Slide 1 - CESA 11 by jizhen1947

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									CESA 11: Turtle Lake
In-Service
Assessments and         Agenda:
Leadership for          Short review
Differentiated
                        Big ideas and essential
Instruction:
                         questions
Moving Your
School/District         UbD & DI
toward a D.I.A.L.       Assessments
Initiative OR           Grading
Sustaining and          Moving through an
Embedding D.I.A.L.       instructional sequence
                        Leadership issues
                                                   1
Things We’ve Covered Thus Far
     Definitions (of differentiation)
     Context, Justification, and Controversies
    Interventions by readiness:
          Sponge Activities
          Anchor activities
          Tiering
          Think Dots and Cubing
    By learning style and interest
        The “Profiler” (new)
        Tri-Mind and Gardner
        RAFTs
        Choice Boards and Menus
        KUDOs introduction

                                                  2
Things we’ll cover today:
 KUDOs revisited
 Essential questions
 Grading for differentiation and GTs
 An instructional cycle
 Initiating and/or sustaining a D.I.A.L. initiative




                                                       3
    “Sponge” activities
“Sponge” activities
are used to soak
up down time,
such as when
students finish
early, the class is
waiting for the
next activity, or
the class is
cleaning up or
distributing
papers/supplies

                          4
An “anchor” activity is an on-going activity
everyone is doing from which the teacher
pulls students for mini-lessons




                                               5
6
7
Using Anchor Activities to Create
Groups
1       Teach the whole class to work independently and
        quietly on the anchor activity.

2                                Flip-Flop

     Half the class works                         Other half works on
     on anchor activity.                          a different activity.



3
    1/3 works on                                            1/3 works with
                            1/3 works on a
    anchor activity.        different activity.            teacher---direct
                                                              instruction.

                                                                          8
        Sponges and Anchors
 Describe:
 Strengths
 Weaknesses:
 Application:




                              9
Meeting Students’ Readiness Needs
Basic premise: students learn best within their “zone” (of
  proximal development, interest, or learning style)
  which may require pre-assessment (examples follow)
 Discuss: How are you doing it now?
 What problems are you encountering?




                                                         10
       The complete question…
Before the last game of the basketball season,
Fernando had scored a total of 73 points. He scored 20
points in the last game, making his season average
15.5 points per game. To find the total number of
games he played, first find the sum of 73 and 20 and
then
 Add the sum to 15.5
 Subtract 15.5 from 73
 Multiply the sum by 15.5
 Divide the sum by 15.5
                                                   11
What might a beginning student
understand?
______ the ____ game __ the ______ball
 ______, Fernando ___ ______ a _____ __
 73 ______. He ______ 20 ______ in the
 ____ game, ______ ___ ______ _______
 15.5 ______ ___ game. To ____ the _____
 ______ __ games he ______, _____ ____
 the ___ __ 73 and 20 and the_
   ___ the ___ to 15.5
   ________ 15.5 ____ 73
   ________ the ___ __ 15.5
   ______ the ___ __ 15.5
                                           12
    What might an intermediate student
    understand?
______ the last game __ the basketball
 ______, Fernando had ______ a _____ of
 73 points. He ______ 20 points in the last
 game, ______ his ______ _______ 15.5
 points ___ game. To find the _____ number
 of games he ______, first find the ___ of 73
 and 20 and then

   ___ the ___ to 15.5
   ________ 15.5 ____ 73
   Multiply the ___ by 15.5
   ______ the ___ by 15.5                      13
 What might an advanced student
 understand?
______ the last game of the basketball
 season, Fernando had ______ a total of 73
 points. He ______ 20 points in the last
 game, making his season _______ 15.5
 points per game. To find the total number of
 games he played, first find the sum of 73
 and 20 and then

   Add the sum to 15.5
   Subtract 15.5 from 73
   Multiply the sum by 15.5
   Divide the sum by 15.5                      14
Tiering
  Common Definition -- Adjusting the following to
  maximize learning:

   Readiness                             Tier in
   Interest                            gradations
   Learning Profile

  Another view:

  -- Changing the level of complexity or required
     readiness of a task or unit of study in order to meet
     the developmental needs of the students involved
     (Similar to Tomlinson’s “Ratcheting”).

                                                             15
                               Tomlinson’s Equalizer

1. Foundational                                                         Transformational

                          Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications
2. Concrete                                                             Abstract
                        Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials

1. Simple                                                               Complex
                      Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals

2. Single Facet                                                         Multiple Facets
       Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections

3. Small Leap                                                           Great Leap
                                 Application, Insight, Transfer


4. More Structured                                                      More Open
                               Solutions, Decisions, Approaches


5. Less Independence                                                    More independence
                               Planning, Designing, Monitoring


6. Slow                                                                 Quick
                                 Pace of Study, Pace of Thought

                                                                                            16
Varying Journal Prompting in Health
                                  B. Keep a journal of all the food ads
A. Keep a journal of all
                                     you see today. Categorize them by
   the fast food & soda              product and the appeal or hook
   ads you see/hear today.
   Categorize them by                that is used (ex. Pepsi, youth
   product brand and the             appeal). Analyze the techniques
   appeal or hook that is            the advertisers use and determine
   used (ex. Pepsi, youth            which ads are the most deceptive
   appeal). At the end of the        and why. Then respond to this
   day tally the number of fast      question:
   food and soda ads. What ad     Is it ethical for an ad agency to
   technique is used most
   often? Why do you think           market a potentially harmful
   it’s used the most? Which         product (a hamburger with 1,500
   ad appealed most to you?          calories and an entire day’s fat
   Why?                              content) featuring thin, healthy
                                     looking people? How is this
                                     different from the tobacco ads?
                                                                    17
Imagine 3 dimensions
(a cube!)




                       18
Think dots (Bloom) for decision making in health

         Create and illustrate 3   Analyze the            What strategies
         statements that will      relationship between   would you use to
         be used in a campaign     physical activity,     decide if a risk is
         to reduce risky           healthy eating, and    worth taking?
         behaviors                 self-image




         Use a diagram to          Identify 3 common      Apply this statement to
         compare the daily         obstacles teens face   risk taking: “Popularity
         routines between          when trying to make    is a competitive
         someone living a          healthy decisions      distortion of the
         healthy life style and                           concept of friendship”
         one who is not




                                                                                     19
Tiering          Think Dots/Cubes
 Describe:         Describe:
 Strengths         Strengths
 Weaknesses:       Weaknesses:
 Application:      Application:




                                    20
Meeting Students’ Learning Profiles
Basic premise: students learn best when allowed to
  create in their preferred learning style which means
  that several choices must be offered in terms of the
  process and/or product
 Discuss: How are you doing it now?
 What problems are you encountering?




                                                         21
Howard Gardner’s theory
   Howard Gardner defines intelligence as "the
   capacity to solve problems or to fashion products
   that are valued in one or more cultural settings"
   (Gardner & Hatch, 1989). Using biological as well as
   cultural research, he formulated a list of seven
   intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs
   greatly from the traditional view that usually
   recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and
   mathematical.




                                                       22
Gardner’s Intelligences:




23
The Profiler




               24
       What is “The Profiler”?
 A way to assess and provide activities geared toward
  the different intelligence types/learning styles
  represented in the classroom
 A means of providing students with connections to the
  working world, as well as with roles and/or audiences
  for their work
 A tool useful for introducing new material or
  synthesizing previously learned material



                                                         25
How to Create a “Profiler”Assignment

The teacher
   selects the knowledge, skills, and essential
    understandings that s/he would like students to either 1)
    begin to explore, or 2) synthesize and demonstrate
    mastery of.
  Then
   selects jobs/occupations that are associated with the
    different learning styles through which students could
    demonstrate this learning.




                                                            26
How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment

 Examples of intelligence preferences and associated jobs/occupations
    Visual-Spatial – Artist, Cartoonist, Magazine layout editor
    Logical-Mathematical – Architect, Engineer, Mathematician
    Interpersonal – Counselor, Tour Guide, Teacher
    Musical/Rhythmic – Songwriter, Performing Artist
    Verbal-Linguistic – Writer, Commentator, Announcer
    Bodily-Kinesthetic – Actor, Builder
    Intrapersonal – Poet, Songwriter

    Naturalistic – Forest Ranger, Botanist




                                                                         27
How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment
 Remember that…
 … many intelligence preferences overlap
with one another, and
 …most children have more than one preference;…
 …therefore, it is not necessary to use them all! Simply
  select those that are most conducive to the
  demonstration of your learning goals.


Lori Comallie-Caplan
                                                            28
Learning      Level 1 – On or                   Level 2 – On or above
Preference:   below grade level                 grade level

Artist        The Writing’s on the Wall         Life is Like a Box of Chocolates
              Create a “Growth Mural” of        Illustrate your growth or maturation through the
              yourself to show you have         use of an extended metaphor or simile that
              matured in terms of dating.       compares your growth
                                                process to _______________.
                                                                                     ?’s are
                                                                                    more
                                                                                   abstract
Announcer:    You on a Wire                     You go to Hollywood
              Create an audio recording of a    Create and produce an NPR (National Public
              memorable scene in your life      Radio) segment in which the hosts of the show
              when you exhibited real courage   interview you and a friend about the pressures
              in the face of peer pressure      teens face from the media, parents, and peers



Writer:       Growth Report Card                Investigative Report
              You are a psychologist hired to   Develop a Private investigator’s Report about the
              examine the values of the         habits and values of the “perfect parents”
              opposite sex. What questions
              would you ask?

Actor:        Lights, Camera, Action!           Live with Dr. Phil!
              Choose an important scene in      Act out an episode of the Dr. Phil show in which
              your life when you faced down a   you and your friends explain what adults don’t 29
              bully or protected someone by     understand about being young in today’s culture
                       The Profiler
 Describe:
 Strengths
 Weaknesses:
 Application:




Lori Comallie-Caplan

                                      30
             Robert Sternberg

   Robert J. Sternberg is an American psychologist and
    psychometrician and the Dean of Arts and Sciences at
    Tufts University. He was formerly IBM Professor of
    Psychology and Education at Yale University and the
    President of the American Psychological Association.




                                                           31
32
       Sternberg Intelligences
 Analytical intelligence is the ability to analyze and
  evaluate ideas, solve problems and make decisions.

 Creative intelligence involves going beyond what is
  given to generate novel and interesting ideas.

 Practical intelligence is the ability that individuals
  use to find the best fit between themselves and the
  demands of the environment.

                                                           33
Analytical Thinking: Smart at School, Linear Thinking

Thinking Skills              Student Outcomes
 Analyze                     Identify Problems
 Compare and Contrast        Explain/define the
                               problems
 Evaluate
                              Solve the problem, or
 Explain                      suggest a methodology to
 Judge                        solve the problem
 Critique                    Evaluate the
                               effectiveness/validity of
                               the solution suggested

                                                           34
Analytical Thinkers




                      35
Creative Thinking
Innovator, Outside the Box, What if? Futurist, Improver



 Thinking Skills                  Student Outcomes
  Design                          Redefine problems to
  Create                           highlight a new
  Invent
                                    perspective
                                   Make connections
  Imagine
                                    between seemingly
  Suppose
                                    disparate topics
  Consider
                                   Identify and apply novel
                                    approaches


                                                               36
Creative
Thinker


 Creative Thinker
                    37
Practical Thinking Street Smart, Contextual,
Focus on Application

Thinking Skills          Student Outcomes
 Apply                   Use what is learned
 Implement               Situate problems or tasks
 Employ                   in the “real-world”
 Contextualize




                                                   38
Practical Thinkers




                     39
   Three Minds are Better than One…
 TriMind is a planning tool to use in order to
  differentiate for different thinking styles.
 Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  (see included slides) posits that people have strengths
  in one or more types of intelligences: creative,
  analytical, or practical. Successful intelligence is the
  ability to recognize which strengths we possess, and to
  steer toward careers/activities which require these
  strengths.



                                                             40
                      TRI-MIND Template
              Learning Goals for Activities:




Creative Assignment                Topic          Practical Assignment




                            Analytic Assignment




                                                                         41
                       TRI-MIND Template
        Add a
      “wisdom”
      question
                                                       Why is teaching valued more
        When                                             in other industrialized
       possible                                                 countries?

                              Improving the
Creative Task:                Teaching                   Practical Task: Convince
What are some better          profession                 your school board to
ways to prepare                                          institute an induction
undergraduates for the                                   and mentoring program.
teaching profession?                                     How would you persuade
                           Analytic Task:                them it’s worth the initial
Try to list several, and   Why do 50% of first year
explain why each                                         cost and maintenance?
                           teachers quit before year
would be an                5? Why do 30% quit after
improvement.               year 1?



                                                                                  42
                 Tri-Mind
 Describe:
 Strengths
 Weaknesses:
 Application:




                            43
R.A.F.T.S.




             44
A RAFT is…
 • an engaging, high level strategy that encourages
 writing across the curriculum

• a way to encourage students to…
‒ …assume a role
‒ …consider their audience,
‒ …examine a topic from a relevant perspective,
‒ …write in a particular format


 • All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students
 choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and
 adapting to student readiness levels.




                                                                   45
A Different Perspective
R.A.F.T.S.
 Role of the writer-helps the writer decide on point of view and voice.
 Audience for the piece of writing-reminds the writer that he/she must
   communicate ideas to someone else; helps the writer determine content and style

 Format of the material-helps the writer organize ideas and employ format
   conventions for letters, interviews, story problems, and other kinds of writing.

 Topic or subject for the piece of writing-helps the writer to zero in on
   main ideas and narrow the focus of the writing.

 Strong verbs- directs the writer to the writing purpose, for example to persuade,
   analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, or evaluate.

                                                                                      46
  RAFT for Health
ROLE           AUDIENCE       FORMAT      TOPIC
Liver          Owner          Urgent e-   Here’s what
                              mail        your drinking is
                                          doing to me
You as a       Your 16-year   Text        License to kill?
parent         old child      message
Corpse         Prom attendees Epitaph     DWI
Ad agency      Teens          Ad/poster/po Making smoking
                              dcast        uncool
Professional   Other models   Diary       How I really
model                                     stay so thin
                                                         47
R.A.F.T. Assignment
French 2--Traveling in France




                                48
                 RAFTs
 Describe:
 Strengths
 Weaknesses:
 Application:




                         49
Choice Menu’s




                50
     CHOICE Menus
Learning menus outline a variety of
instructional options targeted toward
important learning goals.
Students are able to select the choices
which most appeal to them.
The teacher directs the menu process,
but the student is given control over
his/her choice of options, order of
completion, etc.
                                          51
Kinds of Menus
����MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and
Desserts (for younger learners).
����THINK TAC TOE: Complete a row,
column or diagonal line of activities.
All three options can be differentiated
according to interest, learning profile, or
readiness (see enclosed examples).

                                              52
                Use this template to help you plan a menu for your classroom.

MENU PLANNER

Menu for: _________________________                        Due: __________

All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be
complete by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may
decide to do some of the desserts items, as well.


          Main Dishes (complete all)


 1

 2


 3


 4



          Side Dishes (Select _____)


 1

 2


 3


 4



          Desserts (Optional)

 1


 2


 3                                                                              53
            Diner Menu – Photosynthesis

Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
•Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.

Entrée (Select One)
•Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
•Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
•Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.

Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
•Define respiration, in writing.
•Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
•Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
•With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the
differences between photosynthesis and respiration.


Dessert (Optional)
•Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of
photosynthesis.

                                                                  54
 What is an Extension Menu?
An extension menu is an array
 of independent learning
 activities presented in a ‘choice’
 or ‘menu’ format to provide
 students with options for
 extending or enriching the
 essential curriculum.

                                      55
   Why use Extension Menus?
 Enrich or extend the essential
  curriculum
 Challenge the abilities of highly able
  students
 Provide alternative activities that
  address the differing abilities, interests,
  or learning styles of students
 Allow choice
                                            56
Tic tac toe summative assessment:
alcoholism
    Interview an         Is there an       Attend an ala-
    alcoholic            “addictive        teen meeting.
                         personality”?

    Research the         Disease/condit    Research the other
    history of the 12-   ion               intervention
    step program         report/present    programs that
                                           exist. Compare
                         ation: ALL
                                           these to A.A.
    Debate:              Conduct a panel   Who determines
    “alcoholism is a     discussion with   what drugs are
    behavior, not a      “stakeholders”    licit and illicit?
    disease”




                                                                57
                                                             The Good Life…
                                        Making Choices About Tobacco Use

All Products Must…
              Use key facts from class and research
              Make a complete case
              Provide defensible evidence for the case                         Health & PE
              Weigh varied viewpoints
                                                                                Product
              Be appropriate/useful for the target audience
              Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation
              Be though-provoking rather than predictable



                  VISUAL                                             KINESTHETIC
 Story boards for TV “ad” using few/no             Pantomime a struggle of “will” regarding smoking
 words to make the point                           – including a decision with rationale
 Comic book parody with smoking super              Act out a skit on pressures to smoke and reasons
 heroes/heroines                                   not to smoke

                  WRITTEN                                               ORAL
 Brochure for a pediatrician’s office – patients   Radio-spot (public information with music
 9-16 as target audience                           timed, lead-in)
 Research and write an editorial that              Nightline (T. Koppel, C. Roberts with teen who
 compares the relative costs and benefits of       smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person
 tobacco to NC – submit for publication            with emphysema)
                                                                                              58
      Menus & Choice Boards
 Describe:
 Strengths
 Weaknesses:
 Application:




                              59
Burning
Questions???
               End of
               Review!




                         60
Most-Effective Teachers




J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
Accommodations/Modifications




Accommodations Modifications



                               62
Legal Justification
Accommodate, Modify, and Support


I.D.E.A. 1997 Reauthorization specifies (300.342(b)(3)) that the
public agency shall ensure... each teacher and provider is informed of
his or her specific responsibilities related to implementing the child’s
IEP and the specific accommodations, modifications, and supports
that must be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.




                                                                           63
Adaptations
 Accommodations                               Modifications
                                                (Applies to students with severe
                                                disabilities)
                                              Do fundamentally alter or lower
Do not fundamentally alter or lower
                                              expectations or standards in
expectations or standards in instructional
                                              instructional level,
level, content or performance criteria.
                                              content or performance criteria.



                                              Changes are made to provide
Changes are made in order to provide equal    student meaningful &
access to learning and equal opportunity to   productive learning experiences
demonstrate what is known.                    based on individual needs &
                                              abilities.


Grading is same                               Grading is different
                                                                                   64
Section 504
    Section 504 protects the rights of students with
    disabilities, ensuring that free appropriate public
    education will be provided to each qualified student
    with a disability.

    Under Section 504, a student may be considered
    disabled if he or she:

    has a mental or physical impairment which
    substantially limits one or more of such person's major
    life activities.

    has a record of such an impairment.

    is regarded as having such an impairment.

                                                           65
Who Deserves Accommodations!




                               66
                                                                                        Diana Browning Wright
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Quantity*                              Time*                                     Level of Support*
 Adapt the number of items that        Adapt the time allotted and allowed        Increase the amount of personal
 the learner is expected to learn or   for learning, task completion, or          assistance with a specific learner.
 complete.                             testing.
                                                                                  For example:
 For example:                          For example:                               Assign peer buddies, teaching
 Reduce the number of social           Individualize a timeline for               assistants, peer tutors, or cross age
 studies terms a learner must          completing a task; pace learning           tutors.
 learn at any one time.                differently (increase or decrease) for
                                       some learners.


Input*                                 Difficulty                                Output*
                                       Adapt the skill level, problem type, or   Adapt how the student can respond to
 Adapt the way instruction is
                                       the rules on how the learner may          instruction.
 delivered to the learner.
                                       approach the work.
                                                                                 For example:
 For example:                          For example:                              Instead of answering questions in
 Use different visual aids, enlarge    Allow the use of a calculator to figure   writing, allow a verbal response, use a
 text, plan more concrete examples,    math problems; simplify task              communication book for some
 provide hands-on activities, place    directions; change rules to               students, allow students to show
 students in cooperative groups.       accommodate learner needs.                knowledge with hands on materials.


Participation*                         Alternate Goals                           Substitute Curriculum
   Adapt the extent to which a          Adapt the goals or outcome                 Provide different instruction and
   learner is actively involved in      expectations while using the same          materials to meet a learner’s
   the task.                            materials.                                 individual goals.
                                        For example:                               For example:
   For example:
                                        In social studies, expect a student        During a language test one student
   In geography, have a student
                                        to be able to locate just the states       is learning computer skills in the
   hold the globe, while others
                                        while others learn to locate capitals      computer lab.
   point out locations.                 as well.
                                                                                                                          67
Group Activity


     In groups of 2-4, match the
     student to the adaptation.




                                   68
                          Adaptation Exercise
 Alicia is an 8th grade student who is easily distracted. She
 can stay focused for short periods of time, but when a
 lengthy assignment is given she will fade out and not
 complete it. She is not a behavior problem. When Alicia is
 assigned 20 math problems she will usually stop at ten.
 However, she shows mastery of the material with those 10
 problems. When graded for 20 problems she will fail
 because she will only have only completed 50%. Her grade
 will not reflect that Alicia has met the standard. What
 adaptation can an effective teacher use to ensure Alicia’s
 grades reflect that she has met the standard?


  Diana Browning Wright
                                                           69
                         Adaptation Exercise
 Jacob is a diligent, hard worker whose grades matter
 very much to him. He stays focused and on-task, but
 many times he cannot finish the work in the time
 allotted. He understands the material well, but when
 graded on work completed in a specific time period it
 will appear he has not mastered the standard. What
 adaptation can an effective teacher use to ensure that
 Jacob’s grades reflect that he has met the standard?



 Diana Browning Wright                              70
                        Adaptation Exercise

 It’s hard for Hector to concentrate when the teacher is
  giving direct instruction in front of the room. He
  needs to be doing something active to stay focused.
  During a lesson on map reading, what adaptation could
  an effective teacher use to ensure that Hector stays
  focused and learns the material?




Diana Browning Wright                                71
                         Adaptation Exercise

 Matthew is a student with a visual impairment who
 has difficulty reading student text. He is attending
 a marketing class and the textbook has many graphs
 with small numbers and words. What adaptations
 can his teacher make to ensure that Matthew is
 successful at mastering the standard?




 Diana Browning Wright                            72
                   Adaptation Exercise

 Scott, is a student who is severely developmentally
  delayed and is fully included in an automotive class.
  While other students are exploring the “electrical
  current theory”, James is developing skills according
                    Diana Browning Wright
  to functional standards by color matching pegs to
  wires. What adaptation is the teacher using with
  James so he is successful?



Diana
Browning
                                                   73
Wright
                        Adaptation Exercise
 Terri, a student with learning disabilities in a
  CISCO networking class, has difficulty processing
  information into long-term memory. She is asked to
  troubleshoot a network diagnostic problem from
  memory with the rest of the class.           What
  adaptation should be made so Terri masters the
  standard?




Diana Browning Wright
                                                 74
                        Adaptation Exercise
 Zach has ADHD and has serious problems staying
 focused and on-task. He will begin a task, but very
 quickly will lose his focus and become disruptive.
 When his behavior is pointed out to him, he can
 redirect his attention and continue with the task.
 What adaptations can his teacher make so that
 Zach can be successful in mastering the standard?




Diana Browning Wright                            75
                          Adaptation Exercise
 Sarah has great difficulty with written assignments.
 When asked to demonstrate by written work, her
 reading comprehension of the content material, Sarah
 will not do it. However she is very verbal and when
 asked to tell about what she has read, she responds
 articulately and shows comprehension of the material.
 Sarah is also very artistic and creative. What
 adaptation could the teacher make so that Sarah can
 demonstrate mastery of reading comprehension?




  Diana Browning Wright
                                                         76
       Adaptation Exercise
 James, is a student with Downs Syndrome. He is in
   a full inclusion class. Each student researched a
   state and created a project. James picked a state
   and the teacher provided him with a blank book with
   pages labeled for him to record the state flag,
   state bird, geography, etc… What adaptation did
   this teacher make for James?




Diana
Browning
Wright                                             77
      Adaptation Exercise
 Sondra is a highly gifted 7th grader reading at a
 college level. Her class is studying “Utopias” by
 reading “The Giver,” which Sondra read in 3rd
 grade. The teacher has given her the option of re-
 reading “The Giver,” or choosing another “Utopian”
 novel, suggesting “1984,” “Brave New World,” or
 Animal Farm.”
What adaptation did this teacher make for Sondra?


Diana
Browning
                                                      78
Wright
                  Adaptation Exercise
 Beth is a student with Developmental Disabilities. She
  is fully included in general education classes, but is
  unable to grasp all the concepts required in her math
  class. What adaptations could her math teacher make
  so that Beth can demonstrate mastery of the math
  standards?




Diana Browning
Wright
                                                     79
Examples of Modifying Classroom Curriculum Based on
Learner Need        Are these viable? If
            Student Need                            how could you
                                               not, Modification of Classroom Curriculum in
                                                make them so?
                                                           Response to Student Need
A spelling pre-assessment indicates that         The teacher uses a spelling procedure that involves all students in
students in a 6th grade class range from 2nd     spelling at the same time, but on varied levels of complexity of words
grade level to beyond high school level.         required. (Modification of content based on student readiness.)


Students in a pre-algebra class have varied      The teacher uses examples from sports, business, medicine,
interests & often have difficulty                technology, & other fields to illustrate how formulas are used. She also
understanding why they are learning what         guides students in interviewing people engaged in a range of jobs &
they are learning in math.                       hobbies to find out how they use formulas in their work & in sharing
                                                 those examples with others in the class. (Modification of content &
                                                 product based on student interest.)



Students in 3rd grade are studying biography.    The teacher develops boxes of biographies of people from a range of
Student reading levels vary widely & their       cultures, both gender, & a variety of jobs & hobbies. In each box are
interests do as well.                            books that span a four- or five – year reading range. Students first
                                                 select the topic or interest box from which they would like to work and
                                                 then the teacher helps them pick a book that is a close match for their
                                                 reading levels. (Modification of content based on student interest &
                                                 readiness.)



Two students in the class have difficulty with   The teacher & students develop goals for behavior & plans for
impulsive behavior.                              decreasing impulsivity. Both positive & negative consequences of
                                                 behaviors are described in the goal statements. Students & teacher
                                                 use a checklist each day to record successes & difficulties as well as
           (continues)
                                                 the consequence of student choices. (Modification of learning              80
                                                 environment based on student affect.)
Examples of Modifying Classroom Curriculum Based on Learner Need
  Student Need             Modification of Classroom Curriculum in Response to Student Need
Students often finish     The teacher establishes several areas of the room where students may work when
their work at different   they have time. There are a variety of tasks in each area based on both what students
times                     need to work on & what they most enjoy working on. Sometimes students select
                          where to work. Sometimes the teacher asks students to work in a particular area & on
                          a particular task. (Modification of learning environment & process based on student
                          readiness & interest.)
                                             Are these viable? If not, how
Students in the                                could you make them x 3.”
                          The teacher develops a procedure he calls “learning so? Periodically during a unit,
science class seem to     he asks students to explain what’s essential in what they are learning. They may write
learn best through        their explanation, provide it verbally, or do a demonstration as an explanation. There
different means.          are criteria for quality that span all three approaches. He groups the students in threes
                          so that each triad contains all three approaches to the explanation. As students share,
                          he monitors the groups & selects one student to represent each approach before the
                          whole class. (Modifications of process based on learning profile.)
Students in Art I vary    The teacher uses rubrics that specify key sills on which students need to work as well
greatly in skill &        as describing what ascending proficiency looks like for each skill. Each student works
experience with art as    with the teacher to set proficiency goals for products based on the student’s current
they enter the class.     work. Grading is based on both the student’s growth & grade-level benchmarks.
                          (Modification of product based on student readiness.)
Five students in class    The teacher posts lists of key words for each unit on the wall. She also supports
have great difficulty     students in first webbing their ideas for writing, then tape recording the ideas, & then
with writing – some       writing the ideas. Students may get help in writing or editing from peers, specialists
because of learning       when they are scheduled into the classroom, & the teacher at specified times.
problems & some           (Modification of process & learning environment based on student readiness.)
because they are ESL
students.
                                                                                                           81
The Hunt
   for
Big Ideas

   Jan Leppien
                 82
First Step in Designing High Quality
Curriculum is…



                    …FOCUS!
                        Learning Goals:
                       Knows, Understands,
                         Be able to Dos

                                         83
84
What Really Matters?
 Clear Unit Outcomes
 Clear Lesson Objectives
 Motivation/Relevance/Hook
 Student-Centered Instruction with Appropriate
  Teacher Support (Gradual Release)
 Active Student Engagement
 Checking for Understanding
 Closure

                                                  85
What’s at the Core of your Content?




                                      86
“Enduring Understandings”
  Overarching concepts
  Broad and abstract
  Give the content meaning
  Transferable
  Timeless




                              87
“Backward” Design Process
               Stage 1:
               DESIRED
               RESULTS

    Stage 3:
   LEARNING                 Stage 2:
     PLAN                 ASSESSMENT
                           EVIDENCE

                                       88
In Laymen’s Terms…
                Stage 1:
              What do I want
            them to know/do?

    Stage 3:
   How can I                Stage 2:
get them there?          How will they
                           show they
                         know/can do?
                                         89
In Laymen’s Terms…
                Stage 1:
              What do I want
            them to know/do?

    Stage 3:
   How can I                 Stage 2:
get them there?           How will they
                            show they
                          know/can do?
                                          90
The age old question:
(read in annoying, whiney voice)
“Why do I need to know this?”




                                   91
Stage 1:
DESIRED RESULTS
Ask yourself….
 Why study______? So what?
 What makes the study of______ universal?
 What larger concept, issue, or problem
  underlies_______?
 How is ________ used and applied in the larger
  world?
 What is the real-world insight about _________?
 What is the value of studying __________?

                                                    92
Sixth Grade Social Studies:
Ancient Civilizations Unit
Concepts to understand:
 History repeats itself: cyclical and progressive (or
  not?)
 The Human Condition: protection, competition,
  religion, etc.
 “The more things change, the more they seem the
  same.”
 Vocabulary (to know): contribution, belief,
  perspective, technology (in a broader sense),
  impact, consequence, significance, parallel,
  influence
                                                         93
HS Physical Science:
Energy and Matter
 Understand:
  Energy and matter interact through forces
  Forces govern all of the interactions of the universe
   (even personal ones!!)
  Changes in the motion of an object require a force
  Vocabulary (to know): charge, interaction,
   momentum, acceleration, friction, velocity




                                                           94
In Laymen’s Terms…
                Stage 1:
              What do I want
            them to know/do?

    Stage 3:
   How can I                Stage 2:
get them there?          How will they
                           show they
                         know/can do?
                                         95
Evidence of Learning




                       96
Stage 2:
ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE
 What evidence can show that students have achieved
  the desired results?
 What assessment tasks and other evidence will anchor
  our curricular unit and thus guide our instruction?
 What should we look for, to determine the extent of
  student understanding?




                                                         97
Consider Summative Assessment(s)
Alternatives
   What kinds of evidence will demonstrate the student
    learning that was intended?
   What types of assessment are most appropriate and
    most revealing of the desired learning?




                                                     98
Examples of summative assessments
    Grade 6: Essay analyzing the relationship
     between a contribution from an ancient
     civilization and a modern day manifestation of
     that contribution (city wall/border patrol,
     pyramid/church, irrigation ditches, plumbing
     systems)
    HS: Design an experiment to investigate the
     relationship between force and motion


                                                      99
100
In Laymen’s Terms…
                Stage 1:
              What do I want
            them to know/do?

    Stage 3:
   How can I                Stage 2:
get them there?          How will they
                           show they
                         know/can do?
                                         101
The Lesson Plan
 What are the essential components?
   Curriculum or Benchmark
   Big Idea/Question
   Objective
   Access, build or connect to prior knowledge
   Construct, support, scaffold new learning
   Assessment or evidence of learning with feedback
   Reflection or next steps




                                                       102
Writing Objectives -
Determine Your Purpose
  Essential Understanding: History repeats itself: cyclical and
   progressive (or not?)
  Summative Assessment: Write an essay analyzing the relationship
   between a contribution from an ancient civilization and a modern day
   manifestation of that contribution (city wall/border patrol, pyramid/church,
   irrigation ditches, plumbing systems)
  Concepts/Skills needed:
          Identify contributions of Ancient Civilizations
          Analyze the purpose of those contributions
          Determine a modern day manifestation
          Compare and contrast
          Organize ideas for essay
  Write lesson objectives to review with students:
          Students will describe significant contributions of Ancient Greece using a T-
           Chart (contribution/significance or purpose)



                                                                                           103
Shift Thinking
   From activity…    To cognitive objective…

   “What will I       “What do I want
   have the           the students to
   students do        learn today?”
   today?”
                     …and how will I know
                      they learned it?
                                                 104
     Understanding by Design
        Stage 1- Desired Results
                                                       Should NOT be
Standard(s):
                                                        differentiated
Understandings               Essential questions

Knowledge               Skills                             May be
                                                       differentiated
   Stage 2- Assessment Evidence
     Performance-based Task + Rubric
                                                           May be
     Other Evidence (quiz, write up, report, etc.)     differentiated

     Self assessment/self monitoring

          Stage 3- Learning Plan                          Should be
       Daily lesson plans                                differentiated
                                                     if assessment data
                                                        tells you there
                                                            is a need
                                                                   105
Why link assessment with instruction?

          Better assessment means            Better
              better teaching.             teaching
                                            means
                                             better
                                           learning.



                 Better
                students            Better learning
               mean better               means
              opportunities         better students.
               for a better
                   life.




                                                       106
The learning goals must be clear
and on target.




                                   107
Formulate an Instructional Objective
   Cognitive Verb:    Content:      Proving
                                   Behavior:

   “What kind of                 “How will
                     “About
   thinking do I                 the students
                      what?”
   want students                 demonstrate
   to do?”                       their
                                 thinking?”




                                               108
    Students Need to Experience DEEP LEARNING
    Immersed from an early age in a curriculum of
              fragmentation,
              competition,
              and reaction,
    students are trained to believe that deep learning
    means figuring out the right answer rather than
    developing capabilities for effective and thoughtful
    action. They have been taught
          ----to value certainty rather than doubt,
          ----to give answers rather than to inquire,
          ----to know which choice is correct rather
                 than to explore alternatives.
Assessment Strategies For Self-Directed Learning by Arthur L. Costa & Bena Kallick
    Experts in Assessment Series •Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, Calif., p. 15     109
Our standards are pulled from
these categories of knowledge.                          Discipline
                                                        Based
                                                        Knowledge
                                      Theory



                                 Generalizations          Representative topics



                                   Principles


                       Concepts and Core Processes


                                  Facts and Skills

                            Structure of a Discipline                       110
Facts:       A specific detail, verifiable information

Skills:      Proficiency, ability, or technique, strategy, method or
             tool

Concepts: A general idea or understanding, especially a generalized
          idea of a thing or class of things; a category or classification

Principles: Fundamental truths, laws, doctrines, or rules,
            that explains the relationship between two or more
            concepts

Generalizations:     A generalization is a principle or concept that
                     can be applied across topics or disciplines
                   Enduring Understanding: Bad to Best

“Students will understand comprehension strategies.”
     Bad: What should they understand?
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -- - - -- - - -
“Students will understand specific strategies for gaining meaning from
grade-level text.”
     Better: Narrows the focus but still does not state what insights
     we want students to leave with.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -- - - -- - - -
“Students will understand that effective readers use specific strategies
to help them better understand the text (e.g., making predictions from
text context, generating questions before, during, and after reading).”
      Best: Summarizes intended insight, helps students and
     teachers realize what types of learning activities are needed to
     support the understanding
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - -- - - -- - - -

New Georgia Performance Standards
                                                                                              112
Factual Knowledge
includes…
 Vocabulary/terminology
 Definitions
 Key factual information
 Critical details
 Important events and people
 Sequence/timeline


                                113
  Skills
Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of
 independence, social skills, skills of production)
Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)

     Analyze
     Solve a problem to find perimeter
     Write a well supported argument
     Evaluate work according to specific criteria
     Contribute to the success of a group or team
     Use graphics to represent data appropriately



                                                            114
Process Skills/Methodologies of a Discipline


  Thinking skills used by students to construct
  meaning of the big ideas.


  •Compare and contrast         Making an observation
  •Gathering data               Drawing conclusions
  •Analyzing data               Identifying trends
  •Identifying sequences        Stating hypotheses
  •Making inferences            Developing questions
  •Identifying point of view Determining bias
  •Making predictions           Summarizing data
  •Categorizing                 Classifying
  •Sequencing               Developing criteria
  •Making a decision            Evaluating solutions
  •How to chart stars           How to use a compass
  •How to identify a tree       Determining authenticity

                                                           115
 Concepts..transferable “big ideas”

 Some concepts….
    span across several subject areas
    serve as an integrating lens and encourages the transfer of ideas
       within and across the disciplines “as students search for patterns
       and connections in the creation of new knowledge.”1
      represent significant ideas, phenomena, intellectual process, or
       persistent problems
      are timeless
      can be represented through different examples, with all examples
       having the same attributes
      and universal
  For example, the concepts of patterns,
interdependence, symmetry, system, and power can
be examined in a variety of subjects or even serve as
concepts for a unit that integrates several subjects.
                                                                               116
          1 Lynn   Erickson – Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction, 2002
Power           Revolution      System
Courage         Tradition            Constancy
Change          Evil            Cycles
Responsibility Tolerance             Interdependence
Destruction     Infinity             Myth
Relationship Eternity                Voice
Justice     Patterns            Culture
Fairness        Exploration          Identity
Freedom         Discovery            Perspective
Adaptation Beauty            Classification
Survival        Truth                Idea
Ownership Conservation          Rituals
Individuality Adaptation        Fantasy
Perspective     Extinction           Migration
Ethics          Value                Cause and Effect
Commitment Equality                  Persuasion
Violence        Loyalty         Altruism
Conflict        Spirituality    Equilibrium
Resolution Invention            Constancy



                                                        117
Knowledge vs. Understandings
   An understanding is an unobvious and important
    inference, needing “uncoverage” in the unit;
    knowledge is a set of established “facts”.
   Understandings make sense of facts, skills, and ideas:
    they tell us what our knowledge means; they ‘connect
    the dots’
   Any understandings are inherently fallible “theories”;
    knowledge consists of the accepted “facts” upon
    which a “theory” is based and the “facts” which a
    “theory” yields.
   Remember that knowledge does not presume
    understanding, but understanding does presume
    knowledge!

                                                             118
              UNDERSTAND
Essential truths that give meaning to the topic
Stated as a full sentence
Begin with, “I want students to understand THAT…”
  (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT)

   Multiplication is another way to do addition.
   People migrate to meet basic needs.
   All cultures contain the same elements.
   Entropy and enthalpy are competing
        forces in the natural world.
   Voice reflects the author.




                                                    119
Social studies:
…all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and
technologies.
…people change and are changed by their culture.*

Science:
… an ecosystem is comprised of interdependent parts.*
…change to one part of an ecosystem results in change in its
other parts.*

 English
 …each of a system’s (story’s) elements exists in an
 interdependent relationship with the other elements.
 …changing even one element will alter the story’s organization
 and outcome in some way.*

*=Generalizations: Understandings that show the relationship between two or more concepts
                                                                                      120
                     2 Wiggins   and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998
Understandings: Design Tip
 Avoid truisms, facts, definitions:
     what un-obvious, non-trivial, and important
       realizations do you want students to leave with?
     What are hard-won, powerful insights that students
       should come to with your help (vs. bland or self-evident
       generalizations, like most rules and definitions)?



  Jan Leppien




                                                             121
Teachers at Work
 Looking at
 the Big Ideas
 in Action in
 Classrooms


 Jan Leppien


                   122
UNDERSTAND:
      Language is a powerful tool for
                                             Friendly Persuasion
       expression and persuasion.            KNOW:
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:                         Understanding of the structure of a
In what ways and for what purposes is        novel
     language used?                          Persuasive techniques and how they
What elements of language determine          are used in the novel in various
     the message.                            situations
How is language changed to
     manipulate the message.
What other elements of
     communication can be used to
     convey meaning.

BE ABLE TO DO:
Develop questions and ideas to initiate and refine research
Conduct research to answer questions and evaluate information and ideas
Recognize perspective in others
Apply persuasive techniques
Apply the elements of writing a business letter

Jan Leppien
You have finished reading To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. In the novel,
      several characters use language and other forms of communication to
      persuade other characters to adopt a certain course of action.
      To Kill a Mockingbird is the only novel Harper Lee has ever written. She
      now lives quietly and anonymously in the South, rarely granting interviews.
      Many are disappointed that she has never written another book.
      You have been hired by your hometown newspaper to persuade Ms. Lee to
      grant you an interview. As you plan your project, you will want to consider
      the following steps:
         1.    Conduct background research on the author;
         2.    Prepare a list of at least three sources in correct bibliographical
               form;
         3.    Write a letter to the author which uses two or more persuasive
               techniques to request an interview;
         4.    Develop a list of compelling questions and Ms. Lee’s (hypothetical)
               answers in which you demonstrate a perceptive understanding of
               the author and of her only novel;
         5.    Write an article on Harper Lee which reflects your analysis and
               interpretation of the information you have gained from your
               research, your interview, and your study of the novel.

                      Friendly Persuasion Prompt

Pattonville School District
Language Arts Novel: To Kill a Mockingbird
 Students will be able to:
     1.   Identify examples of figurative language and key elements of
          fiction.
     2.   Identify elements that contribute to the author’s voice.

      Students will read the chapter on the trial for
      homework. Teacher will guide a class discussion
      in which students define key vocabulary,
      identify examples of figurative language, note
      key elements of fiction, identify examples of
      author voice, and answer related questions in
      the text.

 The fact-base makes it more difficult to
    differentiate—and to relate to the story or
    derive meaning from it.
                                                                         125
Multiple Perspectives Novel: To Kill a Mockingbird
   Concept: Perspective
   Principles:
      Our experiences shape our perspectives
      As our experiences evolve, our perspectives
       evolve
 “You never really understand a man until you walk around in
    his skin...until you consider things from his point of view.”
       Group 1--The Child's Perspective (Scout)
       Group 2--The Hero's (Atticus and Mrs. DuBose)
       Group 3--The Persecuted (Calpurnia and Tom Robinson)
       Group 4–The Maturing (Jem, Mr.Underwood)
       Group 5--The Outsider's (Boo Radley, Bob and Mayella Ewell,
          DolphusRaymond)
The conceptual base allows for quality differentiation, relevance, &
    meaning—as well as achieving standards goals.


                                                                       126
Secondary Science Example
 Concept: Perspective
 Lesson Topic: History of Science
 Know:
     Theory (def.), evidence (def.), steps of the scientific method
 Understand:
     Our perspective of the world changes as our knowledge advances.
 Do:
     Explain how a theory has changed over time due to the acquisition of
      new evidence.
     Explain how technology influences the ability of scientists to collect
      evidence and use it to shape perspectives of how the world works.




Jan Leppien
                                                                               127
Elementary Social Studies Example
  Concept: Culture
  Lesson Topic: Country Study

  Know:
    Foods, celebrations, clothing, and jobs representative of specified
      countries
  Understand:
    Every culture has its own unique beliefs, traditions, and behaviors.
  Do:
    Compare and contrast the foods, clothing, jobs, and celebrations of
     different countries.
    Recognize similarities and differences among people of different
     cultures.

   Jan Leppien


                                                                            128
English/Social Studies Example
  Concept: Perspective
  Lesson Topic: Consumerism
  Know:
     Definition of point of view
     Point of view is used as a tool in advertising
  Understand:
     Perspective influences decision making.
  Do:
     Explain and analyze the purpose of advertising.
     Use point of view strategically in creating an ad.
     Critique other ads’ use of point of view to achieve purpose/influence
       decision making.



  Jan Leppien

                                                                          129
Writing Example
  Concept: Perspective
  Lesson Topic: Writer’s Voice
  Know:
    Definition of voice
    Techniques used to communicate voice
  Understand:
    A clear writer’s voice communicates the writer’s perspective
  Do:
    Identify and describe writers’ voices in literature
    Hypothesize/explain the relationship between writers’
     perspectives and their voices
    Develop writer’s voice in order to communicate one’s
     perspective
   Jan Leppien

                                                              130
Determining the Focus of the Unit
Identify your desired             What do I want my students to know, understand,
results.                          and be able to do (skills) in this instructional unit.

Concepts:                         Enduring Understandings or Principles:
Fiction                           Fiction is never an answer, always a question.
Change                            Fiction is always about change.
Reader’s Role                     In good fiction, a reader asks, “What if I were the
Self-Understanding                character? What would I do?”
                                  In good fiction, the reader asks, “What motivates
                                  humans to do what they do?”
                                  Through good fiction, readers try on lives to see
                                  which ones fit.
                                  In good fiction, the epiphany is a sudden
                                  breakthrough of understanding.
                                  Good fiction changes readers.                   131

         Principles derived from Past Perfect, Present Tense by Richard Peck, New York: Dial, pp. 1-3   131
Determining the Focus of the Unit
Identify your desired       What do I want my students to know,
results.                    understand, and be able to do (skills) in this
                            instructional unit.
Know:                       Be Able to Do (Skills):
Literary elements in        •   Relates theme in works of fiction and
fiction (character, plot,       nonfiction to personal experience.
settings)                   •   Identifies and analyzes the elements of
The meaning of a theme          plot,character, and setting in stories read,
Examples of personal            written,viewed, or performed.
relevance                   •   Makes judgments and inferences about setting,
Universal                       characters, and events and supports them with
feelings/emotions               elaborating and convincing evidence from the
                                text.
                            •   Identifies similarities and differences between
                                the characters or events and theme in a literary
                                work and the actual experiences in an author’s
                                                                             132
                                life.                                            132
UNDERSTAND:
 Plot is the arrangement of events        Examining Plot Conflict
  and actions in a story.
 Conflict is the dramatic struggle         KNOW:
  between two forces in a story.             Plot provides the structure to a story.
 Without conflict there is no plot.         Plots have components that can be analyzed
                                              to determine why characters have responded
 There are a variety of conflicts that
                                              in the way that they do.
  can occur within a story that a
                                             Examples of these conflicts in their own
  character will experience.                  lives can be classified into categories that are
 These conflicts illustrate the type of      also experienced by characters in stories.
  conflicts that we (humans)
  personally experience.


BE ABLE TO DO:
Make predictions about the conflicts in selected pieces of literature
Locate evidence to support these predictions.
Identify the types of conflict in literature by locating examples
Make various connections to plot conflict (text-text, text-self, text-world)
Identify variables that contribute to the conflicts
Write a comparison/contrast essay comparing a conflict they have had to
one experienced by one of the characters in a story they have read.
                                                                                          133
  Try the following:

Understand



  Know


   Do
                        Understand

                          Know



                       Know
                                     134
Examining Your Curriculum
Are your texts, curriculum, units, lessons designed so
   they allow you to focus on KUDOs and big ideas and
   enduring understandings?
If so, please share how this has worked for you.
If not, how could you get there?




                                                         135
 Let’s
 Play


“KUDos”



          136
Shuffle the cards in your envelope.

Read each statement and decide whether it is
knowledge, understanding or skill.


Create the headings K-U-D on a piece of paper then
sort the cards placing them under the correct heading:
K - know: facts and vocabulary
U - understand that: big ideas, concepts
D - be able to do: skills of


                                                     137
After you fill in each separate Know, Understand and Do, draw a line from each Know and Do
statement to the corresponding Understand statement. If you have a Know or Do statement that
does not relate to any Understand statements, either eliminate it or add an Understand statement
that gives it meaning and content.
           Know                                   Understand                           Do




                         ASCD 2007 Tools for High Quality Differentiated Instruction
                                                                                                   138
What are they and how do you write one?

                                          139
What Is an Essential Question?
 Students have to think critically to answer an essential
  question. Instead of simply looking up answers, they
  conduct research and create an original answer. An
  essential question:
    provokes deep thought.
    solicits information-gathering and evaluation of data.
    results in an original answer.
    helps students conduct problem-related research.
    makes students produce original ideas rather than
     predetermined answers.
    may not have an answer.
    encourages critical thinking not just memorization of
     facts.


                                                              140
WHY?
SO WHAT?

  Essential Questions
       are open-ended-and resist a simple or single right
           answer
          are arguable - and important to argue about
          are at the heart of the subject
          recur - and should recur - in professional work, adult
           life, as well as in classroom inquiry
          raise more questions – provoking and sustaining
           engaged inquiry
          often raise important conceptual or philosophical
           issues
          can provide organizing purpose for meaningful &
           connected learning
          require students to draw upon content knowledge
           and personal experience
          revisited throughout the unit
      Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2000) Understanding By Design. Alexandra, Va: ASCD.


                                                                                       141
   Comparing Essential and Unit Questions
Essential Questions:                          Unit Questions
 Go to the heart of a discipline              Provide subject- and topic-specific
      Is a good read a great book?             doorways to essential questions
      Was arithmetic an invention or a            designed to point to and uncover
       discovery?
                                                    essential questions through the
      Is history always biased?
                                                    lens, particular topics or
 Recur naturally in history through one’s          subjects
   learning and in the history of the field
      the same questions are asked and
                                               Have no obvious right or wrong
       reasked as an outgrowth of the work      answer
      the answers may become more                 answers to unit questions are not
       sophisticated but the questions              self-evidently true
       remain the same                             suggest multiple lines of
 Raise other important questions                   research
      open up a subject, its complexities,
                                                   uncover the subject’s
       and its puzzles
                                                    controversies and puzzles
 Allow us to explore what knowledge is,
   how it came to be, and how it has           Are deliberately framed to
   changed through human history                provoke and sustain student
      What others found out in the past?       interest
      What are we still wondering about?          often involve the
 Is always posed at the boundary of the            counterintuitive and the
   known and unknown and engages the                controversial
   imagination
                                                   are sufficiently open to
      This fulfills our need for sense-
                                                    accommodate diverse interest
       making and seeking relevance. Why
       does this matter to me?                      and learning styles
                                                                                   142
                               Concept


                                     Interdependence
             Understandings
                   =
               Principles




"Knows"                  "Be able to Dos"
       =                        =
     Facts                    Skills




                                                  143
                                 Interdependence

                       Understanding:
                 Change to one element of a
                 story will result in change to
                     the other elements.


      Facts:
  Definitions of                              Skills:
setting, plot, point           Analyze the impact of historical
of view, conflict...           perspective on a piece of writing.
                               Determine the effects of a story’s
                               point of view.

                                             Activities:
                       Write a modern-day version of a legend or myth.
                       Rewrite a fairy tale from the perspective of a
                       different character.
                                                                     144
   Benefit of Essential Questions…
Essential Questions:
 Can be used as an instructional filter
  for selecting and designing curricular   What will your essential questions
  tasks that move students toward the       be for your instructional unit?
  “big ideas.”

 Make curriculum generative so
  students can make connections
  across times, perspectives, culture,
  and in other contexts.

 Provide evidence that the standards
  have been addressed.

 Focus on the hows and whys of the
  unit’s ideas.

 Stimulate curiosity and a need to
  seek personal relevance.


                                               Jan Leppien


                                                                           145
Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Essential Questions are found at the top of Bloom's
  Taxonomy (Bloom, 1954).
 They require readers to:
   EVALUATE (make a thoughtful choice between options,
    with the choice based upon clearly stated criteria)
   SYNTHESIZE (invent a new or different version)
   ANALYZE (develop a thorough and complex
    understanding through skillful questioning).




                                                          146
147
Types of Essential Questions
 Which one?
 How?
 What if?
 Should?
 Why?




                               148
“Essential vs. Traditional Questions"
 Not Essential:
   “What is it like to live in Hong Kong?"
 Essential
   Which city in Southeast Asia is the best place to live?
 Not Essential:
   “What is AIDS?"
 Essential:
   Which serious disease most deserves research funding?



                                                              149
“How Questions"
 Examples:
    What are some sustainable solutions to environmental
     problems in your neighborhood, and how could they be
     implemented?
    What is the biggest problem with tenure, and how
     could it be resolved?




                                                        150
"What if Questions"
 What if questions are hypothetical, questions which
  ask you to use the knowledge you have to pose a
  hypothesis and consider options.
 Examples:
   "What if the Cultural Revolution had never happened?"
   "What if students didn’t have to go to school?”




                                                            151
"Should Questions"
 Should questions make a moral or practical decision
  based on evidence.
 Examples:
   “Should we discontinue trade with countries that abuse
    human rights?"
   Should students be grouped by ability?




                                                         152
"Why Questions"
 Why questions ask you to understand cause and effect.
  "Why" helps us understand relationships; it helps us
  get to the essence of an issue.
 Examples:
   "Why is it so hard to get all teachers on board with
    differentiation?
   "Why is the death rate higher in one Third World
    country than another?"



                                                           153
Skinny vs. “Fat” Questions
 What are Fat Question?
    Open-ended questions, which can be argued and
     supported by evidence.
 Examples:
    Skinny Question: "When was the Declaration of
     Independence signed?"
    Fat Question: "What would have happened had we not
     signed it?”
    Skinny Question: How many of our students are failing?
    Fat Question: What is the major cause of student
     failure?

                                                          154
How do you write an essential question?
  1.    Consider the focus of the unit or lesson activity:
       Substance abuse, drug addiction, legal & illegal drugs
  2. Ideas for a good essential question:
       1.  may stem from your particular interests in a topic
          (e.g. What makes a drug “good”?), (How is China
          dealing with substance abuse?)
       2. Begin with the 6 typical queries that newspaper
          articles address: Who? What? Where? When? Why?
          and How?
       3. From these questions formulate your essential
          question.
       4. Use: Which one? How? What if? Should? Why?


                                                                155
Teach to the Objective!

Information:
How will the                 Activities:
content be                   What will
conveyed?                    the students
                             do to learn?


  Questions:
                           Responses:
  What thinking
                           How will you
  Do you want
                           respond to
  Students to engage in?
                           their efforts?


                                            156
Big Idea/Big Question:                             Key Vocabulary:


Lesson Objective(s) (cognitive verb, content,
proving behavior) :
Frame/Launch:
How can I tap into my students’ interest, prior
knowledge in order to scaffold learning, offer
appropriate challenges, and increase motivation
and success?
キ         Access Prior Knowledge
キ         Build Background
キ         Connect (hook and bridge)                Check for Understanding:

Support/Explore:
How will I help students to interact/engage with
new ideas that they encounter in order to
construct meaning, monitor understanding,
process ideas?
キ         Deep Processing of Information …WICR
キ         Differentiation                          Check for Understanding:
キ         Engagement
Summarize:
How will I know what my students are thinking?
What evidence can I collect to see how they are
progressing towards intended objectives? What
feedback will I provide?
キ         Evidence of Learning
キ         Feedback                                 Check for Understanding:
                                                                              157
Questioning Your Curriculum
Do your texts, curriculum, units
 and lessons facilitate essential
 questions and “fat” questions?
If so, please share how you got
 there.
If not, how could you make this
 happen?
                                    158
Struggling Learners:
much effort,
little “normative”
success




                       Gifted Learners:
                       little effort,
                       much “normative”
                        success
                                          159
  The Value of Struggle
1. Talk with your partner about the value of
   struggle. Relate a personal anecdote regarding a
   struggle you (or a student) experienced and how
   it affected you (or the student).
2. How do you deal with the tension between
   standards and the continuum of readiness in
   your:
   Assignments?
   Grading?
   Parental discussions?
   “Fairness” Issues?
                                                160
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Art: Choosing a subject: Instructional goal: Understand how artists
choose a goal for their work
    Prepare an oral explanation    Prepare a flowchart that
    for a classmate of why your    illustrates how you go about
    subject is important enough to choosing a subject or setting
    paint.                         for your painting.

    Make a soundscape (no words)     Create a skit or pantomime
    that captures the same kind of   that illustrates the right or
    feeling you wish your painting   wrong way to go about
    to capture.                      choosing a subject for your
                                     work.
    Find a quiet space, and write    Go outside to find inspiration
    me a letter telling how to go    for your painting. Sketch
    about deciding on a subject      patterns, textures, and moods
    for your painting. Let me see    in nature that you wish to
    inside your head!                introduce into your work. How
                                     did this experience influence
                                     your final product?
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Science: Instructional goal: Communicate knowledge about the
rain forest.

    Describe the rain forest               Describe how your life
    using as much information              would change if you moved
    as you can. Involve as                 to the canopy of the rain
    many of the senses as                  forest, using as much
    possible in your                       information as you can
    description.                           abut the canopy, involving
                                           as many of your senses as
                                           possible in your
                                           description, and explaining
                                           why these changes would
                                           take place.


  Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Social studies: Instructional goal: Describe the interaction of Native
Americans and the early settlers.

     Diagram or model the                   Present an argument for or
     relationship between the               against the following: Did
     early settlers and the                 early settlers or American
     American Indians. Show                 Indians benefit more from
     the positives and negatives            their relationship? Be sure
     that came from that                    to consider how someone
     relationship.                          taking the opposite
                                            position might respond as
                                            you prepare your most
                                            convincing argument.



   Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Music Appreciation: Instructional goal: Compare the musical styles
of Ives and Elgar.
     Basso: Using the provided grid, compare the musical styles of Ives and Elgar.
     Note that some cells are already filled in for you. Consider the type of
     compositions, instrumentation, cultural influence, and at least one other
     variable.

     Alto: Using the provided grid and another graphic organizer or your choice,
     compare the musical styles of Ives and Elgar. Note that some cells are already
     filled in for you. Consider the type of compositions, instrumentation, cultural
     influence, and at least one other variable.


     Soprano: In a graphic organizer of your choice, compare and contrast the
     musical styles and lives of Ives and Elgar. Include at least four important
     variables for comparison. Be ready to justify your choice of variables.


     Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Computer-Aided design: Instructional goal: Identify the capabilities
and benefits of CAD software.

      Practical: Create and print a simple technical drawing using the CAD
      program. Label your drawing and explain what command capabilities
      you used to make the drawing. Be ready to explain how specific tools
      work to simplify your task.
      Creative:Write a paragraph telling how you would design an improved
      version of CAD software you are using. Address drawing commands
      and capabilities. Why would architects buy your “new and improved”
      version?

      Analytical: Write a paragraph explaining why the CAD drawing system
      results in faster and easier technical drawings. List several command
      capabilities, and explain why an architect would choose to use CAD
      programs instead of pencil techniques.

    Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Literature or advanced French: Instructional goal: Compare the
perspectives of the two main characters of this novel.
     Practical: Why is it important that the Little Prince and the
     aviator understand one another’s viewpoints?



     Creative: In what ways are the Little Prince’s and the
     aviator’s worldviews similar and different?



     Analytical: How might the Little Princes worldview be
     different, if, like the aviator, he had lived his entire life on
     Earth?


  Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Reading: Instructional goal: Given a set of words or picture cards,
sort according to similar attributes

     Practical: Why is it important that the Little Prince and the
     aviator understand one another’s viewpoints?


     Creative: In what ways are the Little Prince’s and the
     aviator’s worldviews similar and different?


     Analytical: How might the Little Princes worldview be
     different, if, like the aviator, he had lived his entire life on
     Earth?

  Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated
Activities
Health: Instructional goal: Plan a healthy menu

    Practical: You are planning a party. Decide
    who the party is for and where and when it
    will take place. Then design a healthy,
    balanced menu for the party. Be ready to
    explain your choices.




 Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities
Biology: Instructional goal: Describe the parts of the cell and how
they support the work of the cell.

        You have been hit by an               You are a scientist working
        alien ray and have been               in New Mexico when a
        shrunk small enough to                spaceship crashes. Your
        travel through the                    job is to figure out the
        bloodstream. Write a                  biology or the alien species
        narrative or play to                  on board. You find it has
        describe what you see as              something similar to cells.
        you come through a                    Compare and contrast an
        specific cell and what                Earth organisms cells with
        happens to you once you               those of the alien. Write a
        get inside the plasma                 lab report of your findings.
        membrane.


        Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities (tiered)
Math: Instructional goal: Design, carry out, and share the results of a survey. Design and
distribute a survey to you classmates following the steps below (below grade level):
 1.    Write your question.
 2.    Design 4 likely answers to your question.
 3.    Distribute your survey.
 4.    Based on results, fill out the provided frequency
       table.
 5.    Place the results in a bar graph. (You may ask your
       teacher for sample graphs).
 6.    Write a brief summary or prepare an oral presentation
       that communicates results of your survey and answers the
       following questions: What was your question? Who did you
       ask? What were the results?



   Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities (tiered)
Math: Instructional goal: Design, carry out, and share the results of a survey. Design and
distribute a survey to you classmates following the steps below (on grade level):
 1.     Write your question.
 2.     Design 4 likely answers to your question.
 3.     Distribute your survey.
 4.     Design a frequency table to help you
        tabulate results.
 5.     Place the results into an appropriate graph
 6.     Write a brief summary of the results of your
        survey for publication in the school news
        paper.

      Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Evaluating Differentiated Activities (tiered)
Math: Instructional goal: Design, carry out, and share the results of a survey. Design and
distribute a survey to you classmates following the steps below (above grade level):
      1.    Write your question.
      2.    Design 4 or 5 likely answers to your question.
      3.    Distribute your survey.
      4.    Compile your data using an appropriate frequency table.
      5.    Choose a graph design that would best communicate the
            data you collected. Be ready to explain why you chose the
            type of graph you did and why your choice was a good
            one.
      6.    Write an analysis of your survey as if it were an article for
            a math journal. What was your question? Who did you
            ask? What were the results? What are possible sources of
            error? What are the real-world implications of your
            findings?

     Adapted from Cindy Strickland’s ASCD action tool for DI
Read at least one of the scenarios.
Then discuss with a partner:
 Is this an example of respectful and effective
  differentiation? Why or why not?

 If not, now would you improve or adapt it for your
  class?
How to evaluate activities
1.   What makes this high or low-quality curriculum?
2.   How does each version of the task appear to
     KUDo’s? If this isn’t true, what changes need to be
     made to ensure each task supports the same KUD
     goals?
3.   How are the tasks equally respectful?
4.   Is each version equally engaging from the
     perspective of the students for whom it was
     intended?
5.   Does each version require students to stretch? If
     not, what changes could be made to make it so?
And now: on to grading!
Please examine the “grading reflection” sheet
 with your table mates. Record any
 consensus, controversy, or questions you
 may have and be prepared to share with the
 large group.



      C. Strickland

                                                175
Myths & Realities of Grading: Using a likert (AS, A,
D, DS) scale, respond to the following (and then
explain):
1.   __ Grades are the best tool we have for
     communicating student proficiency.
2.   __ Parents of kids who usually get A’s without much
     effort will get angry at me if I challenge their
     children and their grades are on longer A’s.They will
     complain to the principal and force me to change
     their child’s grade.
Myths & Realities of Grading: Using a likert (AS, A,
D, DS) scale, respond to the following (and then
explain):
3. __ I must average grades to get a fair picture of student
     progress.
4. __ If students get a bad grade on an assignment, they
     will work harder next time.
5. __ My grade book will be hard to organize and
    interpret if I have different assignments for
    different students.
Myths & Realities of Grading: Using a likert (AS, A,
D, DS) scale, respond to the following (and then
explain):
6. __ Allmy college bound students and
    their parents care about are GPAs and
    class rank.
7. __I have to grade everything, or
    students won’t do the work.
What is a Grade?
 “…A grade (is)…an inadequate report of an
 imprecise judgment of a biased and variable judge of
 the extent to which a student has attained an
 undefined level of mastery of an unknown proportion
 of an indefinite amount of material.”
         Paul Dressell, Michigan State University




                                                     179
Building a Common Terminology
Grading:
   “The number or letter reported at the end of a
    period of time as a summary statement of student
    performance.”

   The score given on a single test or performance.
       (O’Connor, 2002)




                                                       180
Building a Common Terminology
Assessment:

    “Gathering and interpreting information about student
     achievement using a variety of tools and technique.”

    The act of describing student performance to enhance
     learning

    Feedback from teachers to students to improve
     performance
          O’Connor, 2002


                                                             181
Building a Common Terminology
Achievement:


   The demonstration of newly acquired
    understandings (concepts), knowledge, skills and
    behaviors that are stated in the learning goals for a
    course or unit of study, sometimes referred to as the
    “standards”



                                                        182
Common Understanding of
Grading
• Is the final judgment of what a student has “learned”
• Defines students’ strengths and weaknesses
• Informs parents/guardians of child’s learning and
  achievement status
• Determines promotion/detention, honors, awards,
  eligibility and reporting to other institutions
• Guidance to student for future endeavors




                                                          183
Common Understanding of
Assessment
• Guides instruction
• Guides student learning
• Is done differently to different students
• Is meaningful
• May come at different times for different students




                                                       184
Burning
Questions???
                Wait!
               There’s
               More!




                         185
Should the grade represent performance against
       a standard, other students, or individual
                                        growth?




                                                   186
   RAFT: Grading Perspectives
ROLE                  AUDIENCE             FORMAT              TOPIC
Teacher               Students             Poem/parable        Definition of “fair”
Teacher               Parents              Short speech        Why I grade
                                                               students
Veteran teacher       Student teacher      Top 5 list          What you really
                                                               need to know
                                                               about grading
A student who         PTO                  Rule book           How I would
struggles in school                                            change grading
Student just          Students fluent in   Flowchart/diagram   What “fair” should
learning English      English                                  mean in class
Gifted student        AP teacher           Conference          What an “A” should
                                                               mean
Teacher               Self                 Pep talk            Things I can
             Try one at your table!                            control about
                                                               grading
Implications
 Against a standard       Student may be capable
                           of meeting the standard
                           prior to instruction

 Against other students
                           Implies use of a curve
                           and is competitive


 A measure of personal    May result in a grade
 growth                    less than an “A”
                                                     188
Potential Solutions
1.   Do not grade on a curve
2.   If students test out with mastery, award the top
     grade and evaluate, but do not “grade,”
     alternative work
3.   If students do parallel work at a more complex
     level, grade with a generic rubric, common
     quality criteria, or product cards (the “standard”
     can be met a various levels, promoting growth
     with less risk to “A’s”)

                                                          189
Other Grading Issues II




                          190
Other Grading Issues III




                           191
Grading to
Support GT & DI:   Tomlinson and others




                                          192
Grading to
Support GT & DI




                  193
Grading to
Support GT & DI




                  194
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Support GT & DI




                  195
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Support GT & DI




                  196
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Grading to
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Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




                             213
Grading to Support GT & DI




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Grading to Support GT & DI




                             215
Grading to Support GT & DI




                             216
Grading to Support GT & DI




                             217
Grading to Support GT & DI




                             218
Grading to Support GT & DI




                             219
                             One last
                              issue!
Grading to Support GT & DI




                                   220
Should more complex, abstract, or difficult
     assignments be graded on a separate
                                standard?




                                              221
                                      The Equalizer
1. Foundational                              Transformational

                          Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications
2. Concrete                            Abstract
                        Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials

1. Simple                              Complex
                      Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals

2. Single Facet                              Multiple Facets
       Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections

3. Small Leap                                Great Leap
                                 Application, Insight, Transfer


4. More Structured                           More Open
                               Solutions, Decisions, Approaches


5. Less Independence                                Greater Independence
                               Planning, Designing, Monitoring


6. Slow                                Quick
                                 Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
                                                                                            222
    Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
   Basic Cube                          Abstract Cube
   Draw Charlotte as you think         Use a graphics program on the
    she looks.                           computer and create a character
   Use a Venn diagram and               web for Wilbur.
    compare Charlotte and Fern.         Use symbols on a Venn diagram to
   Use a comic strip to tell what       compare Wilbur and Charlotte.
    happened in this chapter.           Draw the farm and label the items,
   Shut your eyes and describe          people, and buildings.
    the barn. Jot down your ideas.      Use a storyboard to show the
   Predict what will happen in          progress of the plot to this point.
    the next chapter using              What is the message that you think
    symbols.                             the writer wants people to
                                         remember? Draw a symbol that
   In your opinion, why is
                                         illustrates your ideas.
    Charlotte a good friend?
                                        When you think of the title, do you
                                         agree or disagree that it is a good
                                         choice? Why or why not?


                                                                           223
           Grade K                                          Grade K
        Counting (Skill)                              Key Concept: Patterns
     Counting/Math Center                    Generalization: Scientists Classify
                                                        by Patterns
Task 1 Find a way to count and
 show how many people are in our             Students use carpenter’s aprons to
 class today.                                 collect “data” through a
 How did you get your answer?                 nature walk.
Task 2 Find a way to show how
 many people are in our class.               At Science Center:
 How many absent today?                                              Task 1 Classify Leaves
                                                Pre-made grid with
 How many are here today?                        categories on it    • by size
 How do you know?                                                    • by color


Task 3 Find a way to show how                                        Task 2 Classify Leaves
 many boys are in our class today.                Sample grid –      • by shape
 How many boys are absent                      students create own   • create a category
                                                      grid
 today?
 How many girls are here today?                                      Task 3 Find 3 ways each
 How many girls are absent                     Students decide how   leaf could be classified –
 today?                                         to show categories   other than color
                                                   and contents
 Prove you are right.
                             Tomlinson ‘97
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Novel Think Tac-Toe -basic version
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and
others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original,
accurate, and detailed.
Create a pair of collages that       Write a bio-poem about yourself       Write a recipe or set of
compares you and a character         and another about a main              directions for how you would
from the book. Compare and           character in the book so your         solve a problem and another
contrast physical and                readers see how you and the           for how a main character in the
personality traits. Label your       characters are alike and different.   book would solve a problem.
collages so viewers understand       Be sure to included the most          Your list should help us know
your thinking                        important traits in each poem.        you and the character.


Draw/paint and write a greeting      Make a model or map of a key          Make 2 timelines. The first
card that invites us into the        place in your life, and an            should illustrate and describe
scenery and mood of an               important one in the novel. Find      at least 6-8 shifts in settings in
important part of the book. Be       a way to help viewers understand      the book. The second should
sure the verse helps us              both what the places are like and     explain and illustrate how the
understand what is important in      why they are important in your        mood changes with the change
the scene and why.                   life and the characters’.             in setting.

Using books of proverbs and/or       Interview a key character from        Find several songs you think
quotations, find at least 6-8 that   the book to find out what lessons     reflect an important message
you feel reflect what’s important    he/she thinks we should learn         from the book. Prepare an
about the novel’s theme. Find        from events in the book. Use a        audio collage. Write an exhibit
at least 6-8 that do the same for    Parade magazine for material.         card that helps your listener
your life. Display them and          Be sure the interview is thorough.    understand how you think
explain your choices.                                                      these songs express the book’s
                                                                                                      225
                                                                           meaning.
Novel Think Tac-Toe-advanced version
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others
think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, insightful, and elegant
in expression.

 Write a bio-poem about yourself      A character in the book is being     You’re a “profiler”. Write and
 and another about a main             written up in the paper 20 years     illustrate a full and useful profile
 character in the book so your        after the novel ends. Write the      of an interesting character from
 readers see how you and the          piece. Where has life taken          the book with emphasis on
 character are alike and different.   him/her? Why? Now, do the            personality traits and mode of
 Be sure to include the most          same for yourself 20 years from      operating. While you’re at it,
 important traits in each poem.       now. Make sure both pieces are       profile yourself too.
                                      interesting feature articles.
 Research a town/place you feel       Make a model or a map of a key       The time and place in which
 is equivalent to the one in which    place in your life, and in           people find themselves and
 the novel is set. Use maps,          important one in the novel. Find     when events happen shape
 sketches, population and other       a way to help viewers                those people and events in
 demographic data to help you         understand both what the             important ways. Find a way to
 make comparisons and                 places are like and why they are     convincingly prove that idea
 contrasts.                           important in your life and the       using this book.
                                      characters’.
 Find out about famous people in      Create a multi-media                 Find several songs you think
 history or current events whose      presentation that fully explores a   reflect an important message
 experiences and lives reflect the    key theme from the novel. Use        from the book. Prepare an
 essential themes of this novel.      at least 3 media (for example        audio collage. Write an exhibit
 Show us what you’ve learned.         painting, music, poetry,             card that helps your listener
                                      photography, drama, sculpture,       understand how you think these
                                      calligraphy, etc.) in your           songs express the book’s
                                                                                                         226
                                      exploration.                         meaning.
                                                             The Good Life…
                                        Making Choices About Tobacco Use

All Products Must…
              Use key facts from class and research
              Make a complete case
              Provide defensible evidence for the case                        Health & PE
              Weigh varied viewpoints
                                                                               Product
              Be appropriate/useful for the target audience
              Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation
              Be though-provoking rather than predictable



                  VISUAL                                             KINESTHETIC
 Story boards for TV “ad” using few/no             Pantomime a struggle of “will” regarding smoking
 words to make the point                           – including a decision with rationale
 Comic book parody with smoking super              Act out a skit on pressures to smoke and reasons
 heroes/heroines                                   not to smoke

                  WRITTEN                                               ORAL
 Brochure for a pediatrician’s office – patients   Radio-spot (public information with music
 9-16 as target audience                           timed, lead-in)
 Research and write an editorial that              Nightline (T. Koppel, C. Roberts with teen who
 compares the relative costs and benefits of       smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person
 tobacco to NC – submit for publication            with emphysema)
                                                                                                227
Totally 10: Differentiated Scores
 Scores are calibrated according to Bloom
 Tasks are scored at various levels depending on level
  of challenge
 Students must “score” a 10
 Students must select tasks from at least 2 categories
 Projects are graded on quality
 Weight your grades based on level of challenge and
  contribution to a final overall grade


                                                          228
Totally 10: A Mythology example
 Score 2 (20% of final grade)
 Construct a family tree with various mythological
  creatures
 Create a poster showing corresponding
 Greek and Roman gods and goddesses and creation
  myths
 Create a story featuring a mythical creature

 See Heacox, D. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Free Spirit Press




                                                                                           229
Totally 10: A Mythology example
 Score 4 (40% of final grade)
 Make a chart or diagram comparing and contrasting a
  mythical character from another culture to one from
  Greece or Rome
 Select a contemporary super hero and write a
  newspaper article describing how this hero has
  mythical traits
 See Heacox, D. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Free Spirit Press




                                                                                           230
Totally 10: A Mythology example
 Score 6 (60% of total grade)
 Write an original dialogue between two mythical
  characters. Make sure their discussion is consistent
  with their adventures and characteristics as
  detailed in our readings.

 Design a mystery book of mythical characters with
  enough details to help a knowledgeable reader
  discover their identities
   See Heacox, D. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Free Spirit Press




                                                                                             231
Totally 10: A Mythology example

 Totally 10 (100% of final grade)
 Create a mythical character for the present time.
    Write a sketch to identify your character’s personality,
    appearance, and powers. Including mythical
    elements, dramatize, do storytelling, make a video,
    create a comic book, or select another way to tell one
    of your creation’s adventures.
   See Heacox, D. Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Free Spirit Press




                                                                                             232
Totally 10 Practice
2 pts 4pts 6pts       10pts




                              233
Final Thoughts on Grading
 Grades should reflect:
    Achievement
    Desired behaviors in the learning process
      Participation
      Meeting deadlines
      Effort
      Persistent
      Etc
 Grades should not be an averaging or accumulation of the
  above
 Weighting grades can be useful in the grading process
                                                             234
Grading in a Differentiated
Classroom
 Grades are:
   Consistent
   Accurate
   Meaningful
   Useful
   Emotionally supportive &
   Intellectually supportive of the learning for all students,
    and
   Reflective of the teaching process

         Adapted from Tomlinson & O’Connor, 2005


                                                              235
Weighting Grades
 Weighting should reflect the intended purpose of the
  learning
 Non-academic processes should receive less emphasis
  than academic
   Example: turning work in on time, classroom behaviors,
    effort, organization, visual appeal…




                                                             236
What Grades are NOT Intended To
Be Used For:
Punishment/reward

Poor/good attendance/ tardiness

Inappropriate/appropriate behavior


                                      237
What Grades are ARE Intended To
Be Used For:
 How close a student came to “hitting the
  target”
 Communicates and encourages success and
  promotes persistence
 Information supports the learning process




                                              238
Grading Individuals in Groups
 Individual grades should reflect individual
  achievement
 An individuals grade should not reflect the achievement
  (or lack of achievement) of other students
 Provide for teacher/peer and self evaluation within the
  group process




                                                            239
Burning
Questions???




               240

								
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