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TOURISM CONCEPTS

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									SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURE CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT OF WILDLFIE MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM COURSE CODE: BTM 100 SEMESTER: I
Programme: Bachelor of Tourism Management (BTM) year I & BSc. Wildlife Management (BSc. WLM) year I ACADEMIC YEAR 2008/2009

Introduction
What is Tourism? Definition of Tourism Concept: The amorphous nature of tourism has made it difficult to structure its definition. Most of academic writers tend to craft their definitions to suit their specific purposes, here are some examples; Tourism is Defined as:The temporary movement of people to destinations outside the normal places of work and residence, activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to carter for their needs. (Mathieson & Wall, 1982). Tourism comprises of the activities of persons traveling to, and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes. (WTO, 1991) Tourism is the study of man away from his usual habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs and the impacts that both he and the industry have for the host socio-cultural, economic and environment. (Jaffari, 1991) Tourism society of England, (1976), defines Tourism as ‘The temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside places where they normally live and work, their activities during their stay at these destinations. It includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions’. Tourism is defined as ‘ The activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited’ (WTO AND UNSTAT,1994).

There have been many attempts to define the word tourism .one of the most enduring definitions is that used by the tourism society. Both of these definitions offer a clear insight into the scope and context of tourism. They demonstrate that it is an activity embracing all aspects of the movement of people away from their normal surroundings and the activities they undertake and facilities they use in their destination areas. More specifically these two definitions demonstrate that people we would cauterize as tourists are: 1. Away from their normal place of residence, though they will be returning home after some point in the future. 2. On a visit that is temporary and short-term, but is not greater than 12 months in duration. 3. Engage in activities that one would normally associated with tourism 4. Not necessarily staying away from home overnight, but merely on a day visit (excursion). 5. Not always away from home for holiday purposes, but may be away from home on business. In attempt to define tourism it is important to distinguish between those visitors who stay overnight in a destination and those who do not. From technical point of view, domestic/ international visitors who stay at least one night in the place or country visited are known as tourists, where as those who do not stay overnight are categorized as same day visitors, day visitors or excursionists. Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of transportation (he /she might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more develop ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers…). But all travel is not tourism. Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism. The displacement must be such that: It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of outmost importance. Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast of array of purposes; Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. This is reflected in the particularity of in transit visits, from a conceptual and statistical point of view.

Features Associated with Tourism Prosser, (1998) pointed out the following features associated with tourism: a. Travel/journey b. Non-permanent stay c. Activities -leisure -business (business meetings, exhibitions & trade fairs) d. Experience during travel/ stay e. Resources and facilities required f. Impacts resulting from travel and stay

Tourist and Tourism
The large sums of money spent and immense value of travel are indicative of the importance of tourism. But, what exactly is a tourist end what is Tourism? The definition is complex. How we define a tourist depends on what we want to say about him or her, and why A) To the travel agent: The tourist is a client purchasing a package tour or a business traveler seeking transportation to a meeting or convention. B) An International airline may distinguish between a traveler who is likely to prefer a charter package and the one who flies first class on a scheduled airliner. In the eyes of and airline, the kind of ticket purchased may bet the best indicator of the .difference between a pleasure traveler and a business traveler. C) Once the traveler disembarks, the airline definition gives way to that of the accommodation industry. A hotel may distinguish between the convention delegate who will attend a meeting or meal function at the hotel and the visitor who is likely to use the hotel only as a place to sleep during his or her visit with friends or relative. D)A local attraction /Event, such as annual circumcision ceremonies / traditional dances (after harvests), will want to make all travelers aware, regardless of how they travel or what accommodation arrangements they have chosen, that the event is taking place and that they, the traveler as well as local and area residents are invited to participate.

E) To the food and beverage industry/service The tourist is a source of increased sales in its year-round outlet and, of economic survival in those seasonally attractive places such as beaches etc. In attempt to define tourism it is important to distinguish between those visitors who stay overnight in a destination and those who do not. From technical point of view, domestic/ international visitors who stay at least one night in the place or country visited are known as tourists, where as those who do not stay overnight are categorized as same day visitors, day visitors or excursionists. Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of transportation (he /she might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more develop ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers…). But all travel is not tourism. Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism. The displacement must be such that: Thus the answer to the question “Who is a tourist?” depends largely upon which sector of the industry is answering the question. However, from the individual point of view, a tourist is one who seeks to get away from home for a change (even a change of place). The family that spends a week in a tent at the same area campground every year may not see themselves as tourists. Nor for example, would school children on a canoe expedition in a remote part of a national park / in a lake look upon themselves as tourist. Since our purpose here is to discuss the importance of the tourism sector as a whole we must see the traveler from the industries point of view. It perceives the traveler as a visitor and classifies him or her according to the reason for the visit and other factors characteristic of the visit, such as the traveler mode of transport, point of origin, and level of spending. The traditional tourist may represent an important proportion but we can not agnate the tourism section with tourists or pleasure related activities alone. The existence featurism industry is primarily geom. The traveler’s desire to experience a change and willingness to spend many in the pursuit of the experience. The tourism industry is composed to those sectors of the economy providing services such as accommodation food and sewerages, transportation and recreation as well as the associated distribution and sales services. It is supplemented by public and private concerns organizing and providing a broad range of events and attractions.

The industry operates on project motive and its promotional efforts are aimed primarily at increasing “the tourist”. Local residents’ figment recreational and cultural facilities that often serve the tourist trade as well. The economic health of the tourism industry depends largely on the value and patterns of its customers, use of a large variety of facilities and among its valued customers. The tourist or pleasure traveler is but one of the classes of visitors catered to by the industry. In attempt to define tourism it is important to distinguish between those visitors who stay overnight in a destination and those who do not. From technical point of view, domestic/ international visitors who stay at least one night in the place or country visited are known as tourists, where as those who do not stay overnight are categorized as same day visitors, day visitors or excursionists. Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of transportation (he /she might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more develop ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers…). But all travel is not tourism. Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism. The displacement must be such that: The displacement must be such that: a) It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of outmost importance. b) Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast of array of purposes. c) Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. This is reflected in the particularity of in transit visits, from a conceptual and statistical point of view. Tourism: what is involved? Tourism includes many different sub sectors: accommodation providers from five star hotels to bed and breakfasts and camping sites; restaurants, pubs, bars and catering; museums, arts and heritage attractions, museums and zoos, cinemas and sporting facilities; tour operators and ground handlers; coach, bus and taxi companies as well as business tourism such as conferences, meetings and exhibitions.

Definition of basic Tourism concepts • Tourism industry: Leiper (1990), defines Tourism industry ‘ as the range of businesses and organizations involved in delivering the tourism products ‘and in the light of his model of the tourism system; these businesses and organizations represent a key element. These include travel agencies, tour operators, hotels, airlines .they are most found in the destination, must be noted that all are elements of interaction. • In other words Tourism industry may be defined as “ • Travel is defined as “the act of moving” by most dictionaries, has a different definition within the context of the tourism industry. Travel is defined as “the act of moving outside one’s community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from work school”(Gee,Mackens&Choy,1989,p.12). With respect to travel s an industry, there must also be the creation of economic value resulting fro the travel activity. • Traveler –any person on trip between two or more locations (WTO, 1995b, p.17). • Tourist (overnight visitor)-is a visitor staying at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. • Same Day Visitor (Excursionist) - is a visitor whom does not spend a night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. A Day trip to Bagamoyo town or a day in Mikumi National Park. Note that, not all travelers are tourists basing on the definition of tourists the following are excluded migrant workers, nomads, diplomats, refugees, soldiers in military mission, etc. • Visitor –any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of travel is not to work for pay in the place visited. • Residents: A person who has lived in a country for at least twelve consecutive months prior to arrival in another country for a period not exceeding one year . • Recreation refers to any activity in which one is engaged in during leisure time. There are both home (indoor) based and outdoor recreational activities. Home based include watching TV, listening to music, gardening. Outdoor activities include; visiting friends and relatives, excursions. • An attraction –refers to anything that draws the attention of people. • Tourist attraction-refers to anything that draws the attention of the tourists. It can be an event, an object, a natural and/or a man-made thing. For a feature to be an attraction needs to or must have a unique feature. A tourist attraction can be a place where tourists both local and foreign visit. The tourist attraction range from being an event such Saba Saba trade fair, an activity like game viewing, sport hunting, a place like historical towns like bagamoyo, national parks, an entertainment like traditional dances, music, places like slave market (Zanzibar& bagamoyo), Jozan forest, spice farm in Zanzibar, historical buildings at kilwa, makumbusho village, oldvai gorge, animals, plants, climate, dolphin view, snorkeling, etc.

• Tourist destination. Is a geographical unit/area visited by a many tourists, it may be a country, region, a village, a town, a city, islands, National park, forest etc. • Tourist product. Tourist product is an amalgam of what a person does and experience and of the services he uses and products he purchases during his or her trip. E.g. these elements may be services of the travel agent or tour operators, hotel, pub, restaurant, transportation operators and other tourist services like gift shops. • Hospitality industry. Hospitality is a reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers with liberality and good will. Hospitality sector is made up of business which practice the act of being hospitable, those business are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guest. Examples includes Hotels, casinos, cruise ships liners, resorts, restaurants, fast foods, pubs, bars, recreation facilities such as amusement parks, theme parks, etc. • Leisure One of the approaches of defining the word leisure “leisure as time” time available to an individual after sleep and other basic needs have been met. Time spent in non compulsory activities such as employment, running a business, household responsibilities, education, eating, sleeping it is referred to us as a "free time". In other words leisure is time spent in non-compulsory activities. The philosophy of leisure and leisure time are thought to have emerged in the late nineteenth century with the rise of mechanized industry. Machines made work more efficient, and the typical worker's week was cut by over twenty hours. In turn, workers increasingly engaged in non-compulsory activities such as sporting events or theater etc Types of leisure Leisure can be divided into two types namely: a) Active leisure: Active leisure implies a preferred exertion of energy. This involves active recreation activities such as swimming, mountain climbing, hunting, engaging in various sports activities i.e. football, netball, tennis, golf etc. People can participate in sport for fun rather than for competition. b) Passive leisure: Passive leisure implies a desire to refrain from exerting energy. Such as lounging, "doing nothing". It is viewed by many people as wasting of time. Passive leisure that is not enjoyable can lead to boredom. Some moral codes frown upon this type of leisure, while others celebrate it. Categories of Travellers Travelers: Travelers refer to any persons on a trip between two or more locations. It can be noted that not all travelers are tourists and this include refuges, nomads, border workers, diplomats, transit passengers etc.

There are four major categories of travelers namely: a) A visitor Is a person traveling to another country or within his same country for less than one year other than the purpose of being paid for. Visitors can be divided in to two categories, i) External Visitors These are people who travel for a period not exceeding twelve month to a country other than the one in which they generally reside and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity paid from within the place visited. A visitor from Brazil visit Tanzania. ii) Internal Visitors These are visitors who travel to a destination within his own country that is outside his usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve month. A visitor from Mwanza visit Tanga city. b) Tourist: A tourist is a visitor who travels to a country other than his or her own country or who travels to a place within his some country but outside usual environment for at least one night but not spend more than one year and not for the purpose of working for pay. Example tourist from Sweden visit Manyara national park for one week or a tourist from Kigoma Region visit Mbeya city. Tourist can sub divided into two categories namely; i) International Tourists; These are the foreigners visiting another country for a period of at least twenty four hours for example tourists from Japan visiting tourist attractions in Tanzania. ii. Domestic Tourists. These are the visitors of the same country visiting destination in their own country for instance a tourist from Mwanza visiting Zanzibar town or Mikumi National Park. Tourist can also be divided according to the purpose of their visit. Under this category we have three categories namely. ii) Business Tourists or Travelers. These are the people who may travel for business activities such as attending business meeting, conference, seminars or making business transaction etc. iv. Leisure /Recreation Tourist. These are visitors, tourist who travel typically for holiday. Their main rationale for travel is absolutely leisure. The activities which they might undertake in their destination include game viewing, bird watching, mountain climbing, visiting various cultural attractions etc. v. Other travelers / Tourists. These are travelers who travel for other purpose like study, research, health/medical, religion etc.

FORMS AND CATEGORIES OF TOURISM Just like as there are different types of visitors, there are different forms and categories of tourism which take place, varying by tourist, destination, and motive for tourism (travel), such as international versus domestic, Inbound versus outbound tourism, national and internal tourism. International and Domestic tourism According to the WTO, international tourism differs from domestic tourism and occurs when the tourist crosses a country’s border. Not every international traveler is a visitor, however. The traveler is a visitor only if the trip takes him or her outside the usual environment for example workers who cross border for employment are not considered visitors. The interest in international tourism has always been strong primarily for economic reasons, as this form tourism plays an important role in trade and monetary flows among nations. For any given country the world tourism organization (UNWTO) suggests that there are three basic forms of tourism namely; 1. Domestic tourism • Involves residents of the given country traveling within their own country. • Tourism of resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference. For example Tanzanian residents traveling to different destinations within Tanzania for tourism purposes, Arusha to Dare s salaam. Inbound tourism Involving non-residents traveling in the given country. Tourism of non-resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference. For example, Europeans, Americans traveling to Africa for the purpose of engaging in tourism related activities. Tourists from America taking part in game drives, SCUBA diving, photographic safaris, balloon safaris etc. Outbound tourism Involving resident of a given country traveling in another country. Tourism of resident visitors outside the economic territory of the country of reference for example Tanzanian residents visiting Kenya for the purpose of taking part in tourism related activities. These basic forms of tourism can be combined in a variety of ways to derive the categories of tourism shown below. With this figure it is possible to identify three principal categories of tourism.

2. • •

3. • •

However, some scholars categorize tourism into six forms: see below i. National tourism: is the tourism of resident visitors, within and outside the economic territory of the country of reference. ii. Internal tourism: is the tourism of visitors, both resident and non-resident, within the economic territory of the country of reference. iii. International tourism: this comprises of inbound and outbound tourism, movement of tourists across borders iv. Domestic tourism • Involves residents of the given country traveling within their own country. • Tourism of resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference. For example Tanzanian residents traveling to different destinations within Tanzania for tourism purposes, Arusha to Dar -es- salaam. v. Inbound tourism • Involves non-residents traveling in the given country. • Tourism of non-resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference. For example, Europeans, Americans traveling to Africa for the purpose of engaging in tourism related activities. International visitors/tourists engage in game drives, SCUBA diving, photographic safaris, and balloon safaris while in Tanzania etc. vi. Outbound tourism • Involves resident of a given country traveling in another country. • Tourism of resident visitors outside the economic territory of the country of reference. For example Tanzanian residents visiting Kenya for the purpose of taking part in tourism related activities, similarly foreign visitors are statistically recorded as outbound tourists in their countries of origin. 10
Course Instructor: Mr. Edwin Asubisye Email: asubisyee@gmail.com; asubisyee@yahoo.com


								
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