Questionnaires for Customer Service Template

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					          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                            Introduction

   The chapter will address the following questions:
       What are the seven fact-finding techniques and what are the
        advantages and disadvantages of each?
       What are the types of facts a systems analyst must collect?
       How do you develop a questionnaire and interview agenda?
       What is a fact-finding strategy that will make the most of your time
        with end-users.
       What is the role of ethics in the process of fact-finding.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                     What is Fact-Finding?

   Introduction
       Fact-finding is the formal process of using research, interviews,
        questionnaires, sampling, and other techniques to collect
        information about systems, requirements, and preferences. It is
        also called information gathering or data collection.
       Tools, such as data and process models, document facts, and
        conclusions are drawn from facts.
       If you can't collect the facts, you can't use the tools.
       Fact-finding skills must be learned and practiced.
       Systems analysts need an organized method of collecting facts.
          They especially need to develop a detective mentality to be able
            to discern relevant facts!


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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
        What Facts Does the Systems Analyst Need
                  to Collect and When?

   When do you perform fact-finding?
       Fact-finding is most crucial to the systems planning and systems
        analysis phases.
          It is during these phases that the analyst learns about the
            vocabulary, problems, opportunities, constraints, requirements,
            and priorities of a business and a system.
       During systems design, fact-finding becomes technical as the
        analyst attempts to learn more about the technology selected for
        the new system.
       During the systems support phase, fact-finding is important in
        determining that a system has decayed to a point where the system
        needs to be redeveloped.


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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
        What Facts Does the Systems Analyst Need
                  to Collect and When?

   What types of facts must be collected?
       Any information system can be examined in terms of four building
        blocks: DATA, PROCESSES, INTERFACES, and
        GEOGRAPHY.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
        What Fact-Finding Methods are Available?

   There are seven common fact-finding techniques
       They are as follows:
          Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases.

          Research and site visits.

          Observation of the work environment.

          Questionnaires.

          Interviews.

          Rapid Application Development (RAD).

          Joint Application Development (JAD).

       An understanding of each of these techniques is essential to your
        success.
          An analyst usually applies several of these techniques during a
           single systems project.
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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Collecting Facts from Existing Documentation
       The first document the analyst should seek out is the organizational
        chart.
       Next, the analyst may want to trace the history that led to the
        project.
          To accomplish this, the analyst may want to collect and review
           documents that describe the problem. These include:
            • Interoffice memoranda, studies, minutes, suggestion box notes,
              customer complaints, and reports that document the problem area.
            • Accounting records, performance reviews, work measurement
              reviews, and other scheduled operating reports.
            • Information systems project requests – past and present.



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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Collecting Facts from Existing Documentation
       Next, the analyst may want to trace the history that led to the
        project. (continued)
          There are usually documents that describe the business function
           being studied or designed. These documents may include:
            • The company's mission statement and strategic plan.
            • Formal objectives for the organization sub-units being studied.
            • Policy manuals that may place constraints on any proposed system.
            • Standard operating procedures (SOPs), job outlines, or task
              instructions for specific day-to-day operations.
            • Completed forms that represent actual transactions at various
              points in the processing cycle.
            • Samples of manual and computerized databases.
            • Samples of manual and computerized screens and reports.
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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Collecting Facts from Existing Documentation
       Next, the analyst may want to trace the history that led to the
        project. (continued)
          Don't forget to check for documentation of previous system
           studies and designs performed by systems analysts and
           consultants. This documentation may include:
            •   Various types of flowcharts and diagrams.
            •   Project dictionaries or repositories
            •   Design documentation, such as inputs, outputs, and databases.
            •   Program documentation.
            •   Computer operations manuals and training manuals.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Collecting Facts from Existing Documentation
       All documentation collected should be analyzed to determine
        currency of the information.
       Don't discard outdated documentation.
          Just keep in mind that additional fact-finding will be needed to
           verify or update the facts collected.
       As you review existing documents, take notes, draw pictures, and
        use systems analysis and design tools to model what you are
        learning or proposing for the system.




                                    9
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Document and File Sampling Techniques
       Because it would be impractical to study every occurrence of every
        form, analysts normally use sampling techniques to get a large
        enough cross section to determine what can happen in the system.
          Sampling is the process of collecting sample documents,
           forms, and records.
       Experienced analysts avoid the pitfalls of sampling blank forms --
        they tell little about how the form is used, not used, or misused.
       When studying documents or records from a database table, you
        should study enough samples to identify all the possible processing
        conditions and exceptions.




                                   10
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Document and File Sampling Techniques
       How to Determine Sample Size:
          The size of the sample depends on how representative you want
           the sample to be.
          One simple and reliable formula for determining sample size is

            • Sample size = 0.25 x (Certainty factor/Acceptable error) 2
               – The certainty factor depends on how certain you want to be that the
                 data sampled will not include variations not in the sample.
               – The certainty factor is calculated from tables (available in many
                 industrial engineering texts). A partial example is given here.

               Desired Certainty            Certainty Factor
                      95%                           1.960
                     90                             1.645
                     80                             1.281

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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Document and File Sampling Techniques
       How to Determine Sample Size:
          Suppose you want 90-percent certainty that a sample of
           invoices will contain no unsampled variations.
              • SS = 0.25(1.645/0.10)2 = 68
              • We need to sample 68 invoices to get the desired accuracy.
            Now suppose we know from experience that one in every ten
             invoices varies from the norm. Based on this knowledge we
             can alter the above formula by replacing the heuristic .25 with
             p(1-p).
              • SS = p(1-p) (1.645/0.10)2. Where p is the proportion of invoices
                with variances.
              • SS = .10(1-.10) (1.645/0.10)2 = 25


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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Sampling of Existing Documentation,
                   Forms, and Files

   Document and File Sampling Techniques
       Selecting the Sample:
          Two commonly used sampling techniques are randomization
           and stratification.
            • Randomization is a sampling technique characterized as having
              no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data.
               – Therefore, we just randomly choose 25 invoices.
            • Stratification is a systematic sampling technique that attempts to
              reduce the variance of the estimates by spreading out the sampling
              -- for example, choosing documents or records by formula -- and
              by avoiding very high or low estimates.
               – For computerized files, stratification sampling can be executed
                   by writing a sample program.


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Fact-Finding and Information
          Gathering




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                   Research and Site Visits

   Introduction
       A second fact-finding technique is to thoroughly research the
        application and problem.
          Computer trade journals and reference books are a good source
           of information.
          Exploring the internet and world wide web (WWW) via your
           personal computer can provide you with a immeasurable
           amounts of information.
            • Internet is a global network of networks. Conceived in 1964 by
              the United States Department of Defense to create a national
              military communications network that would be imperious to
              attacks.



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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                     Research and Site Visits

   Introduction
       A second fact-finding technique is to thoroughly research the
        application and problem.
          Exploring the internet and world wide web (WWW) via your
           personal computer can provide you with a immeasurable
           amounts of information. (continued)
              • World Wide Web (WWW) was proposed in 1989 by a group of
                European physics researchers as a means for communicating
                research and ideas throughout the organization.
            Corporations use the internet as an effective means of
             communicating with their employees.
              • These corporate networks called intranets, function and provide
                the same assets of the WWW, but can restrict access from anyone
                outside the corporation.

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Fact-Finding and Information
          Gathering




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                   Research and Site Visits

   Introduction
       A similar type of research involves visiting other companies or
        departments that have addressed similar problems.
       Memberships in professional societies such as Data Processing
        Management Association (now known as AITP), or Association
        For Information Systems (AIS) among others can provide a
        network of useful contacts.




                                   19
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Introduction
       Observation is one of the most effective data-collection techniques
        for obtaining an understanding of a system.
          Observation is a fact-finding technique wherein the systems
            analyst either participates in or watches a person perform
            activities to learn about the system.
       This technique is often used when the validity of data collected
        through other methods is in question or when the complexity of
        certain aspects of the system prevents a clear explanation by the
        end-users.




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                Fact-Finding and Information
                          Gathering
               Observation of the Work Environment

   Collecting Facts by Observing People at Work
      The Railroad Paradox.        About thirty miles from Gotham City lay the commuter community of Suburbantown. Each morning, thousands
      of Surburbanites took the Central Railroad to work in Gotham City. Each evening, Central Railroad returned them to their waiting spouses,
      children, and dogs.
      Suburbantown was a wealthy suburb, and many of the spouses liked to leave the children and dogs and spend an evening in Gotha m City
      with their mates. They preferred to precede their evening of dinner and theater with browsing among Gotham City’s lush marke ts. But
      there was a problem. To allow time for proper shopping, a Suburbanite would have to depart for Gotham City at 2:30 or 3:00 in the
      afternoon. At that hour, no Central Railroad train stopped in Suburbantown.
      Some Suburbanites noted that a Central train did pass through their station at 2:30, but did not stop. They decided to petit ion the railroad,
      asking that the train be scheduled to stop at Suburbantown. They readily found supporters in their door -to-door canvass. When the petition
      was mailed, it contained 253 signatures. About three weeks later, the petition committee received the following letter from the Central
      Railroad:
              Dear Committee
             Thank you for your continuing interest in Central Railroad operations. We take seriously our commitment to providing respons ive
             service to all the people living among our routes, and greatly appreciate feedback on all aspects of our business.
             In response to your petition, our customer service representative visited the Suburbantown station on three separate days, ea ch time
             at 2:30 in the afternoon. Although he observed with great care, on none of the three occasions were there any passengers waiting
             for a southbound train.
             We can only conclude that there is no real demand for a southbound stop at 2:30, and must therefore regretfully decline your
             petition.
                                                                                                          Yours sincerely,
                                                                                                          Customer Service Agent
                                                                                                          Central Railroad




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Collecting Facts by Observing People at Work
       Observation Advantages:
          Data gathered by observation can be highly reliable.

          The systems analyst is able to see exactly what is being done.

          Observation is relatively inexpensive compared with other fact-
           finding techniques.
          Observation allows the systems analyst to do work
           measurements.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Collecting Facts by Observing People at Work
       Observation Disadvantages:
          Because people usually feel uncomfortable when being
           watched, they may unwittingly perform differently when being
           observed.
          The work being observed may not involve the level of
           difficulty or volume normally experienced during that time
           period.
          Some systems activities may take place at odd times, causing a
           scheduling inconvenience for the systems analyst.
          The tasks being observed are subject to various types of
           interruptions.


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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Collecting Facts by Observing People at Work
       Observation Disadvantages: (continued)
          Some tasks may not always be performed in the manner in
           which they are observed by the systems analyst.
          If people have been performing tasks in a manner that violates
           standard operating procedures, they may temporarily perform
           their jobs correctly while you are observing them.
            • In other words, people may let you see what they want you to see.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
         Observation of the Work Environment

   Guidelines for Observation
       Observation should first be conducted when the work load is
        normal.
          Afterward, observations can be made during peak periods to
           gather information for measuring the effects caused by the
           increased volume.
          The systems analyst might also obtain samples of documents or
           forms that will be used by those being observed.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Guidelines for Observation
       The sampling techniques discussed earlier are also useful for
        observation.
          Work sampling is a fact-finding technique that involves a large
           number of observations taken at random intervals.
            • This technique is less threatening to the people being observed
              because the observation period is not continuous.
            • When using work sampling, you need to predefine the operations
              of the job to be observed, then calculate a sample size as you did
              for document and file sampling.
            • Make that many random observations, being careful to observe
              activities at different times of the day.
            • By counting the number of occurrences of each operation during
              the observations, you will get a feel for how employees spend their
              days.
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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
          Observation of the Work Environment

   Guidelines for Observation
       With proper planning completed, the actual observation can be
        done.
          Effective observation is difficult to carry out however, the
           following guidelines may help you develop your observation
           skills:
            • Determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the
              observation.
            • Obtain permission from appropriate supervisors or managers.
            • Inform those who will be observed of the purpose of the
              observation.
            • Keep a low profile.
            • Take notes during or immediately following the observation.


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        Fact-Finding and Information
                  Gathering
        Observation of the Work Environment

   Guidelines for Observation
          Effective observation is difficult to carry out however, the
           following guidelines may help you develop your observation
           skills: (continued)
            •   Review observation notes with appropriate individuals.
            •   Don't interrupt the individuals at work.
            •   Don't focus heavily on trivial activities.
            •   Don't make assumptions.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                         Questionnaires

   Introduction
       Questionnaires are special-purpose documents that allows the
        analyst to collect information and opinions from respondents.
          The document can be mass produced and distributed to
           respondents, who can then complete the questionnaire on their
           own time.
       Questionnaires allow the analyst to collect facts from a large
        number of people while maintaining uniform responses.
          When dealing with the large audience, no other fact-finding
           technique can tabulate the same facts as efficiently.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                             Questionnaires

   Collecting Facts by Using Questionnaires
       Advantages:
          Most questionnaires can be answered quickly.

              • People can complete and return questionnaires at their
                convenience.
          Questionnaires provide a relatively inexpensive means for
           gathering data from a large number of individuals.
          Questionnaires allow individuals to maintain anonymity.

              • Individuals are more likely to provide the real facts, rather than
                telling you what they think their boss would want them to.
            Responses can be tabulated and analyzed quickly.



                                        30
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                             Questionnaires

   Collecting Facts by Using Questionnaires
       Disadvantages:
            The number of respondents is often low.
            There's no guarantee that an individual will answer or expand on all of
             the questions.
            Questionnaires tend to be inflexible.
               • There's no opportunity for the systems analyst to obtain voluntary
                  information from individuals or to reword questions that may have
                  been misinterpreted.
            It's not possible for the systems analyst to observe and analyze the
             respondent's body language.
            There is no immediate opportunity to clarify a vague or incomplete
             answer to any question.
            Good questionnaires are difficult to prepare.

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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Types of Questionnaires
       There are two formats for questionnaires, free-format and fixed-
        format.
       Free-format questionnaires:
          Free-format questionnaires offer the respondent greater
           latitude in the answer. A question is asked, and the respondent
           records the answer in the space provided after the question.
          The analyst should phrase the questions in simple sentences and
           not use words -- such as good -- that can be interpreted
           differently by different respondents.
          The analyst should ask questions that can be answered with
           three or fewer sentences.
            • Otherwise, the questionnaire may take up more time than the
              respondent is willing to sacrifice.
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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                          Questionnaires

   Types of Questionnaires
       Fixed-format questionnaires:
          Fixed-format questionnaires contain questions that require
           specific responses from individuals.
            • Given any question, the respondent must choose from the available
              answers.
            • This makes the results much easier to tabulate.
            • On the other hand, the respondent cannot provide additional
              information that might prove valuable.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Types of Questionnaires
       Fixed-format questionnaires:
          There are three types of fixed-format questions.

         1 Multiple-choice questions:

            • For multiple-choice questions, the respondent is given several
              answers.
               – The respondent should be told if more than one answer may be
                  selected.
               – Some multiple-choice questions allow for very brief free-
                  format responses when none of the standard answers apply.
            • An example of a multiple-choice, fixed-format question is:
                   Is the current accounts receivable report that you receive
                   useful?
                   YES                  NO
                   If no, please explain.
                                    34
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Types of Questionnaires
       Fixed-format questionnaires:
         2 Rating questions:

            • For rating questions, the respondent is given a statement and
              asked to use supplied responses to state an opinion.
            • To prevent built-in bias, there should be an equal number of
              positive and negative ratings.
            • The following is an example of a rating fixed-format question:
                  The implementation of quantity discounts would cause an
                  increase in customer orders.
                             Strongly agree       Agree              No opinion
                             Disagree             Strongly disagree




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Types of Questionnaires
       Fixed-format questionnaires:
         3 Ranking questions:

            • For ranking questions, the respondent is given several possible
              answers, which are to be ranked in order of preference or
              experience.
            • An example of a ranking fixed-format question is:
                  Rank the following transactions according to the amount of
                  time you spend processing them:
                  __________ % new customer orders
                  __________ % order cancellations
                  __________ % order modifications
                  __________ % payments



                                     36
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Developing a Questionnaire
       Good questionnaires are designed.
          If you write your questionnaires without designing them first,
           your chances of success are limited.
          The following procedure is effective:

            1 Determine what facts and opinions must be collected and from
              whom you should get them.
               – If the number of people is large, consider using a smaller,
                   randomly selected group of respondents.
            2 Based on the needed facts and opinions, determine whether free-
              or fixed-format questions will produce the best answers.
               – A combination format that permits optional free-format
                   clarification of fixed-format responses is often used.


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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                          Questionnaires

   Developing a Questionnaire
       Good questionnaires are designed.
          The following procedure is effective: (continued)

            3 Write the questions.
               – Examine them for construction errors and possible
                 misinterpretations.
               – Make sure that the questions don't offer your personal bias or
                 opinions.
               – Edit the questions.
            4 Test the questions on a small sample of respondents.
               – If your respondents had problems with them or if the answers
                 were not useful, edit the questions.
            5 Duplicate and distribute the questionnaire.


                                     38
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                            Interviews

   Introduction
       The personal interview is generally recognized as the most
        important and most often used fact-finding technique.
          Interviews are a fact-finding technique whereby the systems
           analysts collects information from individuals face to face.
       There are two roles assumed in an interview.
         1 The systems analyst is the interviewer, responsible for
           organizing and conducting the interview.
         2 The system user, system owner, or adviser is the interviewee,
           who is asked to respond to a series of questions.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                             Interviews

   Collecting Facts by Interviewing People
       Advantages:
          Interviews give the analyst an opportunity to motivate the
           interviewee to respond freely and openly to questions.
          Interviews allow the systems analyst to probe for more
           feedback from the interviewee.
          Interviews permit the systems analyst to adapt or reword
           questions for each individual.
          Interviews give the analyst an opportunity to observe the
           interviewee's nonverbal communication.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                            Interviews

   Collecting Facts by Interviewing People
       Disadvantages:
          Interviewing is a very time-consuming, and therefore costly,
           fact-finding approach.
          Success of interviews is highly dependent on the systems
           analyst's human relations skills.
          Interviewing may be impractical due to the location of
           interviewees.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                              Interviews

   Interview Types and Techniques
       There are two types of interviews, unstructured and structured.
         1 Unstructured interviews:

            • Unstructured interviews are conducted with only a general goal
              or subject in mind and with few, if any, specific questions. The
              interviewer counts on the interviewee to provide a framework and
              direct the conversation.
            • This type of interview frequently gets off track, and the analyst
              must be prepared to redirect the interview back to the main goal or
              subject.
               – For this reason, unstructured interviews don't usually work
                  well for systems analysis and design.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                              Interviews

   Interview Types and Techniques
       There are two types of interviews, unstructured and structured.
         2 Structured interviews:

            • In structured interviews the interviewer has a specific set of
              questions to ask of the interviewee.
               – Depending on the interviewee's responses, the interviewer will
                  direct additional questions to obtain clarification or
                  amplification.
               – Some of these questions may be planned and others
                  spontaneous.
               – Open-ended questions allow the interviewee to respond in
                  any way that seems appropriate.
               – Closed-ended questions restrict answers to either specific
                  choices or short, direct responses.

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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                              Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Select Interviewees:
          You should interview the end-users of the information system
           you are studying.
            • A formal organizational chart will help you identify these
              individuals and their responsibilities.
            • You should attempt to learn as much as possible about each
              individual prior to the interview.
            • Attempt to learn what their strengths, fears, biases, and
              motivations might be.
            • The interview can then be geared to take the characteristics of the
              individual into account.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                               Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Select Interviewees:
          Always make an appointment with the interviewee.

            • Never just drop in.
            • Limit the appointment to somewhere between a half hour and an
              hour.
            • The higher the management level of the interviewee, the less time
              you should schedule.
            • If the interviewee is a clerical, service, or blue-collar worker, get
              their supervisor's permission before scheduling the interview.
            • Be certain that the location you want for the interview will be
              available during the time the interview is scheduled.
            • Never conduct an interview in the presence of your officemates or
              the interviewee's peers.

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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                                Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Prepare for the Interview:
          Preparation is the key to a successful interview.

          To ensure that all pertinent aspects of the subject are covered,
           the analyst should prepare an interview guide.
              • An interview guide is a checklist of specific questions the
                interviewer will ask the interviewee.
            The interview guide may also contain follow-up questions that
             will only be asked if the answers to other questions warrant the
             additional answers.




                                       46
Fact-Finding and Information
          Gathering
INTERVIEWEE:
Jeff Bentley, Accounts Receivable Manager
DATE:
Tuesday, March 23, 1993
TIME:
1:30 P.M.
PLACE:
Room 223, Admin. Bldg.
SUBJECT:
Current Credit-Checking Policy
1 to 2 min.
Open the interview.
Introduce ourselves.
Thank Mr. Bentley for his valuable time.
State the purpose of the interview -- to obtain an understanding of the existing credit-checking
policies.
5 min.
What conditions determine whether a customer's order is approved for credit?
5 min.
What are the possible decisions or actions that might be taken once these conditions have been
evaluated?
3 min.




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         Fact-Finding and Information
                   Gathering
How are customers notified when credit is not approved for their order?
1 min.
After a new order is approved for credit and placed in the file containing orders that can be filled,
a customer might request that a modification be made to the order. Would the order have to go
through credit approval again if the new total order cost exceeds the original cost?
1 min.
Who are the individuals that perform the credit checks?
1 to 3 min.
May I have permission to talk to those individuals to learn specifically how they carry out the
credit-checking process?
If so:
When would be an appropriate time to meet with each of them?
1 min.
Conclude the interview:
Thank Mr. Bentley for his cooperation and assure him that he will be receiving a copy of what
transpired during the interview.
21 minutes
+9 minutes for follow-up questions and redirection
30 minutes allotted for interview (1:30 p.m. - 2:00 p.m.)




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                             Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Prepare for the Interview:
          Avoid the following types of questions:

            • Loaded questions, such as ``Do we have to have both of these
              columns on the report?'' The question conveys the interviewee's
              personal opinion on the issue.
            • Leading questions, such as ``You're not going to use this
              OPERATOR CODE, are you?'' The question leads the interviewee
              to respond, ``No, of course not,'' regardless of actual opinion.
            • Biased questions, such as ``How many codes do we need for
              FOOD-CLASSIFICATION in the INVENTORY FILE? I think 20
              ought to cover it.'' Why bias the interviewee's answer with your
              own?



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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                               Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Prepare for the Interview:
          You should especially avoid threatening or critical questions.

          The purpose of the interview is to investigate, not to evaluate or
           criticize.
          Additional guidelines for questions are provided below:

            •   Use clear and concise language.
            •   Don't include your opinion as part of a question.
            •   Avoid long or complex questions.
            •   Avoid threatening questions.
            •   Don't use ``you'' when you mean a group of people.




                                      50
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                              Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Conduct the Interview:
          The actual interview can be characterized as consisting of three
           phases: the opening, body, and conclusion.
          The interview opening:

            • The interview opening is intended to influence or motivate the
              interviewee to participate and communicate by establishing an
              ideal environment.
            • You should identify the purpose and length of the interview and
              explain how the gathered data will be used.
            • Here are three ways to effectively begin an interview:
               – Summarize the apparent problem, and explain how the problem was
                 discovered.
               – Offer an incentive or reward for participation.
               – Ask the interviewee for advice or assistance.
                                     51
          Fact-Finding and Information
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                              Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Conduct the Interview:
          The interview body:

            • The interview body represents the most time-consuming phase.
               – During this phase, you obtain the interviewee's responses to
                 your list of questions.
               – Take notes concerning both verbal and nonverbal responses
                 from the interviewee.
               – It's very important for you to keep the interview on track.
               – Anticipate the need to adapt the interview to the interviewee.
               – Probe for more facts when necessary.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
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                               Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Conduct the Interview:
          The interview conclusion:

              • During the interview conclusion, you should express your
                appreciation and provide answers to any questions posed by the
                interviewee.
                 – The conclusion is very important for maintaining rapport and
                    trust with the interviewee.
            The importance of human relations skills in interviewing
             cannot be overemphasized.




                                       53
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                             Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Conduct the Interview:
          Below is a set of rules that should be followed during an
           interview.
            • DO:
               – Be courteous.
               – Listen carefully.
               – Maintain control.
               – Probe.
               – Observe mannerisms and nonverbal communication.
               – Be patient.
               – Keep interviewee at ease.
               – Maintain self-control.

                                    54
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                             Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Conduct the Interview:
          Below is a set of rules that should be followed during an
           interview.
            • AVOID
               – Continuing an interview unnecessarily.
               – Assuming an answer is finished or leading nowhere.
               – Revealing verbal and nonverbal clues.
               – Using jargon.
               – Revealing your personal biases.
               – Talking instead of listening.
               – Assuming anything about the topic and the interviewee.
               – Tape recording -- a sign of poor listening skills.

                                    55
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                              Interviews

   How to Conduct an Interview
       Follow Up on the Interview:
          To help maintain good rapport and trust with interviewees, you
           should send them a memo that summarizes the interview.
            • This memo should remind the interviewees of their contributions
              to the systems project and allow them the opportunity to clarify
              any misinterpretations that you may have derived during the
              interview.
            • The interviewees should be given the opportunity to offer
              additional information they may have failed to bring out during the
              interview.




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          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
         Rapid Application Development (RAD)

   RAD
       Rapid Application Development is gaining popularity as a fact-
        finding technique for discovering user requirements.
           This technique allows analysts to quickly create mock forms
            and tables to simulate the implemented system.
           Users can suggest changes to the prototype real-time and in
            most cases watch as the analyst tweaks the software to produce
            the desired look and feel.
           This process may take several iterations to correctly capture the
            functions necessary to automate the required business
            processes.
           Once the prototype is completed, you have the basis for a users
            manual, a requirements specification, and a template for a test
            plan.
                                    57
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                       Fact-Finding Ethics

   Introduction
       More often than not during your fact finding exercises you may
        come across or be analyzing information which is sensitive in
        nature.
       The analyst must take great care to protect the data they have been
        entrusted with.
       Most computer professional societies such as DPMA have a code
        of conduct and code of ethics their members must adhere to and
        abide by in the way to conduct business.




                                    58
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                             Fact-Finding Ethics

   Introduction
       The following paragraphs are a fragment of DPMA’s Code of
        Ethics relating to the protection of information:

         Code of Ethics
         I acknowledge:
         ...............Further, I shall not use knowledge of a confidential nature to further my personal
         interest, nor shall I violate the privacy and confidentiality of information entrusted to me or
         to which I may gain access.
         That I have an obligation to my employer whose trust I hold, therefore, I shall endeavor to
         discharge this obligation to the best of my ability, to guard my employer's interest, and to
         advise him or her wisely and honestly.
         That I have an obligation to my country, therefore, in my personal, business, and social
         contacts, I shall uphold my nation and shall honor the chosen way of life of my fellow
         citizens.
         I accept these obligations as a personal responsibility and as a member of this Association, I
         shall actively discharge these obligations and I dedicate myself to that end.


                                                59
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                      Fact-Finding Ethics

   Introduction
       Washington, D.C. is the home of the Computer Ethics Institute, a
        nonprofit research, education and policy study organization.
          It strives to make people more aware of computer ethics and to
           use computers more responsibly.
          One of their primary goals is to make computer ethics part of
           the standard school curriculum and to promote more awareness
           they have published The Ten Commandments of Computer
           Ethics.




                                   60
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           Gathering
1.    Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.

2.    Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work.

3.    Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer files.

4.    Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.

5.    Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.

6.    Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have
      not paid.

7.    Thou shalt not use other people's computer resorces without
      authorization or proper compensation.

8.    Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output.

9.    Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you
      are writing or the system you are designing.

10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration
    and respect for your fellow humans.

Computer Ethics Institute




                                     61
          Fact-Finding and Information
                    Gathering
                    A Fact-Finding Strategy

   Introduction
       To waste your end-users' time is to waste your company's money.
          To make the most of the time that you spend with end-users,
           don't jump right into interviews.
          First collect all the facts you can by using other methods.

          Consider the following step-by-step strategy:

            • Learn all you can from existing documents, forms, reports, and
              files.
            • If appropriate, observe the system in action.
            • Given all the facts that you've already collected, design and
              distribute questionnaires to clear up things you don't fully
              understand.



                                     62
        Fact-Finding and Information
                  Gathering
                    A Fact-Finding Strategy

   Introduction
          Consider the following step-by-step strategy: (continued)
            • Conduct your interviews (or group work sessions, such as JAD or
              RAD).
            • Follow up.
          The strategy is not sacred.
            • A fact-finding strategy should be developed for every pertinent
              phase of systems development, every project is unique.
               – Sometimes observation and questionnaires may be
                  inappropriate.
            • But the idea should always be to collect as many facts as possible
              before using interviews.



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        Fact-Finding and Information
                  Gathering

                     Summary

   Introduction
   What is Fact-Finding?
   What Facts Does the Systems Analyst Need to
    Collect and When?
   What Fact-Finding Methods are Available?
   Sampling of Existing Documentation, Forms, and
    Files
   Research and Site Visits
   Observation of the Work Environment



                         64
        Fact-Finding and Information
                  Gathering

                    Summary

   Questionnaires
   Interviews
   Rapid Application Development (RAD)
   Fact-Finding Ethics
   A Fact-Finding Strategy




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