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					Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                1. Appendices
                      I. Methodology
                     II. Chapter Advisors
                    III. Literature Review
                   IV.   Data Analysis
                     V.  Method for Identifying and Prioritizing Mitigation Policies
                         and Strategies
                   VI.   Complete Set of Policy Recommendations
                   VII.  Top Policy Recommendations by Presidential Power
                  VIII.  In depth look at Factors contributing to Transportation
                         Sector Emissions
                   IX.   Glossary

Appendices
Appendix I: Methodology
Policy recommendations detailed in the chapter or listed in Appendix VI were identified
through a literature review, found in Appendix III, in addition to personal interviews with
advisors from the transportation and land use sectors. The policy recommendations were
then prioritized based on the criteria set forth in Appendix V: Method for Identifying and
Prioritizing Mitigation Policies and Strategies.

Potential advisors were identified by the Center for Neighborhood Technology with the
intention of forming a group with the following competencies, which address the supply
and demand sides of transportation carbon emissions: new vehicle technologies,
alternative fuels, urban design and transit-oriented development, mass transit, behavioral
change incentives and other VMT reduction strategies.

Potential advisors were invited to participate in the development of the Transportation
and Land Use Chapter of the Presidential Climate Action Plan via a letter—faxed and/or
emailed—from Scott Bernstein, President of the Center for Neighborhood Technology
(CNT). The letter of invitation, which outlined CNT’s request for input on literature to
review, experts to contact, and mitigation strategies to explore, was sent to thirty-five
potential advisors. Letters of invitation were followed by phone calls (often resulting in
voice messages) to confirm receipt of letter and to inquire about interest in and capacity
for serving as an advisor.

Twenty-one people responded affirmatively to the request to advise CNT. Phone
interviews were scheduled and held with fifteen of these people. The phone interview,
conducted by Nicole Friedman of CNT, started with an overview of what the PCAP is,
CNT’s role in drafting the Transportation and Land Use chapter, the objectives of the
chapter, and the timeline for the process. After providing the overview, the following
general questions were posed:




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              What are promising short-term strategies to mitigate climate change in the
               areas of travel demand reduction, alternative fuels, and advanced vehicle
               technologies?
              What are promising long-term strategies to mitigate climate change in the
               areas of travel demand reduction, alternative fuels, and advanced vehicle
               technologies?
              What barriers exist for implementing these strategies?
              How might the proposed strategies be funded?
              In the areas of transportation and land use, what should the next
               administration focus on?

Advisors, those interviewed and those unavailable for one-on-one interviews at this time,
received a list of possible strategies with accompanying GHG savings range potential,
identified in large part by the Center for Clean Air Policy, for review and comment. Next
advisors were sent an outline of policy recommendations with related costs—direct and
indirect, benefits, policy implementation considerations, and authority to implement
strategy. Advisor comments were incorporated into the draft chapter.

A draft chapter will be sent to advisors on Monday, April 9, 2007. Advisors will have the
opportunity to peer review the chapter until Friday, April 27, 2007. CNT will make
necessary changes to the draft chapter for submittal on May 4, 2007.

A list of advisors can be found in Appendix II.




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Appendix II: Chapter Advisors

Name                     Affiliation                            Focus Area(s)
Mark Delucchi            UC Davis, Institute of                 Fuel economy, vehicle
                         Transportation Studies                 technologies
John Holtzclaw           Sierra Club                            Smart growth, location
                                                                efficiency
David Goldstein          Natural Resource Defense Council       Transit, smart growth
Tom Radulovich           Livable Cities & BART                  Transit, rail, smart growth
                                                                (zoning & legislation)
DeWitt John              Bowdoin College (ME)                   Environmental studies
Bill Anker               Missouri Transportation Institute      Supply & demand
David Burwell            Project for Public Spaces              Land use planning
Tom Downs                Eno Foundation                         Rail, transit, land use,
                                                                transportation planning at
                                                                large
Gerrit Knaap             National Center for Smart Growth       Smart growth
John Wells               BP UK                                  Fuels, vehicle technologies
Keith Laughlin           Rails to Trails                        Railways, land use
KG Duleep                Energy & Environmental Analysis,       Vehicle technologies, fuel
                         Inc.                                   economy
Don Chen                 Smart Growth America                   Smart growth
Bill Holmberg                                                   Renewable energy, biofuels
John Horsley             American Association of State          Alternative fuels, vehicle
                         Highway and Transportation             technologies
                         Officials
Michael Ogburn           Rocky Mt Institute                     Alternative fuels, vehicle
                                                                technologies
Don Shoup                  UCLA                                 Parking
Sue Anderson               City of Portland                     Sustainable development
Bill Millar                American Public Transportation       Public transportation
                           Association
Lavinia Gordon             Transportation Options                 Travel demand reduction
George Schoener            Former DOT                             DOT
Note: Italicized entries represent those who have not yet participated in a personal
interview.




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Appendix III: Literature Review

Drafted March 20, 2007
REVISED: March 31, 2007

Prepared for: Presidential Climate Action Plan (PCAP), Transportation & Land Use

Prepared by: Nicole Friedman, Center for Neighborhood Technology

There is a body of literature that illuminates how the transportation sector contributes to
climate change through greenhouse gas emissions. A quantity of this literature also
addresses the reduction of carbon emissions, directly or indirectly, with possible and
promising mitigation strategies. The scope of this literature review, which will be
ongoing as the chapter develops, is recent—within the last ten years or less—with a focus
on:
     The extent of the problem and the current state of things;
     What the goals are for addressing the problem; and
     Mitigation (Supply and Demand) Strategies
            o Alternative fuels
            o Vehicle Technologies
            o Travel demand reduction

Researchers will draw on the below, in addition to advisory committee interviews and
recommendations, when reviewing and developing policy proposals for reducing CO2 in
the transportation sector by 80 percent by 2050 (using 1990 emissions as a baseline). The
literature review was undertaken to determine what data exists, what policy structures are
in place, what strategies result in CO2 emission reductions, and policy shifts that could
support reduction strategies.

I.     Problem: Quantity of CO2 from Transportation

Data reported by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy
(Energy Information Administration), and the Department of Transportation (Federal
Highway Administration, Federal Transit Administration, Federal Aviation
Administration, Maritime Administration) clearly show that a significant quantity of
greenhouse gas emissions are produced by the transportation sector. The
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s work also recognizes that fossil fuel use,
which is dominant in the transportation sector, is a leading contributor to carbon dioxide
concentrations, which are increasing each year. The data available from the EPA’s 2007
Draft US Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report
(http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport07.html), the Energy
Information Administration’s Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. in 2005
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/carbon.html) and Annual Energy Outlook 2007
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html), and the Bureau of Transportation Statistics
are detailed in the accompanying spreadsheet—Transportation and CO2 Emissions
Overview.


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The transportation sector is responsible for 28 percent of greenhouse gas emissions and
26 percent of carbon emissions in the United States (EPA). The Energy Information
Administration, in the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. in 2005, notes
―transportation is the largest contributing end-use sector to total emissions.‖ The
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s most recent report—Climate Change
2007: The Physical Science Basis—focuses on the significant responsibility of human
action, namely ―fossil fuel use and land-use change,‖ for the global increase in carbon
dioxide concentration (2). The transportation sector ―accounted for 33 percent of CO2
emissions from fossil fuel combustion in 2005‖ (EPA, 2-10).

Emissions are growing as the demand for travel increases (EPA). The percent of
emissions has increased each year by 1.5 percent on average (EIA). ―From 1990 to 2004,
transportation emissions rose by 29 percent due, in part, to increased demand for travel
and the stagnation of fuel efficiency across the U.S. vehicle fleet‖ (EPA, 2-26). By 2030,
under business as usual, vehicle miles traveled are expected to increase 2% annually
(EIA, Energy Outlook 2007).

There is widespread agreement that transportation, and its greenhouse gas emissions,
contribute to climate change and that there must be solutions adopted in the
transportation sector to curb and reduce the growth of emissions (CNT, CCAP, STPP:
Climate Matters 2003).

II.    Goals

CO2 Emission Reductions
A widely touted goal, and that being used to shape the policy recommendations in the
Presidential Climate Action Plan and the Transportation and Land Use chapter for the
plan, is an 80 percent reduction of CO2, using 1990 data for baseline emissions, by 2050.
Assuming that reduction should happen equally across all sectors, the goal then, using
EPA’s most recent draft—Greenhouse Gases Inventory (2007), is to have CO2 emissions
at a level no higher than 292.8 teragrams from the transportation sector. A level similar to
the 2001 transportation emissions of just California and New York combined (214.9 and
68.7 Tg respectively, WRI CAIT-US).

This great reduction cannot come from one transportation source, mode, sector or
strategy (Rosenfeld 2007). The ―long-term growth of driving is expected to outpace the
CO2 emissions benefits of vehicle technology improvements‖ so technological
advancements do not take away the need for travel demand reduction (6, CCAP
Guidebook). Use of alternative fuels, advanced vehicle technologies and travel demand
reduction in combination can help to reach short-term and long-term goals.

Sample Climate Change Action Plans
There are developing strategies on local and state levels, as well as growing debate on a
federal level, on how to mitigate GHG emissions in the transportation sector.



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The State of Oregon released a Strategy for Greenhouse Gas Reductions in December of
2004 that outlines fifteen transportation-related initiatives for reducing GHG emissions.
The plan includes the integration of land use considerations into transportation planning
and the promotion of the production and use of biofuels that have lower GHG emissions
than gasoline and diesel (Oregon Governor’s Advisory Group on Global Warming).
Other strategies: developing an incentive program for the purchase of high efficiency
vehicles, adopting state standards for high efficiency/low rolling resistance tires,
changing government fleet purchase and vehicle use to include more fuel efficient
vehicles (Oregon Governor’s Advisory Group on Global Warming).

The City of Seattle has developed a Climate Action Plan, on a city-level. The plan
focuses on high-priority, near-term investment and actions that can be taken (Seattle
Climate Action Plan 2006). In the area of transportation, the plan calls for increasing
investment in public transit, expanding biking and walking infrastructure, developing a
road pricing system with tollways being more expensive at times when congestion is
higher, increasing parking tax (while ensuring that transit options can replace former
driving options), improving average fuel efficiency of city’s car fleet, and planning for
denser development that supports a strong public transit system (Seattle Climate Action
Plan).

In 2004, Princeton researchers Pacala and Socolow outlined a model for addressing
global climate change over 50 years using existing technology. Their ―wedge analysis‖
—which divides the gap between business as usual over time and an emissions reduction
path into equal reduction wedges—has been widely cited. The transportation solutions
they discuss are a doubling of fuel economy from 30 to 60 mpg, a 50 percent reduction in
miles traveled per vehicle, production of hydrogen with 4 million 1 megawatt wind
turbines, and an expansion of ethanol production by 5,000 percent. Any one of these
solutions is estimated to avoid 1 Gt CO2 emissions globally in 2054, assuming 2 billion
autos on the road. The solutions are not additive, however, as a 60 mpg automobile uses
less fuel than a 30 mpg automobile, so the emissions reduction achieved by clean fuels
will be less in the higher efficiency auto. (Pacala and Socolow 2004)

Climate Change Legislation
Many Climate Change Action Plans that have been or are being developed have some
grounding in California’s AB 32 and/or California’s AB 1493, commonly known as the
―Pavley Law‖ (Carbon Control News). ―[Pavely] requires the California Air Resources
Board (ARB) to develop and adopt regulations that reduce greenhouse gases emitted by
passenger vehicles and light duty trucks‖ (CARB, fact sheet). Regulations, as developed
through public meetings, were adopted by the California Air Resources Board in 2004
and mandated a 30 percent reduction by 2016 of CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles
and light-duty trucks starting with 2009 and later model years (Union of Concerned
Scientists). Therefore, California is set to exceed United States’ fuel economy standards
by increasing efficiency to 40mpg. The Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers and the
Association of International Automobile Manufacturers are suing the people of California
to stop the Pavley Law regulations from going into effect citing such claims as violation
of commerce clause (Sierra Club). At the time of this writing, the judge hearing the


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lawsuit has put the case on hold pending judgment in a related case before the Supreme
Court—Massachusetts vs. EPA.

California’s 2006 AB32 Global Warming Solutions Act places a cap on GHG emissions
that requires 2020 emissions to equal 1990 levels—a likely 25 percent reduction by 2020
statewide. The regulations to implement this law are being developed, and its full
economic impact is yet to be seen, but a study by David Roland-Holst of UC Berkeley
  estimates that working towards the reduction will add 83,000 jobs and $4 billion in
 income to California (Roland-Holst 2006). Arthur Rosenfield, in his presentation to a
March 2007 California Air Resources Board Symposium, proposed transportation
mitigation strategies in the following areas:15% smart growth, 2% renewable fuels, 28%
clean cars—among other reductions related to buildings, energy, etc.—in the short-term
to reach 30% of 2020 Business as Usual (BAU) CO2 emissions.

One of the provisions of AB32 is the development of a CO2 emissions registry.
California passed legislation to create a voluntary registry in 2001. Known as the
California Climate Action Registry, it has over 250 members and is evolving into the
registry mandated by AB32. In a parallel process, California along with 30 other states,
is currently participating in the development of a Multi-State Climate Registry (MSCR
Briefing Materials) that has made a case for the ―quantification standards‖ and consistent
accounting of CO2 emissions from high-level and individual sources that can be used to
support mitigation policies. While the Multi-State Climate Registry is not transportation-
specific, it demonstrates the growing interest in collecting standard baseline data on
emissions from which CO2 savings can be measured and strategies for these savings
evaluated.

Federal Transportation Legislation
Three main pieces of Federal legislation have shaped of Federal efforts to improve the
environmental impact of transportation to date—the Clean Air Act, the transportation
omnibus bills, and the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, which were created
as part of the Energy Policy Conservation Act of 1975 (NHTSA).

States have been very active in developing climate change action plans. Some of the
strategies put forward are fundable through the most recent transportation omnibus bill,
the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users
(SAFETEA-LU), which was passed into law on August 10, 2005 and will be in effect for
a five-year period (FHWA). Environmental Defense, as well as other advocacy and
policy groups, have given SAFETEA-LU mixed reviews citing more funding for
bicycling and pedestrian projects including a $612 million provision over five years for
Safe Routes to School, which could lead to reduced vehicle miles traveled and related
emissions, with a negative component being the emphasis on highway projects
(Environmental Defense). The Center for Clean Air Policy, in Green-TEA...a legacy for
the planet? (draft February 2007), points out that the funding formulae in SAFETEA-LU
awards dollars for vehicle miles traveled, fuel use, and quantity of lane miles—in
essence, more driving, and GHG emissions.



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Federal transportation policy impacts climate change and what mitigation solutions can
and will be adopted (Ed. Riggs 2003). Papers produced from discussion at an Aspen
Institute Climate Change three-day policy dialogue, discuss the range of options from
working with vehicle manufacturers to creating more efficient vehicles to providing
incentives to fuel producers for making more low GHG fuels available. The papers,
reaching no definitive conclusions, explore the merit and complexities of cap-and-trade
programs, emission taxes, technology and emissions standards.

III.    Mitigation Strategies/Policy Recommendations
The following touches on the three focus areas—alternative fuels, vehicle technologies,
and travel demand reduction with an emphasis on land use policies.

A.     Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicle Technologies

               From the Energy Information Administration:
                      “Almost all (98 percent) of transportation sector emissions result
                      from the consumption of petroleum products: motor gasoline, at 60
                      percent of total transportation sector emissions; middle distillates
                      (diesel fuel) at 22 percent; jet fuel at 12 percent of the total; and
                      residual oil (i.e., heavy fuel oil, largely for maritime use) at 3.3
                      percent of the sector’s total emissions. Motor gasoline is used
                      primarily in automobiles and light trucks, and middle distillates
                      are used in heavy trucks, locomotives, and ships.”

Alternative Fuels
Alternative fuels that could reduce and/or replace the use of fossil fuels include ethanol
(derived from corn, sugarcane or cellulose), hydrogen (from ―steam reformation of
natural gas, gasification of natural gas, gasification of petroleum coke or biomass, and
electrolysis of water‖), natural gas, biodiesel (from yellow grease or restaurant waste,
rapeseed, mustard seed or soybeans), electricity, and propane (Tiax, LLC 2007).

The greenhouse gas emissions, costs, and other environmental impacts of alternative
fuels have been a source of much research and controversy. This controversy has many
sources. First, some fuels that may have zero net greenhouse gas impacts at the tailpipe
may generate higher levels of smog forming pollutants. Other fuels may be extremely
environmentally friendly but extremely costly. Finally, many fuels, including traditional
transportation fuels, have much greater environmental impact when looked at on a
lifecycle, or ―wells-to-wheels‖, basis than their impacts from vehicle combustion.

Source                  Fuel                         Potential Savings   Notes
Pickrell (2003)         Ethanol from corn                   2-3%         Alternative fuel
                                                                         mixed with
                                                                         gasoline
                        Petroleum, diesel,                 8-11%         Alternative fuel
                        biodiesel, electricity                           mixed with
                                                                         gasoline


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                       Compressed natural              5-6%
                       gas (CNG),
                       Liquefied petroleum
                       gas (LPG), and
                       hydrogen
Published in           Cellulosic Ethanol             52-88%            Low range takes
Stoddard and                                                            land use impact
Murrow (2006)                                                           into account.
                       Corn Ethanol                  -6 to 13%          Low range takes
                                                                        land use impact
                                                                        into account.
The above table (results also referenced in text below) is a small sample of the research
that has been conducted on the potential savings of different alternative fuels.

Alternative fuels are the focus of federal policy first with the Energy Policy Conservation
Act (which the CAFE standard was developed from) and then with the Alternative Fuels
Act of 1988 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 with the federal government's growing
concern with energy security and reducing reliance on foreign sources of oil. The Energy
Policy Act of 1992 generally outlines the requirements that apply to government fleets,
mandating a reduction of petroleum consumption and an increase of non-petroleum fuels
(DOE). Transit agencies have also been introducing alternative fuels and alternative fuel
vehicles to their fleets. CNT et al, in a Transit Cooperative Research Program Report,
look at the emissions from alternative fuels when used for buses, finding that the lowest
quantity of life cycle CO2 per mile was generated by hydrogen from electrolysis with the
greatest emissions coming from gasoline (Table 4-1 using Argonne National Laboratory's
GREET model), but the costs of hydrogen from electrolysis remain quite high and the
potential for large-scale production has been questioned (Romm 2004).

Wang notes that ―in general, fuel switching by itself has limited GHG emission reduction
potential. Combinations of fuel switching and use of advanced technologies...achieve
larger GHG emission reductions‖ (p. 75). As of 2005, there were 890,281 alternative fuel
vehicle and hybrids introduced on the road—1,753 of which are buses (EIA 2005). New
York City Transit tested compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and hybrid buses using
diesel buses as a baseline case. The results showed hybrid buses having the highest fuel
economy (Chandler et al 2006). Evaluation is ongoing to determine the best fuel base for
additions to the NYCT bus fleet.

There is much ongoing research and development to determine the most appropriate fuels
and technologies to invest in given life-cycle costs and emissions, including production,
distribution, and use. Pickrell in a study of GHG emissions for alternative fuels reported
the following results: using ethanol from corn could result in 2-3% GHG emission
reduction; petroleum diesel, biodiesel, or electricity could lead to 8-11% GHG emission
reduction; reduction of GHG by 5-6% when replacing a portion of gasoline with CNG,
LPG, or hydrogen. The largest displacement of GHG emissions when replacing 25
percent of gasoline with alternative fuels is with E90, which means a fuel blend with 90
percent ethanol to 10 percent gasoline (Pickrell 2003). The costs per ton of GHG


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emissions avoided ranges from $100 for biodiesel to over $600 for corn-based ethanol
(Pickrell 2003). Besides being a more expensive source of reductions, Stoddard and
Murrow found that there are no real reductions, when including land use impact, of
replacing gasoline with ethanol from corn.

Tiax, LLC's research and reports for the California Energy Commission, a study
undertaken to determine how to increase the use of alternative transportation fuels under
the direction of the California's AB 1007—State Plan to Increase the Use of Alternative
Transportation Fuels, evaluates energy consumption and emissions from the Well-to-
Wheel. This recent life cycle study (report is still in draft form) found that ethanol
produced from sugarcane and cellulose have greater GHG emission reductions than
ethanol produced from corn.

Stoddard and Murrow, comparing three life-cycle fuel analyses, finds a range of 52-88
percent (52 percent when considering land use impacts) emission reduction potential
when replacing gasoline or diesel (as baseline) with ethanol. Hydrogen is another fuel
with great reductive potential, although there are still issues, such as handling
distribution, that need to be reviewed.

Welch cautions at the beginning of his study that there is a trend in the United States in
focusing on one alternative fuel, like hydrogen, as a ―silver bullet‖ when in fact, there
have been similar efforts, like the Zero Emission Vehicle program which have stalled
after a lot of hype. Welch reviews three models for introducing and supporting a
hydrogen based transportation system, noting in his findings that there must be attention
paid to the types and length of incentives to ensure that a new technology takes hold in
the market.

Freight
Freight transportation modes, particularly freight trucks, are a growing contributor to
emissions with a 69 percent increase in CO2 from trucks from 1990 to 2005 (EPA). The
Annual Energy Outlook cites heavy trucks used for freight as growing at the ―fastest
annual rate among the major forms of transport‖ (p. 88).

In the area of freight, Frey and Kuo identify thirty-three best practices that, if
implemented in the truck mode—which makes up 60% of freight's transport—could
result in a 60 percent reduction of CO2 emissions in 2025. Best practices that support this
level of reduction include use of B20 biodiesel, weight reduction, and introduction of
hybrid trucks (Frey 2007). Frey and Kuo also detail strategies for potential CO2 savings
in the areas of freight transport by rail and water. Rail and water mode improvements that
can reduce CO2 include anti-idling measures.

Walsh, in a presentation at a meeting of the International Council on Clean
Transportation, shows that North America is responsible for the largest share of energy
use for heavy duty trucks. Japan is taking a leadership role in improving fuel efficiency—
a 12% improvement from 2002 levels by 2015—through thermal efficiency, anti-idling,
and other strategies (Walsh).


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Another proposal for reducing CO2 emissions in the area of freight is shifting freight
currently transported by truck to rail. There is a potential 8 percent GHG savings
potential by switching a segment of freight on trucks to rail (Dierkers and Winkelman).
Greene and Schafer emphasize that the reduction of emissions will be realized by
ensuring that ―allow freight to be transferred quickly and efficiently among modes‖ (p.
37). Expensive and time consuming transfer of goods between and among modes can
offset anticipated emission savings.

Fuel Economy
According to An and Sauer, ―automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one
of the most effective tools in controlling oil demand and greenhouse gas emissions from
the transportation sector‖ (2). In the United States, automobile fuel economy is set with
the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), which originated in 1975 with the Energy
and Policy Conservation Act. Yet, despite our long history of regulating automobile fuel
efficiency, the United States, when considered in the company of Japan, China, and the
European Union, has the lowest fuel economy standards (An and Sauer 2006). The
United States’ CAFÉ standard for passenger vehicles is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg), a
level that was set in 1990 and remains the same today (FHWA). While increases are
periodically discussed, the Annual Energy Outlook assumes just an average of 29.2 mpg
for new cars and light trucks, and 22.2 mpg for the national light vehicle fleet in 2030 in
its base case model.

Hybrids
Hybrid vehicles are those that two or more sources of power (HybridCars). Most hybrid
vehicles run off of rechargeable batteries, which can use the braking power for recharge,
and gasoline. The costs of hybrid vehicles are coming down, market share is increasing,
and even with incentives phased out, there is a big interest in hybrid technology and
purchasing hybrid cars even if they are more expensive than non-hybrid vehicles (Greene
et al. 2004). Hybrid cars have the potential to increase vehicle fuel economy by 30
percent (Ibid). With a variety of hybrid cars on the road, there is growing interest in the
potential of plug-in hybrid vehicles that get most of its propulsion energy from electricity
(Sanna 2005). The plug-in hybrid is being used and tested across the country. As quoted
in Sanna, in urban driving idling accounts for 10-15 percent of total vehicle emissions,
with hybrids eliminating the idling.

There are currently a range of incentives available to people who drive hybrid vehicles
and alternative fuel vehicles. The incentives include tax credits and tax deductions for
different manufacturers and models (see fueleconomy.gov). Although credits and tax
deductions play a role in bringing newer technologies to scale, there is some speculation
that they will be phased out in 2008 (Greene et al 2004).

General
The range of policy initiatives that can impact lower CO2 emissions from transportation
are found in CCAP's Guidebook and include, in part: regulating replacement tires with
low rolling resistance tires, supporting a fuel tax, increasing use of biodiesel fuels and


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hybrid vehicles. The Guidebook also provides a good format for ordering the complex
issues and opportunities within the transportation sector.

It is worth noting that many studies do not take into account the full cost of driving,
which includes the manufacturing of vehicles, the building of roads, and the processing
and transporting of fuels (RMI). If emissions from all of these were taken into account,
increasing fuel economy and improving vehicle technologies do little to reduce overall
emissions. There has been a debate waging online regarding the report published by
CNW Research Inc. claiming that when taking the life of a vehicle into account—
inception to scrappage—the Hummer 3, for example, produces less emissions than
smaller, more fuel efficient cars like the Prius, which is the number-one selling hybrid
(CNW Marketing Research Inc., Hybrid Car).

B.     Travel Demand Reduction

One of the critical ways to reduce the amount of CO2 is to reduce the amount of driving
since the largest proportion of CO2 in the transportation sector comes from passenger
vehicles and there are significant increases in VMT for light-duty vehicles and freight
trucks (EPA 2007). Travel demand reduction acknowledges that transportation is not an
end in itself and that transportation choices are shaped by the cost of housing, the location
and reputation of schools, job locations, and the availability of services and amenities
(Lipman 2006). The percentage of income spent on transportation correlates with
distance from work with the cost of transportation increasing as the distance increases
(ibid). The physical form of a place results in travel patterns and options and associated
costs for households and the environment (TCRP 93).

Transportation is the number two household expense, second only to housing, with lower
income households paying a higher percentage of their budget for transportation
(Bernstein et al 2005). Climate Matters clearly outlines the connection between vehicle
miles traveled and land use. The greater density in an area, the less VMT per household;
the less density, the greater the VMT. Sprawl causes ―induced [auto] demand.‖ Sprawling
areas where there is a mismatch between where people live and where they work results
in a higher rate of vehicle miles traveled. In addition to household expense, a reliance on
car travel has other negative implications including higher rates of physical inactivity
(i.e., with less opportunities to walk to services or to transportation), greater instances of
obesity and other chronic health conditions that have been linked to inactivity and
mapped to sprawling areas in contrast with more compact areas (McCann et al 2003).

In dense urban areas where public transportation and services are readily accessible,
emissions per household are lower (TCRP 93). Strategies that promote a reduction in
travel demand include: transit-oriented development, infill/brownfield development,
pedestrian-oriented design, smart school siting, improved transit service, light rail transit
networks, bus rapid transit corridor, bicycle initiatives, road pricing, commuter
incentives, pay-as-you drive insurance, green mortgages, smart growth, municipal
parking programs, and safe routes to school plans (Dierkers et al). Each of these
strategies is possible when land use planning is paired with transportation planning.


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Transit-oriented development (TOD), as one in a potential suite of options, refers to the
placement of retail or commercial space located near transit that people can access from
transit. Dierker et al estimates that regional TOD makes walking and transit more
attractive, and can result in a 5 percent decrease in vehicle miles traveled in that given
area. This modest reduction can be linked with other strategies for greater impact.
Dierker et al quantifies potential reduction of vehicle miles traveled from each of the
aforementioned strategies, each accompanied with case studies and links to resources.

Many of the travel demand reduction strategies imply that there is a functioning public
transportation system in place. Public transportation ridership went up 24 percent
between 1995 and 2002, largely due to transit investments made through TEA-21
(Hemily 2004). Because public transit miles and corresponding emissions are averaged
over the number of passengers and public transit boasts more passengers, emissions from
public transit are much less per person than those produced from travel in a car. Hemily
notes that despite the uptake of transit, there are still growing trends of sprawling
development and increased vehicle ownership that threatens the or growth of public
transportation. In 2004, 67,362,000 vehicle miles were traveled on light rail primarily
relying on electricity for power (APTA). Complete data on the cost, quantity and use of
public transit is available on APTA's website.

Another possible strategy for reducing the demand for travel and related GHG emissions
is car sharing. There are car sharing programs—short-term, pay-as-you go access to a
car—throughout the United States which have been developed to address the economic
and environmental costs involved with owning a vehicle. Cevero et al, in reviewing the
impact of San Francisco City CarShare, found that car sharing members' ―mean VMT
and fuel consumption went down faster than nonmembers‖ and that vehicle ownership
declined among members (39).

Air travel is also a big source of CO2 emissions that be reduced through the introduction
of high speed rail and, overall a more integrated transportation system that reduces the
frequency of flights that are 100-400 miles (Dittmar et al). Developing high speed rail in
the12 corridors that are currently proposed, would deter some air, train, bus, and car
travel, which could total savings of 2.7 teragrams of CO2 per year (CCAP, CNT 2006).

In summary, proposals to reduce VMT and related emissions should include: a shift in
funding towards more efficient alternatives, location efficient development,
environmentally friendly travel choices, diverse freight networks, and choices for
intercity travel (CNT, CCAP 2003).




                                            13
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Literature Review Bibliography

American Public Transportation Association (APTA). Transit Statistics (2004).
http://www.apta.com/research/stats/rail/railfuel.cfm

An, Feng and Amanda Sauer. Comparison of Passenger Vehicle Economy and GHG
Emission Standards Around the World. Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate
Change. December 2004.

Bernstein, Scott, Carrie Makarewicz, and Kevin McCarty. Driven to Spend: Pumping
Dollars out of Our Households and Communities. Center for Neighborhood and Surface
Transportation Policy Project. June 2005.

California Air Resources Board. Fact Sheet: Assembly Bill 1493, Reducing Climate
Change Emissions from Motor Vehicles.
http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/factsheets/ccfactsheet.pdf

Carbon Control News. More States Embrace California Approach In Climate Change
Bills. February 26, 2007.

Center for Clean Air Policy and Center for Neighborhood Technology. High Speed Rail
and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the U.S. January 2006.

Center for Clean Air Policy, Center for Neighborhood Technology, Surface
Transportation Policy Project. Climate Matters: The Case for Addressing Greenhouse
Gas Reduction in Federal Transportation Policy. January 2003.
http://www.fundersnetwork.org

Center for Neighborhood Technology with TransManagement. Travel Matters:
Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation. TCRP Report 93.
Transportation Research Board. 2003.

Cevero, Robert, Aaron Golub and Brendan Nee. San Francisco City CarShare: Longer-
Term Travel Demand and Car Ownership Impacts. Institute of Urban and Regional
Development, University of California at Berkeley. Working Paper: 2006-2007

Chandler, K., E. Eberts and L. Eudy. New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit
Buses: Interim Evaluation Results. NREL/TP-540-38843. January 2006.

CNW Marketing Research, Inc. Dust to Dust: The Energy Cost of New Vehicles from
Concept to Disposal. December 2006. http://cnwmr.com/nss-folder/automotiveenergy/

Dierkers, Greg, Erin Silsbe, Shayna Stott, Steve Winkelman, and Mac Wubben. Center
for Clean Air Policy. CCAP Guidebook. (http://www.ccap.org/safe/guidebook.php)




                                          14
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

Dierkers, Greg and Steve Winkelman. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freight
Transportation: Future Savings from Technologies, Fuels, Infrastructure, Logistics &
Operations in 2025. Presentation to U.S. Department of Transportation. March 16, 2006.

Dittmar, Hank, Sarah Campbell and Carrie Makarewicz. Missed Connections: Finding
Solutions to the Crisis in Air Travel. 2002.

Environmental Defense, in SAFETEA-LU Transportation Reauthorization:
Environmental Scorecard
(http://www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/4726_TransScorecard.pdf

Energy Information Administration. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. in 2005
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/carbon.html

Energy Information Administration. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels
2005
http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/alternate/page/datatables/atf14-20_05.html

Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 2007
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html

Environmental Protection Agency. 2007 Draft US Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report
http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport07.html

Federal Highway Administration. Safe Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation
Equity Act: A Legacy for Users. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/index.htm

Frey, Christopher H. and Po-Yao Kuo. Best Practices for Greenhouse Gas Emission
Reductions in Freight Transportation. Prepared for: Talking Freight Seminar Series,
FHWA, on January 17, 2007.

Governor's Advisory Group on Global Warming. Oregon Strategy for Greenhouse Gas
Reductions. State of Oregon, December 2004.

Greene, David, KG Duleep and Walter McManus. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel
Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market. ORNL/TM-2004/181. August 2004.

Greene, David and Andrea Schafer. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S.
Transportation. Pew Center for Global Climate Change. May 2003.

Hemily, Brendon. Trends Affecting Public Transit's Effectiveness Prepared for the
American Public Transportation Association. November 2004.

HybridCars.com (http://www.hybridcars.com/cars.html and
http://www.hybridcars.com/technology.html)



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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical
Science Basis (Policy Briefing)

Lipman, Barbara. A Heavy Load: The Combined Housing and Transportation Burdens of
Working Families. Center for Housing Policy. October 2006.

McCann, Barbara and Reid Ewing. Measuring the Health Effects of Sprawl. Smart
Growth America and Surface Transportation Policy Project. November 2003
http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/report/HealthSprawl8.03.pdf

Multi-State Climate Registry Stakeholder Briefing Materials. December 2006.

NHTSA. CAFÉ Overview—Frequently Asked Questions.
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/cafe/overview.htm

Pacala, S. and R. Socolow. Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the
Next 50 Years with Current Technologies. Science 13 August 2004: Vol. 305, no. 5686,
pp. 968-972. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/305/5686/968

Pickrell, Don. Fuel Options for Reducing GHG Emissions from Motor Vehicles. The
DOT Center for Climate Change and Environmental Forecasting. September 2003.


Riggs, John A. (editor). A Climate Policy Framework: Balancing Policy and Politics. A
Report of An Aspen Institute Climate Change Policy Dialogue. November 14-17, 2003.

Rocky Mountain Institute. Climate area of website.
http://www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid342.php

Roland-Holst, David. Economic Growth and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in California.
UC Berkeley. August 2006. http://calclimate.berkeley.edu/

Romm, Joseph. The Hype about Hydrogen. Issues in Science and Technology.
http://www.issues.org/20.3/romm.html

Rosenfeld, Art. Near-Term Solutions for Mitigation of Carbon Dioxide. Presented on
March 5, 2007 at California Air Resources Board Symposium.

Seattle, A Climate of Change: Meeting the Kyoto Challenge. September 2006.
http://www.seattle.gov/climate/docs/SeaCAP_plan.pdf

Sierra Club. Pavley Regulations Offer A Legal Angle to Reducing Global Warming.
Update January 2007.
http://www.sierraclub.org/environmentallaw/lawsuits/viewCase.asp?id=303




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Presidential Climate Action Plan
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Stoddard, Michael and Derek Murrow. Climate Change Roadmap for New England and
Eastern Canada. Environment Northeast. 2006

Tiax, LLC. Full Fuel Cycle Assessment Well to Tank Energy Inputs, Emissions and Water
Impacts. February 2007. Prepared for California Energy Commission

Union of Concerned Scientists. Backgrounder: California Regulates Global Warming
Emissions from Motor Vehicles, California’s Vehicle Global Warming Law. October 28,
2005.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Energy Policy Act.
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/epact/federal/index.html

U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. Effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act CAFE Incentives Policy.
Report to Congress March 2002.
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/rulings/CAFE/alternativefuels/index.htm

Walsh, Michael. Global Efforts to Encourage Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy
Improvements. Presented to International Council on Clean Transportation, February 22,
2006.

Wang, M. Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Using Alternative Transportation
Fuels with Advanced Vehicle Technologies. Eno Transportation Foundation's Global
Climate Change and Transportation: Coming to Terms. 2002.

Welch, C. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition
Dynamics. Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446. February 2006
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39446.pdf

World Resource Institute, CAIT-US. http://cait.wri.org/




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Appendix IV: Data Analysis

CO2 Savings: Passenger Vehicles (1-3)

1)     Travel Demand Reduction

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case ((VMT)/mpg adjusted)*lbs of CO2 per gallon – Policy
Case ((VMT*1% annual reduction)/mpg adjusted)*lbs of CO2 per gallon

Sources:
    VMT for 1990 and 2005 from Environmental Protection Agency (using passenger
       vehicles and light duty vehicles); VMT projections to 2030 (Annual Energy
       Outlook 2007 growth rate: 1.9% annual); VMT projections from 2030 to 2050
       (slightly slower growth rate: 1.7% annual based on US Census Bureau population
       projections and GDP projections)
    Rate of VMT reduction: 0.25-1% annually (Center for Clean Air Policy); used 1%
       for aggressive case.
    MPG projections (Environmental Protection Agency rated); MPG adjusted for
       actual (78% -- based on Energy Information Administration)
    lbs of CO2 per gallon = 19.6 (Environmental Protection Agency)
    lbs CO2 converted to MMT CO2 by dividing pounds by 2205 thousand

Vehicle Miles Traveled (in billions):
                 2005         2010         2020         2030        2050
Projected        2655         2799         3474         3474        5937
1% annual        2655         2771         3109         3290        3017
reduction


2)     Increased fuel efficiency

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case ((VMT)/mpg adjusted)*lbs of CO2 per gallon – Policy
Case ((VMT)/mpg adjusted * 4% annual increase in efficiency)*lbs of CO2 per gallon

Sources:
    Please see #1
    4% annual increase in fuel efficiency has been proposed by President Bush, by
       Congressional legislation; a 4% annual increase is the number most often cited for
       what’s possible
    Penetration rate of fuel efficiency into the car fleet was also considered using
       research by David Greene.



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Fuel Economy (adjusted):
                 2005           2010        2020        2030        2050
Projected        19.6           19.8        21.2        22.2         33
4% annual                       20.4        29.3        43.7        97.4
increase


3)     Increased use of low GHG fuels

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case ((VMT)/mpg adjusted)*(lbs of CO2 per gallon) – Policy
Case ((VMT)/mpg adjusted)*(lbs of CO2 per gallon*5%, 10%, 20%, 40% reduction of
CO2 per lb respective to 2010, 2020, 2030, and 2050)


Sources:
    Please see #1
    5%-40% reduction of lbs CO2 per gallon of fuel is based on the increased
       introduction of biofuels (to supplement and replace use of gasoline); reduction
       potential based on studies summarized in Stoddard, Michael and Derek Murrow.
       Climate Change Roadmap for New England and Eastern Canada. Environment
       Northeast. 2006 (Table 2-1, p. 124) and review of the Center for Clean Air Policy
       (see CCAP Guidebook at http://www.ccapguidebook.org)

Low GHG Fuels (lbs CO2 per gallon):
                 2005      2010             2020        2030        2050
Projected        19.6       19.6            19.6        19.6        19.6
(using
gasoline)
4% annual        19.6       18.7            17.7        15.7        11.8
increase



CO2 Savings: Freight (5-7)

5) Truck: Increased Efficiencies and other measures

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case (CO2 emissions projected without increasing efficiency
and taking other measures) – Policy Case (CO2 * % savings from increasing efficiency
and taking other measures)



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Sources:
    Base Case established using EPA Inventory of US GHG Emissions and Sinks,
       Feb 2007 Draft and Energy and Information Administration’s Annual Energy
       Outlook
    Policy Case assumes that the following measures from the Center for Clean Air
       Policy are taken (with potential savings—listed next to each measure—based on
       availability of technology * assumed rate of penetration introduced incrementally
       from 2010-2050):
           o Improve tractor aeroprofile (1.7%)
           o Improve tractor aerofeatures (1.8%)
           o Improve trailer aerodynamics (1.9%)
           o Use of wide-based tires (1.3%)
           o Auto tire inflation (0.3%)
           o Weight reduction (0.9%)
           o Low friction lubricant (0.8%)
           o Speed reduction (3.4%)
           o Hybrid Technology (9.0%)
           o Idle Reduction (4.5%)
           o Driver training (1.9%)
           o Shift some truck to rail (8.0%)
           o Increased use of Biodiesel (6.9%)

6) Rail: Increased Efficiencies and other measures

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case (CO2 emissions projected without increasing efficiency
and taking other measures) – Policy Case (CO2 * % savings from increasing efficiency
and taking other measures)

Sources:
    Base Case established using EPA Inventory of US GHG Emissions and Sinks,
       Feb 2007 Draft and Energy and Information Administration’s Annual Energy
       Outlook
    Policy Case assumes that the following measures from the Christopher Frey and
       Po-Yao Kuo’s Best Practices for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in Freight
       Transportation, prepared for: Talking Freight Seminar Series, FHWA, on January
       17, 2007, are taken (with potential savings—based on availability of technology *
       assumed rate of penetration—introduced incrementally from 2010-2050):
           o Reducing idling
           o Reducing weight
           o Improving rolling resistance
           o Increasing the use of biodiesel (B20)




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Presidential Climate Action Plan
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7) Water: Increased Efficiencies and other measures

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case (CO2 emissions projected without increasing efficiency
and taking other measures) – Policy Case (CO2 * % savings from increasing efficiency
and taking other measures)

Sources:
    Base Case established using EPA Inventory of US GHG Emissions and Sinks,
       Feb 2007 Draft and Energy and Information Administration’s Annual Energy
       Outlook
    Policy Case assumes that the following measures from the Christopher Frey and
       Po-Yao Kuo’s Best Practices for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in Freight
       Transportation, prepared for: Talking Freight Seminar Series, FHWA, on January
       17, 2007, are taken (with potential savings—based on availability of technology *
       assumed rate of penetration—introduced incrementally from 2010-2050):
           o Improving the propeller system
           o Reducing idling
           o Improving rolling resistance
           o Increasing the use of biodiesel (B20)

CO2 Savings: Intercity Passengers (8-10)

8)     Air: Increased Efficiencies and Other Measures

Formula:

Savings Potential = Base Case (CO2 emissions projected without increasing efficiency
and taking other measures) – Policy Case (CO2 * % savings from increasing efficiency
and taking other measures)

Sources:
    Base Case established using EPA Inventory of US GHG Emissions and Sinks,
       Feb 2007 Draft and Energy and Information Administration’s Annual Energy
       Outlook
    Policy Case assumes that the following measures from the International Air
       Transportation Association
       (http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/environment/fuel_efficiency.htm) (with potential
       savings—based on availability of technology * assumed rate of penetration—
       introduced incrementally from 2010-2050):
           o Improved air traffic management (12%)
           o Operational improvements (6%)




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Presidential Climate Action Plan
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9)    High Speed Rail

Formula:

Sources:
    Numbers taken from the high speed rail study conducted by the Center for
       Neighborhood Technology and the Center for Clean Air Policy—High Speed Rail
       and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the US. January 2006. Available online at
       http://www.cnt.org.

10)   Travelports

Formula:

Sources:




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                                      23
Presidential Climate Action Plan
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Appendix V: Method for Identifying and Prioritization Mitigation Policies and Strategies

                  MITIGATION POLICIES and STRATEGIES IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS:
         TRAVEL DEMAND1                                          VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES2                                        ALTERNATIVE FUELS3
         Journey to work                                         Passenger Vehicles                                           Ethanol
         Goods movement                                          Light Duty Trucks                                            Natural Gas
         Tourism                                                 Heavy Duty Trucks                                            Hydrogen
         Economic Generators                                     Buses                                                        Biodiesel
         Community Travel                                        Aircraft                                                     Electricity
                                                                 Boats and Ships                                              Propane
                                                                 Locomotives

                  GOAL: Reduce CO2 in transportation sector by 80% by 2050 (from 1990 levels).
METHODS
1) Share of total projected
baseline emissions effected                  2) Cost
                                             Effectiveness/                                                          3) Builds on current
with Reduction Potential
                                             Return on                                                               initiatives
                                                            Upfront costs; implementation costs;                                 Review case studies; are
                                             Investment     annual overall costs; who bears the                                  there success stories that
                                                            cost? And when? Social costs/benefits,                               can be replicated or
                                                            health costs/benefits? Environmental                                 scaled?
                                                            cost/benefits?
4) Potential for Partnerships and
Funding
                                                  5) Barriers to
                    Private/Public;                                               6) Meets Multiple Goals/Other
                                                  Overcome
                    Local/State/Federal                         Technical         Benefits/Optimizes Adaptation
                                                                Legal
                                                                Cultural
                                                                Political
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   1) Anker, William. Revisiting Transportation Planning. Public Works Management & Policy, Vol. 9 No. 4, April 2005: 270-277.
   2) Vehicle technologies will be reviewed in each of the applicable categories used by the Environmental Protection Agency and Energy Information
      Administration for reporting and predicting emissions.
   3) US Department of Energy. Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/altfuels.html)
                                                                          24
Presidential Climate Action Plan
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Appendix VI: Complete Set of Policy Recommendations

Cate   Sub-    Policy        Reduction     Existing         Policy       Policy       Policy     Implementation       Presidential     Policy             References/Notes
gory   categ   Recomme       Strategy      Programs         Strategy     Strategy     Strategy   Barriers             Implementation   Implementation
       ory     ndation                                      Direct       Indirect     Indirect                        Action
                                                            Costs        Costs        Benefits
PASSENGER VEHICLES
       Travel alternatives
               Encourage
               greater
               use of
               current
               public
               transporta
               tion
               systems
                             Equalize      Commuter         Decreas      If parking   Putting    Altering             Advisory         Supporting a      see TRB Rpt 107:
                             transit and   Choice Tax       e parking    costs        transit    perception that                       change in the     Analyzing the
                             parking       Benefits         benefits     exceed       and        public                                commuter          Effectiveness of
                             benefits                       to that of   benefits,    driving    transportation is                     benefits          Commuter Benefits;
                                           Currently,       transit      people       on par     a system for the                      established in    see also APTA
                                           companies        will         will look    with one   poor, old, young                      TEA-21            transit data and
                                           utilizing this   cause a      for          another.   and infirmed and                                        recent upward trend
                                           program          cost to      alternativ              not having                                              of ridership
                                           offer elibile    people       e                       mainstream
                                           employees        who          transport               appeal; see as
                                           $205 per         drive        ation.                  being "socialist"
                                           month for
                                           parking v.                                            Pricing public
                                           $105 per                                              transportation
                                           month for                                             and driving in the
                                           transit                                               same way

                             Offer tax     Commuter         Cost of      Cost to      Increase   Increase             Advisory         Congressional
                             credit for    Choice Tax       the tax      those        d use of   complexity of the                     bill to approve
                             people        Benefits         credit       consume      public     tax code; setting                     credit
                             who                                         rs on the    transit    standards to
                             commute       Tax free                      "fee" side              incent people                         Change in the
                             by public     transit                       of the                  who are                               IRS Tax code
                             transportat   benefits                      policy                  currently not
                             ion                                                                 taking transit




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Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                      Offer         Off-peak       Cost of                  Redistrib    Employers giving     Advisory
                      reduced       hours on       differenc                ution of     flexible
                      fares for     commuter       e                        rider        schedules;
                      transit use   trains,        between                  loads        transit must be
                      during off-   buses, and     full fare                makes        able to provide
                      peak          subways        and                      transit      adequate service
                      hours                        reduced                  experien     during off-hours
                                                   fare                     ce less
                                                                            crowded      Because fares
                                                                            and          are set locally,
                                                                            therefore    would be difficult
                                                                            more         to start
                                                                            pleasant;    regulating
                                                                                         federally
                      Replace       El Salvador,   Cost of      Potential   Use of a     Implementation       Advisory   Congressional      suggest as pilot
                      drivers       India          smart        cost to     Smart        timeline will                   Bill to approve    program in large
                      licenses                     card         integrate   card         depend upon                     regulation         cities
                      with          Comprehen      technolo     data        makes        driver license
                      "smart        sive           gy and       gathering   for an       renewal process                 Would require
                      cards" that   national ID    data         and         integrate                                    cooperation from
                      contain       and drivers    collection   sharing     d transit    Resistance due                  State
                      travel data   license        ;            mechani     system       to perceived loss               Secretaries,
                      and act as                                sm          and          of privacy                      transit
                      a transit                    Impleme                  allows                                       authorities, and
                      pass                         ntation                  agencies                                     law enforcement
                                                   cost                     to collect
                                                                            accurate
                                                                            ridership
                                                                            data
                      Offer         In             Cost of                  Reduces      Requires buy-in      Advisory   Congressional      see
                      incentive,    SAFETEA-       incentive                Federal      from private                    Bill to approve    http://www.apta.com/
                      such as a     LU there                                pressure     sector and                      incentive          government_affairs/a
                      tax credit,   are                                     to fund      political sector                                   ptatest/testimony060
                      to            provisions                              public                                                          720.cfm; TOD
                      encourage     for private                             transport                                                       related; look at TIFIA
                      private       investment                              ation                                                           and SIBs
                      investment    in tollways,
                      in public     freight..
                      transportat
                      ion           diversify
                                    loan and
                                    investment
                                    options to
                                    cover
                                    transportati
                                    on cost




                                                                              26
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                         Invest                       Cost of      Devising      Reduces      Potential           Executive Order   Designate CEQ
                         more in                      re-          system        number       resistence from                       in comjunction
                         transit                      directing    for           of           the political                         with other White
                         operations                   funding      creating      environm     sector, as well                       House offices to
                         and                          to transit   investme      ental        as from                               develop
                         expansion                    from         nt criteria   impact       industries that                       implementation
                                                      other                      studies      rely on funding                       strategy and
                                                      funding                    (eliminat    going to highway                      draft the Federal
                                                      areas                      e cost of    improvements                          Transportation
                                                                                 this study                                         Bill that will need
                                                                                 and                                                re-authorization
                                                                                 related                                            in 2009
                                                                                 procedur
                                                                                 al
                                                                                 expense)
            Encourage    Award          The           Impleme                    Gives        There is debate     Advisory          Congression Bill      see APTA testimony
            greater      bonus          Chicago       nting                      transit an   about how cap-                        to authorize          (link above)
            use of       points to      Climate       cap-and-                   advantag     and- trade                            implementation
            current      transit in a   Exchange      trade                      e over       systems should                        of a cap-and-
            public       cap-and-       is one of     system                     other        be structured                         trade regulation
            transporta   trade          many                                     industrie
            tion         system         existing                                 sMoney
            systems                     examples of                              will be
                                        a cap-and-                               re-
                                        trade                                    invested
                                        program                                  in
                                                                                 continuo
                                                                                 us
                                                                                 improve
                                                                                 ment of
                                                                                 transport
                                                                                 ation
                                                                                 options
                         Tie                          Gatherin     Loss of       Paradig      Needing to shift    Advisory          Congressional
                         transportat                  g            funding       m shift to   current operation                     Bill to authorize
                         ion funding                  baseline     to cities     performa     model for                             regulation
                         to potential                 data to      that do       nce          funding
                         CO2                          develop      not           based
                         emissions                    policy       reduce        funding
                         reductions                                emission
                                                                   s




                                                                                  27
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                          Update        Transit      Loss of     Decreas      Financial burden   Executive Order   Ulimately, a      Travel Matters
                          fleets to     agencies     revenue     ed GHG       to transit                           Congressional
                          include       (with        to oil      emission     agencies in                          Bill would need
                          greater       federal      industry    s            implementing                         to authorize a
                          use of        and local                             fleet upgrades.                      mandate to
                          alternative   funds,                   Potentiall                                        increase use of
                          fuel and      other                    y easier                                          low GHG fuels
                          advanced      investme                 access to
                          vehicle       nt) incur                GHG
                          technologi    cost of                  fuels for
                          es that       keeping                  the
                          have lower    transit                  public
                          GHG           functiona
                          emissions     l and
                                        update
                                        fleet
            Multi-
            modal
            design to
            include
            bike paths,
            parking,
            and
            pedestrian
            walkways
                          Focus on      Develop      Making      Beneficia    Current funding    Executive Order                     Brookings Institute
                          first         ment of      first       l            structures and                                         report on First
                          suburbs       transit      suburbs     communi      formulas                                               Suburbs by Tony
                                        and          more        ty                                                                  Downs
                                        public       affordabl   members
                                        centers;     e           seeking
                                        related to               "city
                                        transit-                 centers",
                                        oriented                 easier
                                        develop                  access to
                                        ment                     options
                                        practices                other
                                                                 than
                                                                 driving




                                                                  28
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                          Implement     Examples       Cost of                 Increase     Local zoning         Advisory and   Congressional
                          the idea of   exist in see   incorpora               d mobility   codes and            Budgetary      approval of
                          "complete     California,    ting                                 current planning                    budget that
                          streets" --   Florida, and   complete                             standards                           would included
                          roads that    Kentucky       streets                                                                  funding based
                          accommod                     idea into                                                                upon inclusion of
                          ate all                      transport                                                                complete streets
                          transit                      ation                                                                    requirement
                          modes-                       project,
                          walking,                     and then                                                                 Congressional
                          biking,                      the cost                                                                 Bill approving
                          streetcar,                   to                                                                       implementation
                          rail, and                    impleme                                                                  of concept
                          car                          nt the
                                                       idea
            Increase
            access to
            and
            support
            travel
            alternative
            s
                          Subsidize                    Upfront     Changin     Researc      Insurance;           Budgetary      Congressional       IGO (received
                          car                          and long-   g           h shows      making                              approval of         CMAQ funds to
                          sharing                      term        insuranc    that         carsharing                          budget that         purchase low
                          (developm                    costs of    e           people       programs                            would included      emission vehicles)
                          ent of                       starting,   practices   who are      profitable so that                  funding for
                          programs                     managin     (pay-as-    carshare     people/entities                     carsharing
                          and use)                     g,          you         members      invest in them;                     programs
                                                       insuring,   drive)      give up      creating an
                                                       and                     cars at a    ownership                           Program could
                                                       marketin                higher       mentality                           operate through
                                                       g a car                 rate than                                        the Department
                                                       sharing                 nonmem                                           of Transportation
                                                       program                 bers;
                                                                               affordabl
                                                                               e and
                                                                               convenie
                                                                               nt
                                                                               transport
                                                                               ation
                                                                               option
                                                                               that
                                                                               complem
                                                                               ents use
                                                                               of transit
                                                                               and other
                                                                               modes

                                                                               Decreas



                                                                                29
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                                                                             e in
                                                                             number
                                                                             of
                                                                             vehicles
                                                                             purchase
                                                                             d and
                                                                             lowering
                                                                             of VMT




                          Provide      Carpools      Construc    Cost of     Increase     Advisory and   Congressional     See Commuter
                          incentives   and           ting,       incentive   d mobility   Budgetary      Bill to approve   Benefits program
                          for          vanpool       and/or                  and                         incentive code
                          carpooling   programs      increasin               access to
                          and          exist under   g the                   distant
                          vanpooling   Commuter      number,                 resource
                                       Benefits      HOV                     s
                                       program       lanes                   coupled
                                                                             with a
                                                     Cost to                 reduction
                                                     manage                  in
                                                     carpool                 congesti
                                                     and                     on
                                                     vanpool
                                                     incentive
                                                     s and
                                                     program
                                                     structure
                                                     s
      Land use
             Plan for
             denser,
             mixed use,
             more
             efficient
             communiti
             es




                                                                              30
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                      Reduce          Cost to     Buildings    Increase     Local zoning        Advisory                      See Don Shoup's
                      the             impleme     may be       s            codes and                                         work
                      parking         nt new      less         emphasi      funding practices
                      requireme       regulatio   marketab     s on
                      nts for new     n           le to        walking      People's
                      buildings                   people       and other    demand for
                                                  intereste    transit      multiple parking
                                                  d in         modes,
                                                  multiple     which
                                                  parking      potentiall
                                                  spots        y leads
                                                               to
                                                               greater
                                                               investme
                                                               nt in the
                                                               area

                                                               Reduces
                                                               car
                                                               congesti
                                                               on
                      Adopt           Site        Marketin     Increase     Local zoning        Advisory   Congressional      SGA
                      Smart           specific    g,           s            codes and                      Bill mandating
                      Growth                      educatio     emphasi      funding practices              incorporation of
                      standards                   n, and       s on                                        principles into
                      for local                   incorpora    walking                                     new projects
                      and                         tion of      and other
                      regional                    Smart        transit
                      planning                    Growth       modes,
                                                  principles   which
                                                  into         potentiall
                                                  planning     y leads
                                                  models       to
                                                               greater
                                                               investme
                                                               nt in the
                                                               area

                                                               Reduces
                                                               car
                                                               congesti
                                                               on




                                                                31
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                            Support        Multiple   site       Marketin     Increase     Local zoning        *See Chapter for in-
                            Transit-       case       specific   g,           s            codes and           depth
                            oriented       studies               educatio     emphasi      funding practices   recommendation
                            developme                            n, and       s on                             analysis
                            nt                                   incorpora    walking
                                                                 tion of      and other
                                                                 Smart        transit
                                                                 Growth       modes,
                                                                 principles   which
                                                                 into         potentiall
                                                                 planning     y leads
                                                                 models       to
                                                                              greater
                                                                              investme
                                                                              nt in the
                                                                              area

                                                                              Reduces
                                                                              car
                                                                              congesti
                                                                              on
                            Support                   site       Marketin     Increase     Local zoning
                            Infill/brown              specific   g,           s            codes and
                            field                                educatio     emphasi      funding practices
                            developme                            n, and       s on
                            nt                                   incorpora    walking
                                                                 tion of      and other
                                                                 Smart        transit
                                                                 Growth       modes,
                                                                 principles   which
                                                                 into         potentiall
                                                                 planning     y leads
                                                                 models       to
                                                                              greater
                                                                              investme
                                                                              nt in the
                                                                              area

                                                                              Reduces
                                                                              car
                                                                              congesti
                                                                              on
      Incentives
              Create
              market
              demand
              for travel
              alternative
              s




                                                                               32
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                      Make                        Developi     Expense     With          Creating delivery      Advisory   Regulatory (what   See Portland's
                      "smart                      ng           for         better        method and                        information has    example of smart
                      trips"                      marketin     customizi   informati     implementation                    to be made         trips
                      informatio                  g            ng          on                                              available and in
                      n available                 materials    informati   readily                                         what format to     Smart trips reduce
                      when                        on           on          available                                       consumers)         VMT 9-11 percent
                      people                      different                that
                      renew                       transport                compare
                      their                       ation                    s the
                      Drivers                     options                  costs
                      License                     and                      and
                                                  programs                 availabilit
                                                                           y of
                                                  Employe                  transport
                                                  es to                    ation
                                                  answer                   options,
                                                  question                 people
                                                  s and                    make
                                                  provide                  different
                                                  informati                choices
                                                  on on
                                                  transit
                                                  options
                      Offer                       Cost of      Marketin    Reduces       Resistence to          Advisory   Regulatory         See California
                      parking                     handling     g and       use of        the idea                          change in
                      cash-out                    and          educatio    personal                                        Commuter
                      benefits                    providing    nal         vehicle                                         Benefit package
                                                  cash-out     materials   for work
                                                  alternativ               trips
                                                  e
                      Federal       Location      Developi     Educatio    People        Federal                Advisory   Convene            Fannie Mae products
                      support of    Efficient     ng and       n and       can           assistance may                    conference of
                      Live Near     Mortgages     marketin     incentive   afford to     still not offset the              lenders and
                      Your Work     and           g of         s for of    live          housing prices of                 transit agencies
                      and           Baltimore     mortgage     lenders     closer to     a neighborhood                    regarding
                      Location      City's Live   products     to use      where         to make it                        possibility of
                      Efficient     Near Your                  mortgage    they          affordable                        implementation
                      Home          Work                       products    work
                      Buyer's       Program                                and/or
                      Assistance                                           don't
                                    values                                 need to
                                    location,                              operate a
                                    proximity                              car
                                    and access
                                    to travel
                                    options




                                                                             33
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                        Find the                      Cost of      Cost to     Reductio    Local zoning and   Advisory          Task Dept. of       Pasadena proposed
                        "right                        changing     analyize    n of        parking                              Transportation to   study
                        price" for                    meters       what is     VMT         requirements                         conduct study
                        curb                                       the right
                        parking                                    price
                        that
                        discourage
                        s driving
                        Create         Successful     Establish    Cost to     Reductio    Resistance from    Executive Order   Regulatory          *See Chapter for in-
                        federal        examples       ing fee      drivers     n of VMT    cities, drivers,                                         depth
                        standards      exist across   collection               and         auto and oil                                             recommendation
                        for            the country    system                   congesti    industries, lack                                         analysis
                        devising       (for                                    on;         of existing
                        congestion     example in                              decrease    infrastructure
                        pricing        California)                             wear and
                                       and in the                              tear on
                                       world (for                              the roads
                                       example,
                                       London)
                        Increase                      Cost to                              No current tax     Advisory          Congressional       American Petroleum
                        gas and                       vehicle                              standard                             Bill                Institute
                        diesel tax                    owners
                        Tax                           Cost of      Marketin    Reductio                       Advisory and      Congressional
                        incentives                    tax credit   g and       n of VMT                       Budgetary         approval of
                        offered to                                 educatio    and                                              budget that
                        businesse                                  nal         congesti                                         includes
                        s that offer                               materials   on;                                              incentive
                        telecommu                                  to          decrease
                        ting                                       employer    wear and
                        options                                    s           tear on
                        and flex                                               the roads
                        scheduling
FUEL ECONOMY
      Regulation
             Increase
             fuel
             economy




                                                                                34
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                      Increase    Passenger      Cost to     Potential   Decreas    Protests from     Advisory   NHTSA would       *See Chapter for in-
                      CAFE        vehicles       manufact    cost to     es fuel    Automobile                   need to develop   depth
                      standards   mpg is 27.5    urers in    consume     depende    industry and                 & authorize       recommendation
                                                 adjusting   rs if       nce by     possible                     policy; Policy    analysis
                                  Light truck    vehicles    manufact    reducing   resistence from              would then need
                                  (under         to adhere   urers       frequenc   the political                enforcement and   Note: Idea was
                                  8500lbs.) is   to new      increase    y of gas   sector                       oversight         included in the
                                  22.5           standard    sale        fillups.                                                  original bill of the
                                  (reviewed      s, and      prices to                                                             Energy Policy Act of
                                  annually)      cost of     recoup                                                                2005 but it did not
                                                 standard    costs                                                                 make it into the final
                                  Penalty for    impleme                                                                           Act
                                  failing to     ntation.
                                  meet CAFE
                                  standards is   Potential
                                  $5.50 per      loss of
                                  tenth of a     accumul
                                  mile per       ated
                                  gallon for     "credits"
                                  each tenth     may
                                  under the      result in
                                  target value   manufact
                                  times the      urers
                                  total volume   having to
                                  of those       pay
                                  vehicles       additiona
                                  manufactur     l penalty
                                  ed for a       fees.
                                  given model
                                  year.

                                  Manufactur
                                  ers can
                                  earn CAFE
                                  “credits” to
                                  offset
                                  deficiencies
                                  in their
                                  CAFE
                                  performanc
                                  es. Thus,
                                  reducing
                                  penalty
                                  amounts.

                                  Credits can
                                  not be
                                  transferred
                                  between
                                  fleets.



                                                                          35
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                         Create       Light trucks,   Cost to     Potential    Reduces    Protests from         Advisory   Congressional
                         CAFÉ         SUVs, and       manufact    cost to      emission   automobile                       Bill to authorize
                         standards    pick up         urers in    consume      s for an   manufacturers                    creation of
                         for          trucks over     creation    rs if        entire                                      standard
                         vehicles     8500lbs. do     of          manufact     class of   Protests from car
                         over 8,500   not have to     vehicles    urers        vehicles   dealers who may                  NHTSA would
                         lbs.         conform to      adhering    increase                have products                    need to enforce
                                      mpg fuel        to new      sale                    they could no                    and regulate
                                      efficiency      standard,   prices to               longer sell                      policy
                                                      and         recoup
                                                      costs of    costs                   Potential Political
                                                      standard                            resistance
                                                      Impleme     Potential
                                                      ntation.    to have a
                                                                  fleet of
                                                                  vehicles
                                                                  already
                                                                  created
                                                                  but not
                                                                  allowed
                                                                  on the
                                                                  road- so
                                                                  loss of
                                                                  income
                                                                  to
                                                                  manufact
                                                                  urers
                         Require                      Cost to                             Implementation        Advisory
                         use of low                   replace
                         rolling                      tires
                         resistence
                         tires
      Incentives
              Increase
              fuel
              economy
                         Implement                    Cost of     Cost to      Neutral    Sector                Advisory
                         a feebate                    impleme     those        policy     dependent
                         system                       ntation     consume
                                                                  rs on the
                                                                  "fee" side
                                                                  of the
                                                                  policy




                                                                                36
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                               Tax credits   The Energy      Cost of   Publicizin   Encoura     Defining "low     Budgetary   Congressional
                               for owners    Policy Act      the tax   g new        ges         GHG" standards                approval of tax
                               of low        of 2005         credit    credit       purchase                                  credit and
                               GHG           provides a                             of fuel     Opposition from               implementation
                               vehicles      credit for                Increase     efficient   oil companies                 by the IRS
                                             taxpayers                 in oil       vehicles    and vehicle
                                             who                       prices to                manufactors
                                             purchase                  compens
                                             certain                   ate for
                                             energy                    potential
                                             efficient                 loss
                                             vehicles,
                                             including
                                             Qualified
                                             Hybrid
                                             vehicles.

                                             Program is
                                             set to end
                                             December
                                             2010.
                               Tax credits   Manufactur      Cost of   Increase     Encoura     Defining "low     Budgetary   Congressional
                               for           ers of          the tax   in oil       ges         GHG" standards                approval of tax
                               manufactu     energy          credit    prices to    productio                                 credit and
                               rers of low   efficient                 compens      n of fuel   Opposition from               implementation
                               GHG           appliances                ate for      efficient   oil companies                 by the IRS
                               vehicles      are                       potential    vehicles
                                             provided                  loss
                                             certain tax
                                             credits; this
                                             might be
                                             applicable
                                             to auto
                                             manufactur
                                             ers
LOW GHG FUELS
      Biofuels
                 Replace
                 use of
                 gasoline
                 and
                 biodiesel
                 with
                 alternative
                 fuels




                                                                                     37
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                            Mandate       Cost to      Potential    Decreas      Availability of      Executive Order                     City, state and
                            use of        increase     impact       e use of     fueling stations;                                        federal example on
                            alternative   the          on land      100%         implementation                                           updating fleets
                            fuels for     number       use          gasoline     timeframe;
                            federal,      of fueling   practices    or diesel    capacity to
                            state, and    stations     that         decrease     update flee
                            local                      generate     s CO2
                            governme      Cost to      alternativ   emission
                            nt fleets     increase     e fuels      s
                                          productio
                                          n of fuel
                            Set targets   Cost to      Potential    Decreas      There are limited    Executive Order
                            for           increase     impact       e use of     stations that are
                            replacing     the          on land      100%         currently
                            gasoline      number       use          gasoline     providing
                            with          of fueling   practices    or diesel    alternative fuels
                            blends of     stations     that         decrease
                            biodiesel,                 generate     s CO2        Potential for
                            ethanol,      Cost to      alternativ   emission     increasing
                            and           increase     e fuels      s            emissions from
                            biodiesel     productio                              other criteria air
                                          n of fuel                              pollutants
                            Tax           Cost to      Increase     Incent       Opposition from      Budgetary         Congressional     see
                            carbon        impleme      in gas       change       oil industry, car                      approval of tax   http://www.wri.org/cli
                            content of    nt tax       price to     of           dealerships and                                          mate/pubs_descripti
                            fuels and                  compens      reliance     fueling stations                                         on.cfm?pid=4177
                            keep tax in                ate for      on
                            special                    tax          carbon
                            fund                                    rich fuels
                            Incentivize   Refining     Potential    Picking      Political            Budgetary         Creation of
                            production    productio    impact       appropria    opposition that                        incentive
                            of biofuels   n and        on land      te fuels,    produce
                            based on      developi     use          consideri    alternative fuels
                            GHG           ng           practices    ng           that do not meet
                            reduction     capacity     that         overall      reduction
                            potential     for          generate     impact       potential
                            while         distributi   alternativ                standard
                            reducing      on           e fuels
                            incentives
                            for oil
                            exploration
      Electricity
               Support                                 American
               ongoing                                 technolo
               developme                               gy in this
               nt of                                   area is
               innovative                              not at the
               technologi                              forefront;
               es                                      not a




                                                                     38
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                                                        domestic
                                                        stronghol
                                                        d



                             Continue      Cost to                  Support     Expense and                                  *See chapter for in-
                             to            automak                  market      availability of                              depth analysis
                             Investigate   ers for                  penetrati   vehicles;
                             the           conducti                 on of a     resistance from
                             possibility   ng R&D,                  low GHG     car manufactors
                             of hydrid     bringing                 vehicle     and the oil
                             plug-ins      new                                  industry
                                           technolo
                                           gies to
                                           market
                             Fund          Cost of      Reduces                 Protest from oil   Budgetary
                             technology    the          funding                 industry and
                             research      research     for                     auto
                             in creating                research                manufacturers
                             better                     in other
                             batteries                  transport
                             and use of                 ation
                             flywheels                  areas
      Hydrogen
              Support
              R&D for
              green
              hydrogen
              developme
              nt as a fuel
              for
              vehicles
                             Provide       Developi                 Long-                          Budgetary   Legislation
                             federal       ng a                     term
                             funding for   distributi               results
                             R&D of        on                       could
                             green         infrastruc               greatly
                             hydrogen      ture;                    reduce
                             as a car      ongoing                  emission
                             fuel          develop                  s
                                           ment of
                                           productio
                                           n system
FREIGHT
      Truck
              Increase
              efficiency




                                                                     39
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                            Increase       Cost of                               Resistance from    Potentially EPA    Regulation          *See chapter for in-
                            Truck          developi                              Truck                                                     depth analysis
                            design         ng                                    manufacturers      Legislation to
                            efficiency     technolo                                                 enforce emission
                                           gy to                                                    standards
                                           increase                                                 through
                                           efficiency                                               interstate
                                                                                                    trucking
                            Increase       Cost of      Increase    Account      Availability of                       Promotion and
                            use of         developi     in oil      for great    biofuels;                             outreach; getting
                            biofuels for   ng           prices to   reduction    Resistance from                       more suppliers
                            trucks         technolo     compens     in GHG       auto industry
                                           gy to        ate for     emission
                                           increase     potential   s
                                           efficiency   loss
                            Shift          Enhancin     Loss of     Decreas      Potential          Advisory
                            goods          g            revenue     ed truck     competition
                            movement       capacity     to          VMT and      between Truck
                            from truck     of rail to   trucking    emission     Unions and Rail
                            to rail        accomm       industry    s;           worker Unions;
                                           odated                   Reductio     Resistance from
                                           increase                 n of truck   Truckers and
                                           in goods                 congesti     truck
                                           moveme                   on           manufacturers;
                                           nt                                    Resistance from
                                                                                 homeowners
                                                                                 near rail tracks
                            Increase       Cost to                               Resistance from
                            use of         Truck                                 Truck Fleet
                            hybrid         fleet                                 operators
                            trucks         owners
                                           to
                                           purchase
                                           hybrid
                                           vehicles
      Marine
               Increase
               efficiency
                            Improve        Cost of                  Decreas
                            propeller      developi                 es fuel
                            system,        ng                       depende
                            use of         technolo                 nce
                            B20,           gy to
                            reduce         increase
                            idling by      efficiency
                            electrifying
                            ports
      Locomotive




                                                                      40
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

             Increase
             efficiency
                          Weight        Cost of
                          reduction,    developi
                          switch to     ng
                          B20, better   technolo
                          lubrication   gy to
                                        increase
                                        efficiency
INTERCITY PASSENGER
      High Speed Rail
             Create
             lower
             emission,
             innercity
             travel
             options
             that will
             result in
             reduced
             passenger
             vehicle
             trips and
             short
             airflights
                          Support       Support      Reduces       Opposition from       Advisory   Rail is deregulated;
                          private       cost and     number        homeowners                       therefore
                          investment    cost to      of short      living near rail                 development of high
                          and           improve      airplane      that do not want                 speed rail would
                          innovative    infrastruc   trips,        increased                        need to be a
                          funding for   ture         which in      activity                         collaborative effort
                          the                        turn                                           among the nation's
                          developme                  reduces       Opposition from                  freight carriers
                          nt of high                 emission      travel industry
                          speed rail                 s             (aviation, bus
                                                                   and motor coach
                                                     Encoura       companies) that
                                                     ges less      will face potential
                                                     of            income loss
                                                     electricity
                                                     rather
                                                     than
                                                     relying
                                                     on fuel




                                                       41
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                               Support       Infrastruc    May          Increase    Opposition from      Advisory                        Reconnecting
                               integrated    ture          result in    s multi-    commuters,                                           America
                               Travel        costs to      increase     modal       politicians; lack
                               Centers/H     create        to local     transport   of funding
                               ubs at        travel        taxpayer
                               airports      hubs          s to                     Integration
                               that                        cover the                among
                               include                     infrastruc               departments
                               High                        ture
                               Speed                       costs
                               Rail, bus
                               rapid                       May
                               transit,                    displace
                               trains                      prior
                                                           transit
                                                           stations
                                                           and
                                                           therefore
                                                           adversel
                                                           y affect
                                                           commute
                                                           rs and/or
                                                           business
                                                           es
                                                           around
                                                           those
                                                           stations

      Aviation
                 Support
                 use of
                 alternative
                 fuels and
                 low GHG
                 emission
                 vehicles at
                 airports
                               Use           Potential     Loss of      Decreas     Federal Aviation                Congressional
                               alternative   retrofittin   income       e in        Administration;                 Bill mandating
                               fuels for     g of          to oil       emission    Aviation industry;              use of alternative
                               airport       airport       industry     s           Protest from oil                fuels to the
                               equipment     equipme                                industry and/or                 Federal Aviation
                                             nt to                                  equipment                       Administration
                                             accomm                                 manufacturers
                                             odate
                                             alternativ
                                             e fuels




                                                                         42
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                      Support         Cost of                                             Budgetary
                      research        research
                      for
                      advanced
                      green air
                      travel
                      technologi
                      es: .
                      Divert          Increasin     Loss of          Aviation industry;
                      regional        g             income           worker unions
                      flights to      capacity      to               within and
                      high speed      and           aviation         associated with
                      rail (see       frequenc      sector;          the Aviation
                      High            y of high     potential        industry
                      Speed           speed         loss of
                      Rail)           rail trains   jobs
                                      and
                                      stations




                                                                43
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

Appendix VII: Top Policy Recommendations by Presidential Power

Action Type        Category           Sub-category          Policy Recommendation           Policy Implementation Strategy
Executive Order
                   PASSENGER VEHICLES
                                      Travel alternatives
                                                            Encourage greater use of
                                                            current public transportation
                                                            systems
                                                                                            Invest more in transit operations and
                                                                                            expansion
                                                                                            Equalize transit and parking benefits & Offer
                                                                                            parking cash-out benefits
                                      Land use
                                                            Plan for more efficient
                                                            communities through
                                                            increasing density and mixed
                                                            usages
                                                                                            Support transit-oriented development
                                      Incentives
                                                            Create market demand for
                                                            travel alternatives
                                                                                            Implement congestion pricing for roads

                                                                                            Expand car sharing
                   LOW GHG FUELS
                                      Biofuels
                                                            Increase use of low GHG
                                                            emitting alternative fuels
                                                                                            Support the use and distribution of alternative
                                                                                            fuels
                                      Electricity
                                                            Support ongoing development
                                                            of innovative technologies




                                                            44
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                                                                                            Continue to Investigate the possibility of hydrid
                                                                                            plug-ins

Budgetary
                   PASSENGER VEHICLES
                                      Travel alternatives
                                                            Encourage greater use of
                                                            current public transportation
                                                            systems
                                                                                            Invest more in transit operations and
                                                                                            expansion
                                      Land use
                                                            Plan for more efficient
                                                            communities through
                                                            increasing density and mixed
                                                            usages
                                                                                            Support transit-oriented development
                                      Incentives
                                                            Create market demand for
                                                            travel alternatives
                                                                                            Expand car sharing
                   INTERCITY PASSENGER
                                      High Speed Rail
                                                            Create lower emission,
                                                            innercity travel options
                                                                                            Support private investment and innovative
                                                                                            funding for the development of high speed rail


Advisory
                   PASSENGER VEHICLES
                                      Travel alternatives
                                                            Encourage greater use of
                                                            current public transportation
                                                            systems
                                                                                            Invest more in transit operations and
                                                                                            expansion




                                                            45
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

                                                                                       Equalize transit and parking benefits & Offer
                                                                                       parking cash-out benefits
                                      Land use
                                                        Plan for more efficient
                                                        communities through
                                                        increasing density and mixed
                                                        usages
                                                                                       Support transit-oriented development
                                      Incentives
                                                        Create market demand for
                                                        travel alternatives
                                                                                       Implement congestion pricing for roads

                   FUEL ECONOMY
                                      Regulation
                                                        Increase fuel economy
                                                                                       Increase CAFE standards
                   LOW GHG FUELS
                                      Biofuels
                                                        Increase use of low GHG
                                                        emitting alternative fuels
                                                                                       Support the use and distribution of alternative
                                                                                       fuels
                   FREIGHT
                                      Truck
                                                        Increase efficiency
                                                                                       Adopt freight truck efficiency measures

                   INTERCITY PASSENGER
                                      High Speed Rail
                                                        Create lower emission,
                                                        innercity travel options
                                                                                       Support private investment and innovative
                                                                                       funding for the development of high speed rail




                                                        46
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

Appendix VIII: In-depth look at Factors contributing to Transportation Sector Emissions

Land Use
Sprawling areas, characterized by single use zoning and low-density land use, results in ―induced [auto] demand.‖1 Local zoning
codes regulate what kind of property can be built—residential, commercial or mixed use—and where, which then dictates how people
access stores, work, school, and services. Are there sidewalks to walk on? Are commercial services within walking distance of
residential areas? Local zoning codes include, among other specific requirements, minimum parking, the width of roads, whether
sidewalks are built and where they are located, landscape elements—numbers of trees, etc, and maximum density allowed. Sprawl,
sometimes built in to local zoning codes and regulations, is directly linked to increased vehicle miles traveled, transportation costs,
instances of obesity and risk for other health ailments, congestion, and traffic fatalities.2

As population has increased, so has the rate of developed land and Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)—―for every1% in population
increase, developed land increases about 1.2%-1.3% and VMT increases by about 2.3%.‖3 Transportation expenditures are rising with
increases in developed land use and VMT, with an 8.8% increase from 1992 to 2003.4 Car ownership and how far one drives is largely
determined by residential density, household income, household size, and availability of public transit.5

While most land use choices are made at the local level, there is a federal influence on current sprawl that dates back to the post-
World War II development of the federal highway system, established with the Federal Highway Act of 1944. In the latest
authorization of transportation legislation—Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users—dollars are
awarded to projects based on the number of vehicle miles traveled, the quantity of fuel consumed, and the quantity of lane miles.
Federal funding of highway and road projects have been the main focus of the Department of Transportation budget, with funding
allocations and prerequisites—such as the completion of environmental impact studies—favoring road projects. The subsidization of
the development of highways and the car industry have come at a cost—reduced investment in other transportation options.




1
 Center for Clean Air Policy, Center for Neighborhood Technology, Surface Transportation Policy Project. Climate Matters: The Case for Addressing
Greenhouse Gas Reduction in Federal Transportation Policy. January 2003. http://www.fundersnetwork.org
2
  Driven to Spend and McCann study +…
3
  Ibid reference #1.
4
  Driven to Spend 2005
5
  Holtzclaw, J., R. Clear, H. Dittmar, D. Goldstein and P. Haas. Location Efficiency: Neighborhood and Socio-Economic Characteristics Determine Auto
Ownership and Use—Studies in Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol 25, 2002, p. 1-27.


                                                                            47
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

American Values
Land use decisions are subject to ―not in my backyard‖ (NIMBY) review. While there may be merit in land use policies that make for
dense communities, there is a market argument that runs counter, the foundation of which relies on ―the clear preference that
Americans have for the freestanding, single-family home.‖6

Americans value independence and space—both of which are afforded through vehicle ownership. Policy constructs are the reflection
of consumer demand, and what consumers want, and what they’ll pay for.

Fuel Economy Standards
In the United States, automobile fuel economy is set with the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), which originated in 1975
with the Energy and Policy Conservation Act. Yet, despite our long history of regulating automobile fuel efficiency, the United States,
when considered in the company of Japan, China, and the European Union, has the lowest fuel economy standards.7 The United
States’ CAFÉ standard for passenger vehicles is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg), a level that was set in 1990 and remains the same today
(FHWA). While increases are periodically discussed, the Annual Energy Outlook assumes just an average of 29.2 mpg for new cars
and light trucks, and 22.2 mpg for the national light vehicle fleet in 2030 in its base case model. Fuel economy is seen as one of the
most effective ways of reducing CO2 emissions in the transportation sector.8

The debate over fuel economy standards has waged for years. Fuel economy standards increased during times of oil embargos on
foreign states and were decreased after the time of crisis is over. Concerns with increasing fuel economy standards have been the
result of discussions on safety and impact on the economy. Car industry executives continue to lobby against the increase of fuel
economy standards, rather proposing an increase in the use of alternative fuel vehicles.

Vehicle Standards
Safety considerations are often at the forefront of setting standards for transportation modes. The Federal Highway Administration
recently commissioned a report on safety issues related to the use of low rolling resistance tires, determining that safety standards


6
 Fischel, William. Sprawl and the Federal Government. Cato Policy Report, September/October 1999
Vol. 21, No. 5. http://www.cato.org/pubs/policy_report/v21n5/cpr-21n5.html
7
 An, Feng and Amanda Sauer. Comparison of Passenger Vehicle Economy and GHG Emission Standards Around the World. Prepared for the Pew Center on
Global Climate Change. December 2004.
8
    Ibid


                                                                          48
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter

could be maintained even with adopting replacement tires that would cut down on GHG emissions. Current vehicle standards, such as
those used for locomotives, include heavy weight and materials.




Appendix IX: Glossary

                              PASSENGER VEHICLE REDUCTIONS

     Transit-oriented development (TOD)- refers to residential and commercial
     centers designed to maximize access by transit transportation

     Smart growth- is a general term for policies that integrate transportation and land
     use decisions

     Pedestrian-oriented design- refers to residential and commercial centers
     designed to maximize access by non-motorized transportation

     Congestion Pricing- refers to variable road pricing (higher prices under congested
     conditions and lower prices at less congested times and locations) intended to
     reduce peak-period vehicle trips.

     Parking Cash Out- means that commuters who are offered a free or subsidized
     parking space have the option of choosing the cash equivalent, resulting in a
     reduction of employees driving to work.

                                             services intended to
     Carsharing- automobile rentalFUEL ECONOMY substitute for private vehicle
     ownership. It makes occasional use of a vehicle affordable, while providing an
     incentive to minimize driving.the average mileage traveled by an automobile per
     Fuel Economy- is defined as
     gallon of gasoline (or equivalent amount of other fuel) consumed as measured in
                  *Definitions taken from Travel Demand Management Encyclopedia: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm61.htm
     accordance with the testing and evaluation protocol set forth by the Environmental
     Protection Agency.

                                                                    49
     Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ)- is the sales weighted average fuel
     economy, expressed in miles per gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer’s fleet of
     passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter




                                        ALTERNATIVE FUELS

   Ethanol- can be produced chemically from ethylene or biologically from the
   fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops
   and cellulosic residues from crops or wood. Used in the United States as a
   gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate.

   Natural Gas- a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane, occurring
   naturally in the Earth and used principally as a fuel.

   Propane- a gas whose molecules are composed of three carbon and eight
   hydrogen atoms. Propane is present in most natural gas in the United States, and
   is refined from crude petroleum.

   Hydrogen- a colorless, highly flammable gaseous fuel

   Biodiesel- a biodegradable transportation fuel for use in diesel engines that is
   produced through transesterification of organically derived oils or fats.

   Electricity- electric current used as a power source. Electricity can be generated
   from a variety of feedstocks, including oil, coal, nuclear, hydro, natural gas,
   wind, and solar.

   Methanol- a liquid fuel formed by catalytically combining CO with hydrogen in
   a 1 to 2 ratio under high temperature and pressure. Commercially, it is typically
   manufactured by steam reforming natural gas

   P-series fuels- fuels designed by the Pure Fuel Corporation to run in
   E85/gasoline flexible fuel vehicles

     *Definitions taken from the Alternative Fuels Data Center : http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/resources/glossary.html
                                                                                            50

                                         INTERCITY TRAVEL
Presidential Climate Action Plan
Transportation and Land Use Chapter




                                          FREIGHT

   Anti-idling or Idle reduction- is used to describe technologies and practices
   that reduce the amount of time engines idle. Reducing idle time saves fuel,
   engine wear, and money. In addition, it reduces emissions and noise.

   Rolling resistance - is the parasitic energy a tire consumes while rolling under
   load


                           * Definitions taken from Alternative Fuels Data Center : http://www.eere.energy.gov/




                                                                                    51

				
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