States, the birth rate is currently:
       A) at the replacement level.
       B) below the replacement level.
       C) slightly above the replacement level.
       D) well above the replacement level.
65) In low-income countries, increasing population is likely to:
       A) greatly stimulate the economy, producing prosperity.
       B) have little effect on the economy.
       C) cause economic depression.
       D) outstrip any economic growth, increasing the problem of poverty.
66) Imagine you were to compare Sunbelt cities, such as Houston, to Snowbelt cities, such as
Chicago. What differences would you find?
           A) Sunbelt cities are typically smaller in physical size.
           B) Sunbelt cities have smaller populations.
           C) Sunbelt cities have larger populations and are larger in physical size.
           D) Sunbelt cities lack the sprawl typical of Snowbelt cities.
      67) Which of the following concepts was used by Ferdinand             to refer to a type of social
           organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest?
             A) Gemeinschaft                                 B) Gesellschaft
              C) mechanical solidarity                       D) organic solidarity
       68) Which of the following concepts, used by Emile Durkheim, means about the same thing as
                      concept, Gesellschaft?
               A) mechanical solidarity                             B) organic solidarity
               C) Gemeinschaft                                      D) the       urbanite
       69)   Which of the following concepts refers to the study of the interaction of living organisms and
             the natural environment?
                A) sociobiology                                     B) ecology
                C) demography                                       D) urban studies
       70)   The concept "environmental deficit" refers to:
                A) long-term harm to the environment caused by a short-sighted focus on material
                    affluence.
                B) the fact that too few people are engaged in the study of the natural environment.
                C) the fact that natural scientists ignore the social dimensions of environmental problems.
                D) efforts to protect the environment to benefit future generations.
       71)   Which of the following concepts refers to the optimistic approach to environmental issues
             that claims science will lead to progress and solve environmental problems?
                A) the sustainability thesis                        B) the Malthusian thesis
                C) the limits to growth                             D) the logic of growth
       72)   Which of the following statements expresses the "logic of growth"?
                A) Material affluence is not a good goal for humanity.
                B) Technology and human ingenuity will continue to improve our lives.
                C) Quality of life on the Earth is declining.
                D) Growth makes no sense because we cannot sustain it indefinitely.
       73)   Which of the following statements expresses the "limits to growth" thesis?
                A) We are rapidly consuming the Earth's finite resources.
                B) Whatever problems technology creates, technology can solve.
                C) Quality of life on the Earth is now improving.
                D) Growth makes sense because it is sustainable.
       74)   As a rich nation that values consumption and convenience, we can be described as:
                A) a "Malthusian society."                          B) a "recycling society."
                C) a "disposable society."                          D) All of the above are correct.
       75)   Why is the gradual loss of the world's rain forests an important environmental concern?
                A) Rainforests are vital to maintaining the planet's biodiversity and climate.
                B) Rainforests are necessary grazing lands.
                C) Rainforests are a vital source of hardwoods and other raw materials.
                D) Rainforests are a source of air pollution.
       76)   Mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is:
                A) now steady.                                      B) rising.
                C) falling.                                         D) lower than it has ever been.
       77)   The environmental racism thesis falls within which theoretical approach?
                A) the structural-functional approach               B) the sociobiology approach
                C) the symbolic-interaction approach                D) the social-conflict approach
       78)   Inductive logical thought involves:
                A) turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing.
                B) selecting a research method based on past experience.
                C) doing research about the past.
                D) transforming specific observations into general theory.
       79)   Deductive logical thought involves:
                A) turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing.
                B) selecting a research method based on past experience.
                C) doing research about the past.
       D) transforming specific observations into general theory.
80) The chapter opening story of the inhabitants of a New York apartment who live a century
    apart demonstrates:
       A) change over the last century has been dramatic.
       B) that, in some ways, life has clearly improved.
       C) that, in some ways, life has not improved.
       D) All of the above are correct.
81) Which of the following concepts refers to changes in social patterns brought on by the
    Industrial Revolution?
       A) feudalism                                       B) tradition
       C) modernity                                       D) postmodernity
82) Which of the following concepts refers to changes brought on by the Information
    Revolution?
       A) feudalism                                       B) tradition
       C) modernity                                       D) postmodernity
83) Social change is almost always:
       A) controversial.
       B) planned.
       C) something that happens only once in a while.
       D) All of the above are correct.
84) Sociologists use the term "social marginality" to refer to:
       A) people who have little understanding of sociology.
       B) having special social skills.
       C) being defined by others as an "outsider."
       D) people who are especially sensitive about their family background.
85) Comte described the earliest human societies as being at which stage of societal
    development?
       A) theological stage                               B) metaphysical stage
       C) scientific stage                                D) post-scientific stage
86) ________ is a way of understanding the world based on science.
       A) Theology                                        B) Positivism
       C) Metaphysics                                     D) Free will
87) Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a
    whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
       A) social structure                                B) eufunctions
       C) social functions                                D) social dysfunctions
88) Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology's structural-
    functional approach.
       A) Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, W.E.B. Du Bois
       B) Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim
       C) Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Auguste Comte
       D) Harriet Martineau, Robert Merton, W.E.B. Du Bois
89) Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are called:
       A) latent functions.                               B) manifest functions.
       C) eufunctions.                                    D) dysfunctions.
90) Robert Merton explained that what is functional for one category of a society's population:
       A) is functional for everyone.
       B) may not be functional for another category.
       C) is unlikely to change over time.
       D) may not be functional in the future.
91) The main characteristic of the ________ approach is its view of society as orderly and stable.
       A) structural-functional                           B) social-conflict
       C) social-interaction                              D) None of the above is correct.
92) The social-conflict approach draws attention to:
       A) how elements contribute to the overall operation of society.
       B) how people construct meaning in their interaction.
       C) patterns of social inequality.
       D) the stable aspects of society.
93) Which of the following early sociologists had an important influence on the development of
    the social-conflict approach?
       A) Karl Marx                                       B) Talcott Parsons
       C) Emile Durkheim                                  D) Herbert Spencer
 94) Which theoretical approach would highlight the fact that, on average, African American
     families have less income than white families?
       A) the race-conflict approach                       B) the gender-conflict approach
       C) the structural-functional approach              D) the symbolic-interaction approach
 95) The social-conflict approach sometimes receives criticism for:
       A) focusing on values that everyone shares.
       B) being openly political.
       C) promoting the status quo.
       D) All of the above are correct.
 96) Sociologists point out that:
       A) some societies change and others do not.
       B) social change goes on all the time.
       C) all social change is good.
       D) All of the above are correct.
 97) The fact that the coins we use is an idea that came from Middle East centuries ago is an
     example of which of the following?
       A) invention                                        B) discovery
       C) diffusion                                       D) None of the above is correct.
 98) Ralph Linton explained that most familiar elements to today's way of life:
       A) actually came to us from other cultures.
       B) are unique to our own society.
       C) were unknown even a few years ago.
       D) were discovered completely by accident.
 99) Karl Marx highlighted which of the following in the process of social change?
       A) invention                                        B) ideas
       C) social conflict                                 D) cultural diffusion
100) What did Herbert Marcuse claim about science?
       A) Science is the key to modern affluence.
       B) Science is not new to modern societies, having existed for centuries.
       C) Science causes more problems than it solves.
       D) Science is only one dimension of "rationality."

				
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