(1)Born Sunday, September 7th, 1533 at Greenwich
(ibid) Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
(executed May 19th, 1536)
(ibid) Crowned Queen at Westminister Abbey, January
(ibid) Never married, had no children
(ibid) Died March 24th, 1603 at
(ibid) Reigned for 44 years and 4 months
(ibid) She was known for her curly, golden-red hair
and her large forehead
(ibid) Large foreheads were then seen as a sign of
(ibid) She had really pale skin,
showing that she was of a
(ibid) Because peasants worked
outside all day, they had darker
skin, white skin was seen as a sign
(ibid) There were three bodies of government:
(ibid) Monarch- Elizabeth I who was the ruler of
England, aided by councilors and officials who kept
the government just and fair.
(ibid) Privy Council- Elizabeth decided who was on
council. Council was responsible for the general
administration of the country.
(ibid) Parliament- Consisted of House of Lords and
House of Commons. Functioned to grant laws and
allow Elizabeth money when needed.
(ibid) Nobility and Gentry was important.
Land was power, those who owned a lot of it
were considered wealthy.
(ibid) Why was land considered a powerful
form of wealth?
(ibid) When Elizabeth became queen, it was
believed that Protestant faith would be
(ibid) She had tolerant views of religion for the
age she lived in
(ibid) She hoped Catholicism would fade away
as people turned to the religion she had
established, this plan was extremely successful,
England was generally Protestant by 1603.
(ibid) By the turn of the century, Elizabeth had
become quite frail in her age.
(ibid) She sometimes needed a stick to walk up
stairs and once she even collapsed under the
weight of her robes.
(ibid) She was bedridden in the winter of 1602-
1603 and made no effort to fight her illness, it
was clear she was dying.
(ibid) She finally passed away March 24th, 1603.
(2)After the death of Elizabeth, since she left no
heir to the throne, the Stuarts took over
(ibid) The time of the Stuarts is said to be one
of extremes in religion, ending in the English
(ibid) His rule united England and Scotland.
(ibid) Believed in the Divine Right of Kings
(ibid) Interpretation of the church doctrine
under his rule was forbidden, he authorized
the King James Bible.
(ibid) He made poor choices in politics and
economics, his death left the country in debt.
(ibid) Charles was not as peaceful as his father, he
declared war with Spain and then with France
(ibid) However, he needed money from Parliament
to pay for wars, but Parliament did not agree with
him and were reluctant to grant him the money
(ibid) In 1629, he dismissed Parliament altogether
and ruled alone, believing in the Divine Right of
(ibid) Worsened the country’s economy and was
forced to bring Parliament back, his poor economic
choices lead to a civil war and his own execution in
(ibid) He became the Lord Protector of the
(ibid) Did not like Irish Catholics and lay siege
to Drogheda, killing the majority of the people
(ibid) Declared war on the Netherlands
because they competed for trade, he also
colonized in Jamaica and the West Indies
(ibid) Managed to establish a good reputation
for the Commonwealth before his death
(ibid) Known as the King of Scotland and Ireland
(ibid) Invaded England hoping to defeat Cromwell and
restore the monarchy, however, he was defeated so he
escaped to France, which became his hiding place for
the next eight years
(ibid) In 1660, the Restoration occurred, meaning that
he was invited back to England, by Parliament, to be
(ibid) He loved parties, music, theater, and dancing
and he abolished the laws set by Cromwell that had
forbade the activities
(ibid) He caused economic problems and was forced to
marry the Portuguese Catherine of Braganza for a large
(ibid) He was titled Lord High Admiral, until
he converted to Roman Catholicism
(ibid) Though Test Acts were passed in 1673,
he was a success
(ibid) The Duke of Monmouth tried to
overpower James, which led to the Bloody
(ibid) His son, William was called upon to take
over the throne instead of James
(ibid) James escaped to France and stayed there
until he died
(ibid) William and his wife ruled together
(ibid) They were accepted by Scotland and
England, but Ireland would not accept them
because Ireland was mostly Catholic
(ibid) Ireland continued to be loyal to James II,
until William battled James and defeated him
(ibid) Mary died in 1694 and William
continued to rule until he died in 1702
(ibid) She was the sister of Mary II and ascended
the throne after the death of William
(ibid) Anne was married to Prince George of
(ibid) She was a well-practiced and committed
(ibid) She supported the Glorious Revolution,
though it took her own father down to place her
sister and brother-in-law on the throne
(ibid) In 1707, the Act of Union brought together
England and Scotland
(ibid) Her death in 1714 announced the end of the
(1) Thomas, Heather. “Queen Elizabeth I.” 1998.
November. 9. 2010.
(2) “The Stuarts.” November. 2000. October. 5.