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Understanding Students with Hearing Loss

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					Understanding Students with
       Hearing Loss
         Chapter 14
          Cochlear Implants
   What are the issues of controversy?
   Do you think Mariah, Ricquel, and
    Shylah should have an implant?
                Definition
   Deaf = hearing loss of 70 to 90
    decibels or greater and cannot use
    hearing even with amplification
   Hard of hearing = hearing loss in the
    20 to 70 dB range and benefits from
    amplification
              Prevalence
   (2003) 70,349 students ages 6-21
   7,474 preschool ages 3-5
            Hearing Process
   Audition = hearing process
   Vibration = interpreting patterns in the
    movement of air molecules
   Sound is described in pitch and
    frequency
    – Frequency measured in hertz (Hz)
    – Loudness measured in decibels (dB)
                Outer Ear
   Auricle, or pinna, and ear canal
    – Purpose to collect the sound waves
    – Funnel sound waves to the tympanic
      membrane (eardrum)
    – Vibrating air hits the eardrum which
      causes vibration
               Middle Ear
   Consists of 3 little bones known as the
    ossicular chain= malleus (hammer),
    incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
    – Vibration of the eardrum causes the
      bones to vibrate and transmit sound
      through the middle ear
    – Eustachian tube also in middle ear
      equalizes air pressure when you yawn
      and swallow
                 Inner Ear
   Cochlea
    – Snail-shaped bony structure - multiple
      rows of delicate hair cells connected to
      auditory nerve
   Vestibular mechanism
    – Semicircular canals that control balance
            Characteristics
   IQ range same as general population
   Mild to severe language delays
   Receptive speech impairments
      Communication Options
   Oral/aural communication
    – Amplification or cochlear implant
    – Emphasis on amplified sound to develop
      language
   Manual communication
    – Sign language
    – Finger spelling
   Total or simultaneous communication
    – Combines both sign and spoken communication
                Challenges
   Academic Achievement
    – Challenges with reading and writing
   Social and emotional development
    – Parent -child interactions
    – Peers and teachers - self concept
    – Social cues
    – Sense of isolation
                  Causes
   Congenital - present at birth
   Acquired
    – Trauma
    – Disease
    – Exposure to excessive noise
               Hereditary
   1 in 2,000 children
   Result of inherited autosomal recessive
    gene
   70 documented inherited syndromes
    associated with deafness
                Prenatal
   Hypoxia
   Rubella
   Toxoplasmosis, herpes, syphilis,
    cytomegalovirus (CMV)
                 Postnatal
   Bacterial meningitis
   Acute otitis media (ear infections)
          Postlingual Causes
   Blow to the skull causing trauma to the
    cochlea
   Excessive noise - firecrackers and air
    guns
   Exposure to loud noise over time - rock
    concerts and headphones
    – Noise levels of 100 to 110dB
    – Sustained 90dB levels damaging
             Hearing Tests
   Evoked otoacoustic emissions: EOAE
   Screening auditory brain stem
    response
   Audimetry - ABR
   Behavioral audiological evaluations -
    older children
An audiogram is a picture of
your hearing. The results of
your hearing test are
recorded on an audiogram.
The audiogram to the right
demonstrates different
sounds and where they would
be represented on an
audiogram. The yellow
banana shaped figure
represents all the sounds that
make up the human voice
when speaking at normal
conversational levels.
The horizontal lines represent
loudness or intensity. The 0
decibel (dB) line near the top
of the audiogram represents
an extremely soft sound. Each
horizontal line below
represents a louder sound.
Moving from the top to the
bottom would be consistent
with hitting the piano key
harder or turning up the
volume control on your stereo.
The softest sound you
are able to hear at
each pitch is recorded
on the audiogram. The
softest sound you are
able to hear is called
your threshold.
Thresholds of 0-25 dB
are considered normal
(for adults). The
audiogram on the right
demonstrates the
different degrees of
hearing loss.
        Types of Hearing Loss
   Conductive - air-conduction thresholds
    show loss but bone-conduction are
    normal
   Sensorineural - no blockage in middle
    or outer ear - loss is caused by
    sensitivity in cochlear or auditory nerve
   Mixed - both air-conduction/bone-
    conduction and sensitivity
            IDEA Services
   Interpreting services
   Tutoring
   General classroom assistance
   Educational planning
   Sign language instruction
          Supplemental Aids
   Sound-field amplification system
   Loop systems
   Assistive technology
    – closed captioned
    – C-print: real-time translations of the
      spoken word
   http://www.dizziness-and-
    balance.com/testing/hearing_test.htm
   http://www.babyhearing.org/HearingAm
    plification/HearingLoss/audiogram.asp
   http://www.hdhearing.com/Learning/Pa
    rt2.htm

				
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posted:7/26/2011
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