8-1 CHAPTER 8 Planning and Budgeting The planning process The financial plan Budget types Statistics budget Revenue budget Expense budget Operating budget Cash budget Static versus flexible budgeting 8-2 The Planning Process The strategic plan is the foundation of the planning process. It contains the organization’s: Mission statement. Scope of operations. Objectives. Broad strategies for meeting stated objectives. The operating, or five-year, plan is the “how we expect to” portion of the planning process. The planning process takes place more or less continuously throughout the year. 8-3 Operating (5-Year) Plan Format Part 1: Corporate mission, scope, and objectives Part 2: Corporate strategies Part 3: Projected business environment Part 4: Summary of projected business results Part 5: Marketing plan Part 6: Operating plan Part 7: Financial plan Part 8: Administration and human resources plan Note that the plan is most detailed for the first year. 8-4 Financial Plan Format Part 7: Financial plan A. Long-term plan 1. Financial condition analysis 2. Capital budget 3. Pro forma financial statements 4. External financing requirements B. Working capital management plan 1. Overall working capital policy 2. Cash budget 3. Cash and marketable securities management 4. Inventory management 5. Credit policy and receivables management 6. Short-term financing 8-5 Financial Plan Format (Cont.) C. Accounting plan (first year only) 1. Revenue budget 2. Expense budget 3. Operating budget 4. Control procedures What are the keys to an effective planning process? 8-6 Budgeting Basics Budgets are detailed plans, expressed in dollar terms, that specify how resources will be used over some period of time. Budgets may be developed and applied to any level within an organization: Aggregate By department By service line By contract 8-7 Budgeting Basics (Cont.) To be effective, budgets must not be thought of as financial staff tools, but rather as managerial tools. Budgets are used for: Planning Communication Control How are budgets used for control? What is meant by “communication”? 8-8 Statistics Budget The statistics budget is the foundation budget, in that it develops the data that is needed as input in other budgets. It contains basic forecasts for: Volume of services provided. Resources (labor and capital) needed to provide those services. Smaller organizations may not have one. How easy is it to create? How important is the statistics budget? 8-9 Revenue Budget The revenue budget combines volume data from the statistics budget with reimbursement expectations to forecast revenues. The end result is a revenue forecast: In the aggregate. By department. By service. By diagnosis (or other clinical basis). Timing of revenues is important. 8 - 10 Expense Budget The expense budget combines volume data from the statistics budget with detailed resource utilization data to forecast expenses. To be most useful, expenses must be broken down into fixed and variable components. Like revenues, expenses must be forecasted a multiple levels. 8 - 11 Expense Budget (Cont.) Major components Labor • Salaries • Wages • Fringe benefits Nonlabor • Depreciation and leases • Medical and administrative supplies • Utilities • Training and education At larger organizations, each category will have a separate budget. 8 - 12 Budget Decisions In addition to choosing the types and levels of budgets, managers have several other decisions to make. Timing Conventional or zero-based Top-down or bottom-up Note that another type of budget, the cash budget, will be discussed later. 8 - 13 Timing All organizations use annual budgets to set standards for the coming year. Most also use quarterly (or more frequent) budgets to ensure timely feedback and control. Not all budget types have to follow the same timing pattern. Out year budgets are more for planning than for control purposes. 8 - 14 Conventional Versus Zero-Based Traditionally, health providers have used the conventional approach to budgeting. The old budget is the starting point. Typically, only minor changes are made. Changes often are applied equally. In zero-based budgeting, each new budget is started from scratch. What are the pros and cons of each approach? 8 - 15 Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Bottom-up budgets: Begin at sub-unit (departmental) level. Are reviewed and compiled by the finance department. Approved by senior management. Top-down budgets: Begin at the finance department with senior management guidance. Are sent to the departments for review. What are the pros and cons of each? 8 - 16 Simple Operating Budget Example Consider the 1998 operating budget of Carroll Clinic shown on the following three slides. This budget was created at the end of 1997. The budget is divided into four parts: Volume assumptions Revenue assumptions Cost assumptions Pro forma P&L statement 8 - 17 1998 Operating Budget (Part I) I. Volume Assumptions: A. FFS 36,000 visits B. Capitated lives 30,000 members Number of member months 360,000 Expected utilization PMPM 0.15 Number of visits 54,000 visits C. Total expected visits 90,000 visits 8 - 18 1998 Operating Budget (Part II) II. Revenue Assumptions: A. FFS $ 25 per visit 36,000 visits $ 900,000 B. Capitated lives $ 3 PMPM 360,000 member-months $1,080,000 C. Total revenues $1,980,000 8 - 19 1998 Operating Budget (Part III) III. Cost Assumptions: A. Variable Costs: Medical staffing $1,200,000 (48,000 hours at $25/hour) Supplies 150,000 (100,000 units at $1.50/unit) Total variable costs $1,350,000 Variable cost per visit $ 15 ($1,350,000/90,000) B. Fixed Costs: Overhead, plant, and equipment $ 500,000 C. Total expected costs $1,850,000 8 - 20 1998 Operating Budget (Part IV) IV. Pro Forma P&L Statement: Revenues: FFS $ 900,000 Capitated 1,080,000 Total $1,980,000 Costs: Variable: FFS $ 540,000 Capitated 810,000 Total $1,350,000 Contribution margin $ 630,000 Fixed costs 500,000 Projected profit $ 130,000 8 - 21 Variance Analysis A variance is the difference between a budgeted value, often called a standard, and actual results. Variance analysis is a technique applied to budget data to: Identify problem areas. Enhance control. Why is variance analysis so useful to health services managers? 8 - 22 Static, Actual, and Flexible Budgets In variance analysis, there are three types of budgets used: The static budget is the original forecast, unadjusted for realized volume. The realized, or actual, budget reflects after-the-fact results. A flexible budget is one that has been adjusted to reflect realized volume, but using all other static budget assumptions. Why might a flexible budget be useful in variance analysis? 8 - 23 Variance Analysis Example To illustrate variance analysis, we will use Carroll Clinic’s forecasted 1998 budget presented in Slides 17-20 as the static budget. Assume it is now January 1999, and the operating results for 1998 have been compiled. The results, called the actual budget, are shown on the next four slides. 8 - 24 1998 Results (Part I) I. Volume: A. FFS 40,000 visits B. Capitated lives 30,000 members Number of member months 360,000 Actual utilization PMPM 0.20 Number of visits 72,000 visits C. Total actual visits 112,000 visits How does this compare with the static budget? 8 - 25 1998 Results (Part II) II. Revenues: A. FFS $ 25 per visit 40,000 actual visits $1,000,000 B. Capitated lives $ 3 PMPM 360,000 member-months $1,080,000 C. Total actual revenues $2,080,000 How does this compare? 8 - 26 1998 Results (Part III) III. Cost: A. Variable Costs: Medical staffing $1,557,400 (59,000 hours at $26/hour) Supplies 234,600 (124,800 units at $1.88/unit) Total variable costs $1,792,000 Variable cost per visit $ 16 ($1,792,000/112,000) B. Fixed Costs: Overhead, plant, and equipment $ 500,000 C. Total actual costs $2,292,000 8 - 27 1998 Results (Part IV) IV. P&L Statement: Revenues: FFS $1,000,000 Capitated 1,080,000 Total $2,080,000 Costs: Variable: FFS $ 640,000 Capitated 1,152,000 Total $1,792,000 Contribution margin $ 288,000 Fixed costs 500,000 Realized profit ($ 212,000) 8 - 28 Variance Analysis Example (Cont.) Summaries of Carroll Clinic’s three types of operating budgets for 1998 are presented on the next slide. These data will be use to illustrate variance analysis. Note that in most real world analyses, multiple flexible budgets would be created. 8 - 29 Static Flexible Actual Assumptions: FFS visits 36,000 40,000 40,000 Cap. visits 54,000 72,000 72,000 Total 90,000 112,000 112,000 Revenues: FFS $ 900,000 $1,000,000 $1,000,000 Cap. 1,080,000 1,080,000 1,080,000 Total $1,980,000 $2,080,000 $2,080,000 Costs: Variable: FFS $ 540,000 $ 600,000 $ 640,000 Cap. 810,000 1,080,000 1,152,000 Total $1,350,000 $1,680,000 $1,792,000 Total CM $ 630,000 $ 400,000 $ 288,000 Fixed costs 500,000 500,000 500,000 Profit $ 130,000 ( $ 100,000) ($ 212,000) 8 - 30 Volume Variance Total Variance -$342,000 Volume Variance Management Variance -$230,000 -$112,000 Total variance = Actual profit - Static profit. Volume variance = Flexible profit - Static profit. Management variance = Actual profit - Flexible profit. 8 - 31 Volume Variance Breakdown Total Variance -$230,000 Enrollment Utilization Variance Variance -$230,000 $0 Volume Variance = Flexible profit - Static profit. Enrollment variance = Static profit - Static profit. Utilization variance = Flexible profit - Static profit. 8 - 32 Management Variance Breakdown Management Variance -$112,000 Staffing Fixed Cost Supplies Variance Variance Variance -$64,075 $0 -$47,925 Management Variance = Actual profit - Flexible profit. Staffing variance = Flexible staffing costs - Actual. FC variance = Flexible FC - Actual FC. Supplies variance = Flexible supplies cost - Actual. 8 - 33 Management Variance Breakdown (Cont.) Staffing variance Static hours per visit = 48,000 hours / 90,000 visits) = 0.533. Flexible staffing cost = 0.533 x 112,000 x $25 = $1,493,325 Actual staffing costs = $1,557,400 Staffing variance = -$ 64,075 8 - 34 Management Variance Breakdown (Cont.) Supplies variance Supply units per visit = 100,000 units / 90,000 visits) = 1.111. Flexible supplies cost = 1.111 x 112,000 x $1.50 = $ 186,675 Actual supplies costs = $234,600 Supplies variance = -$ 47,925 8 - 35 Variance Analysis Example (Cont.) Variance analysis typically is much more detailed than presented in this illustration Now, however, you have the picture of what it’s all about. Is all this work worth it? 8 - 36 Cash Budget Thus far, we have focused on the operating budget, which uses accrual accounting concepts. The cash budget focuses exclusively on the cash flows that come into and go out of an organization. It can be thought of as a short-term version of the statement of cash flows. 8 - 37 Sample Cash Budget (Part I) March April May June Collections Worksheet: 1. Billed charges $50,000 $50,000 $100,000 $150,000 2. Collections: a. Within 30 days 19,600 29,400 b. 30-60 days 35,000 70,000 c. 60-90 days 5,000 5,000 3. Total collections $ 59,600 $104,400 Supplies Worksheet: 4. Supplies ordered $10,000 $ 15,000 5. Payments for supplies $ 10,000 $ 15,000 8 - 38 Sample Cash Budget (Part II) May June Net Cash Gain (Loss): 6. Total collections (from Line 3) $ 59,600 $104,400 7. Total purchases (from Line 5) $ 10,000 $ 15,000 8. Wages and salaries 60,000 70,000 9. Rent 2,500 2,500 10. Other expenses 1,000 1,500 11. Taxes 20,000 12. Payment for capital assets 13. Total payments $ 73,500 $109,000 14. Net cash gain (loss) ($ 13,900) ($ 4,600) 8 - 39 Sample Cash Budget (Part III) May June Borrowing/Surplus Summary: 15. Cash at beginning with no borrowing $ 15,000 $ 1,100 16. Cash at end with no borrowing $ 1,100 ($ 3,500) 17. Target cash balance 10,000 10,000 18. Cumulative surplus cash or (loan balance) ($ 8,900) ($ 13,500) Oops! Is this business in trouble? 8 - 40 Cash Budget (Cont.) The example shows monthly cash budgets for two months. An actual cash budget would probably contain 12 months. Should depreciation expense appear on the cash budget? How can uncertainty be incorporated? What is the value of the cash budget?
Pages to are hidden for
"Revenue and Expense Budget"Please download to view full document