GROUNDWATER OCCURRENCE IN ETHIOPIA

Document Sample
GROUNDWATER OCCURRENCE IN ETHIOPIA Powered By Docstoc
					GROUNDWATER
 OCCURRENCE
 IN ETHIOPIA



   TAMIRU ALEMAYEHU
     (BSC, MSC, PHD)

    Addis Ababa University
          ETHIOPIA




                             September 2006
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                                        PREFACE
This book is an outcome of teaching and field experience of the author as well as
publications and reports prepared by many Ethiopian Hydrogeologists. It is intended to
help students and experts in the field of hydrogeology for practical and community
problem solving works in Ethiopia.

The writing of this book was initiated to develop the previous effort and work of the
author (Tamiru Alemayehu, 1993) which was dealing with the groundwater availability in
Ethiopia. To come to this stage, it took into consideration different hydrogeological
studies by the author, his colleagues and postgraduate students, and describes the
existing groundwater potential together with the future possibilities for the exploration
and development of groundwater in different parts of the country.

In the discussion part of the rocks, general geological setting has been presented followed
by the hydrogeological description.

I greatly acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Tesfaye Chernet, Dr. Tenalem Ayenew, Dr.
Dagnachew Legesse, Dr. Seifu Kebede, Dr. Berhanu Gizaw, Ato Zenaw Tessema, Ato
Engda Zemedagegnehu, Ato Gebretsadik Eshete and other prominent Ethiopian
Hydrogeologists distributed all over the country whom I admire very much, towards the
development of the hydrogeology of Ethiopia.

Finally, I acknowledge Dr. Emmanuel Naah, Director of Hydrology Division of UNESCO,
Nairobi for the financial support to print this book.

Tamiru Alemayehu
Addis Ababa




N.B: I apologize, those whom I did not mention the names for acknowledgment. I equally
appreciate and acknowledge all of you.




                                                                                               1
Tamiru Alemayehu                                   Sept.2006                                            Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                                                            TABLE OF CONTENT
  PREFACE..................................................................................................................................................... 1
1-INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................... 3
2-CLIMATE AND DRAINAGE....................................................................................................................... 6
  2.1 Climate................................................................................................................................................... 6
  2.2 Precipitation .......................................................................................................................................... 6
  2.3 Drainage Basins ................................................................................................................................... 9
  2.4 Recharge............................................................................................................................................. 12
3-BASIC HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ............................................................................. 14
  3.1. Regional studies................................................................................................................................ 15
  3.2. Medium scale studies....................................................................................................................... 16
  3.3. Detailed studies................................................................................................................................. 17
  3.4 Hydrogeological data collection ....................................................................................................... 18
4- PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS........................................................................................................................ 19
  4.1 Outcropping areas ............................................................................................................................. 19
  4.2 Groundwater occurrence .................................................................................................................. 24
  Syntectonic granitoids have the following features of hydrogeological importance: ...................... 29
  Hydrostructures in post-tectonic granitoids: ......................................................................................... 29
5- PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.............................................................. 34
  5.1 Outcropping rocks.............................................................................................................................. 34
  5.2 Groundwater occurrence .................................................................................................................. 38
6- TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY VOLCANIC ROCKS...................................................................... 42
  6.1 Outcropping rocks.............................................................................................................................. 42
    6.1.1 Trap Series .................................................................................................................................. 42
    6.1.2 Rift volcanics ............................................................................................................................... 44
  6.2 Groundwater occurrence .................................................................................................................. 52
  6.3 Thermal ground water ....................................................................................................................... 63
  6.4 Springs................................................................................................................................................. 65
    6.4.1 Cold springs................................................................................................................................. 66
    6.4.2 Thermal springs .......................................................................................................................... 67
7- TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY AND SEDIMENTS ........................................................................ 71
  7.1 Rock outcrops..................................................................................................................................... 72
  7.2 Groundwater occurrence .................................................................................................................. 73
8-WATER QUALITY..................................................................................................................................... 75
  8.1 General control ................................................................................................................................... 75
  8.2 Fluoride Distribution........................................................................................................................... 81
  9.3 Defluoridation of water ...................................................................................................................... 86
9-REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS....................................................................................... 91




                                                                                                                                                               2
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Chapter one
                                  1-INTRODUCTION

Ethiopia is a landlocked country with the surface area of 1,127,000km2 and population of
about 74million. It is divided into three physiographic regions: northwestern plateau,
Southeastern plateau and the Rift valley that separates them. The surface elevation varies
between 120m below sea level in Afar area to 4620m on the northwestern plateau (Figure
1). Groundwater plays an important role in Ethiopia as a major source of water for
domestic uses, industries and livestock.


One of the fundamental conditions for the growth and development of a nation like
Ethiopia is certainly the progressive fulfilment of its most urgent water needs. Past and
recent studies have shown that the most suitable solution to this problem is undoubtedly
the rational utilization of surface water. In fact, due to great extent in territory, which is
characterized by sporadic rainfall, the solution is a proper regimen control of the rivers by
erecting dams, which can regulate the evapotranspiration and supply water depending on
local requirement. However, such interventions require a lot of money. In rural areas
where more that 85% of the population lives water shortage problems can be solved by
proper utilization of groundwater. The first attempt to identify the main aquifers in various
parts of Ethiopia, which is located in different geo-petrographical environments and
variable climate, is presented in order to give proper solution for water supply problems in
arid and semi aid part of the country.


At present Ethiopia has a population of over 74 million growing at a rate of over 3 % per
annum. Access to the fresh water resources development is beyond the reach of the
overwhelming majority of the Ethiopian population. The widespread problem of soil
erosion and land degradation further reduced the already low capacity of food production
and directly or indirectly hampered the development of water resources for agriculture.
The water resources potential of the country pre-supposes a good scientific and technical
capability for its judicious and sustained development Ethiopia, with a very limited
experience in irrigation, hydropower, reliable water supply for community and other areas
of water resources development needs to exert a concerted and systematic effort to raise
its capability in water resources assessment and development. The fast growing
population and the recurrent drought has demanded such an effort more than ever. The
country has enormous surface water and groundwater resources, although the distribution
is uneven. Very little has been done in this field and development of the water resources,
particularly in areas of groundwater resources. Groundwater utilization has been limited to


                                                                                                 3
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


community water supply using shallow hand dug wells and unprotected springs. Limited
deep boreholes were drilled in few rural areas, mainly in the rift valley, in some peripheral
semi-arid regions and in the vast highland volcanic terrain. The use of deep groundwater
from boreholes for agriculture is almost non-existent.




                     Figure 1 Ethiopia with major physiographic zones


The occurrence of groundwater is mainly influenced by the geology, geomorphology,
tectonics and climate of the country. The variability of these factors in Ethiopia strongly
influences the quantity and quality of the groundwater in different parts of the country. The
geology of the country provides usable groundwater and provides good transmission of
rainfall to recharge aquifers, which produce springs and feed perennial rivers.


The difficulty of obtaining productive aquifers is peculiar feature of Ethiopia, which is
characterized by wide heterogeneity of geology, topography, and environmental condition.




                                                                                                4
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


In Ethiopia, there are a number of lithological units of varying age and composition
including metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous rocks. In many parts of the country,
groundwater is an important source of potable water. This is especially true for rural areas
as well as for towns. However, the occurrence of groundwater is not uniform because it
depends on various environmental and geological factors (Vernier, 1987; 1993; Tamiru
Alemayehu, 1993).


The main factors are:
 - high mountain areas, highlands, lowlands, wide depressions, piedmont areas etc
   characterized by a climate ranging from very wet to extremely arid and correspondingly
   from diverse luxuriant to very scattered, rare or no vegetation at all.
 - Outcrops of pervious or impervious solid rocks, buried or actual riverbeds consisting of
   thick horizons of alluvial deposits, sandy or clayey soil layers deriving from weathering
   of country rocks, alluvial fans along the escarpment etc.
 - Wide ranges of variation among the main factors of the water budget i.e. rainfall, runoff,
   actual and potential evapotranspiration an infiltration rate.
 - Big differences among the various hydraulic parameters of the rocks and soils,
   porosity, permeability, transmissivity and storage coefficient.
It may, therefore, be observed that this complete heterogeneity acts as a limiting factor for
whatever hydrogeological research or exploitation program is to be carried out. Complete
understanding of the limiting factors is very important for resource saving in a country,
which is periodically affected by severe drought and famine. In areas where groundwater
is not tapped, population depends on the Kiremt rainfall, storing it in small local surface
reservoirs. The stored water, however, does not last through the dry season, especially in
the areas with an arid climate.


Despite the importance of the enormous water resources in the development process,
only very limited regional hydrogeological and river valley hydrological master plan studies
have been carried out in the last few decades by the Ministry of Water Resources.
However, very few detailed hydrogeological studies have been done locally in the rift
valley and in some local main urban centres. The only main comprehensive source of
information on groundwater resources is the Hydrogeological Map of Ethiopia at the scale
of 1:2,000,000, compiled by Tesfaye Chernet, 1988, Ethiopian Institute of Geological
Surveys.

Chapter Two




                                                                                                  5
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                         Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


                           2-CLIMATE AND DRAINAGE

2.1 Climate
The climate of Ethiopia ranges from equatorial desert to hot and cool steppe, and from
tropical savannah and rain forest to warm temperate, from hot lowland to cool highlands.
The altitude ranges from around 120m below sea level in the Dalol depression up to 4,620
m a.s.l on the Ras Dashen on the Semien Mountains Massifs. The Main Ethiopian rift
valley and the Afar is semi-arid to hyperarid.


In Ethiopia, rainfall has an uneven distribution both in time and in space. This is partly due
to the presence of one major and one small rainy season, in large part of the country. A
subsidiary effect is that a large amount of rainfall on the highlands is concentrated as
runoff in river alleys, which drain into the low-lying areas where annual rainfall is low. In
almost all river basins in Ethiopia, some 80% of the runoff results from annual precipitation
falling in four months from June to October. Two groups of factors mainly determine the
extent of flow in streams: climatic and physical characteristics of the drainage basins.
Based on altitude, the climate can be classified in to five groups (Table 1):


Table 1. Climatic classification of Ethiopia
        Altitude            Mean annual                 Description             Local name
                                               0
        (m.a.s.l)           temperature ( C)
        3,300 and above     10 or less                  cool                    Kur
        2,300 - 3,300       10 - 15                     cool temperate          Dega
        1,500 - 2,300       15 - 20                     temperate               Woina Dega
        500 - 1,500         20 - 25                     warm temperate          Kola
        below 500           25 and above                hot                     Bereha


The temperature, wind speed and humidity are also highly variable with altitude and
latitude. Away from the peripheries, the land begins to rise gradually and considerably,
culminating in peaks in various parts of the country. The temperature decreases generally
towards the interior. Mean annual temperature varies from over 300C in the tropical
lowlands to less than 100C in very high altitudes.


2.2 Precipitation
There are areas in Ethiopia where snow is an important type of precipitation especially on
mountains higher than 4000m, but hailstorms are quite common in the main rainy season,
especially in areas above 2000m a.s.l.         The spatial and temporal variation of rainfall in



                                                                                                    6
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Ethiopia is strongly controlled by the inter-annual movement of the position of the Inter
Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). During its movement to the north and south of the
equator, the ITCZ passes over Ethiopia twice a year and this migration causes the onset
and withdrawal of winds from north and south. The ITCZ represents a low-pressure area
of convergence between Tropical Easterlies and Equatorial Westerlies along which
equatorial wave disturbances take place. When the ITCZ is located north of Ethiopia, the
northeasterly winds from southwest reach to most parts of Ethiopia. During this time, the
Trade Winds from the north retreat. When the ITCZ is located in the south, the Trade
Winds from north drifts the equatorial winds. This periodical anomaly of winds causes
seasonal rainfall variability. The big summer rains or Kiremt rains occur when the ITCZ is
found north of Ethiopia. During this period the whole country is under the influence of
Equatorial Westerlies from South Atlantic Ocean and southerly wind from the Indian
Ocean. When the ITCZ moves to the south, the country will be under the influence of
continental air currents from north and northeast. These winds originate from north Africa
and west Asia and are cold and dry. In spring (March, April, May) the ITCZ lies in the
southern part and a strong cyclonic cell (low pressure area) develops over Sudan. Winds
from the Gulf of Rift and the Indian Ocean (anticyclone) blow across central and southern
Ethiopia and form the relatively smaller Belg rains. The rainfall varies between 250mm in
the lowlands to 2800mm on the southwestern plateau.


Based on the annual rainfall distribution patterns, three major rainfall regimes can be
identified.
        •     The south-western and western areas of the country, which are characterized
              by unimodal (single peak) rainfall, pattern, the length of the wet season
              decreasing northwards.
        •     The central, eastern and northeastern areas of the country experience a nearly
              bimodal rainfall distribution. These are the Belg rains (February to May) and
              Kiremt rains (June to September).
        •     The southern and southeastern areas of the country are dominated by a
              distinctly bi-modal rainfall pattern. Rain falls during September to November
              and March to May with two distinct dry periods separating the two wet
              seasons.


Southwestern Ethiopia is the region of heaviest rainfall (Figure 2). It is the wettest part of
the country with only two to four dry months in the year. The mean annual rainfall for this
region is about 2500 mm, but it is much higher in specific localities. For instance, it is over
2800 mm in south western Gore in Illu ababora and parts of Arjo in Wellega. The western


                                                                                                  7
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


flat low-lying region, which is on the windward side of the mountains, receives over 1000
mm of rainfall annually. Mean annual rainfall gradually decreases towards the northeast
and east. In central and north-central Ethiopia, the annual amount is moderate, about
1100 mm. In some places, it reaches over 2,000 mm as for example western Agewmidir,
south eastern Metekel and north of Kola Dega Damot in Gojam. In parts of northern
Gonder and the Siemen Mountains, the annual rainfall is over 1600 mm. In south eastern
Ethiopia, the mean annual rainfall is about 700 mm, but this amount varies from 2000 mm
in parts of southern Ethiopia (Sidama, Gedeo, northern Borena regions) and over 1200 m
in parts of Genale and Delo areas in Bale and north eastern Wobera in Harrarghe, to less
than 400 mm over most part of Ogaden. For northern Ethiopia in parts of north Goder and
Tigray, the mean annual rainfall is about 500 mm. The amount of rainfall that occurs is
also affected by the seasonal and daily pattern of rainfall (Figure 2). La Nina has impact in
east Africa that tends to experience low rainfall during the period from November to March
of the following year Nicholson and Selato, 2000) but the influence is very weak. This is
surprising in view of El Nino’s strong effect on rainfall in this region.




                          Figure 2 Mean annual rainfall distribution


In several areas of the country, storms of highest intensity appear to have greater
frequency at the beginning and at the end of the long rainy season. Rainfall intensity also
tends to be high in semi-arid parts of the country with localized storms producing 44 to
85mm per hour. Intensities of 40 mm per hour are not uncommon in Addis Ababa and on



                                                                                                    8
Tamiru Alemayehu                Sept.2006                        Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


highlands. The pattern of rainfall in Ethiopia is such that rain often occurs over relatively
narrow storm paths. The response of the streams during such rainfall tends to vary much
according to the uniformity or otherwise of conditions such as slope, topography,
vegetation, bedrock, intensity etc. Within large drainage basins such as Wabishebelle or
Abay, rainfall is very seldom uniformly distributed. The tendency is for a large amount of
rainfall to fall in only a limited area of the basin, giving rise to flash flood in small tributaries
because the infiltration capacity is greatly exceeded. If the same amount of rain had fallen
evenly over a whole basin, the infiltration capacity might not have been exceeded and
runoff might be negligible. High peak flows in a large basin are usually produced by
widespread rainfall, not necessarily intense. The useful implication to a hydrogeologist is
that infiltration is greatest when rainfall is gentle and widespread. In a country like Ethiopia
where there is such a great range in climate, there are many factors other than rainfall that
can greatly affect the runoff. Factors such as temperature, the natural precipitation and
the way in which this controls vegetations, the sort of topography, the relative humidity,
etc. together combine to control how much of the precipitation that falls on the basin will
be absorbed by the vegetation, soil, etc. This can be particularly important in some areas
of Ethiopia where most of the soil has been washed away as a result of deforestation.


2.3 Drainage Basins
The Ethiopian highlands form a water divide between the Mediterranean and the Indian
Ocean. Ethiopia is designated the “Water Towers of Northeast Africa”, due to the
existence of many rivers, which drains from the highlands to the lowlands and
neighbouring countries. There are eight major drainage basins: Abay or the Blue Nile,
Tekeze-Mereb, Baro-Akobo, Gibe-Omo, Rift Valley (Lakes), Awash, Genale-Dawa,
Wabeshebelle (Figure 3). The Rift Valley separates the Nile drainage system, and Indian
Ocean drainage system. The Nile drainage system includes three major tributaries, which
emanate from the Ethiopian highlands, the Tekeze-Mereb, Abay and Baro-Akobo. The
Indian Ocean drainage system includes the Wabishebelle and the Genale-Dawa, which
emanate from the eastern plateau. The drainage systems, which have no outlet to the sea
include drainage basins of the Assale which drains into the Danakil Depression, the
Awash which drains into Lake Abhe; the central rift rivers which drains into the numerous
lakes expanding from Lake Rudolf in the south and Lake Ziway in the north and the Omo-
Ghibe rivers which drain into Lake Turkana or Rudolf. All large rivers originating in
Ethiopia (except Awash) flow into neighbouring countries.




                                                                                                      9
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                            Figure 3 Drainage basins in Ethiopia


The direction of the storm movement relative to the direction of flow in the drainage basins
has a distinct effect on the amount of runoff, and upon the duration of the runoff. Narrow
storm moves down a narrow drainage basin such as Mille and Dengego, there could be
very high runoff. If the storm were moving more or less at right angle to the basin, there
would be a very much lower runoff.


Ethiopia is endowed with quite a substantial amount of water resources potential from
these rivers. On the aggregate the surface water potential amounts over 110 billion cubic
meter per annum. The major rivers have average flows of 30 to 500 m3/sec. Large rivers,
interms of average flows, are Abay 500 m3/sec, Omo 300 m3/sec and Baro 230 m3/sec.
Table 2 summarizes the annual runoff volume from the different drainage. It shows that
90% of the annual runoff goes to the rivers that flow into Sudan, Egypt, Somalia and
Kenya.




       Table 2. Volume of river water (Source: World Hydrological cycle observing System,
                                          WHYCOS, 2004).
             Basin                         Area                     Annual runoff



                                                                                               10
Tamiru Alemayehu                 Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


                                             (km2)                    (billion m3)
              Awash                          112,697                  4.60
              Wabishebele                    202,697                  3.16
              Genale-Dawa                    171,042                  5.88
              Rift Valley Lakes              52,739                   5.64
              Omo-Ghibe                      78,213                   17.96
              Baro-Akobo (Sobat)             74,102                   11.81
              Abay (Blue Nile)               201,346                  52.62
              Tekeze-Angereb                 90,001                   7.63
              Mereb-Gash                     23,932                   0.88
              Danakil                        153,346                  0.86
              Total                          1,160,115                111.04




Table 3. Water availability in the lakes and reservoirs (Source: World Hydrological cycle observing
                                     System, WHYCOS, 2004).
              Lakes/Reservoirs               Area                     Volume
                                                   2
                                             (km )                    (million m3)
              Abaya                          1169                     8183
              Abijiata                       250                      750
              Ashange                        20                       250
              Awassa                         129                      1300
              Chamo                          551                      4100
              Hayik                          5                        24.5
              Langano                        230                      3600
              Shalla                         409                      37000
              Tana                           4120                     28400
              Ziway                          434                      1100
              Fincha                         157                      940
              Koka                           240                      1850
              Melka Wakana                   79                       765


Surface reservoirs (Table 3) contains a lot of water that regulates the evapotranspiration
of the area and groundwater reserve though evaporation and infiltration respectively.


The major basins of Ethiopia vary in size and drainage area and have differing
characteristics. The largest basin is the Wabishebele, but it has a lower runoff than that of
the Omo basin, which has the advantage of draining the high areas south west of Ethiopia



                                                                                                 11
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


during the long rainy season of July-October and also of picking up a fairly high runoff
from rainfall that occurs in March and April. The second largest basin is that of the Abay,
which also drains some of the highest north western part of the country.


The size of the drainage basin also becomes important when noting that the increment of
runoff of water deriving from groundwater flow is based on rainfall. The larger the basin
the greater is the chance for groundwater flow to contribute to making the stream
perennial i.e. base flow. This is particularly important in Ethiopia where for six or seven
months each year the flow in the perennial rivers is maintained from springs. In general,
the larger the basin, the less will be the intensity of the storm and therefore, the lower the
flood peak, this arises because of the non-uniformity of many of the climatic conditions
that occur in a large drainage basin. In a small basin, the tendency is for runoff to be twice
as much for a given rainstorm than in a basin four times its size.


As example, in small catchment basins like that of DireDawa the flush flood is very rapid
that has killed over 250 people over night in Aug. 2006. Since the highland of Dengego is
made of impermeable metamorphic rocks, it categorizes the area as delicate zone for
environmental protection and infiltration enhancement. High intensity rainfall that is formed
by narrow storms has a potential to generate huge flush flood. Appropriate treatment can
increase infiltration by reducing runoff. In the same year and month, the overflow of Omo
River has claimed over 364 people and 10,000 cattles. In the central part of the country,
Awash River has displaced numerous people in its upper catchment due to overflow
driven by land use change.


In a mountainous country such as Ethiopia slope is one of the major factors controlling the
time of overland flow and rate of flow. The concentration of rainfall in stream channels has
a direct effect on the amount of flood. Generally, in Ethiopia the main climatic factors
affecting runoff in a given drainage basin in most years are the seasonal patterns of
rainfall distribution and the duration and intensity of rainfall. Principal physiographic
factors are the slopes, type of soils and the extent of indirect drainage.


2.4 Recharge
The recharge to the groundwater system is also variable as the rainfall over Ethiopia is
extremely variable in both space and time. The main source of recharge for the vast
groundwater system is the rainfall on the highlands. The major recharge occurs in the
northeastern and southwestern plateau where annual rainfall is high. Rapid infiltration
occurs in areas covered by fractured volcanics and to a lesser extent in sedimentary rocks



                                                                                              12
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


and thick permeable soils. The Ethiopian rift acts as a discharging zone, which contains
numerous perennial rivers, fresh and salt lakes, cold and thermal springs.


The most easiest way to enhance recharge is by digging a sort of trench on highlands to
concentrate water in the recharge area (Plate 1).




                      Plate 1. Groundwater recharge enhancement


With the exception of much of the Afar Depression where the annual recharge is close to
zero, the recharge over Ethiopia is summarized in Table 4.




Table 4 Recharge classification (Source:Tenalem Ayenew and Tamiru Alemayehu, 2001.
    Annual recharge (mm)       Location
    250-400                    Highlands of Illu Ababora, Keffa and Wollega
    150-250                    Much of the Western and western and central Ethiopia and



                                                                                           13
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


                                 Arsi-Bale highlands
    50-150                       Much of Northern and northwestern highlands, central Main
                                 Ethiopian rift, southern and eastern regions between the Rift
                                 plain and the Arsi-Bale Highlands
    less than 50                 Southern Afar and the extreme northern end of the western
                                 lowlands


Based on the geological cover the proportion of each of the formation out of the total
surface area of Ethiopia is:
    1. Basement cover= 18%
    2. Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover=25%
    3. Tertiary volcanics=40%
    4. Quaternary sediments and volcanics=17%.
To estimate the volume of the groundwater reserve, it is assumed that basement rocks do
not contribute to the reserve due to very low permeability and storage capacity. Based on
Table 4, there is variable recharge, which is high on the plateau and low along the dry
lands. By excluding the unproductive basement which is 202,860 km2 and the assuming
the mean groundwater recharge for the entire country which is 200 mm, the total
groundwater reserve will be 185 billion m3, which is distributed in an area of 924,140 km2
made of Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and Quaternary sediments, including the
highland and the Rift valley. Based on Tables 2 and 3, the surface water potential is 199.3
billion m3.




Chapter Three


              3-BASIC HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS



                                                                                             14
Tamiru Alemayehu                 Sept.2006                  Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


This chapter is introduced in this text because hydrogeological investigation techniques
are not well practiced in the country and requires to make uniform and scientific the
investigation techniques.


Hydrogeological investigations refer to the study of lithological, stratigraphical and
structural aspects of a territory using basic geologic methods and will be finalized in the
understanding of the factors that regulate effective infiltration, groundwater reserve, the
circulation and outflow of the groundwater. The principal aim is to provide the general
information on the ground water resources potential. The type and the quality of the data
depend on the scale of the study. Hydrogeological studies are preliminary works
necessary to develop important problems for the geophysical, geochemical and
geomechanical investigations.
Hydrogeological studies may have three phases:
1. Collection of existing data
2. Field works and,
3. Elaboration and interpretation of field data
Hydrogeological studies may be divided into three major parts:


3.1. Regional studies
The regional studies will be applied if the study area is very wide. These provide basic
hydrogeological frameworks from which detail works could proceed. The important thing in
this study is to utilize the preliminary hydrogeological and geological maps. The geological
maps with 1:250,000 scales are sufficient to have the general idea about the area. It is
advisable to refer more recent works, which contain better structural details. In this case
aerial photo interpretation and satellite imageries are very important.


Taking into consideration the infiltration phenomena, it is possible to understand the major
and minor infiltration potential areas by detailed description of outcropping rocks.
Additional information could be extracted from the geomorphological observation of the
territory with the help of 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 topo maps. At this step, it is possible to
mark the surface catchment basins, slope aclivity, type of drainage and drainage density
from which the relative permeability grade of the outcropping rocks could be estimated. In
this phase, the field study could be concentrated on the identification of lithology, the
degree of weathering and mapping of unmapped units like alluvial and slope deposits as
well as vegetation cover.


From the geological maps, it is also possible to understand the major factors that control


                                                                                             15
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


the ground water circulation. Based on the existing lithological description and
stratigraphic column, it is possible to differentiate hydrogeological complexes and their
stratigraphic relationships. Thus, for the identified stratigraphic units representative
hydrogeological series can be constructed.


On the base of the existing tectonic and stratigraphic relationships between various
complexes, the principal hydrogeological structures can be reconstructed. The field study
becomes limited in the observation of the porosity and degree of fracturing, karsification
and alteration of rocks. If the hydrogeological complexes are heterogeneous and
anisotropic, it is necessary to verify the major and minor permeability among the
outcropping rocks. Concerning the structural aspect, the field study should verify the
hidden and major structures, which have hydrogeological interest. In particular, the
hydraulic nature of low permeable rocks intercalated within the hydrogeological series
should be identified in addition to the clastic rocks, which favour the circulation of ground
water. During the field works, it is important to observe the detailed structural and
stratigraphic units, which may exchange water with adjacent units.


3.2. Medium scale studies
The hydrogeological study in the medium scale results the identification of aquifer
systems or hydrogeological units. The results should allow the acquisition of all elements
to define in details the hydrodynamic condition within a given hydrogeological domain, the
principal groundwater circulation medium, the factor that control the infiltration and
discharge of the groundwater. In the course of this study, the factors that regulate the
infiltration character of the soil should be examined in particular. For example, in addition
to the analysis of the slope of the valleys, it is also better to collect information on the
hydrographic net work, from which it is possible to extract qualitative indication on the rate
of infiltration and surface runoff. In fact, it is known that the high hydrographic density,
which have dendritic network, indicates easily erodable nature of the outcropping rocks
and their low permeability such as clays, marls, schists etc. The same type of
hydrographic net work could be absent in the karstfied carbonatic rocks. In loose
pyroclastic rocks, it is possible to have highly concentrated hydrographic nets and low
permeability of complex aquifer system.


In limestone terrain, it is important to identify the preferential zones of infiltration,
intercommunication of karsts and the direction of flow. It is also wise to analyze the
degree and the type of karstification of the aquifer. Based on the lithology, highly karstified
aquifers absorb large amount of water than the less karstified ones. In the volcanic rocks


                                                                                              16
Tamiru Alemayehu                 Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


identification of the type of primary and secondary permeability can be done. In the
crystalline aquifers, the study of the top altered part is important water bearing zones to be
identified.
In any hydrogeological units it wise to examine:
        fracture filling by secondary impermeable materials,
        stratification of impermeable materials along the layering,
        the degree of fracturing of the rocks,
        the presence of cataclastic or milonotic zones,
        the presence or absence of less permeable cover rocks and,
        all other factors that influences the infiltration of subsoil.
During the field survey, it is also important to investigate the characteristics and type of
vegetation cover, which have an influence on the infiltration phenomena and
evapotranspiration.


Taking into consideration the factors that control the circulation of groundwater it is
necessary     to   reconstruct    in   particular   the   lithological   characteristics   of   each
hydrogeological unit. It needs great attention in the interpretation of field data in situ
because everything observed in the outcrop may be found at depth in the aquifer. During
the reconstruction of hydrogeological series, it is important to describe the thickness of
each unit including the impermeable ones. The understanding of the thickness of the
aquifer helps to evaluate the resource and the reserve of water and the depth of drilling.
The investigation of the factors that regulate the outflow of the ground water is important
to define the circulation of water within the aquifer. The occurrence of springs is useful to
indicate the degree of relative permeability of the aquifers. The location of basal springs in
the carbonatic areas gives good information on the presence of an eventual complication
of structural and stratigraphic units from hydrogeological point of view. The occurrence of
springs at different elevations within the same aquifer indicates the presence of obstacles,
which inhibit regular flow of water. The hydrogeological investigations may be easy in the
hilly and mountainous areas where outcrops are clearly observed. Nevertheless, in the
plain land, the hydrogeological problems could be solved by analyzing the geologic and
lithological logs, which furnish the stratigraphy of the area.


3.3. Detailed studies
The detailed hydrogeological investigations give important solutions for the practical
problems like gallery construction, irrigation lines, well drillings etc. The close observation
of each hydrogeological parameter in situ could give important remedy for the hydraulic
problems within the aquifer. The continuous monitoring of contamination processes using


                                                                                                  17
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


spy wells is important to determine the source location and mechanisms of movements. In
situ infiltration and permeability tests along with long term pumping tests allow the
understanding of aquifer parameters and study of vulnerability.


3.4 Hydrogeological data collection
In every territory, there are numerous hydrogeological data derived from past works,
which could be useful to fulfil the mission of ongoing work. After the completion of the
preliminary investigation i.e. after identifying the area and the major problems, follows the
collection and organization of real data.


The hydrogeological census include the collection, analysis, classification and checking of
hydrogeological data of the territory under question. The process of census represents an
important preliminary delicate work to do. The initial works could be:
        Collection of published papers, (hydrogeological maps, geological maps,
        topographic maps, well and spring location maps, hydro meteorological maps,
        hydrogeological journals etc)
        Collection of unpublished papers, (internal reports, personal data,)
        Organization of the data.
Important data are precipitation, temperature of air and water, soil moisture and surface
runoff and then follows peizometric level, yield of springs, river discharge, water
chemistry, well stratigraphy, utilization of water etc.
If the census is carried out along with the hydrogeological study, it is indispensable to
verify the presence or absence of river discharges. It is necessary to carry out the
measurements both on the upstream and downstream sides to verify which part of the
aquifer or hydrogeological unit, the base flow is coming. One important thing to check
before the data processing is the location of communal and private wells, their exact
depth, water level and the thickness of the aquifer. It is also wise to verify if there are
wells, which absorb the contaminants so that the source of pollution and the major
recharge zones could be identified. It is also important to identify water use i.e. domestic
supply, irrigation industry etc. After the important data collection, all points should be
critically analyzed by identifying those who need further clarification according to their use.




                                                                                              18
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




Chapter Four
                           4- PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS

4.1 Outcropping areas
The basement upon which all younger lithologic formations were deposited consists of the
oldest rocks in the country. It is exposed in areas where all the younger cover rocks were
removed by erosion.


Numerous studies exist on the geochemical and petrological aspects of the basement


                                                                                           19
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


rocks of Ethiopia (Mohr 1971, Merla et al. 1973, Kazmin 1973, 1978, De Wit and Chewaka
1981, Davidson et al. 1976, Davidson 1983, Teklewold Ayalew et al. 1990, Mulugeta
Alene and Barker, 1997, Woldehaimanot and Behrmann 1995, Worku and Schandelmeir
1996, Tadesse et al. 1999, 2000, Asfawossen Asrat and Barbey, 2003, Mulugeta Alene et
al 2006, etc.). The Precambrian basement rocks are exposed in all climatic regions of the
country along with intrusive bodies.       These rocks consist of granites, granodiorites,
gabbro, gneiss, migmatites, granulites, amphibolites, schists, phyllites, etc.             The
Neoprotrozoic sequence lies at a critical geotectonic boundary between the Arabian-
Nubian Shield (mostly Juvenile crust) to the north and Mozambique belt (mostly reworked
older crust) to the southern part of Ethiopia.


The main exposure areas are (Figure 4):
Northern part: Shiraro, Tambien, Negash, Axum etc.
Eastern part: Harar, Haromaya, Boko, Dengego, Babile etc.
Southern and south western part: Negelle,Yavello, Moyale, Konso, Gamu Gofa, Kafa etc.
Western part: Wollega, Gojam, Gondar


According to Kazmin (1973) and Merla et al (1973), the Precambrian rocks can be
categorized in three complexes:
       The lower complex consists of various high-grade gneisses and banded
       migmatites in which biotite and amphibole gneisses are predominant with
       subordinate quartzo feldspatic gneisses. They are dominantly found in the south
       and western part of the country and are more strongly metamorphosed than the
       Precambrian sequence in the north. The rocks are strongly folded, foliated and
       fractured. Since they were subjected to several orogenic episodes, they are
       relatively impervious with only some aquifer along the tectonic lines.
       The middle Complex consists of various moderate to high grade meta-sediments
       such as meta sandstone, metaquartizites, schists, etc. They are restricted in
       Sidamo.
       The upper complex consists of thick succession of slightly metamorphosed
       sedimentary and volcanic rocks of geosynclinal origin. These rocks contain
       amphibolites with beds of chlorites, graphitic phyllite and graphitic quartzite, schist
       and slate. Upper complex of the northern part of the country contain slates,
       graywakes as well as graphitic shales. To a limited degree, they are affected by
       metamorphism and can be easily affected by weathering processes. The
       summarized stratigraphy is given in Table 5




                                                                                             20
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                             Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


                        Table 5. Summary of Precambrian stratigraphy
Stratigraphic details                                               Regional         Orogenic affinity
                                                                    classification
Upper complex       -Weakly metamorphosed limestone
                    and shale                                                        Pan African
                    -Low         grade       metavolcanics, Cover                    Arabian Nubian shield
                    metasediments,        mafic     to     felsic
                    intrusives
Middle complex      Amphibolite facies, metasdiments                                 Proterozoic
Lower complex       High      grade       genies,        schists,                    Mozambique           belt
                    migmatites, granulites                                           rocks with reworked
                                                                    Basement         Archean         Cratonic
                                                                                     inclusion




                             Figure 4 Geological map of Ethiopia


Regarding he intrusive rocks which are present in the Precambrian basement, several
generation are known, most f them in the upper complex and some in the lower complex.



                                                                                                     21
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Specifically metamorphic granites and basic ultra-basic intrusive rocks in the lower
complex and syntectonic and post-tectonic granitoids in the upper one.          Plate tectonic
processes and related phenomena seem to be the main causes of this structural
behaviour. Taking into account the main directions of stresses, which occurred during the
Ethiopian geological history, it could be possible to distinguish at local and regional scale
the differences of those structural features according to their origin and areal distribution.
The lower complex rocks form large blocks, which are separated and surrounded by fold
belts of the upper complex characterized by N-S or NNE-SSW general trend. The internal
structure of these blocks seems to result from several superimposed tectonic events. In
the inner part, distant from the younger belts, broad anticlinal and synclinal structures are
present with schistosity planes dipping very gently. A steep NW or NE trending foliation is
superimposed on the older structures especially near the younger fold belts.


Northern part
Tsailet metavolcanics: Constitute the larger part of the Precambrian era outcropping in the
core of anticlinal fold. Tsailet metavolcanics consist of well-bedded green to purple schists
intebedded with black, white green and pink quartizites and light green marble. Tambien
group in stead outcrops in the core of main synclinal structures of which the most
important are Mai Kenetal and Negash synclinoria. In the northern part, post tectonic
granites form extremely large batholiths. Intrusive rocks of Precambrian age include the
Messeha granite, the forstage diorite and Mereb granite. Forstage diorite is intruded by
andesites, dacites and rhyolite veins. Mereb granite is pink or grey in color. It occurs in
circular bodies in Huzi, Mai Kenetal and Yechila areas. Both types of intrusives are
massive and are foliated in the marginal part.


Western part
Large elongated massifs of syntectonic granodiorites are known to occur along the main
regional fault directions. They are medium to coarse-grained rocks, strongly foliated near
the margins and massive in the central part. These granodiorites are characterized by the
presence of many xenoliths of host rocks, are frequently cut by numerous quart veins.
Syntectonic granites, which form large massifs roughly concordant with the general strike,
are well known in this region. In the western Ethiopia, post tectonic granites form oval and
rounded shape bodies.


Southern and south western part
The basement in the southern and south western part is grouped under Mozambique Belt,
which is a Neoproterozoic, polycyclic, collisional belt. It is characterized by folds and


                                                                                             22
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


metamorphic fabrics that trends between NNE and NNW and consists of high grade,
amphibolites to granulite facies rocks forming a gneissic migmatitic complex (Asfawossen
Asrat and Barbey 2003).The Hammer domain (Davidson et al, 1979) which corresponds
to eastern sector of the south western metamorphic terrain of Ethiopia contains two major
rock groups as an older gneissic complex and several generations of plutonic suites of
which the Konso pluton is the one. The plutons intrude across the contact between folded
mafic granulites and mafic gneisses and amphibolites.


In the Moyale area Mulugeta Alene and Barker, (1997) described three lithological units:
amphibolite, mafic and ultramafic intrusives, and syn to late tectonic granitoids. However,
the amphibolitic gneiss is the most widely represented lithology in the region. The massive
and porphyritic amphibolites are texturally distinct from the amphibolitic genesis with
which they have locally a sharp contact. These rocks have undergone upper greenschist
to mid amphibolite facies metamorphism (Mulugeta Alene and Barker, 1997). These rocks
are intruded by rounded or ellipsoidal bodies of ultrabasic rocks. They occur as ridges or
small hills and are variable in texture, fabric and mineral composition. Serpentinization,
silicification and alteration of primary minerals such as pyroxene, olivine, into secondary
minerals such as talc, amphibole are characteristic feature.


In the Negelle area the main basement outcrops are biotite-hornblend gneiss, biotite
gneiss, meta volcano sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic complexes such as serpentinite,
metagabbro etc. The main intrusive bodies are granitic to granodioritic in composition. The
granitic rocks of the Negelle Borena area can be splitted into three: syntectonic biotitic
granites, post tectonic biotitic granites and post tectonic pegmatoidal granites that
outcrops around Negelle Borena town. The oldest rock is exposed west of Neghele and
they are granitic or granodioritic gneisses grading to banded migmatites. The gneisses are
altered into augen gneisses with porphyroblasts of potash feldspar. In the Awata valley,
complex formation of quartzo-feldspatic rocks, biotite and amphibole schists occur.
Quartzo-feldspatic and granitic bands usually form prominent topographic highs and act
as a screen for fluid movements. West of Awata-Mormora watershed a wide (5-6km) belt
of talc-tremolite and chlorite schists occurs. The unit west of Kenticha, consists of Meta
sandstones in the lower part and biotite schists interbedded with graphite schists
calcslicates and marbles. The main structures are antiforms with an older granite gneiss
complex in the core and synform with the graphite schists-sandstone formation in the
core. The most important perennial rivers flowing on these rocks are Genale, Mormora
and Awata. In the southern Ethiopia, post tectonic granites form oval and rounded shape
bodies.   Layered hornblende and biotite gneisses are found at southern part of Maji


                                                                                            23
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


highlands. Predominantly composed of grey, fine to medium grained granular to foliated
gneisses. This unit also contains minor amounts of interlayered amphibolite calc-silicate
gneisses, granitoid gneiss outcrops east of Gogara river. A large body of granitoid
orthogneiss underlies the rugged ridges extending southwest from the Maji highlands. In
the central outcrops, the rocks are mainly massive or weakly foliated. The predominant
rock is a dark low weathering, fine-grained amphibole bearing schists, locally grading to
thinly layered parts. It is intimately associated with smaller amounts of fedspatic schists,
chlorite and schists. The main perennial rivers are Mwi, Godara, Akobo, Gatcheb, Genji,
Baro, Gasena, Gilo, Arbuka, Guracha, Berber, Kari, Kibish, Kaia, and Kiba.


The Konso area is characterized by granitic plutons of post tectonic phase (Asfawossen
Asrat and Barbey, 2003).


Eastern Part
In the eastern part of the country, the basement rocks consist of crystalline acidic
migmatites, gneisses and granites. The Precambrian unit is found underlying all the
geological units in the region. In most of the cases, intrusive bodies cut the metamorphic
rocks. Its main components are migmatic quartz rich granitic gneisses and the intrusive
pegmatite-feldspathic granite. The Lower complex so called the Boye group exposed
around Babbile in the east, Melba and Mudena of Garamuleta and Burka in south west is
characterized by high-grade gneissose- pegmitic granite and the middle complex which is
found around Jaja and south west border of East Hararghe zone are the two groups of
this unit. Granite-pegmatite rocks penetrates gneissic rocks and localized around Harar,
Hammaressa, Awwoday, northern part of Haromaya town extended to Kombolcha. The
gneisses and migmatities consist of the biotite-hornblend, biotite-gneisses, and migmatite
with minor paragnessic, quartise-feldspathic, gneissic and granitoide orthoclase. Good
exposure of this rock group is seen around Biftu-Kersa-Kejima and Dawwe River gorges.


4.2 Groundwater occurrence
Hydrogeology of metamorphic rocks has become very important because hard rock
terrain covers good part of Ethiopia, which is 18 % of the total surface area. With the
growing demand of water, groundwater exploitation in this terrain has become inevitable.
More over these rocks being vats in arid and semi arid areas, their importance has
become significant for development. Groundwater investigation carried out so far at
different scales in various parts of the country have attained double effect of relieving the
people’s distress as far as possible and contributing to a better knowledge of the main
hydrogeological characteristics of the various geological units. Referring to the general


                                                                                            24
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


principles of hydrogeology and based on the published and unpublished reports, general
characteristics of water bearing rocks have been described. Groundwater in these terrains
is characterized by a regionally extended aquifer in near surface zone.


The igneous and metamorphic rocks of Ethiopia can be categorized as hard rocks, which
are devoid of primary water bearing structures. However, from the hydrological point of
view, they are rather homogeneous in two respects. They have virtually no primary
porosity and they have secondary porosity due to fracturing and weathering, which
permits the flow and storage of groundwater. Metamorphic rocks usually tend to have
porosity less than 1 % and are frequently discontinuous or ineffective pore spaces. Their
permeability is, therefore, low as well. As discussed earlier fracturing either associated
with regional deformation or weathering may create significant porosity and permeability,
which is the most important feature for their groundwater potential. Degree of fracturing in
crystalline rocks has generally been found to decrease with depth, because the rock
becomes more massive and hard with depth under higher pressure and temperature
conditions.


Intrusive rocks fracturing: Fine-grained rocks show a dense pattern of fractures. In such
rocks, individual fractures usually are very limited in length. On the other hand, in rocks
such as granites (plate 2) generally develop fractures tens to hundred meters long. These
fractures usually are widely spaced.




                                 Plate 2 Fractured granite


Metamorphic rocks fracturing: The degree of metamorphism seems to determine the
strength of the rock against fracturing. High grade rocks show little fracturing while low-



                                                                                              25
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                  Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


grade rocks show intense fracturing.


To the hydrogeologist the common attribute of hard rocks is the absence of primary
porosity. The fracture pattern of the rocks creates a type of porosity, which is termed as
fracture porosity. This means that open fractures lying below the groundwater level that
can store and transmit water. The main problem of hydrogeologist undertaking
groundwater exploitation in metamorphic rocks is to find a fracture pattern with maximum
storage capacity. Parameters to be considered include:


       Opening of fractures
       Measure depth of fractures
       Measure spacing and frequency of fracture per km2
       Study the type of tectonites
       The type of infilling
       Orientation and origin of fractures


Groundwater moves and is stored in hard rock terrain of open system of fractures in
unweathered rock and in pervious zones of surficial weathered rock. In areas of
insignificant weathering where hard rock is well exposed and there is no weathering layer
(or where it is absent) like highland regions of active erosion, virtually all groundwater
movement and storage occurs in open fractures. In such regions, drainage networks are
commonly aligned along fracture system in underlying rock. Relatively little recharge to
groundwater in such fracture system takes place by infiltration from rainfall rather
recharge takes place by infiltration from streams where these cross or closely follow open
fracture traces. Percolating water moves down the hydraulic gradient up to points of clay
filled fractures or impervious horizon of these rocks where it is discharged, and the
continuity of the open fracture system is interrupted. Generally, the main water bearing
structures are presented in Figure 5.




                                                                                           26
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                      Figure 5. Hydrostructures in metamorphic rocks


In hard rock terrain, surface drainage is generally aligned along fracture system in the
underlying rock. Storage capacity of metamorphic rocks depends on the fracture porosity
if no weathered upper mantle. This characteristic is modified by weathering process and
influenced by the hydraulic properties of any materials filling the fractures.


The deformed metamorphic and intrusive rocks develop typical fractures called ac type
fractures (Figure 6). The jointing of ac type is often shown prominently in areal
photographs as well developed pattern of parallel lines, which are perpendicular to the
fold axis or an intrusive flow structure. Therefore, local variations often occur in their
direction. This type of tectonites is generally a poor aquifer because of weak
interconnection between the joints. The main problem for the hydrogeologist undertaking
groundwater exploration basement areas is to find a fracture pattern with maximum
storage capacity. Where a set of dikes intersects a basement rock area, interconnected
fracture zone is of an interest. It is well known that biotite and amphibole gneisses, which
constitute the internal bodies of the Lower complex frequently, form synclinal and
anticlinal structures characterized by evident schistosity planes. These fold structures
seem to be old relics of S-tectonites formed by compressive stresses along the
deformation plane (a-b plane), cut by a wide pattern of tensile, and shear fractures.
Tensile fractures generally have high storage capacity and they collect water from small
fractures.




                                                                                              27
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




Figure 6. S and B tectonites in deformed rocks (after Larson, 1972)




                             Figure 7. Permeable Shear zone
In metamorphic terrain, the most important zones that constitute productive aquifer are
shear zone, which is portrayed in Figure 7.


It may not be possible to correlate directly the presence of higher rainfall belts in certain
areas with the size of the local groundwater storage. The Precambrian outcrops in the
south eastern part of the country receive high rainfall. Eg. Kibremengist-1061mm,
Shakisso-1043mm, Negelle-632mm. In these areas, the chance of obtaining water in the
upper weathered part is very high. The main problems of arid areas are linked to
groundwater resources. Since vertical permeability of soils is often higher in low rainfall
regions than high rainfall areas. This factor may operate to induce a large vulnerability for
aquifers from arid zones to pollution from the surface.


The occurrence of quartz and pegmatite dikes is very important because of their high
hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity. Dikes have another characteristic that may have
local importance for groundwater. They commonly act as sub terranean dams, dividing the
rock into separate hydraulic units. If a mountain slope is cut by a set of dikes trending



                                                                                            28
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


more or less parallel to the contour lines, the dikes will have a damming effect on the
groundwater flow, causing the development of springs. Infilling veins rich in quartz will
decrease the fracture permeability. The Basement Complex upon which all younger rock
formations were deposited consists of the oldest rocks in the country. The main water
bearing formations of the Precambrian are found within the structural discontinuities of
various crystalline rocks occurring mainly both in the lower complex (high grade gneiss,
migmatites, granulites and metamorphic granitoids), in the upper complex, syn-tectonic
and post-tectonic granitoids. Since metamorphic rocks are subjected to several orogenic
episodes, they are strongly folded, foliated and fractured. These structures play important
role in the movement and occurrence of groundwater. Some geological structures of
hydrogeological importance in the Precambrian rocks include:
       Intersection of the main regional tectonic structures
       Occurrence of post crystalline tensile and shear fractures in the anticlinal and
       synclinal structures
       Structural heterogeneity due to the occurrence of migmatites and granulites in the
       gneiss
        Occurrence of quartz and pegmatite dikes


Syntectonic granitoids have the following features of hydrogeological importance:
       Evidence of strong foliation of the rocks along the margins
       Occurrence of massive bodies cut by a wide pattern of post-crystalline tectonic
       discontinuities
       Occurrence of numerous veins and dikes of quartz secondary recirculation into the
       open fractures
       Occurrence of pegmatite and aplite dikes in the granitic massifs
       Sharp contact with metasediments and metavolcanics
       Occurrence of thick overburden soil-regolith


Hydrostructures in post-tectonic granitoids:
       Occurrence of oval and round shaped bodies without evidence of tectonic activity
       but strongly affected by weathering processes
       Occurrence of large massive batholiths cut by a severe tectonic pattern
       Wide differences in composition, structure and texture and corresponding
       variability of hydraulic parameters
       Occurrence of acidic and mafic dikes


Special attention should be given to the following geologic and physiographic features:


                                                                                            29
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


         Major and minor fracture zones or lineations and zones of brecciation
         Persistent topographic troughs or ridges that do not conform to the regional trends
         Contact zones between two or more rock types
         Features such as pegmatites, dikes which frequently contain zones of low
         permeability or highly fractured zones of high permeability.
         Zone of regoliths
In the northern part of Ethiopia, in the slates and metavolcanics, groundwater occurs
locally in the weathered upper layers and in some fracture zones. Weathered thickness
ranges from 10 to 50m, the greater thickness being located along stream gullies. In the
Tambien group the presence of quartz veins facilitate the presence of considerable
groundwater.     Upon weathering, granites and diorites become loose and permeable.
Springs emerge locally at the contacts of weathered and fresh ignimbrite.


Conjugate fracture system is typical features of syn-tectonic granites as in the case of
Negelle that could increase the chance of water circulation.


Generally, Precambrian intrusive igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks have very small
(less than 1%) primary porosity as they are formed by interlocking crystals. Metamorphic
rocks as a whole can be considered to have low storage capacity in comparison with
intrusive rocks. As a result, permeabilities are small and in most practical cases serve as
an aquiclude. Therefore, the productivity is very low as observed from the yield of some
wells given below.


The yield and static water level in Precambrian aquifers in some parts of the country:
Locality                     Yield (l/s)      Static water level (m. from surface)
Moyale                          1.4           15
Mega                            2             17
B/n Mega and Moyale             3.3           40
Yavello                         0.8           36
B/n Mega and Yavello            1.1           21
Konso                           6             42
Negele                          3.1           4
B/n Yavello and Negele          1.4           5.2
Harekelo                        0.8           34
Kibre Mengist                   5             3
Metu                            2             28
B/n Nejo and Mendi              10            5.5


                                                                                              30
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Mankusha                       2             15
Harar                          1.8           7.3
Babile                         3             9
Humera                         5             30
Shehet                         0.3           28
Turmi (dug well)               -             12
Weyto (dug well)               0.9           -
Jinka (dug well)               -             5
Sawla                              5         50


Water bearing properties of these rocks are believed to be dependent on the extent of
weathering and occurrence of fractures. In these rocks the deeper the weathered zone,
the greater the amount of water. The weathered layers have porosity as much as 50 %
and can act as a reservoir.


The residual soils formed by the process of weathering in the crystalline rocks, which is
called regolith, has hydrogeological significance in storing and transmitting water. The
regolith is formed from the underlying saprolite by further dissolution and leaching
combined with chemical, physical and biological processes. It includes the surface soils
and other layered features such as laterites, calcretes and clayey layers. Acidic intrusive
rocks such as granites, granodiorites, aplites, quartzporphyries and pegmatites have a
high storage capacity, as they are brittle rocks from a hydrogeological point of view.
Pegmatite intrusions are generally very brittle and therefore highly permeable.


The initial weathering results in the disaggregation and leaching without the production of
secondary minerals and it increase the porosity, permeability and specific yield. Later
production of secondary clay minerals will reduce the value of these parameters and clays
could seal fractures in the bedrock. Weathered pegmatites (Plate 3) facilitate easy
circulation of groundwater.




                                                                                            31
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                         Plate 3 Weathered pegmatite at Awwoday


In the bed rocks fractures can be developed by tectonic discontinuities, pressure relief
due to erosion of overburden rocks, shrinking during cooling of rock mass and the
compression and tensional forces caused by regional tectonic stresses.


Tectonic movements usually generate sub-vertical fractures associated with folding which
facilitate groundwater circulation and storage in Precambrian rocks. Brittle deformation
has a positive effect on transmissivity and cataclastic deformation has a negative effect.


Tensile fractures due to lateral compression which are long persistent jointed valleys,
crossing different kinds of rocks and types of folding indicated by rough slopes and open
fractures, are good for storage and circulation of groundwater. The openness, depth,
length, frequency and connectivity of fractures determine the permeability and storage of
groundwater in crystalline aquifers of Ethiopia.


The success and failure of well site locations depend very much on the proper
understanding of the complex structures of the Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive
rocks and the existence of thick permeable weathered zones. An integrated system of
exploration, such as geological and geophysical methods is very important in this kind of
terrain. The probability of obtaining a high yielding well in crystalline rocks will be
maximised if drilling takes place in an area where fractures are localised or where there
exist thick permeable weathered mantle under good recharge conditions.




                                                                                             32
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Even though crystalline rocks are generally impervious, groundwater occurs mainly in the
weathered and creviced zones. In the regions where the mean annual rainfall is small,
large amount of water could not be expected in these rocks. However, shallow water can
be found in the regional fractures and in thick soil overburden (regolith).


The metamorphic rocks exposed in the western and southern part of the country are
located within the area of favourable climatic conditions where rainfall is high. However,
their water holding properties are poor as witnessed by the springs, which emerge from
the contact between overburden soils and the massive gneisses.


Where the basement is made of ultrabasic rocks, they become less resistant to
weathering. Permeability is likely to be low since the regolith is derived from
ferromagnesian minerals, notably biotite which can be easily converted into secondary
clay minerals.


In the eastern part of the country, the known aquifers are metamorphic granites and
migmatites. Generally, the groundwater potential and the current development in the
Basement Complex rocks of Ethiopia are very low.


In the northern part of the country, weathered layers of post tectonic granites and
granodiorites have been found to be good aquifer especially if they occur in valleys where
their thickness reaches more than 10 m. In the Shiraro formation, the main permeable
units are meta sandstone and foliated conglomerates in which slates, phyllites and granite
clasts dominate. During rainy months, they can accumulate large volume of water.


Generally, groundwater moves and is stored in Precambrian rocks in relatively open
system of fractures I un-weathered rock and in pervious zones made of regolith. Where
regolith is absent, virtually all groundwater movement and storage occur in open fractures.
In such a case, surface drainage networks could be aligned along the fracture system.
Relatively little recharge to groundwater in such fractures takes place by direct infiltration
from rainfall. Rather, recharge could occur chiefly by infiltration from streams where they
closely follow open fractures. Therefore, typical hydrogeological environment in basement
rocks is the presence of shallow and extensive aquifer. Very little groundwater is obtained
from depths greater than hundred meters.


In different part of the country where applicable geological information is either lacking,
the problem is locating sufficiently permeable fracture system and or weathered zone to


                                                                                              33
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


provide the desired water supply. Where such features are visible, even over a limited
distance, standard geologic, geophysical or photogeologic methods are the most effective
way to extrapolate the existing data. Buried, near surface fractured systems fortunately
tend to be linear. For a wider fracture zone, the problem would be in localizing the most
fractured portion. This could be detected by a surface resistivity profile. Recharge of all
fractures with groundwater is made via some communication either with a surface or near
surface recharge area (saturated weathered layer). If the fractures can be reorganized at
the surface, they can be mapped and their structural setting can be used to predict the
location of these zones at various depths. Based on an examination of outcrops,
topographic depressions (especially stream patterns), vegetation changes and location of
springs, it has been generally feasible to map potential water bearing zones in various
parts of Ethiopia.


Generally, the basement crystalline aquifers occur in the weathered residual overburden
(regolith) and fractured bedrock. The aquifers are phreatic in character but may respond
to localized abstraction in semi-confined condition. These rocks have very low fracture
permeability and contain shallow groundwater where the yield varies between 1 and 10
l/s.




Chapter Five

       5- PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

5.1 Outcropping rocks
The Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks are sedimentary formations. This formation is
described in details by Mohr, 1971, Beyth, 1972, Merla et al 1973, Russo et al 1994,
Bosellini et al 1997, 2001, etc. The Palaeozoic formations are localized in the Ogaden and
Tigray regions. In the eastern part of the country, Palaeozoic deposits occur in Chercher
named as Waju sandstone, which is friable sandstone with frequent shale intercalation.




                                                                                           34
Tamiru Alemayehu                Sept.2006                Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


In the northern part of Ethiopia, they are essentially constituted of Edagarbi glacial
deposits and Enticho Sandstones (Beyth 1972).        The glacial rocks have measured
thickness of 150-180m, where thick thickness encompasses dark gray tillite at the base,
massive siltstone and shale overlain by red and green shale. The Enticho sandstone is
made of white, calcareous, coarse-grained sandstone containing lenses of silt and
conglomerates. The Enticho sandstone is massive rock while the Edagarbi tillites are
loose (Plate 4).




                   Enticho sandstone
                                                             Edagarbi tillite




Plate 4. Palaeozoic rocks


The Mesozoic sediments of Ethiopia occur mainly in three areas: the Ogaden basin,
Tigray region and Abay basin. The general stratigraphy in the Ogaden basin is:
   •   Lower sandstone /Adgirat sandstone: mainly comprised by sandstone
   •   Hamanley limestone
   •   Urandab formation-Shales
   •   Kebridar formation-limestone
   •   Gypsum formation-contain crystalline gypsum with marly intercalation.
   •   Upper sandstone


The Mesozoic sedimentary rocks sequence in Abay basin according to Kazmin (1975)
and later modified by Russo et al (1994) is:
   •   Lower sandstone /Adgirat sandstone: mainly comprised by sandstone.
   •   Gypsum and shale containing unit
   •   Limestone
   •   Mudstone
   •   Upper sandstone /Ambaradam formation
While in Tigray, the Antalo limestone is overlain by Agula shale and Ambaradam
formation (upper sandstone). The summary of Mesozoic stratigraphy is given in Table 6.


                                                                                          35
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                        Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                         Table 6 Summary of Mesozoic stratigraphy
              Cenozoic             -upper sandstone
              Cretaceous           -mudstone
                                   -Gypsum formation
              Jurassic             -Kebridar limestone
                                   -Urandab shales
                                   -Antalo limestone-Hamanley limestone
                                   -Gypsum and shale containing unit
              Triassic             Adgrat sandstone




                                               Adgrat sandstone




                                          Enticho sandstone


                   Plate 5 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sandstones in Tigray


The lower sandstone unit generally overlies the basement uncomformably, but in some
places, it directly overlies Palaeozoic continental sediments. The thickness ranges from
100 m to 700m in Abay basin and in Tigray. In Tigray the maximum thickness of Adgrat
sandstone occur at Abi Adi, thinning westward over a short distance to about 80m above
the Tekeze river and disappearing completely north of Adgrat-Axum road.




                                                                                               36
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                            Antalo limestone




                       Plate 6 Mesozoic Antalo limestone at Mekele


The superimposed Shale and gypsum unit, 450m thick, consists of interbedded siltstones,
shales, laminated gypsum, and clay. The Antalo limestone has a thickness of 420m in
Abay basin and is made of fossiliferous limestone interbedded with marls, shales, and
mudstone. The lower unit of the Hamanley formation is characterized by lesser
fossilferrous with intercalated beds of calcareous sandstones and siltstone with some
intercalation of gypsum. The second type of this formation is the upper unit characterized
by oolitic and Pelitic, which is highly fossiliferrous. In the DireDawa area the typical section
from bottom to top is Antalo limestone, DireDawa formation (black micritic limestone),
Daghani shale (marly limestone and marls), Gildessa limestone and Ambaradam
formation (Bossellini et al 2001).


The mudstone unit outcrops in the Abay basin with the thickness of 320m. It is composed
of alternating fine-grained sandstone, mudstones with fine beds of siltstones and shales at
the top and interbedded dolomites, gypsum and shale at the bottom.


The upper sandstone has a thickness of 170 m in Abay basin and is composed of fine to
medium-grained sandstone with local lenses of clay stone and conglomerates.




                                                                                              37
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                            Plate 7. Antalo limestone at Fedis


In the south eastern plateau, this rock is found overlying conformably the Hamaniley
formation of the fossiliferrous type and underlying unconformably the Cenozoic basalt. It is
variegated sandstone commonly inter bedded with siltstone, shale, and marl having
calcite as a major cementing material.
5.2 Groundwater occurrence
Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks posses both primary and secondary
permeability that play important role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater. In
the clastic sedimentary rocks, the main water-bearing horizon is constituted by interstitial
spaces. The water holding capacity may be conditioned by the degree of assortment,
grain size, cementation and jointing. Precipitates from percolating water readily close
interstices of clastic sediments. Cementation and resulting consolidation provides
favourable condition for the development of joints. Bedding planes play an important role
in transmitting water in sandstones (Plate 8)




                                                                                            38
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                          Plate 8. Bedding planes in Sandstone


Carbonate rocks are among the most productive aquifers in the Mesozoic rocks even
though their permeability and porosity vary considerably. This variation is related to their
mode of origin and environment of deposition. Limestone formations rank among the best
aquifers due to secondary porosity. Shales are unproductive but store small amount of
water. This difference is due to the original texture of the rock. Newly formed limestone
may contain abundant interstices between the calcareous fragments. Older limestones
are compact and impervious except in the bedding planes and joints and the passage
developed by solution cavities, which occur along the bedding planes and joints.
Limestone is dissolved most rapidly above the water table, where there is abundant and
rapid percolation and carbon dioxide in the water. The cavities found below the water
table can yield permanent supplies to wells. Many regions underlain by limestone have no
or rare surface runoff, all their surface water passes through sinkholes into subterranean
passages in the limestone. Thus, streams of considerable size may pass beneath the
surface (eg. Sofo Umer cave in Bale). The development of karst, called karstification, is
the result of solution and leaching of limestone, dolomite and gypsum through attack by
acidic rainwater. Circulation of water through fractures and other openings enlarges these
openings, increase permeability and hence the potential rate of circulation.


Since Palaeozoic sediments are known to overlie impervious basement rocks, they can
have good chance of storing water particularly in the channel fills and within the clastic
sediment horizons. Palaeozoic sediments contain water mainly in the conglomeratic
horizons and in weathered zones.



                                                                                            39
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




The aquifers of the Mesozoic formations are much more important when they occur in
more favourable climatic conditions. The aquifers consist of arenaceous type formation
(Adigrat Sandstones), calcareous-dolomitic layers very often fossiliferous (Abay Beds and
Antalo Limestones), Agula Shales and Amba Aradam Formation (more arenaceous-
conglomeratic). With reference to different horizons in these formations, the important
hydrogeological remarks are the following.
    • Potential aquifers can be found in Enticho sandstones within the most superficial
       horizons notably weathered and significantly reworked or within more distinctly
       conglomeratic intercalations at different depths; deep aquifers or peculiar highly
       productive springs may be found at the contact between Lower Sandstone and the
       impervious glacial deposits. The main recharge to the Enticho sandstone comes
       from the overlying Trap basalts that slowly feed the underlying sandstone.
    • Important aquifers occur in the Antalo Limestones and Abay Beds both within the
       small karstic circuits and along the main tectonic lineaments, and at the contact
       with the formation of Lower Sandstone. This contact, which is clearly visible in the
       Blue Nile basin, gives rise to a group of highly productive springs. At the base of
       the Antalo Limestone where it comes in contact with Adigrat Sandstone, a number
       of springs emerge in hilly incised valleys and gorges. A typical example of such
       springs exists in the Blue Nile Gorge and the main tributaries of Abay. At its lower
       part, the Antalo Limestone shows some degree of krastification. Such karst
       formation, although not extensive, occur in Tigray and Hararghe. Very large
       springs emerge at the contact of the limestone and shale or marl, some times with
       a discharge exceeding 10 l/s.
    • The Hamanley formation forms deep aquifers in the south and southeastern part of
       the country. It is well jointed and have moderate to high permeability. The
       productive aquifer in the DireDawa area is made of Antalo limestone that receives
       recharge from the overlying basaltic sequence. In some cases, recharges are
       derived from areas made of basement rocks such as Dengego area. Lack of shale
       intercalation in this formation to hold up the groundwater at shallow depth cause
       the groundwater in this formation to be very deep. In Filtu and Negele Borena
       areas, the static groundwater level in this formation is around 190 m below the
       ground surface.
    • The limestone intercalation in Agula Shale comprises 10-20 %, the rest being
       either well-jointed hard shales or soft friable shale. Springs usually emerge at the
       contact between the limestone and the shale. Different boreholes drilled in Mekele
       area showed that they are in modest condition and some are artesian type. The


                                                                                           40
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


        yield in this formation is low. Under exceptional cases, the yield may reach as high
        as 13 litres per second.
    • The Kebridahar Series is known by its high karstification characterized by huge
        cavities. The well-known Sofo Umer cave in Bale Region has been formed
        probably in this formation. Local springs exist in this formation.
    • The Mustahil Limestone has moderate permeability and productivity, usually with
        high total dissolved solids in the water. There is a possibility of prospecting
        relatively fresh groundwater in the middle of the formation because the overlying
        and underlying formations have more gypsum. The main water bearing formations
        exist in the Fafan valley of northern and central Ogden.
    • The Belet Wen Limestone has very limited groundwater reserve. It is intercalated
        with shale and sandstone. Its sustained groundwater productivity is limited by the
        lack of recharge either from precipitation or from streams. If at all high productive
        aquifers exist, the water is fossil groundwater.


Multilayer aquifers may be found in Agula Shales, within the less compacted carbonatic
intercalations, which are fractured, often highly laminated and karstified. These aquifers
are confined by marly layers and often by massive magmatic bodies or dike swarms, such
as Mekele Dolerites. Abundant groundwater occurs in these dikes due to their extensive
fracturing.


In different parts of the country Antalo limestone, constitute very important aquifer where
some springs discharges as much as 100 l/s. At the contact between dolomite, gypsum
and limestone the most important productive springs are common as observed along the
Abay basin.


Generally, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are rich in groundwater where
they receive highland recharge. Karsification is common structure in the limestones of
Somalian plateau and contain appreciable amount of water. The well yield reaches as
much as 45l/s in the Antalo limestone of Dire Dawa area due to very high regional
recharge that comes into the aquifer.




Chapter Six




                                                                                              41
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


          6- TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY VOLCANIC ROCKS

6.1 Outcropping rocks
The earliest and most extensive groups of volcanic rocks are the Trap Series, erupted
from fissures during the early and middle Tertiary. The Plio-Quaternary volcanics are
largely restricted in the Rift valley. Substantial shield volcanoes consisting mainly of basalt
lava developed on the Ethiopian plateau during the Miocene and Pliocene (Kazmin,
1975). The Ethiopian volcanics were divided into two main Series: Trap Series (or plateau
Series) and Rift volcanics (Mohr, 1971; Mohr, 1983; Zanettin and Justin-Visentin, 1974;
Zanettin, 1993 ) etc.


6.1.1 Trap Series
In early Cenozoic extrusion of flood lavas occurred from fissures and centers and covered
the great part of the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. The total area covered by flood basalts
in Ethiopia has been estimated to be 600,000 km2 (Mohr and Zanettin, 1988). These flood
lavas have been divided into two groups:
Ashangi group: consists predominantly of thick basalt lava flow trachytes and rhyolites
with interbedded pyroclastics erupted from fissures. They are injected by dolerite sills,
acidic dikes, and gabbro-diabase intrusions. The flows have variable thickness of 200-
1200m. The thickest exposed sections occur close to the rift escarpment, suggesting that
the main source was associated with the rifting. Ashangi group occur in two cycles;
Ashangi cycle (50-35 Ma) and post Ashangi cycle (32-15 Ma, Zanettin, 1993). Ashangi
cycle might have begun 50 Ma ago and outcropped in Wollega (W. Ethiopia,
Seifemichael, et al, 1987), SW Ethiopia (Davidson and Rex, 1980) and SE plateau (Mohr,
1971). The fissural basalts are represented by transitional basalts with tholeiitic affinity,
while the more frequent moderately fissural basalts are still transitional but with alkaline
affinity, and are characterized by a lower Na2O/K20 ratio and lower content in Al203 (9-
12%). The post Ashangi cycle is a plateau sequence which contain Aiba and Alaji fissural
volcanism (32-25 Ma). The Aiba basalts (32-25 Ma) are old and typical of transitional
basalts with homogeneous composition. They are followed by Alaji volcanics, containing
interlayered silicic rocks (perlalkaline rhyolite) and transitional basalts. Their emission is
controlled by tectonics (Zanettin, 1993). The fissural Alaji volcanism is followed by central
volcanism, which built up large shield volcanoes called Tarmaber central volcanics (Mohr,
1971b).


Magdala group (Upper Pliocene); Outcropped within the Ethiopian rift, on the escarpment
and near by plateaus. The thickness of the unit increases away from the rift (Morton et al



                                                                                              42
Tamiru Alemayehu                Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


1980). Acidic rocks dominate including acid tuffs, mostly ignimbrites, pantelleritic rhyolites
and trachytes. They are interbedded with lavas and agglomerates of basaltic composition.


In Adua and Axum regiones, hyperalkaline silicic lavas are outcropped (Mohr, 1971) and
lie directly on stratiform basalt.




                          Plate 9. Vertical fractures in basaltic lava flow
In the part of Adgrat, the Magdala group rocks are highly fractured (Plate 9) and recharge
the underlying sandstone.


In Quoram, there is 1200m thick Ashangi group forming the lower part with the top more
silicic 300m Magdala group. In central Ethiopia, Trap Series has the highest thickness in
the central part and there are sedimentary intercalations thicker and more numerous than
in the northern Ethiopia. In the Semien Mountain, the Trap Series reaches its maximum
development and has a total thickness of about 3500m. In some part of Shoa, Chokay
Mountain, there is 700m amygdaloidal basalt with agate and zeolite amygdalus with
alternating scoraceous variety. The Entoto hill is made of olivine trachytes, phonolitic
trachytes, hyalotrachytes and alkaline rhyolites together with thick tuff and obsidian
breccias (Mohr, 1971). The Trap Series thickness (in Meters) in various part of the country
(Mohr, 1971):


              Magdala                Ashangi
Amba Alagi         300                  700
Quorem             300                 1200
Central Gojjam      2600                    700
Abbay                 0                  500


                                                                                                 43
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


S.E Shoa           1000               1000
N.Jimma            100                -
Sidamo             1000                   -
Harar                  -              900


The maximum thickness of Trap Series on the Ethiopian plateau is 3500m and is
represented by Semien Mountain while in the NE plateau the maximum thickness is
2500m on Arsi highland.


The Ashangi basalts show similar proportion of tholeiitic and alkaline types while the Aiba
Formation is characterized by huge tholeiitic basalt pile (Justin-Visentin 1974, Zanettin
and Piccirillo, 1978). Aiba Formation passes into Alaji Formation, it starts with
rhyolite/trachyte flows. Alaji flood basalts are dominantly tholeiitic. The central Tarmaber
basalt is largely alkaline. The Oligocene basalt interlayered with rhyolites outcrop on the
Chencha escarpment which rises west of Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo in the southern
Ethiopia (Zanettin et al 1978). The summarized stratigraphy of volcanic rocks is given in
Table 7


                               Table 7 Summary of volcanics
                                                          Syn-Rift
                Holocene             Recent lava          volcanics
                Pleistocene          Quaternary lava
                Palaeocene           Nazareth group
                Miocene              Fursa/Addis
                                     Ababa/Tarmaber       Trap series
                Oligocene            Aiba, Alage          Post           Rift
                Eocene               Ashangi basalt       volcanics




6.1.2 Rift volcanics
Rift volcanics postdate the formation of the Rift System in Ethiopia, i.e. post Miocene or
Plio-Quaternary. Most of the rocks are confined to the Rift System and unique outcrop on
the NW plateau is found south of Lake Tana. There are two fold divisions of the lavas of
the Rift volcanic Series, an earlier alkaline-silicis series followed by scoraceous flood
basalts. Considering that, the last phase of the Trap series was one of extrusion of
alkaline-silicic lavas of Wachacha, Yerer, Chilalo etc, which may even post date the major
rifting and faulting movements. The dominant types of basalts are olivine basalts. The


                                                                                            44
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


basalts of Rift volcanic Series are more scoraceous than the plateau basalt and are made
of labradorite and bytownite augite, olivine and abundant iron oxide. The texture is
commonly holocrystaline. The more silicic lavas are strongly alkaline and include
pantellerites, soda rhyolites, comendites, trachytes, soda trachytes and dacites. In Erta
Ale, there are recent volcanic products with tens of years (Mohr 1971; Barberi et al 1972;
Mohr 1972). Immense quantities of flood basalts have flowed north-eastwards from N-S
fissures in SW Afar. In southern Afar older alkaline-silicic lavas are abundant among
which pantellerite is the most common of silicic lavas, composed generally of sanidine or
anorthoclase, quartz, diopside, aegerine and cossyrite.


Associated with Fantale volcano, there are hyperalkaline silicic lavas, pantellerite-
comendite series occur rhyolite, granophyre, sodic trachyte and pantelleritic obsidian
(Mohr, 1962). The Chabi volcano, north of Lake Awassa, contains recent flows of rhyolitic
obsidian lava with pumice at the base and lies upon recently faulted lacustrine sediments.


After the formation of escarpments, fissural volcanism was confined to the rifts. These
new volcanic stage began with the emission of Malba rhyolitic ignimbrite (14-11 Ma) and
the voluminous Fursa flood basalts (12-9 Ma). Many transitional basalts with affinity
varying from tholeiitic to alkaline were emitted in Afar (Lebas and Mohr 1970). They form
the Dalha basalts (8-6 Ma), the Afar stratoid Series (4-1 Ma) and the younger volcanoes
built on the Axial fissure system of Afar (Barberi, et al., 1975a). Huge volumes of
ignimbrites, mainly peralkaline rhyolites (Balchi Formation), locally interlayered with
basalts, were emitted in the Ethiopian Rift and in the southern Afar, from 8 to 2 Ma ago.
The Balchi rhyolites are covered by the Bofa transitional alkaline basalts (Kazimin, et al.,
1980).


The Afar group (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is specially made of basaltic layered sequence,
which is accumulated within the floor of the central and southern part of the Afar Rift. The
floor of Afar triangle lies between 1000m a.s.l at Awash town and 120m below sea level at
Danakil depression. The opening of the Afar Rift seems to have commenced in the Early
Miocene (23-25 Ma, Barbieri et al, 1975).


Ignimbrites with a thickness of about 400m have been recorded in the Aisha Horst, Issa
Graben and at the base of the escarpment in the Tefer- Gelemso area. The Afar basalts
are alkaline and resemble those of Ashangi group. Abundant silicic volcanic centers
producing rhyolites of pantelleritic affinity, obsidian flows, ignimbrites and pumice cones
associated with rhyolites are related to the zones of intense tensional faulting within the


                                                                                             45
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


rift. Trachytes and andesites have been emitted from the same acidic centers. In Afar, the
outcropping of basalt and ignimbrite sheets from fissures was succeeded by the
development of a strato-volcano consisting of obsidian flows, pumice and pyroclastic
layers, trachyte flows and domes mantled by an ignimbrite layer. Olivine-rich basalts
merge into picritic types were erupted from fissures and centers and extended from Afar in
to the Rift valley. Alumina-rich basalt erupted mainly from well-defined fissures and spatter
cones covers an extensive area in the central part of the Afar rift. Lavas of intermediate
composition are erupted by the volcanoes of the Danakil Depression become
progressively richer in iron. These rocks are hawaiites, andesitic basalts and ferrobasalts.
Dark trachyte lava flows with distinctive blocky or ropy surface textures (Mohr, 1963,
Mohr, 1972, Mohr, 1978, Kazmin, et al., 1980).


Older volcanic units (Pre-Pliocene) outcrop on the rift escarpment or margin and the
recent volcanics cover the entire rift (Kazmin, et al 1980). The Ethiopian rift valley contains
abundant acidic lavas and ignimbrites and they are associated with central volcanoes
containing wide calderas. The axial rift is covered by Quaternary central volcanic
products. Among these Gedemesa is one of the most preserved caldera (0.8 to 1 Ma,
Peccerillo et al, 1995), in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). The major products from this
caldera are acidic lavas, pumice fall deposits, ignimbrite deposits with peralkaline trachyte
and rhyolite in character. In this zone a separate stage of volcanic activity related to the
development of the Wonji fault belt (Mohr, 1967), formed surge deposits and numerous
basaltic cinder cones and lava flows (Peccerillo et al, 1995). On the MER, peralkaline
silicic ignimbrites, unwelded pyroclastics and minor lavas related to fissural eruptions of
regional extent are the most abundant volcanic rocks.


In the north central part of Ethiopia, Secota area, basalt flows are found to be interbedded
with sandstone sequence, are correlated to the Adigrat Sandstone (Lower-Middle
Jurassic) and/or the upper sandstone (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous,) and lacustrine
deposits are interbedded within the basalt flow (Abbate,et al 1969).


The Ethiopian silicic lavas and ignimbrites span the spectrum from benmorite/icelandite to
peralkaline rhyolite/silica-rich rhyolite. In the Ethiopian volcanic province, basalt-trachyte-
rhyolite bimodal suites are more typical. In rhyolites, the alkaline suite comprises a
spectrum from quartz-rich rhyolite (SiO2 >57%) to weakly peralkaline comendite. It was
erupted during the early Miocene to Pliocene interval, with faulting of Afar and rift valley
margins. Around Afar margins these rhyolites are interbedded with the basalts of the Alaji
Formation, while comendites comprise the youngest volcanics on the rift shoulders and a


                                                                                              46
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


large area of the western plateau. The strongly peralkaline suite is largely restricted to
Quaternary zones of slow crustal attenuation in Afar and the northern part of the rift valley.
Most of the internal Afar is floored by a thick Plio-Quaternary lava pile known as the Afar
stratoid series. It consists of huge sequence, mainly made of flood basic lavas with minor
silicic interlayers and centers with the thickness that reaches 1000m (Barbieri and
Santacroce, 1980). The area around Assayita is dominated by fluvial deposits made of
clay, silts and gravely deposits.




              Plate 10. Highly fractured and fault controlled Afar stratoid basalt


The Ethiopian Cenozoic volcanics are volumetrically predominated by basalts. Alkaline
and tholeiitic basalts are equally abundant. The plateaus of Ethiopia have been host to
tholeiitic and alkaline basalts.


Recent study using magnetotelluric method by Hautot et al (2006) indicated that there is
thick sediment underlying the Tertiary and Quaternary volcanics below Lake Tana, which
shows the continuity of sedimentary rocks beneath the volcanics.
STRATIGRAPHY
The detailed study of local stratigraphy and radiometric age determination (Mohr, 1962;
Abbate, et al 1969; Davidson and Rex, 1980; Kazmin, et al 1980; Zanettin, et al 1974,
Barberi, et al 1975) have shown that volcanic rocks in have been emplaced during two
phase of volcanic activity (Gasparon, et al 1993).


-First phase is known by extensive fissural basaltic eruptions built up thick piles of plateau
lavas: Alaji and Aiba basalt, 50 to 20 Ma with the maximum frequency being 30-31 Ma.
These are overlain by locally interfingered with rhyolitic and trachytic ignimbrites (Alagi



                                                                                              47
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


unit 30 to 15 Ma) and by shield like volcanoes of Tarmaber unit (alkaline character).


-Second phase (15-Recent) is related with MER opening and extrusion of silicic volcanics
and subordinate basalt. In the central part the main volcanic units are: Anchar and Arba
Guracha silicics, 14 to 10 Ma, outcropped along the margin of the rift and range in
composition from transitional basalt with alkaline affinity to comenditic and pantelleritic
pyroclastics. The climax activity in this phase was occurred between 9.5 and 3 Ma,
resulting Nazareth group, mostly pantelleritic ignimbrites and lavas, were emitted from
central volcanoes formed along pre- existing faults parallel to the rift margin (Gasparon, et
al 1993). The fissural basalt (Bofa basalt) is followed by deposition of transitional and
alkaline basalts and peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, results Wonji Group. This unit is
tectonically related with Wonji fault belt (Mohr. 1962). The Ethiopian volcanic provinces
comprise similar amounts of alkaline and tholeiitic basalts. The Afar axial volcanic ranges
mark zones of Neo-Oceanic crustal spreading active during Quaternary time. In the Erta
Ale volcanic products, tholeiitic basalts dominate over alkaline type. From seismic
profiling, it is known that a 30% crustal thining of the Danakil block took place as
compared with the plateau crust (Mohr, 1983). Basalts have erupted southern part of
Danakil block during Pliocene-Quaternary time in association with transverse tectonism
(Civetta, et al., 1974). The Quaternary basalts from the Tana Graben on the NW Ethiopian
Plateau show a similar alkalinity spectrum to the Danakil block and Ethiopian Rift (Mohr,
1983).


Laccolithes and basaltic sills within Mesozoic sediments, old basaltic flows associated
with silicified lacustrine deposits, columnar basalt flows alternate with agglomerates and
tuffs sequences of thin mafic and acidic lavas deeply weathered and tectonized, lenticular
basalts and scoriaceous lava flows filling ancient river beds cut in typical medium-coarse
grained paleosols, silicic lavas, domes and old volcanic centers are the main volcanic
units in the plateaux and the rift escarpment.
Partially overlying the Trap Series of the Ethiopian plateau, located mainly along the
central and southern margins of the rift, more acidic lavas, such as rhyolites, trachytes,
trachybasalts etc. are present together with tuffs, ignimbrites, agglomerates, interbedded
basaltic flows and reworked paleosols. Fissural basaltic lava flows, silicic domes and
lavas and thick pyroclastic deposits constitute the main petrographic units of the rift floor
and the Afar lowlands.




Summary of volcanic stratigraphy (Justin-Visentin et al, 1974; Morton et al, 1979; Kazmin


                                                                                            48
Tamiru Alemayehu                 Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


et al 1980; Mohr et al., 1980, Mohr, 1983):
1. North eastern Ethiopian plateau (age in Ma)
3.7          -South Addis Ababa basalt
5.1-3.5      -Wachacha-Yerer trachytes
8-1          -Balchi rhyolites
9-7          -North Addis Ababa alkaline basalt
12-9         -Fursa basalts
23-22        -Entoto-Kassam commendites
26-22        -Tarmaber basalts
28-23        - Abbay/Sululta transitional basalts
30-15        -Alaji basalts and comendites
32-28        -Aiba basalts
45-38        -Ashangi basalts


2. South west and southern Ethiopian plateau (age in Ma)
 2-0         -Quaternary basalt and ignimbrites (rift floor)
 4           -Mursi basalt
13-12        -Lake stefanie phonolites, rift valley trachytes
17-16        -Lake stefanie and Amaro ignimbrites
21-19        -Amaro, Teltele and Surma basalts
35-29        -Gok, Makonnen and Fedjej basalts
35-31          -Ganjuli-Galana flood basalts
43-34          -basal basalt
49-47          -''main sequence'' olivine-augite basalts


3. Northwestern and western Harar plateau (age in Ma)
 1.5-1        -Tibila rhyolite
 2.4-1.5       -Pliocene main and Segatu basalts
 4.5-2        -Arba-Dima rhyolites; Bali basalts
10.5-9        -Upper Trap basalt
15.0-10.5      -Main silicic trachytes and rhyolites
19.0-15.0     -Cawa trachyte
28.0-15.0     -Lower Trap (Alaji) basalts


4. Eastern Afar (age in Ma)
 0.4-0        -Asal basalt
     1-0.4    -Ummana basalt


                                                                                                 49
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


  5-1        -Afar stratoid flood basalts
  8-4.5       -Dalha and Galemi basalts
 15-11        -Mabla rhyolites
 27-19        -Galile and Chinile basalts


5. Main Ethiopian Rift (age in Ma)
 1.6         -Wonji basalts
 1.5           -Dino and Chilalo ignmbrites
 0.25-0.15      -Boseti and Gedemsa basalts
 0.45           -Bofa basalt
 0.5            -Boseti and Gedemsa ignimbrite
 0.6            -Adama-Boku basalts
 0.85           -Gedemsa pantellerites
1.6            - Wonji transitional basalts
1.7-1.6         - Boseti trachyte, rhyolite, ignimbrites
3.3-3.1         -Managasha and Tede rhyolites
 3.5-2         -Bofa basalts
 3.6-2.1       -Sagatu basalts and comendites
 3.7            -Addis Ababa upper basalts
 5.1            -Wachacha and Yerer trachytes
  6.5-5         -Jebel Gumbi and Hera rhyolites
  9-7              -Gorfu and meghezez basalts
  9-8          -Arba Gugu basalts
 11-10          -Anchar basalts
 15-11          -Arba Guracha rhyolites
 23-22             -Entoto Comendites
 23                -Sululta basalts
 28-24             -Abbay flood basalts
 28-22          -Alaji flood basalts




Tectonics
The east African Rift system is one of the largest structural feature of the Earth's crust and
runs about 6000Km from Syria (north) to Mozambique (south). The Ethiopian Rift valley is
NE-SW aligned graben, which runs for about 1000 kms from Afar to the Ethio-Kenya
border and has in average 70 km width (Mohr, 1971, Gasparon, et al., 1993). The
Ethiopian Rift system is very important because it links the Kenyan Rift with the Red sea-


                                                                                             50
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Gulf of Rift riff (Boccaletti, et al, 1999). The upper part of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is
characterized by NE to NNE aligned structures while the southern sector is characterized
by N-S structures. The rift system is formed by a complex pattern of narrow belts of
parallel faulting, sunken strips of land between two faults giving the characteristic rift
valleys or grabens and horst structures. It shows a complex fault system, characterized by
the interplay of a N30ºE-N40ºE trending border fault system with the Quaternary Wonji
Fault belt, which is constituted by right stepping en-echelon N-S to N20ºE trending faults.
The Wonji Fault belts affect mainly the rift floor, but also overlap with some segments of
the margins. The faults forming and bounding the rift valleys are generally linear. Single
huge fault form the boundary of the rift valleys less commonly than do series of stepped
and scissor sub-parallel faults. The relative displacement of the rift floors below the edges
of the uplifted plateau varies as much as 2000m. Although the rift floors are relatively
sunken between the parallel faults they are always uplifted relative to the sea- level.
Normal faults are by far the commonest type of displacement observed in the rift system.


Some regional faults like Yerer-Tullu Wellel lineaments intersect the Main Ethiopian Rift
(Tsegaye Abebe et al, 1998) which is aligned E-W direction.


The general fault pattern of the Ethiopian Rift, as well as mesoscopic fault analyses and
structural features indicate the occurrence of a roughly E-W extension (Boccalleti et al,
1998).


The intersection of these fractures systems has given rise to the large sunken triangular
region known as Afar. The main Ethiopian Rift funnels outward in the Afar region. The
Afar depression is a roughly 800 Km sided triangular region bounded to the west by the
great scarp of the NW Ethiopian plateau, to the south by the scarp of NE plateau and to
the NE by the horst of Danakil Alps. The Rift spreading rate in the northern part of the
MER is 0.5 cm/year and 2 cm/year in the Red Sea, and intermediate rate, 1 cm/year for
Afar (Zanettin, 1993).


The western margin of the MER shows a change in fault trend at about 7º50’N. North of
this latitude, the margin is well represented by N35ºE-N40ºE trending and ENE- dipping
high angle (>60º) Guraghe fault, while to the south the margin is marked by N-S to N20ºE
striking faults. The eastern margin of the MER is characterized by the high angle W
dipping N30ºE-N40ºE trending border faults. In the central part of the MER, the alignment
of volcanoes indicates the presence of extensional tectonics (Tesfaye Korme et al, 1997).




                                                                                              51
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


The Afar depression is often considered as a classical example of triple rift junction. It lies
at the intersection of the Gulf of Aden Rift and Red sea oceanic ridges with east African
continental rift. Its north eastern edge is bounded by the Danakil microplate, while its
western and southern borders follow the escarpments of the Ethiopian and Somalian
plateau.


6.2 Groundwater occurrence
Due to the differences in mineralogy, texture and structure of volcanic rocks water bearing
potential also varies. Groundwater circulation and storage in the volcanic rocks depend on
the type of porosity and permeability formed during and after the rock formation. All rock
structures possessing a primary porosity may not have necessarily permeability; i.e.
without the original interconnection, the primary porosity may not give rise to the primary
permeability, but the letter connection, by means of weathering or fracturing may results a
secondary permeability.


Therefore, the most important features governing the groundwater flow and storage in
volcanic rocks are the following:
•   vertical permeability due to primary and secondary fractures;
•   horizontal permeability due to horizons containing openings due to the lava flow and
    gas expansion during solidification;
•   occurrence of impervious horizons and dikes.
All fractured and porous volcanic rocks do not always serve for groundwater circulation:
on this regards the main controlling factors are:
•   type frequency and distribution of the fractures;
•   degree of the fracture and pore interconnection;
•   thickness of the lava flow;
•   occurrence of cementing material and their hydraulic characteristics;
•   constitution of the soil cover;
•   the depth of the lava flow
At depth, volcanic rocks may have low permeability due to the pressure exerted by the
overlying units.


Primary Porosities are made of original small and large-scale structures contemporaneous
to the rock formation; and include:
•   Vesicles
•   Degassing cavities
•   Flow contacts or interflow spaces


                                                                                              52
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


•   Lava tubes or tunnels
•   Clinker or rubble layers
•   Tree moulds
•   Shrinkage cracks or columnar joints etc.


Secondary porosities are due to:
•   Weathering discontinuities
•   Tectonic fractures or faults
•   Inter-trappean beds
•   Weathering zones
•   Buried pales soils, etc.


It is worth to note that primary porosities are not only constituted by interstitial spaces but
also by the primary fractures.      The secondary porosities, however, are dominated by
fractures.


Vesicles: - are open spaces of rounded or ovoid shape, left by the cooling and escaping
of the gas bubbles inside the lava flow. They are considered as an early inherited from
the vent, but their size characteristics are late-formed features. Amygdalae are peculiar
vesicles partially or totally filled by secondary minerals as calcite, quartz, zeolite, agate,
etc. Many types of lava contain lot of vapours and gases, which escape out during their
cooling and solidification. This may lead to the formation of cavities within the cooling
mass. These cavities will remain empty during the initial periods of formation of rocks,
and the rock structure is called vesicular. These initially empty cavities may, however,
subsequently be filled up with minerals deposited by waters circulating through the
openings after the consolidation of the lava that cab reduce the permeability. Vesicles,
which are abundant in the upper part of lava flows, increase the porosity of the medium
but not the permeability, since weathering process or tectonic activity does not connect
them. If pipe vesicular texture (i.e. cylindrical cavities perpendicular to the direction of the
lava flow) occurs, the permeability of the medium will be also increased.


Degassing Cavities: are large empty spaces left by the gas during the lava solidification;
and mostly occupy the upper part of the flow and the size greatly deceases downward.
Their abundance increases the porosity and with fractures, they increase the secondary
permeability of a rock. Degassing cavities are rarely interconnected by themselves and
frequently interconnected by fractures. Without the presence of fractures, these cavities



                                                                                              53
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


may not contribute to the permeability but to the porosity. Tamiru Alemayehu (1998)
further described that degassing cavities, fractures associated with the rhyolite flow
foliations, cooling fractures in pillow lavas, blisters and crevasses have different
dimension depending on the environment in which the rocks are deposited, the
mechanisms of lava movements, weathering and tectonic conditions. When the cavities
are elf interconnected and/or intersected by secondary fractures, readily transmit
meteoritic water to the underlying aquifer or in the case of massive underlying rocks, the
infiltrating water appears as a spring.


Miarolitic Structures: - Sometimes, small and distinct cavities are formed during the
crystallization of magma. These small cavities may be filled up with some volatile matters;
which may probably enlarge their size, and facilitate formation of unusual minerals in a
rock. These cavities are often contain projecting distinct crystals, and are called miarolitic
cavities. And the rocks containing such miarolitic cavities are said to possess miarolitic
structures.


Flow contacts or interflow spaces: - are the empty spaces left between successive
flows (interflow spaces). The most permeable zones of a sequence of lava flows are their
basal contacts.    In fact, since the top part of many lava flows is irregular and often
excessively cracked successive overriding flows, being often partially congealed and
thrust along by the moving lava, may leave a large number of connected openings and
discontinuities, which increase the permeability of the contacts.


Many similar, but less pronounced permeable zones are found at the contacts between
the flows and the host rocks or sediments, which may have peculiar morphological
irregularities along the flow pathways.


Groundwater flow through any kind of these interflow empty spaces can be assimilated to
flow through conduits, so that they are often the major source of water supply increase
enacted by extensive created lava flows.


Lava Tubes or Tunnels: - are elongated cylindrical open spaces varying in length form
few meters to hundreds of meters. They are found in the internal part of the stratified
lavas with stratifications parallel to the flow surface. They act as groundwater conduits,
which, most of the time, give rise to groundwater reservoirs of big extent and potentiality.


Blocky and Ropy structures: - Highly viscous dry lavas undergo very little flow before


                                                                                             54
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                   Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


cooling, and their congealed surface shows broken or fragmented appearance, called a
blocky structure.   On the other hand, very mobile lavas will flow for considerable
distances, and their congealed surfaces will be smoothly wrinkled. Such structures are
called ropy structures, and such lavas are called ropy lavas.


Clinker or Rubble Layers: - are the main flow structures associated with aa lavas. They
lie parallel to the flow surfaces and occupy mostly the upper part of the flow. When buried
by later lavas, they may provide for important groundwater storages depending on their
thickness and aerial extent.


Tree Moulds: - are empty spaces left by the burning of trees in the lava flow. They are
tube-like structures as much along as the length of a tree. If these discontinuities of the
lava flow occur in large amount, the total permeability of the rock body will be also very
high.


Columnar joints:     As cooling and crystallization of magma progresses, the magma
becomes increasingly rigid, and ultimately is subjected to cracking. The joints are, thus,
developed in the body of the rock, so formed, and may sometimes follow some definite
patterns, producing characteristic structures. For example, information of basalts and
some other fine grained or glassy volcanic rocks, which are hexagonal in plan and
resembling the mud cracks, are often developed in the top layers of cooling magma. As
cooling proceeds into the sheet of the rock, the cracks grow inwards at right angles to the
cooling surface, and thus dividing the sheet into a system of vertical hexagonal column.
The fast cooling of the lavas causes a certain contraction, which leads to a consequent
formation of fractures of quite regular shape. Columnar joints are common in many
welded tuffs, but they rarely extend in the unwelded part. In the ignimbrites, the behaviour
of these joints is often irregular with rectangular or square shaped cross sections rather
than hexagonal unlike the joints in basalts. The occurrence of joints of different nature in
volcanic rocks leads to a big a range of variation in the rock hydraulic parameters.


Sheet joints: are closely spaced horizontal joints, which develop due mainly to
temperature changes, but largely due to expansion of the mass, as overlying body of the
rock is eroded away. Other vertical or inclined joints may also often develop, which are
also generally quite regular in spacing and character. Sometimes, three sets of joints (two
vertical and one horizontal) develop dividing the rock into cubical blocks, and are called
mural joints.




                                                                                            55
Tamiru Alemayehu                  Sept.2006                   Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Fractures Associated with Rhyolites flow Foliations: - laminar fractures and tension
fractures the most abundant fractures in the rhyolites. Laminar fractures are formed within
the lava flows of different laminations and propagate along the foliation planes, while
tension cracks develop orthogonal to the foliation planes. The internal shear structures
are named as ramp structures, where the outer irregular surface manifestations give rise
to ogives.        These fractures give easy access to water circulation.      In some rhyolite
outcrops, refolding of the flowage structures is common. In this case the fracture porosity
could be high.


Blisters: - are superficial swellings of the crust of a lava flow formed by the pushing up of
gas or vapours beneath the flow. Their formation may be related to either of the two
cases:
     -       when the trapped gas, which originated from an exceptionally gas rich magma in a
             cooling viscous lava escape to the atmosphere;
     -       If the trapped water by the lava being converted to steam and locally heaving up
             the flow.
     -       If the blisters are found at depth covered by other rocks, may provide suitable
             place for the storage of ground water.



         A                                                                       B




 C
                                                                                  D




Figure 8 Different volcanic structures, A= Lava tube, B= scoraceous surface, C=tension
fractures in rhyolitic lava flows, D= Blister cave


Weathering and tectonic fractures: - form secondary fractures based on the nature of
the movement and the type of stresses acting on the rock bodies, the major tectonic



                                                                                               56
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


fractures are of displacement, tensile and shear types. The fractures extend from the
upper part of the lava flow to hundreds of meters in depth. It faults are filled with massive
fault breccias may act as underground dams and the general permeability of the rock
body will be reduced. Faults with low magnitude of displacement may act as underground
conduits for the regional and local groundwater flow. The regional main fractures with
linear alignments are important features for groundwater migration from high to low
concentration areas. Crevasses: are open fissures formed by simple extension in the
upper part of the crust without notable vertical displacement. These fractures mostly show
scissors opening with 2 to 10m widths and provide passage for groundwater. Extension
fractures occur along the active tectonic zones.


Inter-trappean beds: - are constituted by sediments of any source, which are deposited
between flow units. Since their permeability is sometimes greater than that of the
confining lavas, they may provide suitable place for groundwater circulation and storage.
They have variable thickness from few centimetres to terms of meters and greatly
increase the permeability of large volume of volcanic rocks.


Weathering Zones: - are the areas where the massive and fractured lavas are affected
by both physical and chemical weathering. Their occurrence increases the porosity and
sometimes the permeability of the rock bodies (Plate 11). In any case, in such zones the
pore permeability is quite always greater than fracture permeability. In volcanic terrains,
enlargements of the groundwater flow paths are relatively not significant so that
groundwater flows tend to reduce the size of the empty spaces by the deposition of
weathering products on the faces of interstices and fractures. Further weathering
processes often cause the formation of impervious clay layers. For all these reasons, the
porosity and permeability of the volcanic rocks bodies tend to decrease with time. The
decrease of the permeability may be not linear. In fact, fresh rocks may have a good
primary permeability due to open fractures and connected. During the early stage of
weathering, the secondary permeability, due to weathering zones is very high. Then it
tends to decrease drastically when the fresh rock gives rise to significant amounts of clay
fractions (late stage of weathering). As the weathering processes continue and additional
forces of compaction are applied, almost all permeability due to primary porosity will be
destroyed. The most important causes, which lead to reduction of the porosity and
permeability, are due to the combined effects of weathering and compaction.




                                                                                            57
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                       Plate 11. Weathering zone in basalt-Garamuleta
Paleosols: - are products of weathering processes, which form old soil profiles buried by
the later lava flows. They are deposited, and sometimes reworked, during the stages of
the volcanic activity between two successive lava flows. They possess different hydraulic
properties than the near by lava flows. In fact, paleosols, which are interbedded with thick
sequences of volcanic rocks, are generally less permeable of the host rock, so that they
may act as important horizons to form perched or confined aquifers.


Volcanic rocks include materials having a wide range of hydrologic properties.             This
property is due to differences in mineralogy, chemistry, texture, structure, etc. Hence, their
ability to store and transmit water varies accordingly. Some recent basalt aquifers have
close to the highest transmissivity known. This is in contrast with tuffs that generally have
high porosities but very low permeabilities or dike rocks that have low permeabilities and
low porosities.      Although transmissivity of recent basalt and andesite are high,
groundwater may be very difficult to develop from aquifers. This is owing to the fact that
groundwater drains freely to points of discharge and the depth to the groundwater may be
excessive or water may even be locally absent. The attention of the Hydrogeologist will be
directed, therefore, to impermeable zones, which will impede the loss of water and cause
the water table to rise near the surface. The porosity of unfractured volcanic rock bodies
varies from less than 1 percent in dense basalt to more than 85 per cent in pumice.
Typically, rocks within dikes and sills will have less than 5 per cent porosity; dense
massive flow rock will have values ranging from 10 to 50 per cent. Although porosity may
be quite high, the permeability is largely a function of other primary and secondary
structures within the rock. Joints caused by cooling lava tubes, vesicles that intersect, tree
moulds, fractures caused by buckling of partly congealed lava, and voids left between
successive flows are some of the features that give recent andesite and basalt its high
permeability.     In addition to the features causing permeability, the porosity may be



                                                                                             58
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


increased locally in the rock by weathering. Buried soils are a common feature of thick
sequences of volcanic rock. Soils in most areas are less permeable than the volcanic
rock and are important horizons for forming perched water.


If valleys are near volcanic eruptions, lava will flow down the valleys and bury any
alluvium, which may be present.       Where the valleys contain streams from extensive
drainage systems, large thickness of gravel may be present, which on burial, can be
important aquifers. Volcanic rock in which inter-bedded sediments or pyroclastics are
absent will have relatively low porosities if large volumes of rocky are considered.
Sediments inter-bedded with the lava will greatly increase the average porosity of large
volumes of rocks that are predominantly volcanic.         Under favourable circumstances,
sediments provide storage space for the water, whereas the more permeable volcanic
rock conducts the water to the wells. The horizontal permeability is largely is owing to
interflow spaces and the vertical permeability is mostly owing to fracturing of partially
solidified lava in the last stages of movement together with shrinkage cracking. Most
commonly, the vertical permeability is very small in comparison with the horizontal
permeability in volcanic rocks.


The complex spatial and temporal distribution of these volcanic rocks, their different
reciprocal stratigraphic relationships, their changeable contacts with very old and recent
rocks, their wide compositional, structural and textural variability, their different level of
weathering and variable topographic position complicate the hydrogeological behaviour of
the volcanic rocks.
Generally, important aquifers could be formed in the Ethiopian volcanic province by:
       • Occurrence of paleosols within the basaltic flows constituted by coarse alluvial
          sediments
       • Occurrence      of   interbedded   loose   pyroclastic   materials   and    reworked
          agglomerates or breccias within the mafic and acidic lava flows
       • Buried paleo-valleys
       • Occurrence of structural discontinuities within the Mesozoic sediments due to
          the presence of extremely fractured Tertiary dikes and sills
       • Occurrence of contraction joints within thick lava flows
       • Occurrence of thick residual soils as a product of weathering of volcanic rocks
       • Many permeable zones between the contact of the different generation of lava
          flows
       • Inter-trappean beds



                                                                                             59
Tamiru Alemayehu                Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


        • Lava tubes in pahoehoe type flows and irregular openings within and between
           the surface of flows
        • Thermal contraction tubes and lava blisters
        • Fractures due to faulting play very important role in the movement and
           occurrence of groundwater in the Cenozoic volcanics, particularly in the rift
           valley and adjacent escarpments. The rift valley is characterized by complex
           faults aligned mainly in NE-SW direction, which is parallel to the general trend
           of the axis of the rift. These faults are predominantly normal with vertical or
           gently inclined fault planes; at places with rotated fault blocks.
The productivity of the Trap Series volcanics considerably varies from place to place. The
yield of aquifers from the Ashengi Group rocks varies from 1 to 5.6 l/s on average. In the
north western Ethiopia it varies from 0.4 to 6.3 l/s and those for south eastern plateau
varies from 1.2 to 5 l/s. For the Maqdela Group rocks, it ranges from 1 to 12 l/s. The yield
is extremely high in some localities due to high degree of fracturing and the presence of
paleo-valleys and buried river gravel in paleo-chanels at depth. Recently it was found that
the basaltic aquifers in Debre Zeit and Debre Berehan areas gave 20 and 27 l/s yield
respectively.


The yield in the Quaternary volcanic rocks in northern Ethiopia varies from 0.2 to 4 l/s. A
wide range of values exists in these rocks in the rift valley. They are also characterized by
a series of fault control high discharge springs in the rift and adjacent escarpments.


The volcanic terrain of Ethiopia is characterized by the occurrence of numerous and
different yield springs with the yield that varies between 2 l/s in dry areas to 250 l/s like
that of Arbaminch. The yield of the springs is directly controlled by the rainfall amount and
presence of permeable hydrostructure.          In the Arbamich area, the rainfall reaches
1500mm where rift faults and weathering fractures in the basaltic flow concentrate
infiltrating water into the floor.


In the rift valley, the potential aquifers are highly fractured and jointed basalts and
ignimbrites. The weathered tuffs and paleosols are impermeable layers inhibiting vertical
movement of groundwater, thus forming perched water bodies locally. Permeable alluvial
and colluvial deposits associated with lacustrine soils form local shallow aquifers in the rift
floor and along major river valleys.


On the plateau Blue Nile basalts, Aiba basalts, Tarmaber basalts, Wollega basalt and omo
basalts possess very good secondary porosity and permeability and are productive. When


                                                                                               60
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


they form they act as important recharge area and when valleys constitute and plain areas
act as potential discharge area. The discharge of wells varies between 6 to 20 l/s with
drawdown that reaches 23m. The Jima Volcanics cover most part of South Western
highland and it covers smaller area east of the rift valley between Agere Mariam and Yirga
Alem. The formations show a low to moderate but an overall moderate permeability and
productivity. Borehole in this formation has yield of 1 to 6 l/s but with high drawdown. A
relatively higher productivity is found in this formation east of the rift and along rift margin
probably due to higher fracturing and good recharging condition. The Arsi and Bale basalt
are thick basalt flows with minor silicic flow with thickness of commonly 100 – 600m, up to
2000m, with minor silicic flows and breccia. It becomes silicic in the upper part with ash,
tuff and welded tuff. These basalts are estimated to have a moderate permeability and
productivity. They yield 4.4 l/s in Robe and 5 l/s in Hararghe. The Turkana-Teltale fissural
basalt are massive fissural olivine basalt and trachy-basalt. They gently dip southward
and they are part of the Kenya Southern Ethiopian volcanic. They are characterized by
the thickness of up to 500m. There are hand dug well in weathered basalt and they are
estimated to have moderate permeability and productivity.


In the Abay basin and its adjacent basin, there exist extensional Tana basin and the lower
Yerer-Tulu Wellel extensional zone that transects the MER, which is supposed to transmit
plateau water into the Rift valley. The main Thermal springs, central volcanos are located
in these zones. These tectonic structures play an important role in controlling groundwater
flow paths and groundwater chemical evolution (Seifu Kebede et al, 2005).


The ignimbrite and pumice of the rift floor are well jointed while in some cases it is
massive and pumiceous. Where it is well jointed, it has a high or moderate permeability,
but in the other part, it has low permeability. Boreholes generally have yield that reaches 8
l/s and on average, the formation may be taken to have a moderate permeability and
productivity. It has also different depths to ground water; mostly 20m to 100m, but in
some cases it is greater. The greatest depth to groundwater known in this formation is
southeast of Nazareth on the Asella road where it is 256m. Silicic massives in the rift are
lava domes, lava flows and rhyolitic ignimbrite and they are part of rhyolitic or silicic center
of rhyolitic composition. This unit is considered to have low permeability and productivity.


In some part of the country where more than 200m thick piles of acidic rocks constitute
the bedrock, there is difficulty for the infiltrating water so that groundwater shadow zone
will be formed. Some examples are areas around Dhera, Mojo-Ejere corridor etc. These
rocks are Plio-Quaternary rocks that have no primary and secondary porosity. Boreholes


                                                                                              61
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


with depth as much as 300m are found to be dry.


The plateau silicis in Mizan Teferi, a borehole in this formation has yield of 2 l/s for a
drawdown of 33m. A borehole at Ginir (Bale) has yield of 1.7 l/s for drawdown         of 17m,
which is in upper range for low productivity aquifer.


The Afar stratoid have a high productivity where recharge and topographic positions are
favourable. In Meiso a borehole yields 5 l/s for a drawdown of 0.25m and about 60 km
southwest of Aysha another borehole yield 5 l/s for a drawdown of 0.7m. In general, it
would have high values, as can be inferred from low drawdown. The main recharge to the
Afar volcanics is river Awash where the groundwater has high depth as one go far away
from the river. Most of the time groundwater is fracture controlled rather than lithology.
The decrease in the flow velocity of Awash River allows infiltration through faults. In afar,
groundwater occurs in two layers based on the presence of hydrostructure and vicinity to
the Awash River. These are shallow aquifer made of alluvial deposits and the deep
aquifer made of Afar stratoid. Even though it is saline and high temperature, the yield of
the wells reaches 10 l/s.


The rift basaltic lava flows specially the scoraceous variety that outcrops from Ziway to
Fentale, Butajira to Goggetti and Addis Ababa to Debre Zeit have high permeability and
productivity. These basalts also occur in the area southwest of Lake Tana where basaltic
breccias and tuffs are observed. In the highland, they have a moderate permeability and
productivity. Borehole yields 3 l/s.


Trachybasalts, trachytes and rhyolites form the huge mountains at the rift margin (eg. Arsi
mountain and the Guragie mountains) and in center of the rift such as Ziquala, Bosetti-
Gudda, and the Fentale volcanoes. These rocks are generally massive and they have a
low permeability and productivity except where a few faults cross the unit. The borehole
around Asela has low yield, less than 0.5 l/s. A number of small discharge but perennial
stream starts from trachytic Chillalo Mountain and they join the Katar River. Because the
underlying formation is mostly massive shallow groundwater in the upper weathered part,
provide small perennial flows to the streams


Pantelleritic obsidian lava and pumice flows occur at Bosetti-Gudda, Gadamsa, Bora,
Bericco, Aluto, Corbetti and Chabbi. They are often associated with fumarolic activity.
They occur in small outcrops mostly in the main geothermal areas. Because they are
fractured and broken up, they have moderate to high permeability. However, the


                                                                                            62
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


underlying formations, ignimbrite and basalt act as aquifer in these areas while the
overlying permeable rocks act as infiltration media.


Generally, highly productive aquifers are located within the plateau volcanics with fresh
and potable groundwater. However, the rift volcanics contain appreciable amount of
groundwater within the fractures but rich in fluoride.


In the Rift valley, lakes help to regulate the microclimate by controlling evapotranspiration
and recharge the near by volcanic and lacustrine aquifer. However, the lake water misuse
is affecting lakes such as Abijata, which is on the process of decreasing the level, and
Haromaya, which became dry in 2005 (Tamiru Alemayehu et al 2006). The central sector
of MER is characterized by the presence of ground cracks (Plate 12) and is related to
heavy rain that forms temporary stagnation of runoff. Well know cracked areas are Woyo
village (between Meki and Ziway), Mulet (west of Awassa), around lake Shalla, and Adami
Tulu area. With the width of 0.3 to 4 meters and depth of 40m, they extend to many
kilometers. The main process that generates these cracks is hydrocompaction that cause
rapid settlement of silty soils by increasing pore water pressure. In this process, the
accumulated runoff gush into the ground by accelerating further cracks, in the case of
Woyo village, the broke the asphalt road. This process increase groundwater recharge
through sudden cracks.




                         Ground crack



                                                                    Asphalt crack




                     Plate 12. Ground crack in the Main Ethiopian Rift


6.3 Thermal ground water
Ethiopia is one of the countries which possess the highest geothermal potential in the


                                                                                            63
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


world because of the existence of very favourable geological condition over an area of
about 100,000km2 (Di Palola and Getahun Demissie, 1979). The Ethiopian rift valley is
known to have good potential of geothermal energy. The thermal anomalies are very well
marked and widespread all along the rift. Important thermal manifestations are fumaroles,
hot springs and hot grounds. At present geothermal exploration and development projects
identified potential zones in Aluto and Tendaho areas.The highland thermal spring and
most of the rift valley thermal spring indicates the existence of thermal groundwater in the
county, which can be harnessed for different uses. A relatively high temperature is
characteristic of the entire rift valley with geothermal gradient of 1ºC for every 6m depth
(Tamiru Alemayehu and Vernier, 1997) where as areas of very high temperature with
steam can generate geothermal power and they are limited to few often-silicic volcanic
centers. Crustal thinning and ascension of magma chamber make the heating of
groundwater possible in much higher magnitude than under normal geothermal gradient.
Important geothermal energy exploration areas are Lake District and Tendaho areas
within which large number of sub areas are include such as Lake Langno, Lake Shalla
area, Lake Awasa areas wondo Genet areas and northwest of Lake Abaya areas. It has
been found from Langano test wells that the high temperatures are due to high
temperature fluid which rise from depth through permeable structures such as the SSW-
NNE trending fault zone and dissipate heat through the basalt and ignimbrite rock unit that
heating is not by formation depth but by rising fluid.


The existence of a geothermal system needs heat source, a permeable reservoir rock
recharge of the groundwater and cap rock. The most common factors for low success or
failures of geothermal exploration in Ethiopian rift are absence of a permeable aquifer and
lack of groundwater recharge. From the regional reconnaissance conducted in the whole
rift led to selection of the most promising areas such as the Dallol Tendaho, Aluto-
Langano, Corbetti and Abaya, in MER and Southern Afar geothermal field are associated
with acidic center as heat source is acidic volcanism. Due to different in this viscosity,
basaltic magma tend to flow out totally to the surface while rhyolitic magma tend to retain
residual shallow intrusive magma chamber under its eruptive volcano which become
source of tremendous geothermal energy. Hydrothermal deposit could be travertine silica
and some times incrustation of sulfur. Hydrothermal fluids come up to ground surface from
geothermal reservoir through faults and are also controlled by regional hydraulic gradient.


Hot springs and hydrothermally altered areas are commonly noted around quaternary
volcanic centers and faults. Active hot springs occur all over the rift valley.




                                                                                               64
Tamiru Alemayehu                Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


When the temperature of thermal springs is high with suitable physical conditions, some
geyser activity may be seen on thermal spring. The expected reservoir rocks are the
Pliocene basalts and ignimbrite while some fine grained Pleistocene and recent
sediments, volcano sediments and tuffaceous flows are taken to be confining cup rocks.


Due to the up doming of the axial part, the rocks are remarkable inclined out ward of the
axial part of the rift. As a result, the general slop of the whole dome is outward of the rift;
hence, it controls the regional drainage and ground water flow, which flows away from the
rift. Therefore, water circulation on surface and sub surface at the axial part of the rift is
minimal. This lack of recharge condition is one of the reasons, which limit geothermal
system in rift zone the other limitation in continental rift zone is the block forming nature of
the fractures or faults that allow fluid circulation only along weak zones. As these fluids
are not gravity type, they need tectonic discontinuities to act as vertical pipeline for their
flow.


Generally, confined groundwater in trap basalts of central Ethiopia occur under pressure
(Plate 13), depending on regional water table. It is interesting to note that trap series
volcanic rocks behave as a multi layer aquifer system. In the Rift valley, fault lines are
closely spaced forming compartments that enclose large mass of permeable volcanic
rocks. Scoriacoues basalts that receive regional recharge yield as much as 80 l/s as in
the case of Akaki well field.




                                                                            Piezometric level




                     Plate 13. Artesian well at Woliso prison compound

6.4 Springs

Ethiopia is rich in spring population both cold and thermal. Cold springs are both
lithologically and structurally controlled with a yield that varies from negligible to 250 l/s.
While the thermal springs are both geothermal and volcanic controlled types. Deep


                                                                                                65
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


running tectonic discontinuities play an important role in transporting geothermal fluids to
the surface. Major surface manifestations are thermal waters, geysers and fumaroles.
They cover a range of altitudes from 0 m a.s.l up to 2200 m a.s.l. Thermal springs of
higher altitudes include Filwoha, Ambo, Woliso, etc. However, fumaroles and geysers are
concentrated in the Ethiopian Rift and are associated with shallow acidic magma
chambers. As compared with the highlands, thermal springs are intensively concentrated
in the Rift Valley due to intensive recent volcanic and tectonic activities.


Due to wide variation in the topography (ranging between 1500 m a.s.l to 3200 m a.s.l) in
addition to variable rainfall (700 mm/y to 1200 mm/y), the area is characterized by cold
springs that possess variable discharge and large number of thermal springs used for
domestic and therapeutic purposes.


6.4.1 Cold springs
The temperature of cold springs reaches as much as 12 ºC on the northwestern plateau
(springs located north of Entoto) and southeastern highlands (near Chilalo and Bale
mountains). Cold springs show similar temperature approximately the same as the mean
annual temperature of the air, i.e. low in the highlands and high in the rift. Typical highland
cold spring is given in plate 14.




                   Plate 14. Cold spring recharge by basalt-Garamuleta


Numerous high yield cold springs as much as 250 l/s are associated to the Rift
escarpment. This may be because the normal faults that form the scarp act as a barrier.
One of the most famous cold springs in Ethiopia is Arbaminch (meaning forty springs)
located 300 km south of Addis Ababa. The springs cover some 280 m along the fault
scarp. The Arbaminch springs have a yield of 140-250 l/s throughout the year with the
average temperature of 22 ºC, pH 7.8 and total hardness of 110-130 mg/l. Due to the


                                                                                               66
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


location of the springs at the downstream side of the nearby town, faecal coliforms have
been detected. The prime factors for the increment of the yield may be sufficient recharge
(rainfall) on the high land, brittle nature of the lithology mainly basaltic rocks and the
presence of tectonic discontinuities.


More than 35 cold springs are found dispersed in the city of Addis Ababa with a yield that
varies from negligible to 10 l/s (Solomon Tale, 2001). Most of them are lithologically
controlled where within a similar lithology different hydraulic properties exist or
interlayering of different volcanic lithology with different hydraulic nature.


Most cold springs of Addis Ababa are known to contain wide range of nitrate up to 720
ppm, and faecal coliforms up to 250/ml (Solomon Tale, 2001; Tamiru Alemayehu, 2001).
This is mainly due to downward infiltration of polluted water from pit latrines into rocks
interstices.


In the northeast of Akaki town (south of Addis Ababa) linearly oriented cold springs (called
Fanta springs) are tapped for community supply that are discharged from an NE-SW
oriented fault lines. The yield varies between 2-10 l/s (Anteneh Girma, 1994). Generally,
the yield of cold springs is variable and controlled by the recharging rainfall.


North of the area under consideration at Kombolcha, a group of cold springs are located
along the western escarpment that has a down throw of about 900 m. These springs
have variable discharge that reaches 9 l/s with electrical conductivity of about 400 µS/cm
(Mesfin Sahle, 2001). The mean annual rainfall of 1087 mm characterizes the area that
recharges the springs. The main factors that control the formation of springs in this area
are topography, marked by more than 1000 m height difference, and lithology that is
represented by weathered and fractured basalt underlain by massive basalt and fault
scarp.


6.4.2 Thermal springs
In the Ethiopian Rift, more than 500 hydrothermal features were indicated in UNDP report
(1973). Thermal springs occur in all topographic range from the Rift floor up to 2200 m
a.s.l. The distribution of thermal springs in Ethiopia was first presented by Kundo (1967)
where thermal springs are largely clustered in the Rift due to its peculiar characteristic of
thermal anomaly.




                                                                                               67
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                         Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




                                         Fracture controlled
                                         thermal wateter at
                                         Sodere




                        Plate 15. Fracture controlled thermal water


Most thermal springs have high discharges as much as 1150 l/s (Hippo pool springs,
UNDP, 1973), 780 l/s (Sodere Springs, UNDP, 1973), 33 l/s (Lake Shalla springs,
Tesfaye, 1982), etc. The picture of Sodere spring is given in Plate 15. Since the Rift is an
area where groundwater flow converges from the surrounding escarpment, the
mechanism of heat source need not be directly beneath the surface manifestation. This
indicates deep circulation of groundwater from the escarpment to the Rift center and
attains heat from deep geothermal gradient. Such springs can be classified as non-
volcanic thermal springs.


The concentration of major ions and trace elements is higher in thermal springs than in
the cold springs. Thermal springs that are associated with volcanic activity are loaded with
Na, HCO3, and Cl. The thermal springs of the Rift have peculiar chemical composition
regarding fluoride. The concentration varies from place to place. Around Awassa, the
value reaches 134 mg/l, around the lakes region 235 mg/l (Tesfaye Chernet, 1982;
Tenalem Ayenew, 1998; Tamiru Alemayehu 2000), around Wonji 20 mg/l (Tamiru
Alemayehu, 1993, 2000) etc.


Thermal springs are characterized by high concentration of chloride that varies between
190 to 444 mg/l (Tesfaye Chernet, 1982; Tenalem Ayenew, 1998; Tamiru Alemayehu,
2000) very high electrical conductivity, fluoride and sodium . Such elemental enrichment
could be attributed to leaching from volcanic rocks at high temperature at depth. As seen
from Table 6, the concentration of chemical constituents gradually decreases from


                                                                                                68
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


volcanic thermal springs through non-volcanic thermal springs to cold springs.


                 Volcanic thermal            Non volcanic             Cold spring
                 spring                      thermal spring           (Ras Mekonen),
                  (Edu geysers), Lagano (Gidabo), Yirgalem               Addis Ababa
      T °C                  96                         45                     19
      PH                    8.8                         7                    6.3
      EC µs/cm            5850                        562                    470
      Ca2+ ppm              4.5                       4.61                   100
      Mg2+ppm              0.06                       1.58                    60
      Na+ppm               750                         67                     38
      K+ppm                27.2                         6                      3
      HCO3-ppm             720                        212                     61
      SO42- ppm            360                        1.07                    19
      Cl- ppm              570                        1.56                  56.5
      F- ppm               16.5                        2.5                   0.1
                Table 6 Variation of ions in different group of springs.


Non-volcanic thermal springs get temperature from deep circulation of water, where the
temperature of the rocks is high because of the normal temperature gradient of the earth
while the volcanic thermal springs attain their temperature from underlying hot acidic
magma chamber that is located at shallow depth.


Thermal springs, both volcanic and non-volcanic types, are part of deep-seated water.
The association of volcanic springs with acidic magma chamber could imply their origin
either the water expelled from the magma (juvenile water) or the surface water that came
in contact with highly heated rocks. According to Tenalem Ayenew (1998) the stable
isotope (2H/18O) composition of most thermal springs in the lakes region fall close to the
local meteoric water line indicating the recharge from precipitation. In a volcanically non-
active area, extension fractures and normal faults are important thermal conduits to the
surface. Even in the Rift Valley, geysers and fumaroles that are associated with volcanic
centers use tectonic fractures as a pipe.


Kondo (1967) grouped Filwoha, Ambo and Woliso springs as non-volcanic springs.
However, the emergence of the Ambo thermal waters is related to Wonchi volcanism
(Lemessa Mekonta, 2001) that could be valid also for Woliso thermal springs that lie on
the other side of the Wonchi volcanic center. Still, the conduit for thermal water to the
surface is provided by EW faults. One of the most known thermal springs in the country is
Filwoha that is found in the center of Addis Ababa. It is a fault-controlled spring where the
fault is older than 5 Ma. The hydraulic head that drives water to the fault is about 1200 m



                                                                                            69
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


from the top of Entoto ridge to the Filwoha fault. The thermal water comes to the surface
at a temperature that varies between 55 and 60°C.     Probably the infiltrating water gains
high temperature from the near by volcanic centers located west and southwest of Addis
Ababa (Furi and Wochacha volcanoes) where the extent of the Filwoha fault reaches as
far as Ayertena (Southwest of Addis Ababa). Some examples of geothermally controlled
thermal centers (non-volcanic type) are Sodere (Nazareth), Gidabo (Yirgalem), Filwoha
(Addis Ababa), Nech-Sar (Arbaminch), etc. while volcanic controlled thermal centers are
Lake Shalla shore springs, Lake Langano shore springs, Edu geysers, Wondogenet,
Aluto, Boku, Beseka, Bulbula springs (Wonji), Hippo springs (Wonji), etc. The main
characteristic feature of volcanic controlled thermal centers is the presence of fumaroles,
geysers and thermal waters. In the lakes region, numerous surface kinetic temperature
anomaly areas were marked by Tenalem Ayenew (2001) that are associated with thermal
springs. In the Ethiopian Rift, the temperature of thermal springs reaches as much as 96
°C. Most springs come out in the form of geysers. Spring occurrence model is given in
Figure 9.




                            Figure 9 Spring occurrence model


The expansion of Lake Beseka from 3.5 km2 in 1967 to 40 km2 in 1998 is attributed to
numerous underwater and shore springs that feed the lake. Deep running faults and
extensional fractures are common around Metehara that could transport thermal water
into the lake. From the location of thermal springs, it is possible to say that the heat
source to the thermal springs could be attributed to the Quaternary volcanic center
(Fantale) that is found at a close reach to the lake. Numerous springs dominantly warm
springs also occur downstream of Lake Koka that receive recharge both from deep source
and the Koka reservoir through NE-SW fault lines. Repeatedly the leakage of Koka
reservoir is reported through faults that feed springs located below the dam site. The
discharge of springs located at Gergedi reaches 400 l/s.       The large volume of water
leakage from the reservoir reduces the temperature of thermal springs downstream.


                                                                                           70
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




Generally, volcanic thermal springs are strictly associated with acidic volcanic centers that
could have shallow magma chamber. Faults could act as conduits to transport thermal
water to the surface. Non-volcanic springs (both cold and thermal) that are structurally
controlled in central Ethiopia are generated from water having variable depth of
circulation. The thermal waters are recharged from internal highlands.


Generally, Ethiopia has area of complex geology and tectonic features that has strong
influence on the emergence of springs. The deep running normal faults tap thermal waters
from high geothermal gradient areas to the surface or crosses shallow acidic magma
chambers to transport super heated waters to the surface. The Rift is a thermally rich area
due to intensive central volcanic activity and tectonic disturbance since Miocene. Along
major escarpments, highly productive cold springs emerge at a flow of as much as 250 l/s.
In this regard, the escarpments act as a barrier for infiltrating water from highlands and
rendering it to come out to the surface in the form of springs at Rift-highland junction.
Volcanic thermal springs are strictly associated with acidic volcanic centers that could
have shallow magma chamber. Faults play an important role by acting as conduits to
transport thermal water to the surface. Even in this case, the additional recharging water
comes from precipitation. Non-volcanic springs that are structurally controlled in central
Ethiopia are generated from water having variable depth of circulation.         The thermal
waters are recharged from internal highlands. The concentration of chemical constituents
gradually decreases from volcanic thermal springs through non-volcanic thermal springs
to cold springs. It is may be due the supply of chemical constituent from volcanic centres
or due the high mineral leaching efficiency of thermal water from the host rocks. In the
Addis Ababa region where the western escarpment runs E-w, numerous artesian wells
occur which could indicate the possible source of recharge from plateau.




Chapter Seven

          7- TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY AND SEDIMENTS


                                                                                            71
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


7.1 Rock outcrops
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks and sediments are found in eastern Ogaden, Danakil
Depresion, lower Omo valley, Southern Sidamo, Gambela and western Gondar areas.
The main Quaternary deposits are alluvial, lacustrine, alluvial and colluvial deposits. The
alluvial deposits are of two types: those spread out in alluvial plains and those strips along
rivers and streams. Alluvial plains are filled up grabens and large stretches of flat land in
the rift valley and along the whole length of the western boarder of the country. These are
troughs in the lowlands where during the pluvial period streams deposited large amounts
of sediments carried down from the highlands. The thin strips of alluvium along streams
occur in most places both in the highlands and in the lowlands.


In the alluvial plains, alternating layers of fine and coarse sediments are characteristics
and in many cases, lacustrine sediments could be found beneath. The alluvial plains in
the Afar region have moderate to high permeability. Those plains at the foot of the eastern
escarpment (north of Awash-DireDawa line) have relatively coarse sediments of moderate
to high permeability and productivity. On the other hand, those plains east of the western
rift escarpment up to about half way along the Awash and Mile rivers have relatively finer
grained sediments with moderate permeability and productivity. The vast plains of Baro,
Akobo and Omo rivers have also moderate productivity.


Some alluvial plains, which are surrounded by coarse-grained metamorphic and plutonic
rocks such as granitic gneisses and granites, consist of coarse materials and, therefore,
have high permeability and productivity. These form local productive shallow aquifers in
Tigray and many places in Sidamo and Wollega.


The lacustrine deposits are of purely lake or swamp deposits or those of volcano-
lacustrine type of the rift valley. The most extensive lacustrine sediments are located
around existing lakes, because they were deposited when these lakes were much larger
during the pluvial times. These rocks are mostly localized between Koka reservoir and
around the rift lakes up to Lake Chamo in the south and in Lake Turkana and Chew Bahir,
and in the northern Ethiopia around Lake Tana. These sediments show many differences
in their permeability, those showing the highest permeability are the ones consisting of
fine sand. Some of them are known to provide more than 10 l/s with no or very little
drawdown. On the other hand, fine-grained sediments with interbedding of massive tuffs
and fine ash are known to have low productivity in many places.


In the eastern part of the country, the total thickness of the sediments reaches about



                                                                                             72
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


300m. In most of the outcrops, they consist of conglomerates, sandstone and mudstone,
which are gypsiferous and locally saline. The dominant types in the Omo valley are
lacustrine beds caped by Mursi basalts. The total thickness is about 145m.


The known geological formations are Jessoma Sandstone, biogenic massive limestone
(Auradu Series), gypsum, dolomite, cherty limestone and clays (Taleh Series), and
fossiliferous limestones with marly and clayey intercalations (Karkar Series) and the Red
Bed (Garat Formation).


7.2 Groundwater occurrence
In these rocks, important aquifers can be located in:
       • Channels filled by younger sediments
       • Coarse sandstone and conglomeratic layers interbedded with shales
       • The contact between clastic and chemical sediments
       • Interstratification of basaltic lava flows with loose sediments
       • Alluvial sediments on flood plains
Unfortunately, the annual recharge from rainfall in these regions is very low. Accordingly,
groundwater development has been extremely low. Abstraction of groundwater is
restricted to local wadies, seasonal ponds and hand dug wells in alluvial deposits along
ephemeral and seasonal streams.


The Jessoma sandstone is variegated quartzose sandstone partly terrestrial and poorly
cemented. It is categorized as extensive aquifer with intergranular permeability and
moderate productivity. In these rocks, the depth to groundwater is quite high (100 to 300
m). Because of unfavourable climatic conditions in the Ogaden area, the groundwater
potential is very low. The discharge in some wells is about 0.6l/s.


The Red Bed consists of variegated sandstone, sands and shale with minor volcanics.
The thickness of this formation reaches as high as 1000 m in the Danakil Depression,
having high permeability and productivity. It is composed of poorly cemented coarse-
grained sandstone with high intergranular permeability; but the intercalation of the
formation with some massive lava flows and silts reduce its overall permeability.


The sediments found along Omo valley are recharge by the Omo River and hence its
productivity will be very high. The same is true for those exist along major river valley such
as Wabishebele, Dawa, Awash, Baro etc.




                                                                                             73
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Probably one of the most important sources of shallow groundwater in various parts of the
country is the loose, mostly undifferentiated, Quaternary sediments. Since they are made
of materials ranging in texture from sand to coarse gravel, they are highly permeable and
productive, located mostly along river valleys and topographically depressed discharge
areas. The hydraulic characteristics of some deposits of unconsolidated sands and gravel
are among the highest of any earth materials. The chemical quality of water in these rocks
is also good.


Salinity and high fluoride content in the rift valley is the main problem in developing
groundwater in lacustrine sediments. The lacustrine sediments are situated in low-lying
areas and they store large quantities of both fresh and saline groundwater. Generally,
hand dug wells or boreholes in lacustrine sediments strike groundwater at depth of less
than 50 m having a yield of between 1 and 5 litres per second, in some cases even more.
At some localities in the rift valley such as Aje, Alaba Kulito, Dera and near mount Dugda,
the depth to groundwater is in general 200 to 300 m below ground surface.


Alluvial and colluvial deposits, talus, sheet flood deposits, dunes and beach deposits are a
few meters to 50 meters thick.


The alluvials that occur in Danakil have much clay and they constitute low productive
aquifers, but with relatively fresh groundwater because of the flash flood recharge from
the highlands. The sand dunes have a high permeability and they only recharge the
underlying formations. The beach deposits probably have moderate permeability and
productivity.


In the Afar area the yield of Quaternary aquifers varies between 0.2 to 13 l/s. Numerous
thermal springs are found at the contact between Cenozoic sediments and the basaltic
lava flows particularly along fault lines. The productivity of these aquifers increases if they
are found near the standing or moving water body. The discharge of wells located in the
Quaternary sediments found around lakes varies between 3 and 14 l/s.


Generally, these aquifers are very important hydrogeological formations in Ethiopia. They
usually receive direct recharge from rainfall and the perennial rivers.


Generally, considerable groundwater potentials, which would best be used in conjunctive
with surface waters occur in aquifers of high, moderate or low productivity. The rift valley
and adjacent areas have some of the best aquifers because of high degree of faulting and


                                                                                              74
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                         Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


fracturing and the occurrence of relatively permeable, unconsolidated sediments. On the
contrary, the highland volcanics of older age have relatively lower fracturing and higher
amount of clay filling and therefore, are moderate to low productivity aquifers. Most of the
groundwaters in these rocks are under water table conditions while some are
semiconfined. Flowing wells are known in Mekele, Kombolcha, Gewani, Addis Ababa and
Ambo areas. There are more than 4000 boreholes in Ethiopia. Productive aquifers occur
in river valleys and flood plain of Wabishebelle, Genale, Dawa, Baro, Omo and Awash.
Lacustrine sediments produce productive aquifer in the Rift valley. Most of the time
aquifers made of unconsolidated sediments and weathered profile can be exploited using
hand-dug wells.




Chapter Eight
                                 8-WATER QUALITY
8.1 General control
The groundwater quality of Ethiopia is both anthropogenically and naturally affected. In
some cases, the chemistry of groundwater is controlled by the quality of surface water due
to hydraulic connection. This will be true in urban centers.


The main quality controls are:
       •   Geomorphological and geographical conditions
       •   Climate
       •   Geology (geological structures, rock composition, weathering, magmatism,
           geothetrmal activities, etc.)
       •   Physico-chemical factors (temperature, pressure, chemical properties of


                                                                                                75
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


            elements, solubility of chemical compounds, pH, Eh, etc.)
       •    Biological factors (effects of micro-organisms, plants and animals)
       •    Anthropogenic influences
Based on the major cations, the groundwater can be classified as bicarbonate, sulphate
and chloride types. From natural occurrence of inorganic chemicals point of view, the
main anion in the groundwater of northwestern and southeastern plateau is bicarbonate
(Figure 10). In the areas where sedimentary rocks dominate, in addition to bicarbonate,
sulphate is also the dominant anion. The chemical analysis from different part of the
country shows that the dominant cations are sodium and calcium. The groundwater in
most of the Central Ethiopian rift is bicarbonate type tending to sulphate and chloride type
towards the north to the Afar Depression. Crystalline rocks contain mostly pure
bicarbonate water. Because of the less pervious nature of the rocks, the waters are rarely
polluted.




                        Figure 10 Geochemical variation in Ethiopia


Most of the country has fresh waters with total dissolved solids less than 1500 mg/l. There
are also salty even brine waters in the rift. Hard water is known in the Mekele and Ogaden
areas. One of the critical water quality problems in Ethiopia is the high fluoride content in
the rift, ranging from 1.5 to 200 mg/l. In addition, thermal groundwater is common in the
rift valley. The country’s groundwater has been classified in to four groups based on the
TDS content: (1) less than 500 mg/l; (2) 500 -1500 mg/l (3) 1500 to 3000 mg/l; and (4)
greater than 3000 mg/l. Generally, the salinity increases from the highlands to the
lowlands. It increases from regions of high rainfall and lower evapotranspiration to regions


                                                                                            76
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


of lower rainfall and higher evapotranspiration. All over the country, rivers and streams are
of low salinity. The chemistry of the rift lakes is also influenced by their topographic
position and the hydrological setting (open or closed systems). Due to intensive
evaporation and continuous input of mineralised hot springs, some rift lakes are highly
saline with the TDS value of 20000 of 40000 mg/l.


Due to poor environmental awareness, people discharge wastes directly into rivers and
lakes, which can deteriorate the quality of water. The excessive anthropogenic discharge
is common feature in urban areas. Since pit latrines are common domestic waste
discharge mechanism all over the country, there is great risk of contamination of
groundwater. The pollution is quite common in rivers and shallow springs in urban areas.
The pollution of groundwater is low. The major pollution is bacteriological and nitrates.
Shallow groundwater of some urban areas contains high nitrates content, up to 950 to 300
mg/l. Some inorganic pollutants such as barium, antimony, lead and silver were reported
in Addis Ababa area. In some parts of the country high salinity hazard was created by
strong evaporation, irrigation and over-pumping. A typical example is in the Amebara
Irrigation Project in southern Afar. Due to high thermal anomaly, the groundwater in the rift
has high temperature. There are numerous fumaroles and hot springs. These thermal
influence, make the groundwater locally unfit for community water supply.


The Ethiopian rift is characterized by high sainity (TDS) due to high degree of water-rock
interaction, evaporation and the discharge of thermal water. High salinity due to chloride is
the case in the Afar groundwater system where Na and Cl are the dominant ions where
TDS is much higher than 3000mg/l. The infiltration of water from saline lakes such as
Shalla, Abijata, Chamo etc could rise the salinity of the surrounding water. In the MER,
the dominant ions are Na and HCO3 with high alkalinity. The notable difference in the
salinity among the lakes, despite their proximity, is a matter of balance in water input and
output condition. Lake Abijata is a final evaporating basin for lakes Ziway and langano
and has no surface and groundwater outflows. Its salinity is estimated to be 15 and 60
times greater than that of lakes Langano and Ziway respectively. The discharge of heavy
metals from deep groundwater system of the Rift valley highly controls the quality of
surface water (Tamiru Alemayehu 2000), where high temperature springs concentrate
toxic chemicals into near by surface water bodies. This study indicated that Edu geysers
affect the quality of Lake Langano, thermal springs located around Shalla affect the quality
of Lake Shalla, and Gergedi Springs affect the quality of Awash river etc.


High TDS is also characteristic feature of waters from sedimentary terrain. Groundwater


                                                                                            77
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


in the sedimentary terrain of Ogaden is characterized by sodium and sulphate with high
TDS higher than 1500 mg/l.


Water tends to evolve from Ca-Mg-HCO3 water in the volcanics of the plateau to
NaHCO3 water in acidic rock of the rift valley. Salinity increase from the plateau volcanics
that are characterized by high rainfall and lower evapotranspiration to region of lower
rainfall and higher evapotranspiration of the rift valley. Most waters in the highland
volcanics have good to excellent chemical quality while waters in rift valley are
characterized by high Na, HCO3 and F content. Lakes, which are at the lowest elevation
of the closed basin, have high salinity due to high evaporation and lack of discharge out
of lakes. The water quality of water in the main Ethiopian rift, especially lakes district
region. Rivers and Streams of main Ethiopia rift are of low salinity including F except
where they are influenced by the discharge of thermal spring or where they drain from
lakes. High Na, HCO3 and F characterize thermal waters and lake waters though the
mechanism of enrichment is different. In the case of lake waters, sodium is the dominant
cation, and bicarbonate and chlorine are the dominant anions. 75% of the total lake
water samples collected in the study area have sodium concentration between 3000-
6000    mg/l,   chloride   concentration   between    2000-3000    mg/l    and   bicarbonate
concentration range of 9000-12000 mg/l.


The majority of the cold springs, dug wells and boreholes from the highlands and
escarpments are Ca-Mg-HCO3 type and Na-Ca –HCO3 types. These types of waters are
often regarded as recharge area waters, which are at their early stage of geochemical
evolution. Rapidly circulating groundwaters, which have not undergone a pronounced
water–rock interaction, may also have similar characteristics. In the majority of waters
from the rift floor boreholes, cold spring and dug wells; sodium is dominant cation species
and bicarbonate dominate the anions group. These groundwaters fall in the Na–HCO3
type in the Piper plot and most of them have moderately high TDS.


The TDS value of fresh lakes like Ziway, Awassa and Shalla is less than 1000 mg/l while
those of Abaya, Chamo and Langano fall between 1000 and 2000 mg/l. The most saline
lakes in the main Ethiopia rift valley like Lake Chitu Shalla and Abdicate have TDS value
in the range of 20,000-40,000 mg/l (Figure 11). The isotopic investigation showed that
these lake waters are concentrated due to evaporation. As a result, Lake Chitu, Abijata
and Shalla have the potential to produce soda ash. The notable difference between the
TDS values of the lakes in MER is a matter of balance in mass flux i.e. on the inflow and
out flow conditions. The fresh lakes have relatively large input of fresh surface run off less


                                                                                             78
Tamiru Alemayehu                                     Sept.2006                                               Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


evaporation and more discharge out of the mass surface and ground water. The more
saline and alkaline lakes have the lowest Ca and Mg with high F value reflects the nearby
complete removal of Ca by carbonate precipitation.

                          100000




                                                                                                                                                          Lakes Abijata, Shalla and predilution lake Beseka
                          10000
                                                                                         Evaporative concentraion lines
  Concentration in mg/L




                            1000




                                                                                                                   Post dilution Lake Beseka
                             100




                                                                      Lake Langano
                                        Lake Ziway




                              10


                               1


                             0.1
                                   10                            100                                                                           1000                                                                10000
                                                                                         Concentration factor

                                                     Ca   Mg     Na                  K    HCO3       CO3       F                               Cl   SO4   SiO2

Figure11. Chemical evolution of Rift valley lakes (Source: Tamiru Alemayehu et al, 2006)


Surface and groundwater quality in the rift is influenced by the thermal water, evaporation
and inflow dynamics. Groundwater from Yirgalem, Aletawondo, Yirgachefe and some
localities in Wollega are known to have Iron derived from leaching of rocks. Nitrate is a
common anion in the urban centers, which is derived from latrine leakage and
contaminates shallow aquifer. In all urban centers of Ethiopia, the underneath
groundwater is affected by nitrate.


According to Seifu Kebede et al (2005), there are two types of groundwater systems in the
upper Blue Nile basin (Figure 12). These are low salinity, Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, isotopically
relatively enriched cold groundwaters from basaltic plateau and the second one is high
TDS, Na-HCO3 type isotopically relatively depleted thermal groundwater from deeply
faulted grabens. The first group is characterized by recharge zone type groundwaters,
which are found at early stage of geochemical evolution. The thermal springs are located
                                                                                                        18
along Tana basin and Yerer Tulu wellel grabens. The                                                        δO and δD compositions of the
                                                                                                                18
groundwaters are distributed around the average summer                                                                       δO and δD composition of
Ethiopian rainfall (Figure 13).




                                                                                                                                                                                                              79
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




Figure 12 Piper plot for different water bodies in Blue Nile basin (source: Seifu Kebebe et
al 2005)




            18
Figure 13    δO and δD plot for different water bodies in Blue Nile basin (Source: Seifu
Kebede et al, 2005)




                                                                                            80
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


8.2 Fluoride Distribution

Ethiopia is one of the 25 countries where the population suffers from the consumption of
fluorine rich drinking water. Throughout many parts of the world, high concentrations of
fluoride occurring naturally in groundwater and coal have caused widespread fluorisis - a
serious bone disease - among local populations. Fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/l
have been reported from all parts of Ethiopia, but the highest levels were found in the Rift
Valley, the lowland area with the most recent volcanic activity in the country.


The natural concentration of Fluoride in groundwater depends on many factors, like the
geological, chemical and physical characteristics of the aquifer, the porosity and acidity of
the soil and rocks, the temperature, the action of the other chemical elements, and the
depth of the wells. In any geological environment, fluoride is a normal constituent of
groundwater. Most groundwaters have acceptable concentrations below the WHO (1984)
guideline (<1.5mg/L). At lower consumption rate, fluoride has important effect against
dental caries, although consumption of high concentration causes dental fluorisis. High
concentration of fluoride is related to unique rocks that release Fluoride into water system.
The main controls are:


Geology:
Fluoride exists abundantly in the earth's crust and can enter groundwater by natural
processes; the soil at the foot of mountains is particularly likely to be high in fluoride from
the weathering and leaching of bedrock with high fluoride content. In the process of rock
weathering fluoride can be leached out and dissolved in groundwater and thermal phases.
The fluoride content of groundwater varies depending on the geological and tectonic
setting, and type of rocks. Fluorine accumulates during magmatic crystallization and
differentiation processes of magma. Consequently, the residual magma is often enriched
in fluoride. The fluorine, which cannot be incorporated in crystalline phase during
crystallization and differentiation of magmas, will be accumulated in hydrothermal
solutions. Fluorine transport in the aqueous solutions is controlled mainly by the solubility
of CaF2.


Contact time:
High fluoride concentrations can be built up in groundwaters, which have long residence
times in the host aquifers.


Climate:



                                                                                              81
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                        Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


High fluoride concentrations are also a feature of arid climate conditions. Due to slow flow
rate, the water-rock interaction time is enhanced. It depends on the initial condition if the
groundwater is enriched in fluoride during evaporation.


Groundwater chemical composition
High fluoride groundwaters (not always true) have sodium and bicarbonates as the
dominant    dissolved   constituents,     with   relatively   low   calcium   and    magnesium
concentration. Such water types also generally have high pH values and these can be
useful proxy indicators of the potential problems.


The rift valley waters are characterized by high fluoride concentration and there is wide
difference in F among different water bodies fluoride varies from 1.9 to 250 mg/l for lakes
2 to 150 mg/l for hot spring, from non detectable to 6.4mg/l for boreholes and 2 to 68 mg/l
for geothermal wells. As F content must not exceed 1.5 ppm in notable water the use of F-
rich water in Ethiopian rift has caused severe health problem to the resident. The major
factor, which determines the extent of adverse effect is temperature, length of time of
consumption, quantity of consumption quantity of consumption quantity of water,
consumed nutrition economical status etc. Although the accepted concentration limit for
drinking water by WHO is 1.5 mg/l, less concentration such as 1mg/l become appropriate
for hot areas.


The possible source of fluoride includes chemical weathering, magmatic emission
atmospheric dust from continental source and industrial pollution Anthropogenic and
atmospheric dust contributions are not considered in this region.               Factors limiting
concentration of the F in hot water of underground reservoir system include:
   •   Type of rock present and sign of previous hydrothermal alteration;
   •   The porosity of the rocks;
   •   The temperature of interaction between rock and water;
   •   Concentration of cation present in the water;
   •   pH of water.
Volcanic rocks of East Africa are richer in F than analogues rocks in another part of the
world. The highest F concentration is observed for obsidian of Chabbi volcano (over
2000ppm), with high F in surrounding groundwater. The most likely source of F is micas
amphiboles and pyroxene, which can contain appreciable amount of F by OH substitution.
As there is a close association of acid volcanic rocks and active geothermal system and
subsequent enrichment of natural water with fluoride.




                                                                                                82
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                       Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Most of F fluoride comes from acidic volcanic rock such as pumice obsidian pyroclastic
deposit ignimbrite and rhyolite. The interaction of water with glassy rock is responsible for
weathering of rock and leaching of F and Na in to the system. The high permeability and
large water rock interaction makes the leaching process more effective in pumice. Some
pumices rocks have shown low F which have been interpreted as evidence of alteration
i.e. pumice which have interacted with water have lost the largest fraction of their F
content as F is transferred in to the ground water. As pumice fall deposits are widespread
in Ethiopian rift valley, these rocks represent first order potential reservoir of fluoride.


The closed basin lakes, characterized by highest salinity, alkalinity and F, as a result of
evaporation.    Fluoride originates in the reservoir and controlled by hydrochemistry and
changes with hydrological evolution.


Fluoride is found in drinking water, in air and in foodstuffs. Fluoride taken with water is
distributed rapidly throughout the body and retained mainly in the skeleton and teeth.
Proper dose reduces the solubility of enamel under acidic condition thereby providing
protection against dental caries. Long-term consumption of water containing fluoride with
1 mg/l leads to such mottling in patients with long standing renal disease. Even though 1.5
mg/l of fluoride is recommended in potable water supply, in high temperature regions, 0.8
mg/l is sufficient for consumption, which could be safely applied for the region like that of
the Nazareth area. This implies that the ambient air temperature usually is the deciding
factor for the consumption of fluoride. Consumption of high dose is acutely toxic to man.
Pathological changes include haemorrhagic gastro-enteritis, toxic nephritis and various
degrees of injury to liver and heart muscles. Low concentrations in fluorine in food and
drinking water can prevent carries; however, uptake of height amounts causes severe
diseases in teeth and bones. Fluorine substitutes the carbonate component in teeth and
bones, therefore the building of Calogen is hindered which destroys the teeth and bone
apatite. Concentrations in drinking water above 1.5 mg/L cause dental fluorisis. Prolonged
intake of waters with a fluorine content of 3 to 6 mg/L cause skeletal fluorisis, if these
concentrations are exceeded, crippling skeletal fluorisis occur (Kloos and Redda
T/Haimanot, 1999).


Due to high fluoride content, the deep groundwater where fluoride enrichment is
enhanced by water-rock interaction, the groundwater does not suite for domestic supply
purpose. The fluoride concentration in the groundwater of the MER has been found to
vary between 0.5 mg/l to 253 mg/l. High fluoride concentration of up to 180 mg/l is also a
characteristic feature of the Kenyan Rift thermal waters. The highest natural level reported


                                                                                                83
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


is 2800 mg/l. Weathering and hydrothermal activities in the Rift rocks such as obsidians
and pumices release large amount of fluoride into groundwater. The sharp increase in
fluoride from mafic to acidic rocks has been explained to be due to fractional
crystallisation processes. Generally, fractional crystallisation from basaltic magma and
partial melting of a basaltic lower crust are responsible for the enrichment of fluoride and
chloride in the volcanic rocks.


Groundwater in the basaltic aquifers are known to have low concentration of fluoride as it
has been found, for example, in the Bishoftu area 0.3 - 1.8 mg/l. It is, therefore, possible
to hypothesise that, even in the other parts of the Rift, groundwater in the basaltic aquifers
would have low fluoride content. Aside from Lake Shala (177 mg/l), Lake Hertale near
Gewani (26 mg/l) and 3 hot springs in the central lakes region (8–20 mg/l), the highest
fluoride levels in the Rift Valley have been recorded in boreholes, which typically range in
depth from 10 m to 100 m. Nearly all rivers and springs had fluoride concentrations below
1.5 mg/l but many communities in the arid Rift lack surface water sources. Fluoride levels
were highest along the Wonji Fault Belt and declined toward the Rift Valley escarpment.
The Wonji Fault Belt is a 500 km long belt of many small, recent faults and volcanism on
the rift floor extending from Lake Abaya in the southwest to the terminal end of the Awash
River in the northeast.

The moderately high fluoride concentrations (1.5–5.0 mg/l) in the highlands indicate that
fluorisis is not confined to the Rift Valley. Analysis of fluoride distribution at the community
level revealed the presence of widely varying concentrations in individual water sources
and of low fluoride levels in some surface and groundwater sources in the Rift Valley.
Alem Tena and Koka villages near Wonji farm, as well as Sodere Resort had boreholes
yielding between 6.0 and 22.6 mg/l fluoride in spite of the accessibility of Lake Koka (0.3
mg/l) and the Awash River (0.6 mg/l). Both low-fluoride sources (rivers, streams, springs
and shallow wells with 0–1.7 mg/l) and high sources (boreholes up to 5.0 mg/l) were used
in the large towns of Mekele, Soddo, Awasa and Jimma and in the small town of Negele
without mixing these waters, rendering some users at higher risk of developing fluorisis.

The major thermal aquifers in the Rift are found in the acidic rocks mainly constituted by
pyroclastic deposits (Tesfaye Chernet, 1982; Tamiru Alemayehu, 1993; Berhanu Gizaw
1996, Darling et al., 1996; Tamiru and Vernier, 1997). It is from these aquifers that after
long residence time and strong chemical reactions that the fluoride and toxic metals rich
thermal waters come out to replenish surface water bodies in the Rift.


Since the thermal aquifers of the Rift are made of acidic rocks, which have low calcium,


                                                                                              84
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


there could be low degree of CaF2 precipitation. The high fluoride values in the Rift lakes
are attributed also to complete removal of calcium by carbonate precipitation or calcium
under saturation in the case of Shalla Lake (Berhanu Gizaw, 1996).


High fluoride content of the groundwater in the Rift is related with high salinity and alkaline
environment where it favours high concentration of fluoride in the water. In fact, the
substitution of fluoride by hydroxyl ions takes place effectively in high pH waters (Hem,
1971) and the activity of fluoride seems to be higher in high temperature medium where
high temperature springs are found to contain high fluoride than the low temperature
ones.


The thermal waters of the MER are also characterised by high sodium, bicarbonate,
chloride and fluoride concentrations. Even water from the lakes reflects more or less
similar chemical composition as that of the recharging thermal springs.


The presence of high fluoride in the groundwater corresponds to high fluoride content of
the acidic rocks. Shallow wells and cold springs contain low fluoride concentration than
the deep groundwater system. The principal contaminant of the surface and shallow
groundwater is generated mainly from deep groundwater, which appears on surface in the
form of thermal springs and steams. The fluoride concentration of 0.38 mg/l (Tamiru
Alemayehu, 1998) which has been obtained from the Boku condensed water (Nazareth)
indicates that there is high degree of steam-rock interaction. Low levels of fluoride are
required for human and other animals to have beneficial effect on tooth and bone
structure. The hinterland is characterized by large amount of fluoride much higher than the
WHO limit (1.5mg/L). Its abundance is related to changes in calcium concentration that
results from dissolution of calcium minerals. High concentration of Fluoride suggests
calcium depletion in the water.


The Wonji area and its environs contain high fluoride in the groundwater attributed to the
high thermal activity. Depending          on    the   climatic   condition      and    relative
contribution of non-aqueous sources of fluoride to over all fluoride load in
individual, drinking water containing optimum levels of fluoride may confers
protection against dental cares without causing dental and skeletal fluorisis.
The maximum allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5 gm/l set by WHO (1984) is usually
considered to be too high. However, in high temperature areas safe water contains
fluoride concentrations as low as 0.8mg/l (Table 8). There are other factors that influence
the occurrence of adverse effects such as length of time of consumption, quantity of water


                                                                                              85
Tamiru Alemayehu               Sept.2006                   Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


consumed, nutritional and economic status and physical activity. The recommended
fluoride concentration in water with respect to annual average ambient temperature is
given below.


                    Table8 Fluoride limit as controlled by temperature
  Annual       average Recommended fluoride concentration
  Maximum Daily Air Lower                      Optimum                Upper
  temp. OC
  26.3-32.6              0.6                   0.7                    0.8
  21.5-26.2              0.7                   0.8                    1.0
  17.7-21.4              0.7                   0.9                    1.2
  14.7-17.6              0.8                   1.0                    1.3
  12.1-14.6              0.8                   1.1                    1.5
  10.0-12.0              0.9                   1.2                    1.7


9.3 Defluoridation of water
The well-known or usual means of defluoridation are ion exchange by zeolites and
superphosphates, adsorption by activated alumina and bones, precipitation by lime and
calcium chloride. The cheap method using locally available material is fired clay chips
(Girma Moges, et al, 1996). The fired clay materials remove as much as 90% of fluoride
while raw clay (not fired) removes as much as 72%. Among clays, kaolinite is effective in
fluoride removal that maximizes adsorption if pH of water is maintained 5-6 with EC of
490µS/cm.


Many defluoridation methods are developed in the laboratory but they are not yet field-
tested. However, in the MER there are few places where defluoridation is on progress.
Most defluoridation methods are complicated, expensive, unproven and unreliable nature
under field conditions in developing countries, use materials of questionable supply and
inappropriate technology, are insufficiently effective, and their social acceptability is
unknown. The more promising methods, which have been field-tested, include the heat-
activated bone char, laterite, activated alumina adsorption and Nalgonda methods. The
risk of secondary contamination by metal ions such as aluminum and the search for
simple, low-cost methods using local materials have contributed to the use of plant
products with defluoridation properties, such as the seeds of Moringaoleifera, bone media
and clay. Fired clays are also proved to be effective. A major problem in the delivery of
water from low-fluoride sources and defluoridated water is the scarcity of piped distribution
systems in rural communities and the reliance of households on individual wells, springs


                                                                                            86
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


and surface sources. This situation governs the development of defluoridation methods in
a way to be applied in small scale only.


1. Coagulation method (with Lime and Alum)
This is one of the technologies, which has been successfully translated from the
laboratory to the field, well known by the name Nalgonda technique named after the
village in India where the method was employed for the first time. In this technology, raw
water is mixed with adequate alum (hydrate aluminium salts) - a coagulant commonly
used for water treatment - is used to flocculate fluoride ions in the water. Since the
process is best carried out under alkaline conditions, lime is added; bleaching powder can
also be added to disinfect the water. After a thorough stirring, the chemical elements
coagulate into flocks that are heavier than water and settle to the bottom of the container.
The addition of lime or sodium carbonate ensures adequate alkalinity for effective
hydrolysis of aluminium sulphate to aluminium hydroxide (that is, flock formation) and as a
result, aluminium does not remain in the treated water. The operation can be carried out
on a large or small scale, and the technique is suitable for both community and household
use. In the Nalgonda technique, besides fluoride, turbidity, colour, odour, pesticides and
organic substances, if any, are also removed. Bacterial contamination is also reduced
significantly.


The method has advantages as it can be used both at domestic and community levels;
operations are possible manually; the chemicals are the same as those used in
municipal/urban water supply schemes; It is cost-effective; there is considerable flexibility
in design considerations therefore, location specific alterations are possible. The method
has the ability to minimize the fluoride concentration to 1mg/l.


One of the short falls of the method is that there is a possibility of excess aluminium
contamination. The maximum contamination of aluminium permitted is 0.03 mg to 0.2 mg/l
of water according to WHO, as an excess is suspected to cause Alzheimer’s disease.
Aluminium compounds are used for the treatment of drinking water all over the world. Due
to the concern shown regarding health hazards aluminium-caused alternative coagulants
and coagulant aids are now being recommended.


Aluminium compounds were first used in the form of simple salts, which is aluminium
sulphate or aluminium chloride. Later, during the 1970s, pre-hydrolysed salts known as
basic aluminium polychlorosulphates (PACS) or basic aluminium polychlorides (PAC)
were introduced. These second-generation products have flocculants properties and


                                                                                             87
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


could be used without flocculation additives. They also have an advantage over simple
aluminium salts as they are active in a wide pH range, but chances of residual aluminium
in drinking water, depending upon raw water quality, do exist. For drinking water, use of
aluminium salt coagulants at the clarification stage sometimes necessitates a prior stage
of pH adjustment (normally acidification) in order to meet the WHO standard for
aluminium, which is 200 µg/liter of water. A third generation of aluminium salts has now
appeared. These have high basicity or a high OH-/Aluminium ratio of more than 2, which
limits the aluminium residue while maintaining excellent flocculation properties. The high
basicity aluminium polychlorosulphates are also extremely stable with time.


2. Activated Alumina
Alumna, that is, aluminium oxide (Al2O3), is practically insoluble in water. The solubility in
acid and alkali depends upon previous heat treatment; it is scarcely attacked by strong
reagents. Alumina needs to be activated for the defluoridation process. There are different
grades of activated alumina indigenously available at a very nominal cost. The suitability
of the grade for defluoridation depends upon the porosity and surface area of the alumina.
Activated Alumina is effective in treating water with high total dissolved solids. However,
selenium, fluoride, chloride, and sulphate, if present at high levels, may compete for
adsorption sites. The approach is simply to filter water down through a column packed
with a strong adsorbent, activated alumina (Al2O3) and usually it has the ability to minimize
fluoride concentration to the WHO guideline (1 mg/l) provided that the activated alumina
needs not to be regenerated.


Other parameters that are also of importance include the life of the activated alumina for
defluoridation purposes. When the adsorbent becomes saturated with fluoride ions, the
filter material has to be backwashed with a mild acid or alkali solution (2% sodium
hydroxide and 2% hydrochloric acid) to clean and regenerate it. The effluent from
backwashing is rich in accumulated fluoride and must therefore be disposed of carefully to
avoid recontamination nearby groundwater.
The activated alumina plants can be attached to either hand pumps or stand posts in the
village depending upon the source of drinking water.


3. Laterite
Studies carried in many years had shown that laterite could be used for effective removing
of fluoride, iron and manganese in water. Laterite is a weathered rock available in some
coastal and interior parts of the world. Over few centuries, bricks cut from laterite rock
have been extensively used for building construction. Water treatment has been to be


                                                                                             88
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


effective when laterite rock is crushed to particle size of 8-16mm and is used in up flow
arrangement of water with low velocities and increased retention time. The use of lateritic
clay, which in its preheated form reduces fluoride at high levels (>7 mg/l) to below 1 mg/l,
may be explored in Ethiopia, where lateritic clay is abundant in the humid western and
southern parts of the country. While techniques for the defluoridation of fluoride-rich water
are indeed available, the application of such techniques in remote parts of the developing
countries where dental fluorisis is most common has inherent problems. The defluoridator
developed is a simple and inexpensive method of a household filter.

A filter media used for fluoride removal is low temperature burnt clay known as bricks. The
burnt clay has silicates, aluminates and hematites. When this is soaked in water for
several hours those oxides, are converted to oxyhydroxides of iron, aluminium and silica.
The Si-O, Al-O bounds are much stronger than Fe-O bonds. The geochemistry of the
Fluoride ion (ionic radius 1.40A) and the hydroxyl ion (ionic radius 1.36A) are similar and
these could be easily exchangeable between them. Laterite also has been as an
alternative filter media, for Fluoride removal. The laterite has properties as mentioned
earlier with iron oxyhydroxide in the material in addition to silicon and aluminium
oxyhydroxide in the material.
Laterite is a low cost natural filter medium at small-scale water treatment. However, it is
worthwhile investigating the application of this technology at medium scale.


4. Bone Char
Defluoridation of drinking water, primarily using bone char, was developed by the Inter-
country Centre for Oral Health (ICOH), Chiangmai, Dental Faculty of Chulalongkoran
University, Bangkok, and the WHO. ICOH defluoridation is based on the filtration and
absorption principle and uses charcoal and charred bone meal. The method can be
employed using defluoridation column (75 cm long and 9 cm in diameter) that has a tap at
the bottom and a cap with a small hole for intake of water at the top. The column is
packed with 300 g of crushed charcoal (the bottom layer) for absorbing colour and odour.
A middle layer of 1,000 g of charred bone meal and a top layer of approximately 200 g of
clean pebbles are added to prevent the bone meal from floating. The bone meal is of 40-
60-mesh size, obtained or produced by burning bones to an approximate temperature of
600oC for 20 minutes.


Fluoride-contaminated raw water is siphoned to the top of the defluoridator at a flow rate
of 4 liters/hour. The defluoridated water is collected into a jar from the lower end of the
column with the help of a tap. The filter, according to those who developed the system,



                                                                                            89
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


remains active for one to three months, depending on the fluoride levels and the amount
of water consumed.


In this procedure, 15-20 liters of water is initially passed through the column
(defluoridator), and then discarded. After this process, the water is odourless, clean and
ready for human consumption. The question that emerges in the users context is whether
we can regularly discard 15-20 liters of water every time for running through the column to
eliminate the foul odour of the water due to the charred bone fat. The case will be more
sensitive where water is scarce.


Another drawback of the method is the reluctance to the use of the water treated with
burnt bone. A major issue that is likely to emerge is of the acceptability of water by
vegetarians. As the procedure for elimination of fluoride using bone char is simple and
inexpensive and as operation and maintenance do not pose problems, perhaps certain
sections of the population who are non-vegetarians may accept the water without
hesitation. If so, the technology could be promoted in select areas, but it seems doubtful
that this technology will be generally accepted.


In the area where the fluoride concentration is high, ground water exploration work can be
executed in such away that by avoiding fluoride in flow from specific rock type and proper
designing. Fluoride rich but relatively thin aquifer may exist that can release fluoride
concentration due to dissolution. Therefore, blind casing for this particular formation can
save the abandonment of the whole aquifer.

Another little-researched but simple and promising defluoridation method is fishbone
charcoal filtration, which has been recommended for use at the household level. The
concentration of Ethiopia's lake fisheries in lakes Ziway, Langano, Awassa and Abaya in
the central and southern Rift Valley would assure an ample supply of fish bones. Health
education and technical assistance through community health workers and agricultural
extension agents may need to be integrated into any control programme to increase
public awareness of the fluorisis problem and encourage the development of this and
other potential defluoridation methods in communities lacking alternative water sources.

One of the plant materials traditionally used in various African countries to clarify turbid
water, the seeds of Moringa oleifera, has been shown to reduce in the laboratory fluoride
levels from 20 mg/l to less than 1 mg/l at low cost.




                                                                                            90
Tamiru Alemayehu           Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




Chapter Nine

               9-REFERENCES AND FURTHER READINGS
Abbate E., Azzarolli A., Facibeni P., Gregnanin A., Justin- Visentin E., Merla G.,
     Sagri M., And Zanettin B., (1969) Risultati Preliminari Della Missione Geologica E
     Petrografica Del Consglio Nazionale Delle Richerche In Ethiopia, 1968-69. Ann 39,
     N.3 1969
Abbate E., Facibeni P., Gregnanin A., Merla G., Sagri M., (1969) Basalt Flows And
     Related Sandtones In The Socota Area (Northern Ethiopia). Boll. Soc. Geol. It
     88:499-516.
Abdo A (1978) A survey of dental fluorosis in Abossa elementary school (abstract).
     Ethiopian Medical Journal 16, 138.
Abegaz, F, G. Eticha., G. Taddese. (1992). Summary results from the Pilot Drainage
     Scheme Seminar Proceedings 31st. March. 1992. WARDA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Africano, F. and Bernard, A., (2000). Acid alteration in the fumarolic environment of Usu
     volcano, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 97, p
     475-495.


                                                                                         91
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Amha Belay and Wood, R.B., (1982). Limnological aspects of an algal bloom on L. Chamo
     in Gamo Goffa Administrative region of Ethiopia in 1978. Ethiop. J. Sci. 5 (1):1-19.
Anjela, L. L., Melani, J. L., Henry, F. L., Richard, J. T. and Mohammed Umer (2002).
     Climatic and non-climatic effect on the δ18O and δ13C compositions of Lake Awassa,
     Ethiopia during the last 6.5ma, Quaternary science reviews, 21, 2199-2211.
Asfaw Teklu (2000). Isotopic and geochemical study for the recharge identification for the
     Tendaho geothermal field, Ethiopia. Proce. World geothermal congress. Japan 1835-
     1842.
Asfawossen Asrat and Barbey P. (2003): Petrology, geochnology and Sr-Nd isotopic
     geochemistry of the Konso pluton, south western Ethiopia: implications for transition
     from convergence to extension in mozabiue belt. Int. J. Earth Sci. 92:873-890.
Asfawossen Asrat, Gleize G., Barbey P and Dereje Ayalew (2003). Magma emplacement
     and mafic-felsic magma hybridization: structural evidence from the Pan African Negash
     pluton, northern Ethiopia. Journal of Structural geology 25:1451-1469
Ayers, R. .S, D.W. Westcot. (1985). Water quality for agriculture irrigation and drainage
     paper. Rev. 1. FAO, P. 174.
Baars AJ, Van Beek H, Spierenburg TJ (1987) Fluoride pollution in a salt marsh:
     movement between soil, vegetation and sheep. Bulletin of Environmental
     Contamination and Toxicology 39, 945 952.
Baker BH, Mohr P, Williams Laj (1972) Geology of the Eastern Rift System of Africa.
     Special Paper No. 136 of the Geological Society of America .
Barbieri F., Borsi S., Ferrara G., Marinelli G., Santacroce R., Taziefe H., and Varet J
     (1972). Evolution of the Danakil depression (Afar, Ethiopia), in light of radiometric
     age determination. Journal of Geology 80:720-729.
Barberi F., Ferrara G., Santacroce R., And Varet J., (1975) Structural Evolution Of The
     Afar Triple Junction. In: Afar Depression Of Ethiopia ( A. Pilger And Ròsler Eds).
     Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, P.38-54.
Barbieri F. and Santacroce R. (1980). The Afar stratoid series and the magmatic
     evolution of eas African rift system. Bull Soc. Geol. France 7(6):891-899
Belachew B (1990) The occurrence and distribution of fluoride and fluorosis in Wonji-Shoa
     Sugar Estate and adjacent areas . MA thesis,
Baxter, R.M., and Golobitch, D.L., (1970). A note on the limnology of L. Hayq, Ethiopia.
     Limnol. Oceanogr. 15:144-148.
Belachew, B., (1990) The occurrence and distribution of fluoride and fluorosis in Wonji-
     Shoa Sugar Estate and adjacent areas.”, 1990, M.A. thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Benvenuti M., Carnicelli S., Belluomini G., Dainelli N., Di Grazia S., Ferrari G.A., Iasio
     C., Sagri M., Ventra D., Atnafu B., Kebede S (2002). The Ziway-Shala lake basin
     (main Ethiopian rift, Ethiopia): a revision of basin evolution with special reference to
     the Late Quaternary. Jour. Of Afri. Earth Sci. 35:247-269.
Berhanu Gizaw and Negussie Retta (1987). The chemistry of the thermal waters from
     the Filwoha area. Addis Ababa. Kenyan Jour. Sci. and Tech. 8(2): 99
Berhanu Gizaw (1993). Aluto-langano geothermal field, main Ethiopian Rift. Physical
     characteristics and the effect of gas on well performance. Geothermics 22(2): 101-
     116.
Berhanu Gizaw (1996). The origin of high bicarbonate and fluoride in waters of the Main
     Ethiopian Rift Valley, East African Rift system, Jour. of African Earth Sciences,
     22(4): 391-402.
Beyth M (1972). Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary basin of Mekele outlier, northern
     Ethiopia. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 56(12):2426-
     2439
Beyth, M., Stern, R.J., Altherr, R. and Kröner, A., (1994). The Late Precambian Timna
     igneous complex, Southern Israel: Evidence for comagnetic-type sanukitoid
     monzodiorite and alkali granite magma. Lithos 31, p 103-124.
Bhargava DS (1999) Economical technology of fluoride removal using fishbone charcoal



                                                                                           92
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


     columns at domestic level. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on
     Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water. International Society for Fluoride Research.
Biswas, A.K., (1991). Effective monitoring of lake waters. In Guidelines on Lake
     Management, Volume 2: Socio-Economic Aspects of Lake Reservoir Management,
Bjorvatn K & Bardsen A (1995) Use of activated clay for defluoridation of water. In:
     Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of
     Water. (eds E. Dahi & H. Bregnhoj). International Society for Fluoride Research,
     Auckland. pp.40-45.
Bjorvatn K, Bardsen A, Kjellevold M, Tekle Haimanot R (1997) Defluoridation of
      drinking water by the use of lathyritic clay. Journal of Dental Research 76,
      Abstract1273.
Blanford W.T, (1869) On The Geology Of A Portion Of Abyssinia. Quat. Jour. Geol. Soc.
      V 25.
Boccaletti M., Bonini M., Mazzuoli R., Bekele Abebe, Piccardi L., and Tortorici L.
     (1998). Quaternary oblique extensional tectonics in the Ethiopian Rift (Horn of Africa).
     Tectonophysics 287:97-116.
Boccaletti M., Bonini M., Mazzuoli R.,Trua T (1999). Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism and
     faulting in the northern main Ethiopian Rift. Acta Vulcanologica 11(1): 70-82.
Bosellini A., Russo a., Fantozzi PL, Getaneh Assefa and Solomon Tadesse (1997).
     The Mesozoic sucession of the Mekele Outlier, Tigray Province, Ethiopia. Memoire di
     Scienze Geologiche 49:95-116.
Bosellini A., Russo A and Getaneh Assefa (2001). The Mesozoic sucession of
     DireDawa, Harar province, Ethiopia. Jour. Afri. Earth sci. 32(3):403-417.
Boyle, D. R.; Chagon, M., (1995) an incidence of skeletal fluorosis associated with
     groundwaters of the maritime carboniferous basin, Canada, Environmental
     Geochemistry andHealth,No.17,pp.5-12,Chapman&Hall
Bregnhoj H (1999) Critical parameters in household defluoridation. In: Proceedings of the
     Second International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water.
     International Society for Fluoride Research, in press.
Breirkreuz, C., Bahlburg, H., Delakowitz, B. and Pichowiak, S.,(1989). Paleozoic
     volcanic events in the Central Andes. Journal of south American Earth Sciences 2, p
     171-189.
Brenan J.M., (1993) Partitioning of fluorine and chlorine between apatite and aqueous
     fluids at high pressure and temperatures implications for the F and Cl contents of high
     P- T fluids.”, , Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 117, 251-263.
Brook, L., (1994). Changes in the limnological behaviour of a tropical African explosion
     crater lake: L. Hora-Kilole, Ethiopia. Limnologica 24(1):57-70.
Brouwer ID, De Bruin A, Dirks OA, Hautvast Jgaj (1988) Unsuitability of WHO guidelines
     for fluoride concentration in drinking water in Senegal. Lancet 1, 223 225.
Burwell R.E; Schuman, G.E.; Heineman, H.G.; Spomer, R.G. (1977). Nitrogen and
     Phosphorus movement from agricultural watersheds. Journal of soil and water
     conservation 32:226-236.
Calvache, M.L.V. and Williams, S.N., (1997). Geochemistry and petrology of the Galeras
     Volcanic Complex, Colombia, journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 77, p
     21-38.
Carrillo-Rivera, J.J., Cardona, A. and Moss, D., (1996). Importance of vertical component
     of groundwater flow: a hydrogeochemical approach in the valley of San Luis Potosi,
     Mexico. Journal of Hydrology 185, p 23-44.
Cembrowicz RG (1983) Technically, socially and economically appropriate technologies
     for drinking water supply in small communities. Applied Geography and Development
     22, 74 93.
Central Statistical Office (1991) 1990 Statistical Abstract”. Central Statistical Office.,
     Addis Ababa
Chidambaram,S.; Ramanathan,A.L.; Vasudevan,S., (2003) Fluoride removal studies in



                                                                                           93
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


     water using natural materials.”, Water-SA.; 29(3): 339-343
Coira, B., Davidson, J., Mpodozis, C. and Ramos, V., (1982). Tectonic and magmatic
     evolution of the Andes of northern Argentina and Chile. Earth-Science Reviews 18, p
     303-332.
Conway D and Hulme M (1993). Recent fluctuations in precipitation and runoff over the
     Nile sub basins and their impact on the main Nile discharge. Climate change 25: 127-
     151.
Conway D. (1997). A water balance model for the upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia.
     Hydrological Sciences Journal. 42:256-286.
Conway D. (2000). The climate and hydrology of the upper Blue Nile river. The
     Geographical Journal. 166: 49-62.
Craig, H., Lupton J.E., Horowiff, R.M. (1977). Isotope Geochemistry and Hydrology of
     geothermal waters in the Ethiopian rift valley. Scripps Institute of Oceanography,
     University of California report, 160p.
Curtis H. S, M. L. Gary. (1978). Quality characteristics of agricultural and water disposal
     run off water. Journal of soil and water conservation. 33: 34-139.
D’orazio, M., Innocenti, F., Manetti, P., Tamponi, M., Tonarini, S., Gonzalez-Ferran, A.,
     Lahsen, A. and Omarini, R., (2003). The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the
     Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of
     volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (~45˚S, Chile). Journal of south
     American Earth Sciences 16, p 219-242.
Dagnachew Legesse (2002). Analyse de la response hydrologique du basin lacustre de
     Ziway- Shalla. PhD Thesis. University of AIX Marseille III. France
Dagnachew Legesse, C. Vallet-Coulomb, F. Gasse (2003). Hydrological response of a
     catchment to climate and land use changes in Tropical Africa: Case study South Central
     Ethiopia. J. Hydrol, 275: 67-85.
Dagnachew Legesse, C. Vallet-Coulomb, F. Gasse (2004). Analysis of the hydrological
     response of a tropical terminal lake, Lake Abiyata (Main Ethiopian Rift Valley) to
     changes in climate and human activities. J. Hydrological Processes, 18: 487-504.
Dagnachew Legesse, F. Gasse, O. Radakovitch, C. Vallet-Coulomb, R. Bonnefille, D.
    Verschuren, E. Gibert, P. Barker, (2002). Environmental changes in a tropical lake
    (Lake Abiyata, Ethiopia) during recent centuries. J. of Palaeogeog., Palaeoclim.,
    Palaeoecol. 187: 233-258.
Dahi E (1999) Contact precipitation a promising method for defluoridation of water. In:
     Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of
     Water. International Society for Fluoride Research, in press
Darling, G., Berhanu Gizaw, Arusei, M., (1996). Lake-groundwater relationships and
     fluid-rock interaction in the East African Rift Valley: isotopic evidence. J. African
     Earth Sci. 22, 423-430.
Davidson a., Moor J.M., Davies J.C (1976). Preliminary report on the geology and
     geochemistry of parts of gamu Gofa, Kefa, and Illubabor provinces, Ethiopia. Omo
     river project report No. 2, p28.
Davidson A., And Rex D.C., (1980) Age Of Volcanism And Rifting In South Western
     Ethiopia, Nature 283:657-658.
De Putter T. Loutre MF., Wansrand G. (1998) Decadal periodicities of the Nile river
     historical discharge (AD 622 -1470) and climatic implications. Geophysical research
     letters. 253193-3196.
Dereje Ayalew and Gezahegn Yirgu (2003). Crustal contribution to the genesis of
     Ethiopian plateau rhyolitic ignimbrites: basalt and rhyolite geochemical provinciality.
     Journal of the Geological Society, London. 160:47-56.
Dereje Ayalew, Barbey P., Marthy B., Reisberg L., Gezahegne Yirgu. and Pik R. (2002).
     Source, genesis, and timing of giant ignimbite deposits associated with Ethiopian
     continental flood basalts Geochimica et Cosmochimica 66(8):1429-1448.


                                                                                           94
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Dias, G., Leterrier, J., Mendes, A., Simões P.P. and Bertrand, J.M., (1998). U–Pb
     zircon and monazite geochronology of post-collisional Hercynian granitoids from the
     Central Iberian Zone (Northern Portugal). Lithos 45, p 349-369.
Di Paola G.M., (1972). The Ethiopian Rift valley (between 7º00’ and 8 º40’ lat North). Bull
     volcanology 36:517-560.
Di Paola GM and Getahun Demissie (1979). Geothermal Energy: An inexhaustible
     resources of great Eonomic importance for Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 2(2): 87-
     110.
Di Paola G.M., Seifemicahael B., And Aron, B., (1993). The Kella Horst: Its Origin And
     Significance In Crustal Attenuation And Magmatic Processes In The Ethiopian Rift
     Valley. In: Geology And Mineral Resources Of Somalia And Surrounding Regions.
     First Agron. Florence 113:323-338.
Dissanayake, C.B. and Weerasooriya, S.V.R., (1986). Fluorine as an indicator of
     mineralization – Hydrogeochemistry of a Precambrian mineralized belt in Sri Lanka.
     Chemical Geology 56, p 257-270.
Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Zhang W et al. (1995) Effect of aging on animal exposure
     to chronic fluoride exposure. Journal of Dental Research 74, 358 368.
Durfer, C.N, E. Becker. (1964). Public Water supplies of the 100 largest cities of the United
     States, 1962. USGS. Water Supply Paper No.1812, Washington.
Edmunds, W., M.; Smedley, P. L. (1996), “Groundwater geochemistry and health: an
     overview, Environmental Geochemistry and Health”, , Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub., No. 113,
     pp. 91-105
El Katsha S & Watts S (1997) Schistosomiasis in two Nile delta villages: an
     anthropological perspective. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 846 54.
Elizabeth Kebede, Zinabu G/Mariam and Ahlgren, A. (1994). The Ethiopian rift valley
     lakes: Chemical characteristics along a salinity-alkalinity series. Hydrobiologia, 288: 1-
     12.
Elizabeth, Kebede, and Willen, E., (1996). Phytoplankton composition and diversity in a
     salinity-alkalinity series of lakes in the Ethiopian rift valley. Hydrobiologia 80:1-8.
Elizabeth, Kebede, Getachew, T., Taylor, W.D., and Zinabu, G.M., (1994).
     Eutrophication of L. Hayq in the Ethiopian highlands. J. Plankton Res. 14:1473-1482.
Elizabeth, Kebede, Zinabu, Gebre Mariam, and Ahlgren, I. (19920. The Ethiopian rift-
     valley lakes: Chemical characters along a salinity-alkalinity gradient. Hydrobiologia
     288:1-22.
Fontes JCh., Florkowiski T, Saliege JF, Zuppi GM. (1980). Environmental Isotope
     study of groundwater systems in the Republic of Djibouti. In Arid Zone Hydrology
     IAEA; 237-262.
Franchini, M., López-Escobar, L., Schalamuk, I.B.A. and meinert, L., (2003).
     Magmatic characteristics of the Paleocene Cerro Nevazón region and other Late
     Cretaceous to Early Tertiary calc-alkaline subvolcanic to plutonic units in the
     Neuquén Andes, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 16, p 399-
     421.
Francis, P.W., Thorpe, R.S., Moorbath, S., Kretzschmar, G.A. and Hammill, M.,
     (1980). Strontium isotope evidence for crustal contamination of calc-alkaline
     volcanic rocks from Cerro Galan, northwest Argentina. Earth and Planetary Science
     Letters 48, p 257-267.
Frencken J & Smet J (1990) Notes of the discussion. In: Proceedings of the Symposium
     on Endemic Fluorosis in Developing Countries: Causes, Effects and Possible
     Solutions. (eds JE Frencken). NIPG-TNO, Leiden. pp. 96 98.
Frencken, J.E. (1992). Endemic Fluorosis in developing countries, causes, effects and
     possible solutions. Publication number 91.082, NIPG-TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands,
Galan, G. and Suarez, O., (1989). Cortlandtitic enclaves associated with calc-alkaline
     granites from Tapia-Asturias (Hercynian Belt, northwestern Spain). Lithos 23, p 233-
     245.



                                                                                             95
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Gasparon M., Innocenti F., Manetti P., Peccerillo A., Tsegaye A. (1993). Genesis Of
     The Pliocene To Recent Bimodal Mafic-Felsic Volcanism In The Debre Zeit Area:
     Central Ethiopia. Volcanological And Geochemical Constraints. Jour. Afri.Eart. Scie.
     17(2): 145-165.
Genxu, W. and Guodong, C., (2001). Fluoride distribution in water and governing factors
     of environment in arid northwest China. Journal of arid environments 49, 601-614.
Gerasomovskiy VI & Savinova YN (1969) Fluorine contents of volcanic rocks in the rift
     zone of east Africa. Geochimie International 6, 1124 1128.
Gezahegn Yirgu, Dereje Ayalew, Peccerillo A, Barberio, M. R.; Donati, C.; Donato, P.,
     (1999) Fluorite and chlorine distribution in the volcanic rocks from the Gedemsa
     volcano, Ethiopian Rift Valley, Acta Vulcanologica, 11(1): 169-176
Gianelli, G. & Meseret Teklemariam (1993) Water rock interaction processes in the
     Aluto-Langano geothermal field (Ethiopia), J. Volcano. Geotherm. Res., 56, 429-445.
Gibert E., Travi Y., Massault M., Tesfaye Chernet, Barbecot F., Laggoun-Defarge F
     (1999). Comparing carbonate and organic AMS 14C ages in lake Abiyata sediments
     (Ethiopia): Hydrochemistry and Paleoenvironmental implications. Radiocarbon
     41(3):271-286.
Gilamichael FM (1986) A study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis among high school
     students in Nazareth town, Shoa Administrative Region. Ethiopia. MPH thesis,
     Department of Community Health, Addis Ababa University.
Girma Moges, Feleke Zewge, Socher M (1996) Preliminary investigations on the
     defluoridation of water using fired clay chips. Journal of African Earth sciences
     22(4): 479-482.
Gleick HP (1991). The vulnerability of runoff in the Nile basin to climatic changes. The
     Environmental professional 13:66-73.
Gonfiantini, R., Borsi, S., Ferrara, G. and Panichi, C. (1973). Isotopic composition of
     waters from the Danakil Depression (Ethiopia). Earth and Planetary Science Letters
     18: 13-21.
Greboval, D., Bellemans, M., and Fryd, M. (1994). Fisheries characteristics of the
     shared lakes of the East African Rift. CIFA Technical Paper No. 24. Rome: FAO.
Grove A, Street F., Goudie A. (1975). Former lake levels and climatic changes in the
     Rift valley of southern Ethiopia Geographisches Jahrbuch 141-177-202.
Güler, C., Thyne, D.G. (2004). Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and
     groundwater chemistry in Indian Wells-Owens Valley area, southeastern California,
     USA. J.Hydrol. 285, 177-198.
Güler, C., Thyne, D.G., McCray, E.J., Turner, A.K. (2002). Evaluation of graphical and
     multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data. Hydrogeol.
     J. 10, 455-474.
Gumbo FJ & Mkongo G (1995) Water defluoridation for rural fluoride affected communities
     in Tanzania. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Fluorosis and
     Defluoridation of Water. (eds E. Dahi & H. Bregnhoj). International Society for Fluoride
     Research, Aucklandpp. 95 100.
Halcrow PLC 1989. Master plan for the development of surface water resources in the
     Awash basin, vol.6. Ministry of Water Resources. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Halcrow PLC (1989). Masterplan for the development of surface water resources in ten
     Awash basin, vol.6. Ministry of Water Resources. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Halcrow PLC (1989). Rift valley lakes integrated natural resources development master
     plan. Ethiopian Valleys Development Studies Authority, Unpub. Report. Addis
     Ababa, Ethiopia.
Harrison, A.D., and Hynes, H.B.N. (1988). Benthic fauna of Ethiopian mountain streams
     and rivers. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 81:1-36
Hautot S., Whaler K., Workneh Gebru and Mohammednur Desissa (2006). The
     structure of a Mesozoic basin beneath the lake Tana area, Ethiopia, revealed by
     magnetelluric imaging. Jour. African Earth sci. xxxxx



                                                                                           96
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Heidweiller Vml (1990) Fluoride removal methods. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on
      Endemic Fluorosis in Developing Countries: Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions.
      (eds JE Frencken). NIPG-TNO, Leiden. pp. 51 82.
Hillman, J.C. (1988). Abijata-Shalla Lakes: National Park Reports on Status and
      Proposals. Addis Ababa: Mimeo.
Homer, D, P .P. Chapman, P. Pratt (1961). Methods of analysis for soils plants and
      water division of agricultural sciences UC, CA.
Joanson PA, Curtis PD (1994). Water balance of Blue Nile river basin in Ethiopia.
      Journal of irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 120:573-589.
John, E. C. (1977). Sediment concentration and duration in stream channels. Journal of soil
      and water conservation. 32(4): 168-174.
Johnson, G., A. Kurz, J. Cernez, A. Anderson, G. Melack (1964). Nitrate levels in water
      from several Iowa Wells.           A preliminary report I. Iowa Med. Soc. 36:4-7.
Jonnalagadda, S. B., A.S. Mathuthu, R. W. Odipo, S. O. Wadiga (1991). River pollution in
      developing countries. A case study III: Effect of industrial discharges on quality of
      Ngong River Waters in Kenya. The chemical society of Ethiopia 5: 49-64.
Justin-Visentin E., (1974). Petrografica, Chimismo E Petrogenesi Dei Corpi Sub
      Vulcanici Di Macalle (Tigrai-Ethiopia). Mem First Geol. Min. Unv. Padova Pp.31, 32.
Kassahun, W. (1982). Comparative Limnology of L. Abijata and L. Langano in Relation to
      Primary and Secondary Production. M. Sc. thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Kazmin V., (1975) Explanation Of The Geological Map Of Ethiopia Bull No.1 Eigs Addis
Ababa.
Kazmin V, Shiferaw A, Balcha T (1978). The Ethiopian basement and possible manner
      of evolution. Geol. Rundsch. 67:531-546.
Kazmin V., Seifemichael B., Nicoletti M., And Petrucciani C., (1980). Evolution Of The
      Northern Part Of The Ethiopian Rift. In: Geodynamic Evolution Of The Afro-Arabic
      Rift System Accad. Naz. Lincei. Rome P. 275-292.
Kebede, E., Gebremariam, Z. & Ahlgren, A., (1996). The Ethiopian rift valley lakes.
      Chemical characteristics along a salinity-alkalinity series. Hydrobiologia, 288: 1-12
Killiam P and Hecky R.E. (1973) Fluoride: Geochemical and ecological significance in
      the east African waters and sediments. Liminology and Oceanography 18(6):932-
      945
Kloos H & Tekle Haimanot R (1993) Fluorosis. In: The Ecology of Health and Disease in
      Ethiopia(eds H Kloos & ZA Zein). Westview Press, Boulder and Oxford. pp. 455 461.
Lamb, H.F, Seifu Kebede, Leng, M., Rickettes, D., Telford, R. and Mohhamed Umer.
      (2002) Origin and stable isotope composition of aragonite laminae from an
      Ethiopian crater lake. Advances in Global Change Research, 12: 487-508.
Lamb, H.F, Seifu Kebede, Leng, M., Rickettes, D., Telford, R. and Mohammed Umer
      (2002) Origin and stable isotope composition of aragonite laminae from an
      Ethiopian crater lake. Advances in Global Change Research, 12: 487-508.
Lamb A. L., Leng ML., Lamb HF., Telfored RJ, and Mohammed Umer (2002).Climatic
      and non climatic effects on the 18O and 13C compositions of lake Awassa, Ethiopia
      during the last 6.5Ka. Quaternary science Reviews 21:2199-2211
Lahitte P., Gillot P.Y., Tesfaye Kidane. and Courtillot V (2003). New age constraints on
      the timing of volcanism in central Afar, in the presence of propagating rifts. Journal
      of geophysical research 18:10-1to 10-17
Larsson I. (1972). Groundwater in granite rocks and tectonic model. Nordic hydrology,
      Vol.3
Lebas M.J., And Mohr P.A., (1970) Tholeiitic From The Semien Alkali Basalt Center,
      Ethiopia. Geol. Mag 107:523-529.
Le Turdu C., Tiercelin J.J, Gibert E., Travi Y., Lezzar K.E., Richert J.P., Massult M.,
      Gasse F., Bonnefille R., Decobert M., Gensous B., Jeudy V., Tamrat E.,
      Mohammed U., Martens K., Balemwal A., Tesfaye C., Williamson D., and Taieb
      M (1999). The Ziway-Shala lake basin system, WER: Influence of volcanism,



                                                                                           97
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                     Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


     tectonics and climatic forcing on basin formation and sedimentation.
     Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology 150:135-177.
Loffredo S. Maldura CM (1941). Risultati delle ricerche di chimica liminologica sulle
     acque delle laghi dell’Africa orientale Italiana esplorati delle missione ittiologica. 1:
     181-200.
Lulseged Ayalew, Yamagishi H. and Reik G (2004). Ground cracks in Ethiopian Rift
     valley: facts and uncertainities. Engineering Geology 75:309-324.
MacDonaldPartners (1984) Supply of reduced potable water to Wonji-Shoa and Metahara
     sugar estates. Ethiopian Sugar Corporation, Addis Ababa.
Makin, M.J., T.J. Kingham, A.E.Waddams, C.J. Birchall & B.W. Eavis, (1976).
     Prospects for irrigation development around lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Land Res. Study.
     Division, Ministry of Overseas Development, 26. Tolworth, UK. 270 pp.
Mair, F. J. (1972). Fluoridation. The chemical Rubber Co. Press. 18901 Cranwood
     parkway, Cleveland. OH 44128.
Makin, M.J., T.J. Kingham, A.E.Waddams, C.J. Birchall & B.W. Eavis (1976).
     Prospects for irrigation development around lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Land Res. Study.
     Division, Ministry of Overseas Development, 26. Tolworth, UK. 270 pp.
Malde Mjk, Maage A, Macha E, Julshamm K (1997) Fluoride content in selected food
     items from five areas in Eastern Africa. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 10,
     233 45.
Mass, E. V. (1984) Salt tolerance of plants. Pages 125-140 in The handbook of plant
     science in agricultural. B.R. Christie (ed.). CRC.Press, Boca Roton, Florida.
Mazzarini F., Tsegaye Abebe, Innocenti F., Manetti P., Pareschi M.T (1999). Geology
     of the Debrezeit area (Ethiopia). Acta Vulcanologica 11(1): 131-142
McKenzie, J., Siegel, D., Patterson, W., McKenzie, J. (2001). A geochemical survey of
     spring water from the main Ethiopian Rift Valley, southern Ethiopia: implication for
     well head protection. Hydrogeol. J. 9, 265-272.
Merla G., Abbate E., Canuti P.,Sagri M., Tacconi P (1973). Explanation to the
     geological map of Ethiopia and Somalia, 1:2,000,000. CNR, Italy.
Meseret Teklemariam, Battaglia S., Gianelli G and Ruggieri G. (1996). Hydrothermal
     alteration in the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, Ethiopia. Geothermics 25(6): 679-
     702.
Misganaw, K.., T. Girma. (1991). Soluble nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfate in river and
     drainage waters of Middle Awash. IAR. Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
Mohr P (1962) The Thiopian Rift System. Bull. Geoph. Obse. A.A V.3, N.1
Mohr P(1962) Surface Couldron Subsidence And Associated Faulting And Fissure
     Basalts At Gariboldi Pass; Shoa. Bull. Volc. 24
Mohr P (1963) The Ethiopian Cenozoic Lavas. A Preliminary Study Of Some Trends:
     Spatial, Temporal And Chemical. Bull Geoph. Obse. Addis Ababa 6:103-144.
Mohr P(1971) The Geology Of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University Press.
Mohr P (1971), Ethiopian Rift And Plateaus: Some Volcanic Petrochemical Differences
     Jour. Geophy. Rese. 76:1967-1984.
Mohr P (1972). Regional Significance Of The Volcanic Geochemistry In The Afar Triple
     Junction, Ethiopia. Bull. Geol. Soc. Ann 83:213-222.
Mohr P And Potter E.C., (1976). The Sagatu Ridge Dike Swarm, Ethiopian Rift Margin.
     Jour. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 1:55-71.
Mohr P (1978), Afar, Ann Rev. Earth Planet. Sciences 6:145-172.
Mohr P Girnuis A., And Raleff J., (1978). Present Day Strain Rates At The Northern End
     Of The Ethiopian Rift Valley. Tectonophysics. 44:141-160.
Mohr P (1983) Perspectives On The Ethiopian Volcanic Province. Bull. Volcanol 46-1:23-
43.
Mohr P (1983). Ethiopian Flood Basalt Province. Nature 303:577- 584
Mohr P and Zanettin B (1988). The Ethiopian flood basalt province. In Continental flood
     basalts. 63-110.


                                                                                            98
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Morley C.K (1999). Tectonic evolution of the East African rift system and the modifying
     influence of magmatism: a review. Acta Vulcanologica 11(1):1-20
Morthon W.H., Rex D.C., Mitchell J.G., And Mohr P.A., (1979). Riftward Younging Of
     Volcanic Units In The Addis Ababa Region. Ethiopian Rift Valley Nature 280:284-
     288.
MoWR, (1999). Study of lake Beseka. Main Report (volume 1). Ministry of Water
     Resources. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 203 pp.
Mulugeta Alene and Barker A.J (1997). Geochemistry of meta-igneous rocks from
     southern Ethiopia: anew insight into Neoproterozoic tectonics of northeast Africa.
     Journal of African Earth sciences 24 (3): 351-370.
Mulugeta Alene, Jenkin GRT, Leng MJ, Darbyshire D.P.F (2006). The Tambien Group,
     Ethiopia: An early Cryogenian (ca 800-735 Ma) Neoproterozoic sequence in the
     Arabian-Nubian Shield. Precambrian Research 147: 79-99.
Nicholson S.E and Selato J.C (2000) The influence of La Nina on African rainfall.
     International Journal of Climatology 20:1761-1776.
Nyssen J., Vandenreyken H., Poesen J., Moeyerson J., Decken J., Mitiku Haile, salles
     C., and Govers G (2005). Rainfall erosivity and variability in the northern Ethiopian
     Highland. Journal of Hydrology 311:172-187
Olsson B (1979) Dental findings in high-fluoride areas in Ethiopia. Community Dental and
     Oral Epidemiology(7):51-56.
Omer-Cooper J (1930). Dr. Hugh Scoth’ expedition Abissinya. A preliminary investigation
     of the freshwater fauna of Abissiniya. Proc. Zool.Soc.Lond. 195-591.
Peccerillo, A., Gezahegn Yirgu , Dereje Ayalew (1995). Genesis of acid vocanics along
     the Main Ethiopian Rift: a case history, Gedemsa volcano. Ethiop. Jour. Sci. 18 (1),
     23 – 50.
Pik R., Daniel C., coulon C., Gezahegn Yirgu., and Marty B (1999). Isotopic and trace
     element signatures of Ethiopian flood basalts: Evidence for Plume-lithosphere
     interactions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica 63(15):2263-2279.
Prosser, M.V., Wood, R.B., and Baxter, R.M., (1968). The Bishoftu crater lakes: A
     bathymetric and chemical study. Arch. Hydrobiol. 65:309-324.
Reimann, C., Bjorvatn,K., Frengstad, B., Melaku, Z., Reda Tekle-Haimanot, Siewers,
     U. (2003). Drinking water quality in the Ethiopian section of the East African Rift
     Valley, part I: data and health aspects. The Sci. Tot. Env. 31, 65-80.
Reimann, C., Bjorvatn, K., Frengstad, B., Melaku, Z., Reda T/Haimanot, Siewers U
     (2003). Drinking water quality in the Ethiopian section of the East AfricanRift Valley I -
     Data and health aspects.”, Science-of-the-Total-Environment., JUL 20; 311(1-3): 65-
     80
Russo a., Getaneh Assefa and Balemwal Atnafu (1994). Sedimentary evolution of the
     Abay river basin, Ethiopia. N Jb. Geol. Palaont. Mh 5:291-308.
Schoell, M., Faber, E. (1976). Survey on the isotopic composition of waters from NE
     Africa. Geologisches Jahrbuch. 17, 197-213.
Seifu Kebede., Tenalem Ayenew., and Mohammed Umer (2001). Application of
     Isotope and water balance approaches for the study of the hydrogeological regime
     of the Bishoftu Crater Lakes, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science, 24 (2): 151-166
Seifu Kebede, and Travi, Y. (2002). Comments to an article entitled “‘A geochemical
     survey of spring water from the main Ethiopian rift valley , southern Ethiopia:
     implications for well-head protection’ by McKenzie et al, Hydrogeology Journal
     (2001) 9:265-272
Seifu Kebede, Lamb,H., Telford,R., Leng, M. and Mohammed Umer, (2002). Lake-
     Groundwater relationships, oxygen isotope balance and climate sensitivity of the
     Bishoftu Crater Lakes, Ethiopia. Advances in Global Change Research, 12: 261-275.
Seifu Kebede, Travi, Y , Tamiru Alemayehu, Tenalem Ayenew (2005). Groundwater
     recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile
     river, Ethiopia, Journal of Applied Geochemistry 20(9): 1658-1676



                                                                                             99
Tamiru Alemayehu              Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Seifu Kebede, Y. Travi and Tamiru Alemayehu (2003). Sustainability assessment of
     the groundwater resources in the upper Blue Nile basin (Ethiopia): isotopic
     approach. Geophysical Research Abstract. V.5, 12282. European Geophysical
     Society.
Seifu Kebede., Lamb H.F., Leng M., Telford R., and Mohammed Umer (2002). Lake
     groundwater relation, oxygen isotope balance and oxygen isotope modeling of the
     Bishoftu crater lakes. Advances in Global Change Research, 12: 261-276.
Seifu Kebede., Y. Travi, Tamiru Alemayehu, V. Marc (2006). Water balance of lake
     Tana and its sensitivity to fluctuations in Rainfall, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia Journal of
     Hydrology 316(1-4):233-247.
Sileshi Yilma (2002) Estimation of monthly reference evapotranspiration for areas with
     inadequate meteorological data in Ethiopia. Journal of the Ethiopian Engineers and
     Architects, 19:21-28.
Sileshi Yilma and Demaree, G.R. (1995) Rainfall Variability in the Ethiopian and Eritrean
     Highlands and Their Link with the Southern Oscillation Index. Journal of
     Biogeography, 22, 945-952.
Sileshi Yilma, Zanke, U. (2004) Recent Change in Rainfall and Rainy Days in Ethiopia.
     International Journal of Climatology. 24: 973-983.
Sileshi Yilma., Delleur, J.W., & Demaree, G.R. (1994) Sunspot Numbers as possible
     indicator of annual Rainfall at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of
     Climatology. 14, 911-923.
Street F.A., (1979). Late Quaternary Lakes in the Ziway-Shala Basin, Southern Ethiopia.
     (UK). PhD Thesis Quaternaire: STR-80.094
Tadesse T, Hoshino M. and Sawada Y (1999) Geochemistry of low grade metamorphic
      rocks from the pan African of the Axum area, northern Ethiopia. Precambrian Res.
      99:101-124.
Tadesse T., Hoshino M, Suzuki K and Iizumi S(2000). Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Th-U-Pb
      zircon ages of syn and post tectonic graniroids from the Axum area of northern
      Ethiopia. J. Afr. Earth sci. 30:313-327.
Talling, J.F., and Talling, I.B. (1965). The chemical composition of African lake waters.
      Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 50:421-463.
Talling, J.F., Wood, R.B., Prosser, M.V., and Baxter, R.M. (1973). The upper limit of
      photosynthetic productivity by phytoplankton: Evidence from Ethiopian soda lakes.
      Freshwat. Biol. 3:53-76.
Tamiru Alemayehu (1993). Preliminary analysis of the availability of groundwater in
      Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Science. 16(2):43-59
Tamiru Alemayehu and A. Vernier (1997). Conceptual model for Boku Hydrothermal
      area, (Nazareth) Main Ethiopian Rift Valley. Ethiopian Journal of Science. 20(2):283-
      291
Tamiru Alemayehu (1998). Comportamento idrogeologico delle structure vulcaniche.
      phD thesis. Turin Polytechnic, Italy
Tamiru Alemayehu (2000). Water pollution by natural inorganic chemicals in the central
      part of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Ethiopian Journal of Science, 23(2): 197-214
Tamiru Alemayehu (2001). The impact of uncontrolled waste disposal on surface water
      quality in Addis Ababa. Ethiopian Journal of Science 24(1):93-104
Tamiru Alemayehu (2003). Controls on the occurrence of cold and thermal springs in
      central Ethiopia. African Geoscience Review journal. 9(4):pp 245-251.
Tamiru Alemayehu, Dagnachew Legesse, Tenalem Ayenew, Solomon waltenigus,
      Yirga Tadesse and Nuri Mohammed (2005). Hydrogeology, water quality and
      degree of groundwater vulnerability to pollution in addis Ababa, UNEP-UNESCO
      report,p115, Kenya
Tamiru Alemayehu, Seifu Kebede, Tenalem Ayenew (2006). Hydrogeochemical and
      lake level changes in the Ethiopian Rift Journal of hydrology. 316 (1-4):290-300.



                                                                                            100
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Tamiru Alemayehu and Seifu Kebede (2006) Hydrogeochemistry of springs at ambo,
     central Ethiopia. Ethiop. Jour. Sci: (in press)
Tamiru Alemayehu (2006) Heavy metal concentration in the Urban environment of Addis
     Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Soil & Sediment Contamination (in Press)
Tamiru Alemayehu, Wagari Furi, Dagnachew Legesse (2006) Impact Of Water
     overexploitation in Eastern highland of Ethiopia. Enviromental Geology Journal (in
     Press)
Teklewold Ayalew and Samuel Gichile (1990). Preliminary U-Pb ages from southern
     Ethiopia. In: Recent data in African Earth Sciences. 22:127-130.
Tenalem Ayenew (1998) The hydrogeological system of the lakes district basin central
     Main Ethiopian Rift. PhD Thesis ITC Publication no. 64. The Netherlands
Tenalem Ayenew (2001). Recent changes in the level of Lake Abiyata, Central Main
     Ethiopian Rift. Journal of Hydrological Sciences,47(3):493-503(ISSN 0262-6667).
Tenalem Ayenew (2001). Surface kinetic temperature mapping of the central main
     Ethiopian rift lakes, Ethiopian Journal of Science. 24(1): 241-252
Tenalemn Ayenew (2001). Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the Central Main
     Ethiopian Rift lakes basin, Ethiopian Journal of Science 24(2):167-184.
Tenalem Ayenew and Tamiru Alemayehu (2001). Principles of Hydrogeology. Addis Ababa
     University Press. p125.
Tenalem Ayenew (2003). Environmental isotope-based integrated hydrogeological study
     of some Ethiopian rift lakes. Journal of Radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry. Vol.
     257 No 1 (2003): 11-16.
Tenalem Ayenew (2003). Evapotranspiration estimation using thematic mapper spectral
     satellite data in the Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands. Journal of Hydrology,
     279(1-4) :83-93
Tenalem Ayenew (2004). Environmental implications of changes in the levels of lakes in
     the Ethiopian rift since 1970. Reg.Environ.Change.4:192-204.
Tenalem Ayenew (2005). Major ions composition of the groundwater and surface water
     systems and their geological and geochemical controls in the Ethiopian volcanic
     terrain. Ethiop. Jou. Sci 28(2):171-188.
Tesfaye Chernet (1982). Hydrogeology of the Lakes Region, Ethiopia. EIGS, Addis
     Ababa.
Tesfaye Chernet and Gebretsadik Eshete (19820. Hydrogeology of the Mekele area.
     EIGS, Addis Ababa.
Tesfaye Chernet (1990) Hydrogeology of Ethiopia and water resources development,
     Ministry of Mines and Energy report, 157p.
Tesfaye Chernet, Travi, Y., (1993), Preliminary observations concerning the genesis of
     high fluoride contents in theEthiopian Rift.”, Geoscientific research in Northeast
     Africa, Thorweiche & Schandlmeier, Balkema, Rotterdam, 8, 651-654
Tesfaye Chernet (1993). Hydrogeology of Ethiopia and Water resources Development.
     EIGS note p222.
Tesfaye Chernet; Travi,Y.; Valles,V. (2001), Mechanism of degradation of the quality of
     natural water in the lakes region of the Ethiopian Rift Valley.”,Water-Research.;
     35(12): 2819-2832
Tesfaye Chernet and Hart W.K (1999). Petrology and geochemistry of volcanism in the
     northern Main Ethiopian Rift-southern Afar transition region. Acta Vulcanologica
     11:21-42
Tesfaye Korme, Chorowicz J., Collet B and Bonavia F (1997). Volcanic vents rooted
     on extension fractures and their geodynamic implications in the Ethiopian Rift.
     Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 79 :205-222.
Tigistu Haile, Tamiru Alemayehu and Shimelis Fisseha (2002). Integrated Geophysical
     investigations to Study thermal zones at Boku volcanic center, Main Ethiopian Rift.
     Ethiopian Journal of Science 25(2):253-262.


                                                                                        101
Tamiru Alemayehu            Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Tsegaye Abebe, Mazzarini F., Innocenti F., and Manetti P (1997). The Yerer-Tulu
     Wellel volcanotectonic lineament: a transtensional structure in central Ethiopia and
     associated magmatic activity. Jou. Afri. Earth sci. 26(1):135-150.
Tudorancea, C. and W.D. Taylor (2002). Ethiopian rift valley lakes. Backhuys
     Publishers. Leiden, The Netherlands.289 pp.
UNDP, (1973). Geology, geochemistry and hydrology of hot springs of the East African
     Rift system within Ethiopia., UNDP report DD/SF/ON-11, N.Y.
Vallet-Coulomb, C., Dagnachew Legesse, Gasse, F., Travi, Y. and Chernet, T. (2001).
     Lake Evaporation estimates in tropical Africa from limited meteorological data. J.
     hydrol. 245, 1-18.
Winter, T.C. (1978). Numerical simulation of steady-state three dimensional groundwater
     flow near lakes. Water Resources Research. 14:245-254.
Winter, T.C.(1978). Groundwater component of lake water and nutrient budgets.
Woldhaimanot B, and Behrmann JH (1995). A study of metabasite and metagranite
     chemistry in the Adola region (south Ethiopia): implication for the evolution of the
     east African Orogen. J. Afri. Earth Sci. 21:459-476.
Wood, R.B., and Talling, J.F, (1988). Chemical and algal relationship in a salinity series
     of Ethiopian inland waters. Hydrobiologia 158:29-67.
Worash Getaneh and Tamiru Alemayehu (2006) Metal contamination of the
     environment by placer and primary gold mining in the Adola region, Southern
     Ethiopia. Environmental Geology Journal 50:339-352
WWDSE, (2001). The study of lake Beseka level (Volume II main report). Water Works
     design and Supervision Enterprise (Unpublished report). Ministry of Water
     Resources, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Vernier A, Tesfaye Chernet, Hailesellasie Girmay (1985). Preliminary analysis of
     groundwater resource possibilities in Precambrian rocks in Ethiopia. Uni. Cagliari,
     Italy Proceeding No. 26:205-218.
Vernier A (1985). A groundwater investigation in the Tigrai region. 5th International
     symposium on groundwater- IAH. Taormina 17-21 Nov. 1985, 1-1.
Vernier A (1993) Hydrogeological investigation problems in developing countries and
     emergency situations. 20th International congress on groundwater-IAH. Rome 13-18
     Apr. 1987, 1-12.
Vernier A and Giuliani S.E (1989). Water supply for emergencies (1984-86).
     Groundwater Economics 603-615.
Vernier A (1993). Aspects of Ethiopian Hydrogeology. In: Geology and mineral resources
     of Somalia and surrounding regions. 1st Argon. Firenze 113:687-698.
World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS) (2004). IGAD-HYCOS project
      document. No.1
Worash Getaneh and Tamiru Alemayehu (2006) Metal contamination of the
      environment by placer and primary gold mining in the Adola region, Southern
      Ethiopia. Environmental Geology Journal 50:339-352
Zanettin B., Gregnanin A., Justin-Visentin E., Mezzacasa G., And Piccirrillo E.M.,
     (1974) Migration Of The Oligocene-Miocene Ignimbrite Volcanism In The Central
     Ethiopian Plateau N.Jour. Geol. Paleaont. 4:567-574
Zanettin B., And Justin-Visentin E., (1974). The Volcanic Succession In Central
     Ethiopia, The Volcanics Of The Rift And Ethiopian Rift Margins. Mem. First Geol.
     Miner. Univ. Padova P73 31:1-19.
Zanettin B., And Piccirillo E.M., (1978) Volcanic Succession, Tectonics And
     Magmatology In Central Ethiopian Atti Mem Accad. Patavina Sci. Lett Arti 90:5-19.
Zanettin B., Nicoletti M., Petrucciani C., (1978). The Evolution Of The Chencha
     Escarpment And The Ganjuli Graben (Lake Abaya) In The Southern Ethiopian Rift.
     N. Jour. Geol. Paleont. 8:473-490.
Zanettin B., Piccirillo E.M., (1980). Migration Of The Ethiopian Continental Rifts In The
     Course Of The Tertiary Evolution And The Afro-Arabian Rift System. In:



                                                                                        102
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


     Geodynamic Evolution Of The Afro- Arabic Rift System. Accad. Naz. Lincei. Rome.
     47:253-265.
Zanettin B., (1993) On The Evolution Of The Ethiopian Volcanic Provice. In: Geology And
     Mineral Resources Of Somalia And Surrounding Regions. First Argon, Fòlorence.
     113:279-310.
Zinabu, Gebre Mariam, (1994). Long-term changes in indices of chemical and productive
     status of a group of tropical Ethiopian lakes with differing exposure to human
     influences. Arch. Hydrobiol. 132:115-125.
Zinabu, Gebre Mariam, and Elias, D., (1989). Water resources and fisheries
     management in the Ethiopian rift-valley lakes. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci. 12:95-109.




               POSTGRADUATE THESIS RELATED TO THE
                   HYDROGEOLOGY OF ETHIOPIA
Ketema Tadesse (1980). Hydrogeology of Borkena rivers basin. Unpublished MSc Thesis
     Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Berhanu Gizaw (1989). Geochemical investigation of the Aluto Langano geothermal field,
     University of Leeds, UK
Desta Horecha (1990). Groundwater study of Gelana basin with emphasis on upper
     Gelana catchment. MSc Thesis, ITC, The Nethernalnds
Habteab Zerai (1990). Groundwater study of the lower Bilate and western Abaya
     catchment. MSc Thesis, ITC, The Nethernalnds
Yetnayet Nigussie (1990). Groundwater resource study of the Gidabo basin. MSc
     Thesis, ITC, The Nethernalnds
Tamiru Alemayehu (1992) hydrogeology of Debre zeit area. Unpublished MSc Thesis
     Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Anteneh Girma (1993) Hydrogeology of Akaki area, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Woldu Ameneshewa (1993) Hydrogeology of Nararet, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Nata Tadesse (1993) Hydrogeology of Jima area, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa
     University, Ethiopia.
Dessie Nadew (1996) Hydrogeology of Awassa area. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Paulos Masresha (1996) Hydrogeological and hydrological study on Kulfo river basin,
     Arba Minch, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Tamiru    Alemayehu         (1998).   Comportamento        idrogeologico    delle    strutture
     vlcaniche:modelli strutturali Sardi ed etiopici. PhD Thesis, Turin polytechnic, Italy
Tenalem Ayenew (1998) The hydrogeological system of the lakes district basin central
     Main Ethiopian Rift. PhD Thesis ITC Publication no. 64. The Netherlands
Zenaw Tessema (1999). Hydrochemical and water balance approach in the study of high
     water level rise of lake Beseka. MSc Thesis. University of Birmingham, UK
Haile Gashaw (1999). Hydrogeology and Hydrochemisry of lake Ziway area and its
     surrounding. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Teshome Dechassa (1999) Water balance and effects of irrigated agriculture on
     groundwater quality in the Wonji area. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa
     University, Ethiopia.
Seifu Kebede (1999). Hydrology and hydrochemistry of Bishoftu crater lakes.


                                                                                           103
Tamiru Alemayehu           Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Aynalemi Ali (1999). River-groundwater interaction in the Sekelo-Akaki subbasin.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Sileshi Mammo (1999). Tracing leakage path of Koka reservoir based on geological,
     hydrogeological and isotope studies. University of shimane, Japan
Solomon Tale (2000) The extent of surface and groundwater pollution in Addis Ababa.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Abdelwassie Hussien (2000). Hydrogeology of the Aynalem well field. Unpublished MSc
     Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Molla Demille (2000). Hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of lake Haiq-Hardibo
     sytem. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Lemessa Mekonta (2001) Hydrogeological controls in the sandstone of Ambo area.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Mesfin Sahle (2001). Hydrogeological investigation of the upper and middle Borkena river
     catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Kedir Yasin (2002) Hydrogeology of upper Gidabo river catchment, southern Ethiopia.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Andarge Yitbarek (2002). Integrated approach for hydrogeological investigation of
     Megech river catchment, northwestern Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Berhanu Gizaw (2002). Hydrochemical and Environmental investigation of the Addis
     Ababa region. PhD Thesis, University of Munich, Germany
Dagnachew Legesse (2002). Analyse de la response hydrologique du basin lacustre de
     Ziway- Shalla. PhD Thesis. University of AIX Marseille III. France
Eleni Ayalew (2003) Application of Stable isotopes in the study of Lakes dynamics in
     Ziway- Shalla basin, Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University,
     Ethiopia.
Yewondwossen Mengistu (2003) Urban environmental pollution in the city of Bahir Dar,
     Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Dessie Nadew (2003). Aquifer characterization and hydrochemical investigation in th
     Raya valley, Northern Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, Viena, Austria.
Dereje Nigussa (2003). Aquifer vulnerability assessment in the Akaki river basin.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Fikadu WoldeMariam (2004) Groundwater and Surface water interaction in Abaya-
     Chamo basin Ethiopia, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Ahmed Abdul Letif (2004) Assessment of water quality in Nurahira-Metehara area.
     Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Elias Gugssa (2004) Urban Environmental impacts in the town of Awassa Ethiopia, Addis
     Ababa University, Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Alem Tiruneh (2004) Hydrogeology of Mojo river catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis
     Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Eyilachew Yitayew, (2004) Hydrochemical variation and aquifer characterization in Dire
     dawa and its surroundings. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University,
     Ethiopia.
Seifu Kebede (2004). Environmental isotopes and geochemistry in groundwater and lake
     hydrology: cases from the Blue Nile basin, main Ethiopian Rift and Afar. PhD Thesis,
     University of Avignon, France.
Molla Fetene (2005). Water resources evaluation of Ribb river basin north western
     Ethiopia, South Gondar. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Wagari Furi (2005). Groundwater productivity and the hydrology of the dry lakes basin in
     the north central sector of east Hararghe zone. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Meseret Adeko, (2005) Surface and groundwater resource evaluation of upper Guma
     subcatchment, Bonga. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.



                                                                                       104
Tamiru Alemayehu           Sept.2006                    Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia


Wondwossen Mekonnen (2005). Conceptualization of groundwater flow system and
     aquifer characterization in Awassa catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis
     Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Mesfin Gobena, (2005) Water pollution/quality assessment on surface and shallow
     groundwater in relation to wet coffee processing plant in Sidama and Gedeo Zones.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Fethangest W/Mariam (2005). Groundwater potential evaluation of upper suluh valley,
     Tigray. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Getachew Asmare (2005). Model based groundwater system analysis for Hayk-Ardibo
     catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Nigussie Kebede (2005). Water resources potential evaluation of Beressa river
     catchment, in northern Showa. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University,
     Ethiopia.
Debebe Muleta (2005) Groundwater potential evaluation and hydrochemistry of Sululta
     catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Ermias hagos (2005) Hydrogeology of Mehoni sub basin and Lake Ashange
     catchment in the Raya valley. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University,
     Ethiopia.
Kassahun Beyene (2005) Groundwater resources evaluation of Walga river basin,
     Woliso, Central Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Esayas G/Kidan, (2005) Water balance and effect of irrigated agriculture on the water
     quality in Metehara area. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University,
     Ethiopia.
Sewit Assefaw (2005) Impact of thee open dump landfill-Koshe-on soil and water, Addis
     Ababa. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Asfaw Aymeku (2006). Hydrogeology of Alaydegea plain and its environs, Middle Awash.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Abraham Asha (2006). Integrated hydrogeological study of the Amessa catchment,
     southern Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Nardos Tilahun (2006). Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the Awassa catchment.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Alemu Dirbissa (2206). Groundwater-surface water interaction and analysis of recent
     changes in hydrogeological environment of Lake Ziway catchment. Unpublished
     MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Kumo Kedir (2006). Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the Katar river basin.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Nikodmos Kassaye (2006). Hydrogeology of Adgrat and its surroundings. Unpublished
     MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Hussien Endire (2006). Water resources potential evaluation of Berga river catchment.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Ketema Wogari (2006). Water resources potential evaluation of Holeta river catcment.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Ebassa Oljira (2006). Numerical groundwater flow simulation of Akaki river catchment.
     Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Aychiluhm Debebe (2006). Integrated water resources potential investigation of the
     Weybo rier catchment, Welayta-Hadiya zones, Southern Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc
     Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Shimelis Fikre (2006). Hydrogeological system analysis in Ziway-Shalla lakes using
     hydrogeochemistry and isotope techniques, central Ethiopia. Unpublished MSc
     Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Geletu Belay (2006). Numerical groundwater flow modeling of the Adelle-Haromaya dry
     lakes catchment. Unpublished MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.




                                                                                       105
Tamiru Alemayehu             Sept.2006                      Groundwater occurrence in Ethiopia




N.B: I appologize if I miss relevant Hydrogeological Thesis in the List.




                                                                                           106

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:594
posted:7/26/2011
language:English
pages:107