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APRIL 1862

VIEWS: 28 PAGES: 204

									                                                                                       April 1, 1862

                                   APRIL 1862

April 1, 1862 - Tennessee Brigadier-General William H. Carroll arrested for
                   drunkennessNOTE 1

                 HDQRS. THIRD ARMY CORPS, ARMY OF THE MISS., Corinth, April 1,
                 Maj.-Gen. BRAGG, Chief of Staff:
                 GEN.: I have the honor to report that in obedience to your orders I visited the
                 command at Iuka yesterday, and made as thorough an investigation of the
                 reports against Maj.-Gen. Crittenden and Brig.-Gen. Carroll as opportunity
                 afforded. I found sufficient evidence against them to require their arrest. I
                 accordingly arrested Brig.-Gen. Carroll last night, and this morning ordered
                 Brig.-Gen. Wood to relieve Maj.-Gen. Crittenden of the command of that
                 place. The latter was ordered to consider himself in arrest for drunkenness,
                 after turning over his command. I arrested Brig.-Gen. Carroll for drunkenness,
                 incompetency, and neglect of his command.
                 I caused an inspection of the guards of three regiments to be made by Maj.
                 Shoup, of my staff, and his report shows a most wretched state of discipline
                 and instruction.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 W. J. HARDEE, Maj.-Gen.
                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 379.

           NOTE 1: Even though the Nashville native demanded a hearing, one was never held
                   and he resigned on February 1, 1863. This was not the first time that others
                   had noted his propensity for alcohol. For example, as early as November
                   1861, while nominally in charge of Confederate pacification efforts in Chat-
                   tanooga, his subordinate Col. Sterling A. M. Wood telegraphed General
                   Braxton Bragg that Carroll had been "drunk not less than five years. He is

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 1
April 1, 1862

                         stupid and easily controlled." [see OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 248-250.] After re-
                         signing his commission in 1863 he joined his family in Montreal, Canada,
                         for the duration of the war. He died in Montreal on May 3. 1868, and was
                         temporarily buried in that French Canadian city. He was subsequently re-in-
                         terred in Memphis, at the Elmwood Cemetery, in 1869. The headstone in
                         Memphis cemetery is inaccurate both as to the years of his birth and death.
                         He never received a pardon from the United States, partly because he was
                         suspected of conspiracy in the death of President Abraham Lincoln. His
                         route to Montreal is not known.

April 1, 1862 - The course of martial law in Federally occupied Murfreesboro, excerpt from
                  the diary of John C. Spence

                      . . . Soldiers parading the streets; the cavalry men on horse back galloping in
                      and out of town, without having much object in view.
                      The Military Gov. Parkhurst and provost marshal O. C. Rounds now duly
                      installed, commence business.
                      The provost marshal has set to in a vigorous manner to put things strait and
                      restore the union.
                      About the first thing that is done of any importance is to send out files of men
                      all over the town for the purpose of searching the houses of citizens for guns
                      and amuntion and any thing else that has the appearance of danger in the way
                      of shooting. In these searches many little things of value disappeared, and
                      nothing was said about it.
                      They looked in drawers, trunks, and boxes, and in fact, even in every thing:
                      Kitchens, smoke houses, pantrys, and cellars. In these rounds they collected a
                      great many old guns, some without stocks, some with locks, and now and then
                      a fine rifle or shot gun, would be found which was favorite guns of the owners.
                      Among their collection of fire arms, short pieces of gas pipe was brought in.
                      Suppose it looked, to them like it might shoot.
                      . . . all the fine guns was boxed up by the Provost and shiped home as trophy
                      from the south, captured from the rebels.
                      The next thing men are arrested for some pretended cause. Some are put in jail
                      for safe keeping, and some are sent to the penitintiary at Nashville without
                      knowing the cause.
                      They claim that all citizens are disloyal to the U. S.; therefore, it was necessay
                      that they should take an oath before they would be permitted to do any thing or
                      go about and then they must carry a pass.
                      And, for this purpose, the gov. and provost marshal manufactures an oath to
                      suit the occasion. Such a thing had never been in existence as to swear a man to
                      allegiance who had been born and raised in the country. NOTE 1

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                                                                                        April 1, 1862

                 Should a squad of cavalry go in the country and meet with a small skirmish,
                 and any one of them get hurt or killed—in this case a number of citizens near-
                 est were ordered to be arrested and brought to town and placed under guard in
                 the court house and kept there for some time. Not unfrequently, a lot would be
                 sent to Nashville to the Penitintiary and undergo a confinement there for a
                 time. When they did get released. . . they had to enter in a bond and security for
                 their future good conduct, frequently approved by A. Johnson, military gov. of
                 the state.
                 The matter of taking an oath then were but fiew that would submit, unless as a
                 matter of necessity. All felt too independant for that.
                                                                                    Spence, Diary.

           NOTE 1: It seems Spence and his compatriots had forgotten about secession, that
                   those who could not or would not swear allegiance to the Union were ene-
                   mies of the Union.

April 1, 1862 - Amphibious attack upon C. S. A. gun positions on Island No. 10

                 At Island No. 10, Colonel George W. Roberts, commanding the 42nd Regi-
                 ment of Illinois Volunteers, led a raiding party against the Confederate battery
                 No. 1, on the Tennessee shoreline. Colonel Roberts' force consisted of five
                 boats, manned by crews of the U. S. S. Benton, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Pittsburg,
                 and Mound City, who transported a detachment of 50 men from Company A of
                 Roberts' regiment. Assuming a chevron attack formation at 11:00 p. m., and
                 hidden in the wake of the gunboats, the party, according to Roberts' report:
                 "approached the battery in such silence with muffled oars, that we were less
                 than 10 yards distant when the sentinels at the guns discovered us. They cried
                 out in great surprise, fired twice on our boats, and ran away. We landed in good
                 order and with great expedition, the rear boat falling to the right and left of the
                 center of the advanced line, and at once commenced spiking the guns. . .
                 The work was done with perfect coolness. . . as rapidly as possible, for the
                 rebel gunboat Grampus had taken alarm at the sentinels, and was standing
                 toward us. I did not go on board to return until I had first personally inspected
                 every gun.
                 . . . Every gun in the battery except one (dismounted and lying in the water)
                 was spiked by our party. . .
                 The object of the expedition thus being accomplished, we took to our boats and
                 returned without any loss whatever."
                                                            Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pp. 707-708.
                 Reports of Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote, U. S. Navy.
                 UNITED STATES STEAMER BENTON, Off Island No. 10, April 2, 1862.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                   April 1862 — Page 3
April 1, 1862

                      GEN.: Last night an armed boat expedition was fitted out from the squadron
                      and the land forces at this point, under command of Col. Roberts, of the Forty-
                      second Illinois Regiment. The five boats comprising the expedition were in
                      charge of First Master J. T. Johnson, of the Saint Louis, assisted by Fourth
                      Master G. P. Lord, of the Benton; Fourth Master Pierce, of the Cincinnati;
                      Fourth Master Morgan, of the Pittsburgh, and Master's Mate Scoville, of the
                      Mound City, each with a boat's crew of 10 men from their respective vessels,
                      and carrying in all 100 men, exclusive of officers, under command of Col.
                      At midnight the boats reached the upper or No. 1 fort, and pulling directly in
                      face, carried it, receiving only the harmless fire of two sentinels, who ran on
                      the discharge of their muskets, while the rebel troops in the vicinity rapidly
                      retreated, whereupon Col. Roberts spiked the six guns mounted in the fort and
                      retired with the boats uninjured.
                      The commanding officer represents all under his command, from their cool-
                      ness and determination, as being ready to perform more hazardous service had
                      it been required to the fulfillment of the object of the expedition.
                      I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                      A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.
                                                                             OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 120.
                      Excerpt from the Report of Thomas A. Scott, Assistant Secretary of War, rela-
                      tive to the attack upon Confederate gun positions on the Tennessee shore at
                      Island No. 10 April 1, 1862.
                      NEAR ISLAND NO. 10, MISSISSIPPI RIVER, April 2, 1862.
                      Yesterday a little expedition was agreed on for last night, to capture sentinels
                      and spike all the guns in the upper fort of the enemy on Tennessee shore. It was
                      intrusted by Col. Buford, commanding, to Col. Roberts, of the Forty-second
                      Illinois, with 40 picked men of his regiment. Commodore Foote furnished five
                      small boats, with crews from gunboats to row them. They left the Benton at 6
                      p. m., and remained among the timber in neighborhood of fort until about 11 p.
                      m., when they came into the river in front of the fort and moored right upon it,
                      driving away sentinels, who fled in the darkness after first fire. Col. Roberts
                      and his men spiked with files all the guns in position, and left without the loss
                      of a man; a capital success and most valuable to the flotilla for coming opera-
                      tions, as the position of the fort was difficult to reach, and contained some
                      heavy 84-pounders.
                      Yours, very respectfully,
                      THOMAS A. SCOTT, Assistant Secretary of War.
                                                                             OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 124.

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                                                                                       April 1, 1862

April 1, 1862 - Expedition from Pittsburg Landing to Eastport Mississippi and Chickasaw,

                 APRIL 1, 1862.-Expedition from Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., to Eastport, Miss.,
                 and Chickasaw, Ala.
                 Report of Brig. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, U. S. Army.
                 HDQRS. SHERMAN'S DIVISION, Camp Shiloh, near Pittsburg Landing,
                 Tenn., April 2, 1862.
                 SIR: In obedience to Gen. Grant's instructions of March 31, I detached one sec-
                 tion of Capt. Munch's Minnesota battery (two 12-pounder howitzers), a detach-
                 ment of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry of 150 men, under Maj. Ricker, and two
                 battalions of infantry from the Fifty-seventh and Seventy-seventh Ohio, under
                 the command of Col.'s Hildebrand and Mungen. These were marched to the
                 river and embarked on the steamers Empress and Tecumseh. The gunboat
                 Cairo did not arrive at Pittsburg until after midnight, and at 6 a.m. Capt. Bry-
                 ant, commanding the gunboats, notified me that he should proceed up the river.
                 I followed, keeping the transports within about 300 yards of the gunboats.
                 About 1 p. m. the Cairo commenced shelling the battery above the mouth of
                 Indian Creek but elicited no reply. She proceeded up the river steadily and cau-
                 tiously, followed close by the Tyler and Lexington, all throwing shells at the
                 points where on former visits of the gunboats the enemy's batteries were found.
                 In this order and followed till it was demonstrated that all the enemy's batter-
                 ies, including that at Chickasaw, were abandoned.
                 I ordered the battalion of infantry under Col. Hildebrand to disembark at East-
                 port and with the other battalion proceeded to Chickasaw and landed. The bat-
                 tery at this point had evidently been abandoned some time, and consisted of the
                 remains of an old Indian mound partly washed away by the river, which had
                 been fashioned into a two-gun battery, with a small magazine. The ground to
                 its rear had evidently been overflowed during the late freshet, and led to the
                 removal of the guns to Eastport, where the batteries were on high, elevated
                 ground, accessible at all seasons from the country to the rear.
                 Upon personal inspection, I attach little importance to Chickasaw as a military
                 position. The people who had fled during the approach of the gunboats
                 returned to the village, and said the place had been occupied by one Tennessee
                 regiment and a battery of artillery from Pensacola. After remaining at Chick-
                 asaw some hours all the boats dropped back to Eastport, not more than a mile
                 below, and landed there. Eastport Landing during the late freshet must have
                 been about 12 feet under water, but at the present stage the landing is the best I
                 have seen on the Tennessee River. The levee is clear of trees or snags, and a
                 hundred boats could land there without confusion. The soil is of sand and
                 gravel and very firm. The road back is hard, and at a distance of about 400
                 yards from the water the hard gravel hills of the country.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 5
April 1, 1862

                      The infantry scouts sent out by Col. Hildebrand found the enemy's cavalry
                      mounted and watching the road to Iuka, about 2 miles back of Eastport. The
                      distance from Iuka is only 8 miles, and Iuka is the nearest point and the best
                      road by which the Charleston and Memphis Road can be reached.
                      I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                      W. T. SHERMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.

                                                              OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 83-84.NOTE 1

                NOTE 1: For the ancillary report of Lieut. Commander W. Gwin, U. S. Navy, see OR,
                        Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 121-122.

April 1, 1862 - Memphis municipal government to consider appropriation for the relief of
                  soldiers' families

                      Soldiers' Widows and Orphans.-We learn that an application will be made to
                      Council tonight, for an appropriation for the benefit of the widows and children
                      of soldiers that may be received in the Home for the Homeless, in accordance
                      with a resolution lately adopted by the ladies having that institution in charge,
                      to receive and afford a home to such. to carry out this resolution will, of course,
                      entail a heavy expense. The Legislature had a resolution before it to make a
                      grant for the purpose, but it adjourned before the subject could be voted on. In
                      New Orleans the City Council has made liberal appropriations for soldiers'
                      families. The example has not been followed here. Many soldiers' families will
                      be left destitute, not only from the death of the father and husband, but from
                      the loss of limbs and the consequent inability to support those dependent upon
                      them. The claim presented to Council is a strong one, and merits a generous
                      and liberal attention.
                                                                Memphis Daily Appeal, April 1, 1862.

April 1, 1862 - April 8, 1862 - Battle for and capture of Island No. 10

April 2, 1862 - "So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well." Excerpts from the
                  letter of Captain Gershom M. Barber, in Murfreesboro, to his wife Hulda

                      Headquarters 1st Battalion O. V. S. S
                      Murfreesboro Tenn. April 2, 1862
                      My Dear Wife.
                      . . . The weather is spring like. The fields would be green if there were any
                      fields here. But there are none for miles in every direction not our rail can be
                      found on top of another and not a green thing within reach of a mile. Yesterday
                      and last night our division of the Army went out toward Carthage taking with

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                                                                                          April 2, 1862

                 them pontoons. . . They expected a brush with the enemy. This afternoon heavy
                 firing has been heard in the direction and I suppose they are doing some work.
                 Companies have been passing and repassing to head quarters rapidly all this
                 PM and a battery went out to reinforce them. We have heard no results yet. I
                 have received three papers you have sent me. I sent you a Nashville Union
                 today. The general impression is that the enemy is marching his forces at Chat-
                 tanooga 119 miles South East of us and that the great battle of the war will be
                 fought there or here. My opinion is a forward movement will soon be made but
                 not to Chattanooga. Most of the Rebs have been ordered to turn over their extra
                 teams and luggage and tents and drawn shelter tents. By the way the boys call
                 the shelter tents "day tents." They are comprised of two pieces of canvas about
                 the size of a rubber blanket. Each man takes a piece on his back and when they
                 bivouac they pull the two together and stretch them over a pole or a grine and
                 creep under it for they can not stand up in them we have not received such
                 orders yet but probably shall. Officers will be allowed one wall tent to (3.). Our
                 Berea boys are very well. Sergeant Watson appears quite well although he was
                 poorly for a while Lieutenant Stearns messes with us, that is myself and my
                 company officers and tents with Lt. Pickard. He is some unwell today but is
                 better tonight nothing but sick headache he thinks. . . We are still at work on
                 the fortifications. There is at least two months work laid out on the fortifica-
                 tions and when completed all the rebels this side of Richmond could not take it
                 by assault. And we now have six months provisions on hand. I suppose the
                 Rebs have intended to wait until the Cumberland runs low and then cut off the
                 Somerville Rail Road and starve us out. But old Rosy is to many for them then
                 are is less then a month at the present rate we will have a year supply ahead.
                 I think my boy GeorgeNOTE 1 will go back soon. He is not much help to me and
                 a good deal of trouble and expense. I have taken first rate care of him and had
                 him sleep in my bed. By the way would you like to know the content of my
                 room office, house or tent as you may please to call it? It is about eight feet
                 square. Wall high enough so that I can stand erect in almost any part of it. With
                 a good fly to shed rain and sun. In the south west corner I have an old fash-
                 ioned fire place with the chimney in Free Southern Style built out side all of
                 the brick taken of course from a confiscated reb house in the north side and to
                 the right of the fireplace is my bed which is quite aristoctive here in camp.
                 Large enough to make two persons very comfortable. (I wish I could choose
                 my bedfellows) For my bed which is in good style French trundle bed style. I
                 paid $3.25 and got a tick filled with straw army blankets make up the
                 covering. . . Coat vest and pants sometimes added back of the bed on the cross
                 beam hangs my sword, pistol and over my head supported by the two upright
                 posts of the tent hang the battalions colors which by military custom can only
                 be taken out by the hands of the battalion commander. On the east side of the
                 room are eight thousand rounds of cartridges ready for use when jeff d or any
                 of his rebs see fit to call for them. On the south side and east of the center is the
                 door or entrance which consists in a slit up the middle of the tent. East of that is
                 my desk at which I am writing which by the way is made of whitewood, real

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                    April 1862 — Page 7
April 3, 1862

                      poplar and handsomely trimmed withy mahogany. Containing pigeon holes
                      book sides and. . . must have cost originally not less than forty dollars. All of
                      which I purchased at the grass roots price of one dollar and fifty cents. It too
                      was the property of a Reb. Beside my desk on a stick supported by crutches
                      drove in the ground hangs my saddle and accouterments. My arrangements for
                      sitting consist of ten good split bottomed chairs for which I paid forty cents.
                      This constitutes the whole of household goods a pretty good setting out given
                      will stay for a soldier. So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well.
                      That is if I can get enough to eat. But of that I will write again. . .
                      . . . I am yours GM.

                               Civil War Letters Between Gershom M. & Huldah Lovina BarberNOTE 2

                NOTE 1: A contraband slave.

                NOTE 2: As cited in:
                        Seeley.htm. [Hereinafter cited as: Barber Correspondence. Used with per-

April 3, 1862 - Federal gunboat reconnaissance from Savannah, to Eastport, Mississippi &
                  Chickasaw Alabama

                      •See April 1, 1862--Expedition from Pittsburg Landing to Eastport Mississip-
                        pi and Chickasaw, Alabama

April 3, 1862 - Skirmish near Monterey

                      APRIL 3, 1862.-Skirmish near Monterey, Tenn.
                      No. 1.-Col. William H. H. Taylor, Fifth Ohio Cavalry.
                      No. 2.-Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army.
                      No. 1.
                      Report of Col. William H. H. Taylor, Fifth Ohio Cavalry.
                      HDQRS. FIFTH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, Third Brig., First
                      Div., Army West Tennessee, April 3, 1862.
                      GEN.: I respectfully beg to report that, in obedience to your orders, I pro-
                      ceeded from this camp at midnight with about 400 men of this regiment in the
                      direction of Corinth. Being without guides, and the night so dark, after having
                      marched some 4 miles we halted until near daybreak. About a mile and a half
                      beyond the house of Mr. Chambers we came upon the enemy's pickets, 9 in
                      number, upon whom the advance guard immediately charged, wounding 1
                      rebel and making another prisoner. The prisoner's name is Lammon, and [he is]
                      a private in the First Alabama Cavalry. We chased the rebels some distance in

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                                                                                       April 3, 1862

                 the direction of Greer's, and after obtaining a guide discovered that 15 of the
                 enemy's cavalry were posted within a mile and a half of Greer's house. March-
                 ing in that direction, we met a gentleman calling himself Dr. Parker, whom we
                 had seen two hours previously at the house of Chambers, when, after asking
                 his services as a guide, pleaded ignorance of the surrounding country and want
                 of a horse, while after our departure he had saddled his horse and ridden some
                 3 miles, and upon the evidence of a woman living near the picket post he cer-
                 tainly had given information to the rebels of our approach. I accordingly
                 arrested him, and have brought him to camp for your examination.
                 Finding no trace of the fugitive rebels, I ordered my command back to camp,
                 arriving here at 9 a.m. I learned that at Monterey the rebels have three regi-
                 ments of infantry, one of cavalry, and a battery of artillery. They are also in
                 force with cavalry on the other side of Lick Creek.
                 I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,
                 W. H. H. TAYLOR, Col. Fifth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry.
                 No. 2.
                 Report of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army.
                 HDQRS. ADVANCE, April 3, 1862.
                 MAJ.: Col. Clanton has just reported verbally to me that the enemy's pickets
                 attacked his advance pickets about daylight this morning, and he fears that 2 of
                 his men were captured, though he was not able to state accurately the facts. As
                 soon as I am accurately informed I will report to you.
                 Your order to prepare for movement has been received and given to the troops.
                 Our commissary stores have not arrived, but are expected hourly. We have on
                 hand one day's rations ready cooked.
                 I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 JAMES R. CHALMERS, Brig.-Gen.
                                                                  OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 87.

April 3, 1862 - Pro-Union sentiment in Waynesborough, an entry from Col. Jacob Ammen's
                   diary of march to and battle at Pittsburg Landing

                 No circumstantial reports filed
                 April 3.-Passed through Waynesborough; small Union flags on some houses;
                 women ask to let the band play some old tunes-Yankee Doodle, &c. The music
                 makes them weep for joy. March 15 miles and encamp. Very poor country, bad
                 roads; land poor 5 miles after passing Mount Pleasant to this place.
                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 331.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 9
April 3, 1862

April 3, 1862 - "If I dont talk with them at least 15 minutes they think they are not properly
                   cared for, & if I do I spend 2250 minutes or 371/2 hours which cant be did
                   in one day." The problems of operating a Union hospital in Murfreesboro;
                   an excerpt from the letter of Surgeon William M. Eames to his wife in

                   Union Coll. Hospital
                   April 3rd 1862
                   Dearest wife,
                   I have rec'd your letters up to the 24th of March & I am very glad to hear of
                   your continued improvement 7 that the rest are all well. It is 7 P. M. & such a
                   days        work as I have done to day is really astonishing to myself. I tho't I
                   knew before some of the perplexities of soldiering but I give it up. I just begin
                   to see what can be done in a military way. Just think of prescribing for 150 very
                   sick men, & all of them blue & homesick & most of them wanting me to get
                   them a furlough our discharge. If I dont talk with them at least 15 minutes they
                   think they are not properly cared for, & if I do I spend 2250 minutes or 371/2
                   hours which cant be did in one day. Then I have to see that they are all prop-
                   erly fed & washed & don't get lousy[.] Then there is any amount of Captains to
                   give directions about their men & make themselves disagreeable & a score of
                   privates to see their friends who are sick. After the sick were all prescribed for
                   & the rooms all full & everything swept up, up comes an Ambulance load of
                   sick & grunting, then another then 4 more & after a little we have 200 sick &
                   grunting men to look to me for beds & rations. I have no beds & only cooking
                   utensils enough to cook for 100 men at the outside & two green boys for cooks.
                   The word soon goes out that we are not taking care of the men & in come cap-
                   tains Colonels Doctors & Lieutenants to sputter and bluster. I confess I could
                   not stand it & left to see the Paymaster & thought I didn't care a cuss for any-
                   thing. Didn't care whether school kept or not, but after getting the money due I
                   hastened back & put forth my best endeavers to bring order out of confusion &
                   not we have our rooms all full & the halls nearly ditto & two men dead & one
                   dying, just brot in. We are in for three funerals tomorrow & lots of other fun. I
                   am writing in the midst of the greatest hubbub - have had one row with a Wis-
                   consin Capt. & several calls from privates & papers & letters presented with
                   discriptive lists of men & I can hardly tell what to write or what to think—but I
                   feel first rate & am quite well. Our Reg marches to-morrow at 6 A. M. & I feel
                   rather bad to think of being left behind but will try to make the best of it. I have
                   got a good place, & ought to feel contented as I got rid of helping to put up
                   tents & pack & unpack & above all of living on the damp ground. I got my pay
                   392 1/4 dolls —up to March 1st. . .
                   One or two brigades have gone to-day & all the rest go tomorrow & another
                   one is expected soon. Hope they wont stop here for I have got sick enough in
                   all conscience to see to without any other Brigades.

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                                                                                      April 4, 1862

                 Rob.NOTE 1has been undergoing an examination but has not yet to through.
                 Dont know how he will do so now as the examiners have gone. Would give 20
                 dolls myself if he had only passed & got appointed with me in this place, but
                 still he may do so yet. The prospect is pretty fair if he can only catch up.
                 The division stops at Shelbyville & he will go on there the fore part of next
                 Have paid out 5 or six dolls for things to fix up the Hospital with but hope
                 Uncle Sam will pay back. They leave a guard with me so I feel safe.
                 I must close & go to bed as I am very tired. Tomorrow will be the worst day for
                 me of the whole year & I dread it.
                 Very aff'ly yours,
                 Wm. M. Eames
                                                                    William Mark Eames Papers

           NOTE 1: Unitentified.

April 4, 1862 - Skirmish near Pittsburg Landing

                 APRIL 4, 1862.-Skirmish near Pittsburg Landing, Tenn.
                 No. 1.-Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army.
                 No. 2.-Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army.
                 No. 3.-Col. Ralph P. Buckland, Seventy-Second Ohio Infantry.
                 No. 4.-Maj. Elbridge G. Ricker, Fifth Ohio Cavalry.
                 No. 5.-Maj.-Gen. William J. Hardee, C. S. Army.
                 No. 1.
                 Report of Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army.
                 HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Savannah, April 5, 1862.
                 GEN.: Just as my letter of yesterday to Capt. McLean, assistant adjutant-gen-
                 eral, was finished, notes from Gen.'s McClernand's an Sherman's assistant
                 adjutant-general were received, stating that our outposts had been attacked by
                 the enemy, apparently in considerable force. I immediately went up, but found
                 all quiet. The enemy took 2 officers and 4 or 5 of our men prisoners and
                 wounded 4. We took 8 prisoners and killed several number of the enemy
                 wounded not known. They had with them three pieces of artillery and cavalry
                 and infantry. How much cannot of course be estimated.
                 I have scarcely the faintest idea of an attack (general one) being made upon us,
                 but will be prepared should such a thing take place. Gen. Nelson's division has

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 11
April 4, 1862

                   arrived. The other two of Gen. Buell's column will arrive to-morrow and next
                   day. It is my present intention to send them to Hamburg, some 4 miles above
                   Pittsburg, when they all get here. From that point to Corinth the road is good,
                   and a junction can be formed with the troops from Pittsburg at almost any
                   Col. McPherson has gone with an escort to-day to examine the defensibility of
                   the ground about Hamburg, and to lay out the position of the camps if advis-
                   able to occupy that place.
                   I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
                   Maj.-Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Cmdg. Department of the Mississippi, Saint
                   Louis, Mo.
                   No. 2.
                   Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army.
                   HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Camp Shiloh, Tenn., April 5, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to report that yesterday about 3 p. m. it was reported to
                   me that the lieutenant commanding and 7 men of the advance pickets had
                   imprudently advanced from their posts and were captured. I ordered Maj.
                   Ricker, of the Fifth Ohio Cavalry, to proceed rapidly to the picket station,
                   ascertain the truth, and act according to circumstances. He reached the station,
                   found the pickets had been captured as reported, and that a company of infan-
                   try sent by the brigade commander had gone forward in pursuit of some cav-
                   alry. He rapidly advanced some 2 miles and found them engaged; charged the
                   enemy, and drove them along the ridge road until he met and received three
                   discharges of artillery, when he very properly wheeled under cover and
                   returned till he met me. As soon as I heard artillery I advanced with two regi-
                   ments of infantry and took position and remained until the scattered companies
                   of infantry and cavalry returned. This was after night. I infer that the enemy is
                   in some considerable force at Pea Ridge; that yesterday morning they crossed a
                   brigade of two regiments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and one battery
                   of field artillery to the ridge on which the Corinth road lays. They halted the
                   infantry and artillery at a point about 5 miles in my front, and sent a detach-
                   ment to the lane of Gen. Meeks, on the north of Owl Creek, and the cavalry
                   down towards our camps. This cavalry captured a part of our advance pickets
                   and afterwards engaged the two companies of Col. Buckland's regiment, as
                   described by him in his report, herewith inclosed. Our cavalry drove them back
                   upon their artillery and infantry, killing many and bringing off 10 prisoners (all
                   of the First Alabama Cavalry), whom I send to you.
                   We lost of the picket: 1 first lieutenant and 7 men of the Seventieth Ohio Infan-
                   try, taken prisoners; 1 major, 1 lieutenant, and 1 private of the Seventy-second
                   Ohio taken prisoners, and 8 privates wounded.

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                                                                                        April 4, 1862

                 Names of all embraced in report of Col. Buckland, inclosed herewith. We took
                 10 prisoners, and left 2 wounded and many killed on the field.
                 I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                 W. T. SHERMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.
                 Capt. JOHN A. RAWLINS, A. A. G., District of West Tennessee.
                 No. 3.
                 Report of Col. Ralph P. Buckland, Seventy-second Ohio Infantry.
                 HDQRS. FOURTH BRIGADE, Camp Shiloh, April 5, 1862.
                 SIR: I make the following report of the affair of yesterday:
                 About 2.30 p. m. I went out to the field where Maj. Crockett was drilling the
                 Seventy-second Regt. Just as I reached the field quite a brisk firing com-
                 menced on the left of our pickets. I directed Maj. Crockett to march the regi-
                 ment around that way to camp, and I rode ahead to ascertain what the firing
                 meant. I found that Lieut. W. H. Herbert, of the Seventieth Ohio Volunteer, and
                 6 guards under him had been taken prisoners. I sent Lieut. Geer to inform Col.
                 Cockerill, and request the colonel to report the fact to Gen. Sherman. Maj.
                 Crockett had directed Company B, Seventy-second Regt., to bear off to the
                 right of our picket line as skirmishers. After reaching the house where the
                 guard was I directed the major to take Company H and meet Company B, leav-
                 ing the balance of the regiment at the house. Lieut. Geer returned and informed
                 me that Gen. Sherman would sent out 100 cavalry. I returned to camp, suppos-
                 ing that Maj. Crockett would soon follow me with the regiment. After remain-
                 ing some time I concluded to ride back. When I reached the house Maj.
                 Crockett had not returned, but constant firing was heard in the direction he had
                 taken. I took about 100 men of Companies A, D, and I, and marched in the
                 direction of the firing, supposing it not to be far off, and that Maj. Crockett and
                 his men were surrounded by rebel cavalry. We had proceeded some distance
                 when we met some men of Company H, who informed me that Maj. Crockett
                 was probably taken prisoners, and that Companies B and H were separated.
                 The firing continued, not rapid but pretty regular, which led me to the conclu-
                 sion that Company B was surrounded and were defending themselves against
                 cavalry. We pushed on at double-quick, notwithstanding the severe storm. I
                 rode some distance ahead of the men, and discovered the enemy, as I supposed,
                 about to make a charge. They charged, and Company B returned the charge, as
                 Capt. Raymond has since informed me. My men came up most gallantly and
                 opened a destructive fire upon the enemy, who soon retired to an open space
                 and commenced forming. I had changed the front of my line to correspond,
                 when our cavalry came up the enemy fled. The cavalry pursued, and we fol-
                 lowed until it was ascertained that the enemy were in force a short distance
                 ahead, when we returned, in company with the cavalry.
                 Capt. Raymond, Company B, informs me that they had been surrounded by the
                 enemy more than an hour, first by about 100 or 150, and that just before I came

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 13
April 4, 1862

                   up they were re-enforced to about 400, and were all ready to charge when my
                   men commenced firing upon them. Capt. Raymond's men fired about 15
                   rounds. He had with him Adjutant Rawson, Sergeant-Maj. Engle, Lieut.'s
                   Buckland and Fisher, of Company B, and Lieut. Crary, of the Forty-sixth Ohio
                   Volunteers, who went along from the drill ground, and 41 non-commissioned
                   officers and men. All behaved with great coolness and bravery.
                   Company H also had a severe fight with rebel cavalry. They were attacked
                   after they had commenced retreating. Maj. Crockett became separated from the
                   company, and is undoubtedly taken prisoner; also Lieut. Geer, of the Forty-
                   eighth, who, it seems, joined Crockett after I left for camp. It is not known that
                   any of our men were killed, but Sergts. Andrew Unkle and Philip Fertiz are
                   missing, supposed to be prisoners. I annex a list of wounded and missing. A
                   considerable number of the enemy were killed both by Company B and the
                   men under my charge. Quite a number of dead bodies were seen as we passed
                   over the ground. The men under my charge took 8 prisoners, and Capt. Ray-
                   mond brought 2 wounded rebels from the field and left them at a house near
                   our line of wounded and missing. List of wounded and missing in Seventy-sec-
                   ond Regt. Ohio Volunteers:

                                                                W               M

                              Officers. . .                      1
                   Non-commissioned officers. . .                1
                            Enlisted men. . .                    8               1
                                 Total                           8               3

                   Lieut. Geer, of the Forty-eighth, acting aide, is missing. I have not received the
                   names of the missing men of the Seventieth Ohio Volunteers.
                   Your obedient servant,
                   R. P. BUCKLAND, Col., Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.
                   WILLIAM T. SHERMAN, Cmdg. Fifth Division.
                   No. 4.
                   Report of Maj. Elbridge G. Ricker, Fifth Ohio Cavalry.
                   HDQRS. SECOND BATT., FIFTH REGT. OHIO VOL. CAV., Pittsburg,
                   Tenn., April 4, [?] 1862.
                   In accordance with the order issued to me at 2.30 p. m. of said day (to proceed
                   with 150 men to look for Maj. Crockett, a lieutenant, and 5 or 6 men, who had
                   wandered outside the pickets and were supposed to be lost or captured) we
                   reached the pickets about 3.30 o'clock, and learned that Col. Buckland was out
                   with two companies of infantry. We moved on for about 2 miles, when we
                   heard considerable firing on our right. Knowing the ground, I at once ordered

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                                                                                        April 4, 1862

                 two the rear, while I moved against his flank with two other companies. We
                 found a large cavalry force slowly retiring before Col. Buckland and his com-
                 mand. There is a strip of fallen timber at this point that retarded our movements
                 very much for a short time. As soon as our men were clear of this obstacle they
                 dashed on to the enemy, scattering them in every direction and pursuing them
                 some 300 or 400 yards. When passing the brow of a hill our advance was
                 opened on by three or four pieces of artillery, at least two regiments of infantry,
                 and a large cavalry force. So near was our advance to this line of battle of the
                 enemy that one of our men was carried within the enemy's lines by his horse
                 and captured, while another shot one of their gunners down at his gun. Two of
                 our men lost their carbines at this point. I then ordered my command to fall
                 back about 200 yards, bringing a piece of high ground between us and the
                 Col. Buckland coming up at this time with his command, we formed and
                 retired in good order, bringing off 9 prisoners. Not less than 20 of the enemy
                 were left dead; also a number of horses were killed and wounded, among
                 which was the horses of the lieutenant-colonel of the First Alabama Cavalry.
                 We brought off his saddle and equipments.
                 I must return thanks to officers and men for the manner in which they con-
                 ducted themselves in presence of a force at least ten times their number.
                 I acknowledge God's mercy in protecting our men under the terrible fire
                 poured upon us by the enemy in the opening fight of the great battle of Pitts-
                 Nine wounded prisoners were brought in at night, making in all 18.
                 E. G. RICKER, Maj. Second Battalion, Fifth Regt. Ohio Volunteer Cavalry.
                 No. 5.
                 Report of Maj.-Gen. William J. Hardee, C. S. Army.
                 CAMP NEAR MICKEY'S, April 4, 1862.
                 GEN.: The cavalry and infantry of the enemy attacked Col. Clanton's regiment,
                 which was posted, as I before informed you, about 500 or 600 yards in advance
                 of my lines. Col. Clanton retired, and the enemy's cavalry followed until they
                 came near our infantry and artillery, when they were gallantly repulsed with
                 slight loss.
                 Very respectfully,
                 W. J. HARDEE, Maj.-Gen.
                 Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG, Chief of Staff.
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 89-93.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 15
April 4, 1862

April 4, 1862 - Skirmish at Lawrenceburg

                   APRIL 4, 1862.-Skirmish at Lawrenceburg, Tenn.
                   Report of Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.
                   HDQRS. FIFTEENTH BRIGADE, ARMY OF THE OHIO, Field of Shiloh,
                   April 12, 1862.
                   Agreeably to the order of Gen. Wood, I proceeded on the morning of the 4th
                   instant from our camp, 23 miles beyond Waynesborough and about 60 miles
                   from this place, with two regiments of my brigade, to wit, the Twenty-sixth
                   Ohio and the Seventeenth Indiana, together with a detachment of about 600 of
                   the Third Ohio Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Murray, of that regiment, and
                   marched for Lawrenceburg. The general had been informed that about 500 of
                   the enemy's cavalry were at that point, with the intention of making a descent
                   upon our train after the troops had passed. My instructions were to proceed
                   cautiously to Lawrenceburg, a distance of about 14 miles from our camp, and
                   capture the enemy, if possible, and to disperse him at all events. It happened
                   that the day was very rainy and exceedingly bad for the infantry to make the
                   march, on account of the swollen streams and mud. I proceeded very cau-
                   tiously, leaving a couple of cavalry at every house we passed, to prevent any
                   one taking information there we had to pass over a succession of hills, in full
                   view of the town, so that further precaution in this respect was useless.
                   By this time I had learned that there were not more than from 50 to 100 cavalry
                   there at furthest, and being desirous of saving the infantry as much as possible
                   for the forced march that was still before them, before reaching this point I
                   ordered the infantry to halt, and, after getting their dinner, to return to the camp
                   they left in the morning and join the other two regiments of my brigade. I then
                   proceeded with the cavalry as fast as the roads would permit, and, when getting
                   within about one-fourth of a mile from town, ordered a charge upon the town,
                   which was splendidly executed by Lieut.-Col. Murray at the head of his men. I
                   learned that there were 50 to 75 cavalry in town, but as soon as they observed
                   our approach put themselves in readiness to leave. They left principally in the
                   direction of Florence and Mount Pleasant, and, their horses being fresh, but
                   few could be overtaken, though they were pursued some 8 miles in both direc-
                   tions by our cavalry. Two of the enemy were severely wounded, as evidenced
                   by the blood upon their horses which fell into our hands. The result of the
                   expedition was the breaking up of the secession rendezvous at that point, the
                   capture of 6 cavalry horses and saddles, about 4,000 pounds of fine bacon, a
                   dozen or two shot-guns and squirrel rifles, and 2 drums.
                   I take great pleasure in reporting that a strong Union sentiment seemed to per-
                   vade the whole country through which we passed going and returning, my
                   command being everywhere received (except at Lawrenceburg) with every
                   demonstration of joy and treated with the utmost kindness and consideration.

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                 Fearing that that portion of the rebel cavalry that fled toward Mount Pleasant
                 might be part of a large band in that direction and might seriously embarrass, if
                 not capture, portions of our train, I dispatched Maj. Foster, of the cavalry, with
                 two companies, to scout the country as far as Mount Pleasant, and then to join
                 his regiment at Savannah; since which time I have received two tidings from
                 him, but presume he has joined his regiment some time since. The remainder
                 of the cavalry, with myself and staff, bivouacked near Lawrenceburg the night
                 of the 4th, and having procured wagons in the neighborhood with which to
                 transport the captured bacon, started early the next morning, and about noon
                 overtook the infantry of my brigade, who were en route for this place. The next
                 day (6th) we began to hear the fire of the gunboats, and presuming an engage-
                 ment had taken place, we took three days' rations in our haversacks, and leav-
                 ing our train in charge of the brigade quartermaster, with a sufficient guard, we
                 pushed ahead by forced marches, and made our way to Savannah and Pittsburg
                 Landing at 12 o'clock on the night of the 7th, and early the next morning I had
                 my whole brigade in its present position, in the advance, ready to fight the
                 enemy should he again attack, or for any other duty that might be assigned it.
                 When the general considers that two regiments of my brigade thus made a
                 detour some 30 miles out of the way, and that for 20 miles back of Savannah
                 the road was completely blockaded by the teams of the other divisions of Gen.
                 Buell's army that had preceded his own, and that notwithstanding all this my
                 brigade arrived on the battle-field only twelve hours after the other rations of
                 his division, I think he will unite with me in saying that it is entitled to as much
                 credit as any that took part in the glorious achievements of the 6th and 7th
                 instant. This latter part concerning the march after the affair at Lawrenceburg,
                 though not strictly speaking part of this report, I have nevertheless thought that
                 justice to my brigade, under all circumstances, demanded this statement from
                 me in this connection, and its indorsement by the general commanding the
                 division, who is aware of all the circumstances.
                 It is proper for me to add here that in all my operations after being detached for
                 the Lawrenceburg affair to the time of my arrival here I received most efficient
                 aid and co-operation from all my field and staff officers.
                 All of which is respectfully submitted.
                 MILO S. HASCALL, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Fifteenth Brigade.
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 87-89.

April 4, 1862 - On the road from Murfreesboro to Shelbyville; an Ohio officer's impressions
                  of Middle Tennessee

                 Resumed the march at seven o'clock in the morning, the Third [Regiment] in
                 advance. At one place on the road a young negro, perhaps eighteen years old,
                 broke from his hiding in the woods, and with hat in hand and a broad grin on
                 his face, came running to me."Massa," said he, "I wants to go wid you." "I am
                 sorry, my boy, that I can not take you. I am not permitted to do it." The light

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                   April 1862 — Page 17
April 4, 1862

                      went out in the poor fellow's eyes in a moment, and, putting on his slouch hat,
                      he went away sorrowful enough. It seems cruel to turn our backs on these, our
                      only friends. If a dog came up wagging his tail at sight of us, we could not help
                      liking him better than the master, who not only looks sullen and cross at our
                      approach, but in his heart desires our destruction.
                      As we approach the Alabama line we find fewer, but handsomer houses; larger
                      plantations, and negroes more numerous. We saw droves of women working in
                      the fields. When their ears caught the first notes of the music, they would drop
                      the hoe and come running to the road, their faces all aglow with pleasure. May
                      we not hope that their darkened minds caught glimpses of the sun and a better
                      life, now rising for them?
                      We entered Shelbyville at noon. There were more Union people here than at
                      Murfreesboro, and we saw many glad faces as we marched through the streets.
                      The band made the sky ring with music, and the regiment deported splendidly.
                      One old woman clapped her hands and thanked heaven that we had come at
                      last. Apparently almost wild with joy, she shouted after us, "God be with you!"
                      We went into camp on [the] Duck river, one mile from town.
                                                                  Beatty, Citizen Soldier, pp. 124-125.

April 4, 1862 - "Reported Skirmish."

                      We have reports of a skirmish between the pickets and the contending force on
                      the Tennessee river, on Friday [4th] afternoon, in which it is said a number of
                      prisoners were captured by both parties and a few wounded. Nothing definite
                      as to the result has reached the city.
                                                                      Memphis Appeal, April 6, 1862.

April 5, 1862 - Description of Tennessee River loyalists "Home Guards."

                      This invaluable class is composed—according to a careful analysis made by an
                      eminent chemist on the spot—of ten parts unadulterated Andy Johnson Union
                      men, ten of good lord good devil-ites, five of spies, and seventy-five scala-
                      wags, too lazy to run, therefore disqualified for service in the Secesh army, and
                      too cowardly to steal on their own responsibility, but willing to be enrolled as
                      "Home Guards," so as to plunder their neighbors under the Union flag.

                                                         Chicago Daily Tribune, April 5, 1862.NOTE 1

                NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 5, 1862 - Description of Pittsburg Landing "Fair Grounds"

                      Correspondence of The Chicago Times.

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                                                                                       April 5, 1862

                 Camp Hitt—At the "Fair Grounds."
                 Savannah, Tenn. March 29.
                 The Fifty-third Illinois left Chicago on Sunday last, destined, as many sup-
                 posed, for a short visit to Benton Barracks. Upon arriving at St. Louis next
                 morning, however, we learned that orders had been given to proceed immedi-
                 ately on board the steamer Continental, along with the 25th Missouri (which
                 carries "Lexington" upon its banner), for a trip to the "Sunny South." But pre-
                 cisely whitherward few could distinctly say, and these few were discreetly
                 We arrived at Fort Henry. . . As the night closes in the men tuck themselves
                 away in nooks and corners, and the officers congregate in the cabins. They
                 form parties for whist, euchre, "seven-up," chess, checkers, and general con-
                 versation, while in different parts of the boat are glee clubs of well-trained
                 voices discoursing sweetly, and a string band with a flute accompaniment is
                 breathing such pathetic strains of well remembered times that tears are dim-
                 ming eyes that never blanched with fear. It is the most singular party of plea-
                 sure that I ever went on. They all seem bound to be joyful while they may; real
                 concern does not appear upon a single countenance; and yet the absence of
                 ladies, who usually grace pleasure parties (for there are on board but camp
                 women); the soft beauty of the night into which the majestic steamer is crowd-
                 ing onward; the ignorance we are all in of our destination; with the grim sug-
                 gestions of war all around us, combine to produce a singular variety of mental
                 We arrived here, the headquarters of General Grant, at noon. We await orders,
                 and are told that we are to move on to Pittsburg Landing, nine miles above.
                 Shortly the order is reversed; we are to disembark here and the Twenty-Fifty
                 Missouri is to go on to Pittsburg. The time is not long before our small ware-
                 house of luggage is emptied from the steamer and on the way to our camping
                 ground—the "Fair Ground" again, located on a high knoll in the midst of an
                 oak forest, about a mile from the town. As compared with our "Fair Grounds"
                 these are of dimensions decidedly contemptible. It consists of a "circus" of
                 about one hundred and fifty feet diameter, with galleries of benches surround-
                 ing and covered with an awning of "shakes," or riven clapboards, outside of
                 which is space sufficient only for a carriage way and one row of our tents. This
                 enclosed by a close board fence, completes the Fair Ground. It seems calcu-
                 lated for horse racing on a small scale and nothing else to speak of, but we're in
                 Dixie. . .
                 I am unable to give any information as to other troops quartered here, other
                 than that the remnant of the Eleventh is within a few miles, and that Dickey's
                 Cavalry is camped about four miles off. One of the men whom I saw last
                 evening told me that they spent their time in scouting and skirmishing with
                 guerrilla bands of rebels, and destroying now and then contraband property of
                 secesh. . . One of the Fifty-Third.

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April 5, 1862

                      . . . No post office is established here yet. We have to depend upon the boats for
                      sending and receiving our letters, though it is promised a post office will soon
                      be in operation.

                                                                  Chicago Times, April 5, 1862.NOTE 1

                NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 5, 1862 - Newspaper report on the progress of Federal forces in Tennessee

                      Federal Expedition Up the Tennessee River. What it has accomplished.
                      [Correspondence of the Cincinnati Gazette.]
                      Savannah, Tenn., March 12.-The greater part of the Tennessee river expedition
                      arrived at Savannah, Hardin county, Tenn., on the evening and during the night
                      of the 11th inst. As the sun broke over the canebrakes that line the river banks,
                      it disclosed such a scene as neither that nor indeed any river on the continent
                      ever witnessed before. For nearly two miles up and down the stream lay the
                      fleet. More vessels were constantly arriving; the channel was filled with them,
                      gliding about in search of landings near their respective brigade headquarters,
                      and the air was heavy with the murky smoke from hundreds of puffing chim-
                      The expedition had indeed reached the sunny South. We were seventeen miles
                      from the Mississippi line, and only twenty-five from the northwest corner of
                      Alabama, precisely as far south as the northern line of South Carolina, and fur-
                      ther down than any of our armies, excepting the small ones that have gone
                      around by the seacoast expeditions.
                      The troops arrived in pretty fair condition. The Donelson forces that embarked
                      at Fort Henry were positively refreshed by the rest they had got afloat, and the
                      beautiful sunny weather had largely aided to diminish their sick lists. The new
                      troops, Ohio, Indiana and Iowa, that came up from Paducah and beyond, had
                      been aboard too long for health, and unfortunately it became evident that they
                      would not be permitted to disembark for several days yet.
                      Four divisions (of brigades improper exactly to enumerate to each division,)
                      were organized, and troops enough either had already arrived or were on the
                      way to form one, if not two more. Our Ohio Gen. Sherman (late commander in
                      Kentucky,) as the ranking brigadier in the district had the advance division;
                      next came Gen. McClernand, then Gen. Hurlburt, (both of Illinois,) and last,
                      Gen. Lew. Wallace, of Indiana.
                      Gen. Smith, also promoted for Donelson service, had received his major-gen-
                      eral's commission, and by virtue of it had the command of the movements in
                      the field, as next to Gen. Grant, the ranking officer in the division.
                      Gen. Smith's headquarter's boat was landed at the Savannah wharf about three
                      o'clock on the afternoon of the 12th; his yawl came across to Gen. Lew. Wal-

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                                                                                       April 5, 1862

                 lace's headquarters, on the opposite side of the stream, and the two generals
                 had a brief conference.
                 The consultation lasted for half an hour, the two generals traced out a few
                 courses on the maps, and made a few inquiries as to distances. Gen. Smith
                 entered his yawl again, and Gen. Wallace gave the order, "Brigade, regimental
                 and company officers will see that their men prepare three-days rations, and
                 hold themselves in readiness for immediate movement."
                 March of the Division.
                 Near Savannah, Tennessee, March 14, 1862.
                 The march of Gen. Wallace's division last night and the night preceding, was in
                 no-wise different from hundreds of marches the same troops and other troops,
                 all through the seat of war in the West, have made, and yet, common as were its
                 fatigues, but few of its participants will ever appreciate them.
                 Plan of Operations.
                 The plan of the movement was briefly this: At the two towns of Purdy, in Ten-
                 nessee, and Corinth, in Mississippi, pretty strong revel forces were known to
                 be posted, and between them was direct railroad communication. to attack one
                 was therefore to attack both till the railroad connection could be destroyed. A
                 few miles south of Purdy was an important railroad bridge, with long trestle
                 work on each side. From this bridge a good road led to a landing on the river
                 four or five miles above Savannah. Gen. Wallace was to move up the river after
                 nightfall, so as to throw the rebel scouts off the scent, move out on the road six
                 or eight miles with his infantry, and meantime send his cavalry ahead to
                 destroy the bridge and trestle work, and capture a passing train if possible. The
                 infantry would be within calling distance to support the cavalry in case of
                 attack, or prevent their being cut off by a movement in the flank or rear.
                 A Success-Ohio Cavalry.
                 The plant was carried out exactly according to the programme. In a night so
                 dark that a rider could only see his horse by the frequent flashes of lightning,
                 and under a pouring rain, Major Hayes, with a battalion of the 5th Ohio cav-
                 alry, guided by a Union man of the vicinity, marched some twenty-six miles,
                 reached the bridge at an early hour, destroyed it, and the track and the trestle
                 work for half a mile, tried to catch the down train from Purdy, but were foiled
                 by the conductors having been advised by the people of the neighborhood of
                 his presence in time, and got back to the point at which the infantry were rest-
                 ing at five o'clock in the afternoon.
                 March of the Infantry.
                 The infantry march, though shorter, was still harder. The advance had hardly
                 been disembarked and started off till a thunder-storm came up. Through the
                 whole night it rained, almost incessantly; the march often standing for half an
                 hour waiting in the mud and rain for some advance regiment to get out of the

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 21
April 5, 1862

                   way; every body was soaked before the rain was half over, and when it was
                   ended the blankets were so wet as to be useless.
                   The Rebels Burning Their Cotton.
                   For miles an ill-defined lurid glow of light was seen illumining the murky sky,
                   and shining dimly through the woods. As it was seen from different positions
                   in the curves of the road, the men imagined each appearance to be a new light,
                   and there was much talk of signal fires and admonition to be ready for attack
                   any moment; but, at last, just as the darkest hour before daylight, they came up
                   to it, and the mystery was solved. A speculative farmer had bought up some
                   fifty bales of cotton, which were stored in an old shed by the roadside. Late in
                   the preceding evening a battalion of rebel cavalry had been done to the river,
                   and returning, greatly alarmed at the formidable appearance of the fleet, had
                   fired the cotton to prevent the Lincolnites from getting it.
                   Taking Prisoners-Sharp Practice in Picketing.
                   Throughout the day Gen. Wallace kept scouting parties out around the position
                   of his infantry. The results of their labor were the capture of three rebel privates
                   and one captain, and ascertaining that Gen. Cheatham, with a force that when
                   all concentrated, amounted to full 15,000, had marched from Purdy the day
                   before to take possession of the very landing at which we had disembarked,
                   (where a high bluff gave a splendid position for artillery to command the
                   river), and that, foiled in this by our arrival, he was then lying within four and a
                   half miles of our position. Our brigades were kept constantly changing their
                   places; and if the rebel scouts could make anything of Gen. Wallace's disposi-
                   tions or numbers they must have possessed extraordinary powers for combina-
                   The rebel captain was taken by a Yankee ruse that must have struck him as
                   exceedingly unchivalric. He was out on picket duty. One of our scouts came
                   suddenly upon him at a point where two of his pickets were posted. Fortunately
                   the scout was quick-witted, or the capture might have been on the other
                   side."Who are you?" he boldly inquired of the first rebel he reached."I'm a
                   picket."; "Well, so am I, but a little off my post, looking around for the Yan-
                   kees."; "Where is your post?" asked the captain; "You've no business to be
                   away from it."; "Come this way and I'll show you," responded the scout. The
                   moment he got out of sight of the two privates he quietly informed the officer
                   that he was a picket on the other side, and would have to take him along! And
                   he actually marched the captain in, sword, pistols, shoulder-straps and all.
                   Gen. Cheatham Perturbed.
                   Gen. Cheatham was so astonished by our unaccountable demonstrations that
                   he never dreamed of attacking us, and actually burnt a little bridge between the
                   positions to prevent us from attacking him.
                   Having successfully performed all that was required of him, Gen. Wallace
                   started back to the boats about eleven o'clock at night. The rains were over, and
                   the boys had a beautiful moonlight march back. By two o'clock they were all

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                                                                                         April 5, 1862

                 aboard, and turned in for the night, after severe duty for thirty-six hours in suc-
                 The Advance of the Expedition into Mississippi.
                 Tyler's Landing, Tishomingo Co., Miss., March 15.
                 The national armies have at last made a descent from the North to the Gulf
                 States. I write from the northeast corner of the rebel President's own State and
                 on the opposite shore is Lauderdale county, Alabama.
                 Sherman's Division on the Move.
                 At noon, yesterday, Gen. Sherman's division moved out from the Savannah
                 landings and steamed up the river, preceded by one of the saucy looking Cin-
                 cinnati gunboats the A. O. Tyler. On reaching Pittsburg, where the gunboat
                 engagement was fought a few days ago, the fleet stopped, and after reconnoi-
                 tering for a moment or two, the gunboat dropped in a shell on the bluff where
                 the rebel battery had been posted, The glasses showed nothing but utter deser-
                 tion on the shore.
                 A few miles up, another dangerous looking bluff was reached, and another
                 shell thrown with the same result. Without further detention, the fleet moved
                 on, and, a little after dark, came in at the landing, a mile or two across the Mis-
                 sissippi line. Orders were promptly issued to prepare for marching, and about
                 three o'clock the division moved out under another pouring rain.
                 Plan for Sherman's Movement.
                 The plan for this movement, like that for Gen. Wallace's, was to send out the
                 cavalry in advance to destroy a bridge on the Memphis and Charleston rail-
                 road, while the infantry moved up to support it, and save it from being flanked
                 or cut off.
                 The cavalry started off at the proper time, but about nine o'clock they returned.
                 They had got within six miles of the place, when they found a creek so swollen
                 with the recent rains as to be impassable. Meantime the infantry had only got
                 out with infinite trouble, some three or four miles from the boats. The rain was
                 drenching, and the poor fellows had a hard time of it in their first experience of
                 marching in Mississippi. To many of the Ohio regiments it was the first trial of
                 actual service. The Seventy-First Ohio, Col. Rodney Mason, had the satisfac-
                 tion of bringing out the fullest regiment in the entire division.
                 Rise in the Waters.
                 The little streams rose so rapidly that the troops had difficulty in returning. A
                 creek that they waded very easily at five in the morning they were compelled
                 to bridge at nine, before they could get back. the artillery had great difficulty in
                 crossing at all; the caissons were nearly carried down the stream, and the guns
                 went under and almost mired to the bottom of the creek under six feet of water.
                 Some idea of the freshet can be had when I repeat what a pilot told me, that the
                 Tennessee rose eight feet in twenty-four hours.

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April 5, 1862

                   The movement was a failure, but it was nobody's fault. The elements were
                   against us, and so the rebels still have uninterrupted communication between
                   Memphis and Charleston.
                   The Advance Division Returns from Mississippi.
                   Pittsburg, Tenn., March 16.-General Sherman's fleet came down here in the
                   night. The effort against the Memphis and Charleston road had failed, and so
                   we united here with Gen. Hurlburt's division for a more important movement.
                   The rebels are known to be near us in strong force, and now we have the cheer-
                   ing news that Manassas is evacuated, and the Potomac rebel army can just as
                   well turn up here as not. The old rebel camp here-occupied till the gunboats
                   shelled them out of it-shows that a considerable force lay at this particular
                   point, and we hear of considerable bodies at Purdy, Corinth and Florence; and,
                   besides, Johnson, Floyd and Pillow cannot be far off.
                   Our troops are already disembarked, and before morning we are to move.
                   Some rebel prisoners, taken to-day, boast that before two days have passed
                   "we'll be driven back into the river, and have half our boats sunk."
                   Nothing Further Accomplished.
                   Cairo, March 22.-The Lexington arrived this morning from the Tennessee river.
                   She reports that our forces are scattering into the country round about Savan-
                   nah, accomplishing nothing of importance beside the occasional capture of the
                   enemy's scouts, and the bringing into our lines of prominent rebels, charged
                   with assisting the Confederacy with money and provisions. Our forces have
                   entire possession of the Memphis and Tennessee railroad, in the vicinity of
                   Savannah, and reinforcements cannot be sent to Memphis. Other points are
                   threatened on the Mississippi, by that channel of communication, at least.
                   Gen. McClernand and his division were at Savannah; Gen. Grant had estab-
                   lished his headquarters at Pittsburg. The high water at those points still contin-
                   ues, rendering military operations impossible.
                   The Michigan 2d artillery and Capt. Powell's battery were sent up the Tennes-
                   see yesterday, as were also four transports with troops from Benton barracks.
                                                             Memphis Daily Appeal, April 5, 1862.

April 5, 1862 - Overton Hospital's call for for food assistance for Confederate soldiers

                   Wanted for the Sick.-The following is a list of articles much wanted for the
                   comfort of the sick at the Overton Hospital. It is made out by one of the ladies
                   of this city who is kindly devoting herself to the assistance of those who are
                   suffering there. Any of them sent to the hospital will be faithfully devoted to
                   the use of the brave fellows languishing there, and assist to restore them to the
                   active service of their country: Poultry of all kinds, fresh meats of all kinds,
                   game, sweet milk, butter milk, fresh butter, eggs, spring vegetables, turnip
                   greens especially; grits, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, lard, corn meal, pickles
                   and catsups, preserves, can fruits; jellies, domestic wines, cordials, sponge and

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                                                                                       April 5, 1862

                 ginger cake, custards, baked and boiled; calf's foot jelly and blanc mange; any
                 delicacies proper for invalids and convalescents; pepper, all kinds of herbs,
                 especially sage; soap, suet, beeswax, rags of all descriptions, linen, cotton,
                 white and colored, old shirts and pillow slips, half worn shirts, drawers and
                 socks, towels, spreads, new or old, vials for medicines, etc.
                                                           Memphis Daily Appeal, April 5, 1862.

April 5, 1862 - Expectations of war in Memphis

                 There was a restless feeling in the city yesterday. Like puffs of wind before the
                 crashing storm, came the recital of facts and incidents, movements and prepa-
                 rations occurring in the vicinity of the Charleston railroad and the Tennessee
                 river."The hum of preparation" was not absent from our own city, and men's
                 minds were turned with dizzy apprehension, or with exulting anticipation,
                 toward the battle which most persons believe to be approaching. Anxiously
                 every rumor was canvassed, events were calculated, positions discussed, and
                 probabilities balanced. The belief that if a battle shall occur between the forces
                 now marshaled in array against each other, it will have an important bearing on
                 the mighty struggle now pending between the South and her boasting foe, was
                 universal. The possible importance of coming events was contemplated with
                 thrilling earnestness, their bearing upon the Confederacy, upon the fortunes of
                 our own city, and the fate of friends and acquaintances, were gravely glanced
                 at. The even of anticipated battle is a solemn time, not only to those who
                 expect to be engaged in the direful conflict, but to those who watch the bustle
                 of preparation, and await with strained vision, and shuddering interest, the
                 moment when the clangor of the loud-voiced trumpet, and the hoarse shoutings
                 of excited thousands, announce that the supreme and decisive moment has
                 While the natural feelings and reflections suggested by the solemnity of
                 approaching strife existed yesterday among our people, there was no intima-
                 tion of fear or doubt. The universal thought expressed was-let but the wiley
                 enemy leave his tortuous strategy, his uncertain advances, and his feigned
                 retreats-let him but meet the Southern host breast to breast, and try the issue by
                 the test of gallant deeds, brave hearts, and chilvalrous feats of arms, then the
                 day is ours. Let force of arm and resoluteness of soul, be the umpires of the
                 contest, and our flag will bear away the laurels. Where the decision lies in
                 Southern will and Southern deeds, "there's no such word as fail." The result of
                 the coming battle, as confidently anticipated by our citizens, is that described
                 by Scott:

                    Oh, who that shar'd them, ever shall forget
                    The emotions of the spirit rousing time,
                    When breathless in the mart the couriers met,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 25
April 6, 1862

                       Early and late, at evening and at prime;
                       When the loud cannon, and the merry chime
                       Hail'd news on news, as field on field, was won,
                       When hope, long doubtful, soared at length sublime
                       And our glad eyes, awoke as day begun,
                       Watch'd joy's broad banner rise, to meet the rising sun.
                                                            Memphis Daily Appeal, April 5, 1862.

April 6, 1862 - Action at Island No. 10

                   Report of Commander Henry Walke, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. gunboat
                   U. S. GUNBOAT CARONDELET, April 7, 1862.
                   SIR: Agreeably to your instructions of the 6th instant, I proceeded down the
                   Mississippi about 6.30 this morning. Attacked, silenced, and spiked all the
                   guns of the rebel batteries opposite your batteries. The lower one made a des-
                   perate resistance. It consisted of two 64-pounder howitzers and one 32-
                   pounder gun. Two were dismounted and the other disabled by our shots. I then
                   took and spiked temporarily a 64-pounder howitzer about half a mile above,
                   and a quarter of a mile above that found a 64-pounder spiked. I took on board a
                   man who reported himself to me as a spy, whom I send to you. The rebels had
                   set fire to a house on the shore.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. WALKE, Commander, U. S. Navy.
                                                                          OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 123.

April 6, 1862 - Ohio officers go on a "serenading expedition" in Shelbyville

                   •See January 9, 1861--"Shall Tennessee Submit?"
                   Late in the evening the officers of the regiment, with the string band, started on
                   a serenading expedition. After playing sundry airs and singing divers songs,
                   Ethiopian and otherwise, at the residence of a Mr. Warren, Miss Julia Gurnie,
                   sister of Mrs. Warren, appeared on the veranda and made to us a very pretty
                   Union speech. After a general introduction to the family and a cordial recep-
                   tion, we bade them good-night, and started for another portion of the village.
                   On the way thither we dropped into the store of a Mr. Armstrong, and imbibed
                   rather copiously of apple-jack, to protect us against the night air, which, buy
                   the way, is always dangerous when apple-jack is convenient. After thus fortify-
                   ing ourselves, we proceeded to the residence of a Mr. Storey. His doors were
                   thrown open, and we entered his parlors. Here we had the honor to be intro-
                   duced to Miss Storey, a handsome young lady, and Lieutenant O'Brien, nephew
                   of Parson Brownlow.

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                                                                                       April 6, 1862

                 Lieutenant O'Brien is an officer of the rebel army. He accompanied Parson
                 Brownlow to Nashville under a flag of truce, and has been loitering on his way
                 back until the present time. He wears the Confederate gray, and when we
                 entered the room was seated on the sofa with Miss Storey. After being intro-
                 duced in due form, I placed myself by the young lady and endeavored to at
                 least divide her attention with my Confederate friend. The apple-jack dilated
                 most engagingingly on the remarkable beauty of the evening, and pleasantness
                 of the weather generally, and the delightfulness of Shelbyville. There was a
                 piano in the room, and finally, after having occupied her attention jointly with
                 O'Brien for some time, I took the liberty to ask her to favor us with a song; but
                 she pleaded an awful cold, and asked to be excused. The apple-jack excused
                 her. The Storeys are pleasant people, and I trust that, full as we were, we did
                 nothing to lessen their respect for us.
                 From Mr. Storey's we went to the house of Mr. Cooper, President of the Shel-
                 byville Bank, but were not invited in, the family having retired.
                 Our last call was at the residence of Mr. Weasner, whilom Member of the Ten-
                 nessee Legislature. The doors were here thrown open, and a cordial invitation
                 given us to ender. A pitcher of good wine was set out, and soon after Miss
                 Weasner, a very pretty young lady, appeared, and played and sang many patri-
                 otic songs. We finally bad this pleasant family good night, it was bordering on
                 the Sabbath, and we returned to camp.
                                                             Beatty, Citizen Soldier, pp. 127-129.

April 6, 1862 - Intellectual anti-conscription argument in Confederate Memphis

                 The Conscription
                 On Friday, the 28th of March, President Davis sent in a message to Congress,
                 in which he says: "I therefore recommend the passage of a law declaring that
                 all persons residing within the Confederate States, between the ages of eigh-
                 teen and thirty-five years, and rightfully subject to military duty, shall be held
                 to be in the military service of the Confederate States." The message concludes
                 with recommending that all "the legislation heretofore enacted which would
                 conflict with the system proposed" be repealed. The course of legislation here
                 recommended, sweeps at once from our laws the system of raising and main-
                 taining armies which has hitherto prevailed in this country from its early his-
                 tory, and which was drawn from the custom prevalent in England. The system
                 proposed is that of the CONSCRIPTION, which was originally in existence
                 among the Romans, was in modern times adopted by the French, and after-
                 wards introduced under one form or another, into most of the European states.
                 A change so sweeping as the one proposed, demands the earnest attention of
                 those who are to be affected by it. If the conscription be introduced, not an
                 individual citizen will be unaffected by its workings in his or her person or
                 family, not a domestic hearth in all the length and breadth of the Confederacy
                 will escape its action confined to no class. A system that is of such personal

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 27
April 6, 1862

                   interest to every citizen should be reflected upon by every citizen, before he
                   sanctions its inflection upon himself and its entailment upon his posterity. We
                   are now in the progress of a revolution; that revolution successful exercised an
                   abiding influence on the future of our country, and the line of principle adopted
                   now is like a young tree confided to the fruitful earth to grow and expand, and
                   in other generations to produce fruit that will nourish, or poison that destiny.
                   As a free people we have at all times claimed and exercised the right of nar-
                   rowly scrutinizing and freely discussing the proceedings of our public men. At
                   a time like the present, this duty of watchful superintendence over our legisla-
                   tive and executive officials, their policy and conduct, is of more importance
                   than during ordinary epochs, or we are not making precedents to be quoted,
                   and submitted to in future times. In a case when the whole military policy of
                   our fathers, and of the free land from which we sprung, is proposed to be case
                   aside, this narrow scrutiny and free discussion is especially requisite.
                   What is the conscription? We prefer giving the explanation in other words than
                   our own; in words written without view to any bearing they may have upon
                   events now existing among us. The History of Europe, by Alison, is a well-
                   known and highly esteemed work; from the 1st vol., page 562, of that book,
                   Harper's edition, 1843, we copy the following account of the modern origin of
                   the conscription, which was introduced in France in 1798, at a period of strong
                   public difficulty. The historian says:
                   ["]It remained to adopt some method for the augmentation of the army, which
                   had been extremely diminished by sickness and desertion. . . The skeletons of
                   the regiments and the noncommissioned officers remained; but the ranks
                   exhibited large chasms, which the existing state of the law provided no means
                   of supplying. The convention, notwithstanding their energy, had made no per-
                   manent provision for recruiting their army, but had centered themselves with
                   two levies one of 300,000 and one of 1,200,000 men, which, with the voluntary
                   supplied men furnished by the patriotism or suffering, had been found ade-
                   quate to the wants of the State. But, now, that the revolutionary fervor had sub-
                   sided, and a necessity existed for finding a permanent supply of soldiers to
                   meet the wars into which the insatiable ambition of the government had
                   plunged the country, some lasting resource became indispensable. To meet the
                   difficulty, General Jourdan proposed the law of the CONCRIPTION, which
                   became one of the most important consequences of the revolution. By this
                   decree every Frenchman from twenty to forty five years of age was declared
                   amenable to military service. Those liable to serve were divided into classes. . .
                   The conscription was to take place by lot in the class from which it was
                   directed to be taken. ["]
                   This was the origin of the conscription among modern nations. We have now to
                   notice its workings and ascertain its influence upon the personal feelings and
                   individual happiness of the people of the people among whom it was intro-
                   duced. To this we will pass from the year 1798 to that of 1807, when Napoleon
                   applied for still another addition to the previous conscriptions. We quote from
                   vol. 2, page 565, or our authority informs us on this point:

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                                                                                        April 6, 1862

                 ["]Exemptions were at first allowed to be purchased for three hundred francs,
                 but this privilege was repealed, and in the latter years of the Empire a substitute
                 could not be procured for less than eight hundred and a thousand pounds (four
                 to five thousand dollars). . . It was decreed that a deserter, or a person who
                 failed to attend, should be fined fifteen hundred francs, and sentenced to three
                 years hard labor in the interior, with his head shaved, but his beard long; if he
                 deserted from the army his punishment was to be undergone in a frontier place,
                 where he was sentenced to hard labor for ten years, on bread and water, with a
                 bullet of eight pounds weight chained to his leg, with a shaved head and an
                 unshaved beard; in comparison of which death itself would have appeared an
                 act of mercy. Such were the punishment[s] which awaited, without distinction,
                 all the youth of France, it they tried to avoid the conscription. ["]
                 Alison expresses his opinion of the system of conscription with the following
                 ["]Thus the justice of heaven made the revolutionary passions of France the
                 means of working out their own punishment. The atrocious aggression on
                 Switzerland, the flames of Hade Walden, the subjugation of Italy, were regis-
                 tered in the book of fate, and brought about a dreadful and lasting retribution.
                 Not the bayonets of the allies, not the defense of their country, occasioned cries
                 of injured innocence, first brought it into existence. They fixed upon its infatu-
                 ated people this terrible law, which soon carried misery into every cottage and
                 bathed with tears every mother in France. Wide as had been the spread of the
                 national sin, as wide was the last of national punishment. ["]
                 "History is philosophy teaching by example." The reader has in the above,
                 materials for drawing as to the nature, influence, and consequences of the con-
                 scription, and as to the propriety of substituting it for the system under which
                 our fathers fought and conquered.
                                                                  Memphis Appeal, April 6, 1862.

April 6, 1862 - An excerpt from a letter from Captain Charles C. Nott, Fifth Iowa Cavalry,
                  to friends in New York, relating a mission to Paris to retrieve wounded
                  Federal soldiers

                 Camp Lowe, Tennessee, April 6, 1862
                 Our regiment has left its pleasant camp near Fort Henry, and has crossed the
                 Tennessee and encamped in a small field about three miles above the fort. I
                 happened to be in command when we halted here, and named the camp after
                 our colonel.
                 It is a rainy day in camp-since morning it has been rain, rain, rain. The camp
                 seems deserted; save here and there you see a man, with blanket drawn close
                 over head and shoulders, plod heavily and slowly through the mud. The horses
                 stand with heads down, and drooping ears, stock still-nothing moves but the
                 rain, and that straight down. There is no light umbrella, nor rattling omnibus in

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April 6, 1862

                   camp; nor dry stockings, nor warm fire to find, at home. The tents are tired of
                   shedding rain, and it oozes through; there were no spades to trench them, and it
                   runs under. There is water above, and mud beneath, and wet everywhere. No
                   fun in soldiering now.
                   An officer says, "Captain, you will report immediately for orders." So I wrap
                   my blanket round me, and toil over to the colonel's tent. The colonel is a young
                   man, but an old soldier, and has the only fire in camp. It is close to the tent
                   door-no danger on such a day of the canvas catching fire-the smoke occasion-
                   ally blows in, but so does the heat, and the colonel says he will keep it up all
                   night. He pitched his tent, too, the moment we arrived, not waiting for the
                   clouds, and did it well. He is alone is comfortable-so much for being a "regu-
                   lar," and learning your lessons from experience.
                   The colonel hands me the order, which runs thus-"To-morrow, Captain N. will
                   proceed with a flag of truce to Paris, and remover our wounded, left there at the
                   recent engagement [i.e., Fort Donelson]. Should they be held as prisoners of
                   war, he is authorized to make an exchange, and will take with him the surgeon
                   and an ambulance and four of his own men."
                   The colonel then advises me to see the officer who commanded the late expedi-
                   tion to Paris, and learn from him the names of the wounded and roads. I go to
                   his tent and find that he is sick, and has secured a little hospital stove, which
                   puffs and blows like a locomotive baby. . .
                   I plod back to our tent; the water has run in, and it is ankle-deep in mud.
                   Though the sun is hardly down, my two lieutenants have gone to bed, for there
                   is no place to sit up, and nothing to see, or hear, or do. I may as well turn in,
                   too; but there rises a serious question. My boots are mud from top to bottom,
                   and wringing wet. If I pull them off, I may not be able to pull then on, and a
                   man cannot carry a flag of truce without boots. If I leave then on, I shall have
                   to go to bed with my feet, for it will never do to put that mass of mud into your
                   blankets, and they feel like lumps of ice now. What shall I do? I will pull them
                   off, and will get up before reveille (an hour, if necessary) and pull them in
                   again. So I pull off the boots, and lie down in my wet clothes, and wrap myself
                   in my wet blanket, and remember that I have not had anything [to eat] since a
                   scant noonday dinner.
                   You get hungry in camp, and must be fed. Our camp chest is packed up under a
                   tree, but on the other side of the tent is open with some stewed goose and corn
                   bread. I cannot step into the mud unless I struggle into those boots again; but
                   near me is an axe. I slip down to the end of the cot, and, with the axe, fish the
                   pan of goose out of the little lake it stands in. The unhappy bird swims in a
                   gravy of rainwater, and the corn bread is soaking wet; plates and forks are in
                   the camp chest; but I have my pocket-knife, and with it eat a salt less supper.
                   My little German orderly comes in after awhile, and, giving a soldier's salute
                   with great ceremony notwithstanding the rain, says:
                   "Captain, fot orders."

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                                                                                        April 6, 1862

                 "Bischoff, we must have some coffee. Tell Anderson (our contraband) to bring
                 "But, captain, " says Bischoff, "the tent, he blow down-the cook, he go away to
                 a barn-the fire, he go out-the wood, he is wet and will no burn."
                 "But, Bischoff, we must have some coffee, we shall die if we don't. There is the
                 coffeepot, with a package of ground coffee inside-get some water, and go up to
                 Captain K. 's tent, and ask him to let you make it on the stove."
                 "Yes, captain," and Bischoff departs.
                 By and by he comes back with the coffee; we sit up and drink it scalding hot,
                 and, quite revived, say, "now for a smoke." My pipe and tobacco bag are
                 always in my pocket. . . a dry match is at last induced to go, the wet blankets
                 grow warmer, and we express the opinion that "this is really comfortable."
                 "Well, captain, any more order?" asks Bischoff, who is also revived by his
                 share of the coffee.
                 "Yes, Bischoff, tell Sergeant Starleigh to be ready, with two men, to go with me
                 in the morning—you will be the fourth; and mind and have the horses ready by
                 "Yes, captain."
                 Bischoff goes out, draws the tent opening closely together, holds his hand over
                 his pipe to keep it dry; and then we hear his steps slowly receding-squish-
                 squish-squish through the mud.
                 My dreams are entirely of boots, and they wake me early. Then commences a
                 struggle for (outside) existence. Twice I take out my knife and meditate the last
                 resort, and twice my hand is stayed by the thought that there may be no shoe-
                 maker in all Tennessee. It grows later and lighter, and I shall miss the morning
                 roll-call for the first time since I have been in service. But the colonel saves me
                 from breaking my rule. He thinks it too bad to make the men stand out in the
                 wet, and has ordered the buglers not to sound the reveillie. While resting, I
                 betake myself to the goose-now truly a waterfowl and wetter than ever was in
                 his life-and I manage to breakfast between the struggles. At last I am victorious
                 and have the boots beneath my feet, and go out to look around.
                 The poetry most appropriate to the occasion would be a verse of that little
                 infant school him,
                 "The Lord, he makes the rain come down,
                 The rain come down, the rain come down,
                 Afternoon and morning."
                 But poetry is the last thing I think of, for my thoughts run on the roads; and
                 some drenched pickets, who look as though they wanted me to be hung on a
                 fence to dry, inform me that I will have hard work to get through, and that it
                 has rained all night as it is raining now. At home, what a hardship, what an out-

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April 6, 1862

                   rage it would be to send us off in such weather and on such roads. Now, we fear
                   something may prevent and hurry lest it come, for the road is not more uncom-
                   fortable than the camp, or the rain wetter elsewhere than it is here. The doctor
                   is a grey-headed, prudent, experienced man, and is something of an invalid; but
                   he stoutly discredits a rumor that the wounded men have dies, and whispers to
                   me that we had better be off, before any more such stories come in.
                   A flag of truce is not kept ready-made in camp, and we are rather puzzled of
                   what to make one now."Id' lend you my white handkerchief: (says a man who
                   has been listening with great gravity to various suggestion-"I'd lend you my
                   white handkerchief, only I'm afeared if you put it up, the rebels 'ud think you'd
                   histe-tud the black flag, and give you no quarter." We do not borrow the white
                   handkerchief. But at length we remember the hospital tent, and the hospital
                   steward produced a piece of white something from his store, which is bound
                   around a stick and made into a flag.
                   Under circumstances such as these, the doctor climbs into the ambulance, I
                   mount my horse, and we start. The rain somewhat abates, and diminishes to a
                   drizzle, which is a great relief; but the ambulance drags along snail-like
                   through the mud. We, who are mounted, do not ride faster than a walk, yet
                   repeatedly have to wait and watch it crawling after us among the trees. This
                   slow movement gives little exercise, and when one starts wet, he soon becomes
                   cold and stiff, sitting thus motionless in a damp saddle. Nor can we trot off a
                   mile or two, and then wait for the ambulance to catch up, for some straggling
                   rebel soldier may be on any cross-road, or in any thicket, and pounce upon the
                   ambulance as so much plunder, and shoot the doctor before they inquire into
                   the facts. A surgeon is a non-combatant, and not required to be shot at, and we
                   must stay near by and shield him, if nothing more.
                   Our road is the first object of interest-a wagon track running along high forest
                   ridges, parallel to the Tennessee. We soon passed a little timber house, with its
                   scanty field and scantier garden; and then go on, on, two, there miles, without
                   seeing a sign of life; and then we turn into the main road from the river to Paris.
                   There is now a railroad passing through Paris, from Nashville to Memphis, yet
                   a year ago the road we are now travelling was its main avenue. We are, there-
                   fore, disappointed in finding that although, the farms are frequent, they are
                   poor and neglected, and the dwellings are the same backwoods, timber houses
                   we have so often seen.
                   We have not traveled seven or eight miles, and have passed the "line of our
                   pickets.". In point of fact, there is no real line, real or imaginary, and we do not
                   see a single picket; yet, inasmuch as our cavalry is constantly passing through
                   and examining, by night and by day, a belt of country from six to eight miles
                   wide, it is customary to speak of that belt as within our picket lines. Hitherto I
                   have ridden at the head of the party, and the ambulance has followed close
                   behind. Now some additional precaution is necessary. A man rides about the
                   width of a city block ahead of us carrying the flag, and the ambulance falls
                   back about the same distance in the rear. The object of these changes is, first,

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                 that a man riding alone in advance indicates that it is not an ordinary scouting
                 party; and second, if shots are fired, the doctor and his men will be out of dan-
                 ger. The chief risks we run are, first, that our object may not be perceived, and
                 if we be fired into before we can explain; and second, that King's cavalry, who
                 are said to have suffered in the late fight [at Fort Donelson], and to be a wild,
                 marauding set, may never have heard of the laws of war, and utterly disregard
                 the flag of truce.
                 Five hours have passed, and we have just reached Mr. Clokes. How delightful
                 is a wood fire, roaring and crackling in a wide, old-fashioned fire-place, and
                 how comforting is a dry board floor in a rainy day! Chairs and a table, too, are
                 article of luxury, if one but know it; and when you have dined and breakfasted,
                 seated on logs or saddles, or such like conveniences, for a few weeks, you
                 appreciate them properly. I might add a paragraph on plates and knives and
                 forks; but of those I have not been deprived more than a week at a time, and
                 hence they do not fall in the class of novelties.
                 This dinner I shall always fondly remember. I cannot call to mind any other
                 dinner that at all rivals it. We are so hungry, and cold, and wet, and it is so
                 pleasant to "sit town to dinner, once more. And then this dinner is so nice, neat,
                 and plentiful, showing, for a soldier's cooking, a good housewife's care! If that
                 bewatered goose could see it, he would feel ashamed of himself, and request
                 leave to be cooked over again. I was about to begin with the tablecloth, and
                 enumerate all that was on it; but it occurs to me that what is a feast to us is an
                 every-day affair to you, and that you will shrug your shoulders, and say, "Not
                 much of a dinner after all." And I must confess that Mrs. Clokes' apologies
                 called my attention to certain wants, which show that our blockade has been
                 effective in disturbing the serenity of Southern housewives.
                 "I have nothing but rye coffee to offer you, gentlemen: it is impossible for us to
                 get coffee now."
                 "What does coffee cost down her, Mrs. Clokes?"
                 "The last we bought was a dollar a pound, but now we cannot get it at any
                 price. Everything is dreadfully scarce. I'm sorry we have no fresh meat, but the
                 soldiers [rebels, she means] have taken a great many of our pigs, and we lost
                 some which we killed, for want of good salt." Salt, I find, was fourteen dollars
                 a sack when last heard from, like coffee, has gone entirely out of the market.
                 In the corner is a colored girl carding cotton, by hand. I look at the operation
                 with some interest, and Mrs. Clokes goes on with the story of her wants:
                 "There is no calico to be had, and we have to spin and weave by hand. Do you
                 know, sire, whether trade will be opened soon with the North: our hand-carts
                 are nearly worn out, and I do not know where to look for others. A neighbor of
                 ours paid ten dollars for a pair the other day, and I don't suppose I could buy
                 them at any price. Now." [They are worth fifty cents a pair.]
                 But there is a heavier grief in poor Mrs. Clokes' breast; She talks of her son:
                 "He is so ill and so young, he will die if kept a prisoner at the North, and he did

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April 6, 1862

                   not enlist till they threatened the drafting. Oh! Why did we ever go to war, we
                   were so prosperous and happy! Gentlemen, can't you do anything for my son?"
                   And poor Mrs. Cloke's voice fails her, and she burst into tears. These are some
                   of the sweets of rebellion.
                   But, dinner done, we must resume our journey. It is nine miles not to Paris. We
                   have seen no rebel pickets; but our friends, the contrabands, tell us, that they
                   have gone along a little while ago, and it will be dangerous meeting in the dark.
                   Thirty years ago two brothers came from Massachusetts and put up their little
                   spinning-mill near Paris. The mill has grown larger as they have grown older,
                   and they are not among the wealthy men of the place. Situated as they are-from
                   the North-from hated Massachusetts;-for years employing free labor, and own-
                   ing slaves only through their Southern wives; they have had to be most circum-
                   spect in every word and act, giving no sign of loyalty, but, I doubt not, secretly
                   exulting at each success of the national arms. When or troops retreated from
                   Paris. Leaving their dead on the neighboring field, the one brother had the bod-
                   ies of our fallen carefully brought in, and buried them, as if they were his own
                   kinsmen, in the town cemetery; and the other took the dying captain of our
                   artillery corps into his own house, and nursed him tenderly through his last
                   hours. It is in the gloom of evening that we reach the factory, standing close to
                   the track of the Memphis railroad, neat and unadorned, New England reflected
                   from every one of its plain white boards. A gentleman comes forward as we
                   had, and I introduce myself. He steps up close, and asks, in a low voice, if we
                   think we are safe. A train was up an hour ago taking down the telegraphy
                   wires; pickets have galloped past, and are not in Paris, and he thinks it danger-
                   ous to go there to-night. He also says, that he dare not stop; he came near being
                   arrested. . . If he should ask us, he would be arrested and on his way to Mem-
                   phis within twelve hours.
                   There is a house beyond, where we can stay; but it is a rule with me to advance,
                   and then fall back to my camping ground. So we retrace our steps for a mile
                   and halt at the farm house of a Mr. Horton, who does not keep a tavern, but
                   does entertain travelers. The sergeant, with one man, has ridden on to break the
                   subject and make arrangements and when we come up, everything is ready.
                   Our weary horses are soon unsaddled and rolling in straw, and I follow the doc-
                   tor to the house.
                   It is an old house, with old trees in front, and an old couple within. They sit on
                   each side of the wide wood fire, and each comfortably puffs a pipe of home-
                   grown tobacco. We sit town and join them, and talk Union for an hour or two.
                   Our host is a hale, hearty old man. He glories in the past, laments the present,
                   and hopes for the future. The old lady listens with great gravity, and occasion-
                   ally puts in a word between the puffs of her pipe.
                   "They would not let us vote for the Union at the second election," says the old
                   man, "and I hadn't time to vote against it. So I stayed at home and told 'em that
                   one election was enough in one year, and I couldn't spare time for more."

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                 "Yes," says the old lady, "quite enough, and I though something would happen
                 when I found we were having two."
                 "I don't believe in Mr. Davis' doctrine," says the old man, "of fighting to the
                 last ditch till everybody's dead. We were the most prosperous, happy people on
                 the earth, and we had better go back and be so again than be killed."
                 "No, indeed!" says the old lady; "They had better not; and if they did, there
                 would be nobody left for our girls to marry but northerners; so the South would
                 get to be the North in no time."
                 Our room is a large one, with another large fire and three beds. The doctor
                 takes one, and I hand the others over to the men it will not do for me to
                 undress, so I take my buffalo [robe], and lie down by the fire.
                 I was beginning to doze, and thinking I never was so comfortable in my life-it
                 was so delightful to shut your eyes and stretch yourself out, and feel the pleas-
                 ant warmth of this glowing, flickering fire, when the opening of the door star-
                 tles me, and I see the sergeant, who is "on guard," come in.
                 He reports that two men on horseback came up from Paris; one of them
                 stopped and called out our host. They had a long conversation in a low voice,
                 and then the man turned and rode back on a gallop “and the contrabands say
                 that the old man is secesh,” pursues the sergeant, “and when the rebel troops
                 went by, he made them come out and hurrah.” This is agreeable. Was the man
                 on horseback a picket, and will there be a troop clattering down on us in a few
                 minutes? Or has he gone to raise a crowd of irresponsible countrymen, who
                 will think it fine fun to kill us and capture our horses, and of whom Gen. Beau-
                 regard will say, he really knows nothing, they were not soldiers, and acted
                 without authority? Is our old friend false to us?
                 "Sergeant, what do you think of it?
                 The sergeant is a shrewd judge of character, and there is no one in the squadron
                 whose opinion I would regard more highly on such a point as this. He comes
                 up close to the fire, and I see his face has a very anxious expression, and he
                 says, after a long pause: "don't know what the think of it"
                 "We'll back and nick out a place where you can see up the Paris road, and call
                 me the instant you see any object moving. Doctor, I say, did you hear that?"
                 "Yes, and I don't know what to think of it," says the doctor."Can anything be
                 "The worst of it is, doctor, that the flag [of truce] prevents our doing anything
                 till actually attacked. We must now go in the character of guest, professing
                 entire faith. If we were on ordinary duty, our sergeant would have stopped that
                 man, I should keep him here till we leave. As it is, we can neither fight nor run
                 away-though it is hardly fair, as you are a non-combatant, to make you risk it."
                 "I think I will risk it if you do," says the doctor; and he turns over and goes to

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April 6, 1862

                   I lie by the fire this time without dozing. The men are all sleeping heavily and
                   undisturbed. The hovering danger does not trouble them. Soon it is time to
                   change guard. I roused the next man, and the sergeant comes in and takes his
                   place on the bed. I wonder if other people find a weight in responsibility. Many
                   talked to me of the danger of the cavalry service-only one ever named this
                   other word, which is much the heavier. The men have no responsibility, and are
                   at rest; the sergeant, lately so anxious, had made his report, performed his duty,
                   and has no more responsibility; he now sleeps as soundly as the others.
                   The man on guard will be relieved of his duty in an hour or two, and he will lie
                   down and slumber too. But I hear the distant barking of dogs, and start up at
                   the sound, for we have learnt to observe the movements of our own cavalry at
                   night by this sign. Every house keeps half a dozen curs, and they yelp franti-
                   cally when a body of horse is passing. I open the door softly and peer out. The
                   moon sheds a dim light through the clouds, disclosing the long line of road and
                   distant woods toward Paris. The sentinel stands motionless under a tree by the
                   road side."Allen, do you see anything?" "No, sir." "Did you hear that barking?"
                   "Yes, sir." Watch whether it sounds again at any other house, and if it is coming
                   toward us." We listen long but hear nothing. It must have been a chance distur-
                   bance there. I lie down again, consoling myself with the thought, that I am at
                   least warm and dry. The geese make a tremendous cackling behind the house.
                   Rome was saved by a flock of geese, and why shouldn't we be. The sentinel is
                   watching the road in front; it will be better if I go out and inspect the rear.
                   Thus the time passes till I post the next man on guard, and thus the night wears
                   away, till at 4. A. M. I rouse the last one. Soon after I hear sounds about the
                   house, for the contrabands rise early, then come signs of breakfast, then the
                   grey light of morning, and with it the voice of our host and a warning that his
                   wife is up and breakfast almost ready. It is a right good breakfast, and we start
                   as soon as it is done, repass the factory, travel over a couple of miles of muddy
                   road, and come in sight of Paris.
                   There are brick houses in view, four church spires, large trees and a court-
                   house; but we discover no Confederate flag. In another moment we have
                   entered, and going up the main street. The first man stops and looks at us, so
                   does the second and the third. The moment a man catches a glimpse of us he
                   seems to freeze fast to the sidewalk and lose all power of himself, save that of
                   staring vacantly at the Yankee cavalry. We seem to be riding up an avenue of
                   these staring, frozen images. The red brick courthouse has a little square
                   around it and forms a natural halting place. I ride up and ask one of the frozen
                   if there is any Confederate officer in the town. He says "No," in a frightened
                   way, "they all retired this morning, a couple of hours ago." This relieved me of
                   my flag of truce. We find that two of our wounded men have been removed to
                   Memphis, and the third is too low to bear moving. The doctor, with the physi-
                   cian who has been attending him, starts off to see him, and I draw my men up
                   to the fence and let them dismount. My. . . education has made me much more
                   particular in " deportment" than volunteer officers generally are, and my
                   squadron, when on duty, generally bears the same appearance. . . These towns-

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                 people are there fore very much astonished to see a man left on guard with his
                 horse, and perfectly amused when he takes his sabre and marches steadily up
                 and down the street, and I hear one whisper, "Perhaps they be United States
                 In a few minutes there is quite a crowd of congealed citizens around us, all
                 staring solemnly in icy silence. They say nothing to us or to each other, but
                 steadily stare. I feel their looks crawling down my back and round my sides,
                 and turn which way I will, there is no shaking them off. I have faced the eyes
                 of many an audience, but never such as this. They neither smile nor frown, nor
                 agree nor disagree; but have a vague, stupid look of frightened wonder, as
                 though we were dangerous serpents escaped from a travelling menagerie,
                 which they can see for nothing at the risk of being swallowed alive.
                 It is best to be cool and comfortable under all sorts of circumstances, so I take
                 out my pipe. . . strike a light. Picking out the most sensible man near me, I
                 commence a conversation complementing them on the appearance of their lit-
                 tle town, which is more southernly neat than I expected to find. Some men then
                 come up and hand to me the little effects of our dead soldiers, and give many
                 assurances of their kindness to our wounded. The doctor this time comes back,
                 and we start immediately on our return. For some miles I march rapidly, curb-
                 ing the ambulance horses to their utmost, for there is no saying but the rebel
                 cavalry may return and amuse themselves by a pursuit. Then we drop in to our
                 previous slow gait, and calculate that we shall reach camp by sunset.
                 It is now five o'clock, and we are two miles from camp. My horse has been
                 going almost uninterruptedly for ten hours, and I am promising him a good bed
                 of leaves and a long night's rest, when, through the trees, come two troopers
                 riding on a gallop. They pull up, and hand me a letter from the colonel: "Cap-
                 tain (it says), your squadron is detailed to guard the bridge at Holly Fork; you
                 will take all proper measures to defend it if it is attacked, and will remain there
                 until relieved by some other squadron."
                 "Did you see anything of my men?" I say to the messengers."Yes; they were
                 saddling up, and will be along soon." I may as well keep on; they may be
                 bringing me a fresh horse, and then I can send this one back by these men. In
                 half an hour I find the man who leads us on to a wrong road. He tries a cross-
                 cut, and the cross-cut leads to a field. We must turn the ambulance round and
                 retrace both errors. It is a vexatious in the extreme, to have thus additional load
                 put on my willing horse after two such days' work; and besides, the squadron
                 may have passed while we were wandering about here. I curb my impatience
                 as I can, and at length we reach the road. There, plain enough, is a cavalry trail,
                 freshly made since we turned off, and it tells it own story-the squadron has
                 gone by.
                 "Captain," says the doctor of the ambulance, "must you go back?"
                 "Yes, doctor, I suppose I must."

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April 6, 1862

                   "Thank you, doctor; is there anything left in yours?"
                   "Yes; some hard biscuit and dry beef. I will put them in for you." And the doc-
                   tor transfers them from his haversack to mine.
                   "Now, Bischoff, rollup the buffalo [robe]; quid's the word; we must go back to
                   within seven miles of Paris, and the sun is setting."
                   "Good-bye, captain" calls the doctor as I start."I hope you won't be hurt to-
                   "I hope not doctor; good-bye. And now, Bischoff, for the squadron and Holly
                                                                           Nott, Sketches, pp. 56-74.

April 6, 1862 - Bill collecting in occupied Nashville

                   A Cool Dun—Since the occupation of Nashville by the Federal army, many
                   incidents of an amusing nature have occurred, among which the cool impu-
                   dence of the following is not the least interesting. It is a dunning letter from a
                   bank in the interior of New York, to a Nashville banker, a copy of which has
                   been handed us:
                   March 17, 1862
                   Dear Sir: Please accept my hearty congratulations on your return to the Union
                   and on the growing supremacy in your State of that "old glory," the stars and
                   stripes, and permit me to suggest as an appropriate commemoration and cele-
                   bration of the happy event, the payment of that little balance of $72.59, which
                   you have owed me since the fifth of May, 1861. Don't send "Secesh" scrip, as it
                   will not pass her
                   _________ ____________
                                                                    Memphis Appeal, April 6, 1862.

April 6, 1862 - "We love our country, our injured and suffering land!" Ladies of Memphis'
                  sixth ward volunteer for nursing duty at the Overton Hospital

                   Help for the Overton!
                   We love our country, our injured and suffering land! It must be saved or we are
                   lost indeed. It must be saved or we become slaves of the vilest system of tyr-
                   anny that ever triumphed in its wicked designs. Woman is powerless in many
                   respects to aid in its defense, but "she hath done what she could" is the highest
                   praise and most grateful tribute that can be inscribed to the memory of those
                   who have done what they could. If those who have fallen in defense of our
                   rights are uncared for, neglected, or suffer for proper attention, it weakens the
                   faith and unnerves the arm of those who are still bravely struggling for its

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                                                                                        April 6, 1862

                  accomplishment, and may deter many from pledging their all in its support. It
                  is our imperative duty, as it should be our highest privilege, to devote ourselves
                  in this way. Therefore, in consideration of the great amount of sickness and
                  suffering at the Overton, and the advancing season, when we may expect a still
                  greater increase; and further, in consideration of the sudden and emergent calls
                  which have been made-compelled to be answered by transient and inexperi-
                  enced nurses, and creates such inconvenience and confusion; and lastly, in con-
                  sideration of a great and eventful battle, which may sadly and suddenly
                  overwhelm us with its helpless victims. Therefore, we, the ladies of the sixth
                  ward, in order to secure greater system, uniformity and concentration of inter-
                  est for the poor sufferers at the Overton, do pledge ourselves to furnish daily,
                  the requisite number of nurses for one ward of this hospital-bringing with us
                  the necessary provisions of the sick-room. At the same time we earnestly call
                  upon our gentlemen friends of the sixth ward, to form themselves in a similar
                  association, to watch by night, in the same ward of the hospital. We feel
                  assured that no argument is necessary to induce them to co-operate with us, in
                  this labor of love, humanity and patriotism!
                                                           Memphis Daily Appeal, April 6, 1862.

April 6, 1862 - April 7, 1862 - Battle of Shiloh

                  Having gathered his forces at Corinth, Mississippi, with those of P. G. T. Beau-
                  regard and Leonidas Polk, General A. J. Johnston slowly moved is army north-
                  ward. At the same time, U. S. Grant marched to Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh,
                  just to the north of the Confederate Army. Grant planned his attack without
                  building a suitable defense. The Confederates struck on April 6.
                  After a day of heavy but confused fighting, General A. S. Johnston was killed
                  and the Federal forces were close to complete defeat. During the night of April
                  6-7, however, reinforcements for Major-General D. C. Buell's Army of the
                  Ohio and Major-General Lew Wallace's' division arrived. With the resumption
                  of the battle at dawn on the 7th the tide turned. By evening the Confederate
                  army withdrew back to Corinth, with the Union army too exhausted to pursue.
                  Heavy losses were sustained on both sides: 13,000 out of 63,000 Union troops
                  engaged and 11,000 out of 40,000 Confederates killed and wounded. The
                  sobriquet "Bloody Shiloh" NOTE 1is appropriate.NOTE 2
                  There are a total of 229 reports on the battle of Shiloh in the OR. NOTE 3 There
                  are likewise volumes written about the battle. The reader is urged to consult
                  them and numerous secondary works for details on the fight.
                  Confederate President Jefferson C. Davis believed the South, despite the loss
                  of General A. S. Johnston, had won a major victory. His letter to the Confeder-
                  ate Congress of April 8 expressed that optimism:
                  APRIL 8, 1862.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 39
April 6, 1862

                   FEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA:
                   The great importance of the news just received from Tennessee induces me to
                   depart from established usage, and to make to you this communication in
                   advance of Official reports:
                   From telegraphic dispatches received from Official sources I am able to
                   announce to you, with entire confidence, that it has pleased Almighty God to
                   crown the Confederate arms with a glorious and decisive victory over our
                   On the morning of the 6th instant the converging columns of our army were
                   combined by its commander in chief, Gen. A. S. Johnston, in an assault on the
                   Federal army, them encamped near Pittsburg, on the Tennessee River. After a
                   hard-fought battle of ten hours the enemy was driven in disorder from his posi-
                   tion and pursued to the Tennessee River, where, under cover of his gun-boats,
                   he was at the last accounts endeavoring to effect his retreat by aid of his trans-
                   ports. The details of this great battle are yet too few and incomplete to enable
                   me to distinguish with merited praise all of those who may have conspicuously
                   earned the right to such distinction, and I prefer to delay my own gratification
                   in recommending them to your special notice rather than incur the risk of
                   wounding the feelings of any by failure to include them in the list. Where such
                   a victory has been won over troops as numerous, as well disciplined, armed,
                   and appointed as those which have just been so signally, routed, we may well
                   conclude that one common spirit of unflinching bravery an devotion to our
                   country's cause must have animated every breast from that of commanding
                   general to that of the humblest patriot who served in the ranks. There is enough
                   in the continued presence of invaders on our soil to chasten our exultation over
                   this brilliant success, and to remind us of the grave duty of continued exertion
                   until we shall extort from a proud and vainglorious enemy the reluctant
                   acknowledgment of our right to self government. But an all-wise Creator has
                   been pleased, while vouchsafing to us His countenance in battle, to afflict us
                   with a severe dispensation, to which we must bow in humble submission. The
                   last lingering hope has disappeared, and it is but too true that Gen. Albert Sid-
                   ney Johnston is no more. The tale of his death is simply narrated in a dispatch
                   just received from Col. William Preston, in the following words:
                   Gen. Johnston fell yesterday at 2,30 while leading a successful charge, turning
                   the enemy's right, and gaining brilliant victory. A minie-ball cut the artery of
                   his leg, but he rode on till, from loss of blood, he fell exhausted, and died with-
                   out pain in a few moments. His body has been intrusted to me by Gen. Beaure-
                   gard to be taken to New Orleans, and remain until directions are received from
                   his family.
                   My long and close friendship with this department chieftain and patriot forbids
                   me to trust myself giving vent to the feelings which this sad intelligence has
                   evoked. Without doing injustice to the living, it may safely be asserted that our
                   loss in irreparable, and that among the shining hosts of the great and the good

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                 who now cluster around the banner of our country there exists no purer spirit,
                 no more heroic soul, than that of the illustrious man whose death I join you in
                 lamenting. In his death he has illustrated the character for which through life he
                 was conspicuous-that of singleness of purpose and devolution to duty. With his
                 whole energies bent on attaining the victory with he deemed essential to his
                 country's cause, he rode on to the accomplishment of his object, forgetful of
                 self, while his very life-blood was fast ebbing away. His last breath cheered his
                 comrades to victory; the last sound he heard was their shout of triumph; his last
                 thought was his country's; and long and deeply will his country mourn his loss.
                 JEFFERSON DAVIS.
                                                              OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 298-299.

           NOTE 1: The battle could likewise have a less dramatically sanguinary and more scat-
                   ological sobriquet if a medical report is to be believed. Surgeon J. H. Brin-
                   ton, U. S. V. indicated that disease, especially diarrhea, was rampant in the
                   Union army just prior to the battle. There is no record to indicate the wide-
                   spread presence of the disease in the Confederate army, yet it seems most
                   probable that it was likewise as big a problem. It may well have been a de-
                   ciding factor in the outcome of the battle, although the truth to such asser-
                   tions is never to be known. According to Brinton: "The physical condition
                   of the men [in the Union army] about to engage in. . . [the battle of Shiloh]
                   was unpromising in the extreme. Many of them had been for weeks suffer-
                   ing from the diarrhoea peculiar to the Tennessee River. This is said to result
                   from the large amount of animal decomposition which takes place on the
                   mussel beds or shoals, a few miles above Pittsburgh Landing. . . almost ev-
                   eryone drinking the waters of the river suffered from a profuse diarrhoea
                   which resisted obstinately the ordinary therapeutic means. These persistent
                   discharges greatly augmented lassitude already resulting from the general
                   malarious influence, and contributed to weaken the most robust." See: The
                   Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, (Washington:
                   GPO, 1888) Vol. I, pt. I, p. 29.

           NOTE 2: See map in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 177.

           NOTE 3:        OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 93-627. Other references to the battle of
                     Shiloh can be found in the following series and volumes of the Official
                     Records: Ser I, Vol. 16 pt. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, Vol. 32, pt. III; Vol. 52, part II;
                     Ser. II, Vol. 4.
                 The Battle on the Tennessee.
                 Editors Appeal:; En armende for my brusqueness at the Gayoso as I passed
                 you, and in compliance with your request, I send you a brief and hurried
                 account of the battle of Shiloah, more glorious than Taylor's victory, when
                 Davis, Quitman, M'Clung, Bradford, Hays and brave lamented McCulloch, led
                 Yankees to victory.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                    April 1862 — Page 41
April 6, 1862

                   Allow me, however, in justification of myself, to premise that I am worn out in
                   body and mind and therefore unable to render the battle in minute detail.
                   Early yesterday morning I approached the field of battle, and was directed by
                   our gallant Sam Tate (himself hurrying on) to the nearest point of attack, while
                   the thunder of artillery, and tempest of musketry rose on the air, I galloped
                   through an old hurricane four miles north-east of Montery, where all the ele-
                   ments had spent their powers as a grand prelude to the storm on which the fate
                   of empire now hangs.
                   In striking contrast with all that is horrible and sublime, the blue birds were
                   singing their Sunday morning anthems, and the landscape seemed wedded to
                   the quiet sky. But you are impatient of prevailing weakness and eager for facts.
                   I find myself on the left wing of our forces in Col. Bates' command. His men
                   are fighting against overwhelming odds, and falling like autumnal leaves
                   around him. A battery to his right pours a terrific fire on the foe and seems the
                   last hope of our poor fellows who are charging to the cannon's mouth-they
                   waver, fall back, seem almost cut to pieces; the gallant colonel falls (shot in the
                   thigh) but not as you have it, killed. I thought the day already lost and fell back
                   to a place of safety with a full determination to remain in the rear, but encoun-
                   tering Gen. Cheatham's division, and some gallant fellows whom I had seen on
                   another battle field, my anxieties got the better of my discretion; I galloped
                   along the lines and give more flattering accounts than I ought.
                   The different companies shout as I give the news; and Lieutenant Col. Tyler
                   cordially exclaims: "I will gladly give my life to save this wing." Poor fellow!
                   the next time I saw him, his gallant form was stretched in an ambulance-his
                   cheek blanched that never blanched in danger, and his brow contracted in
                   agony. He had received a horrible wound in the thigh. God grant it be not mor-
                   They are in the hail of grape and musketry, which had riddled our left wing
                   before reinforcement. Col. Smith's regiment is almost decimated, but close like
                   the air over their wounded and dying at each belch of the Vandal's cannon.
                   Stephens' and Douglas' regiments are on the left, obeying the order of our gal-
                   lant, great, but unpretending "Frank"-"Drive them into hell."In this charge
                   Capt. Rogers fell wounded-and poor John, of the gallant 6th, paid the price of
                   Alas! Alas! for these regiments!
                   Like Bates' and Smith's, they are completely riddled; and though they have
                   forced the enemy from his position, they cannot long stand against overwhelm-
                   ing numbers.
                   Hark! what shout is that in our rear? Whence those martial orders, re-echoed
                   from officer to officer? Halt! Halt! Dress! Forward, march!
                   Breckinridge, far as the eye can reach along the hills, leads on his martial host.

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                                                                                       April 6, 1862

                  Already the enemy's left are retiring on his gunboats-has given way-his center
                  shaking and shouts of victory pierce the air.
                  But I could only guess at what transpired beyond my own little sphere.
                  Suffice to say our gallant leaders, Beauregard, Bragg, Johnston, Gladden, Polk,
                  Ruggles, Chalmers, Hindman, Cheatham, Bowen, Clark, Breckinridge, Loring,
                  Wood, Slaughter and Hardee, were charging a line three miles in length of a
                  desperate and determined foe.
                  That they whipped them at every point, and at night fall, are masters of the
                  I subjoin a list of killed and wounded, with whom I cam in contact on the field
                  and in the hospitals.
                  I could give you more of the killed; but, alas, while the wounded could furnish
                  me their names, thousands on the bloody field had left their glorious names
                  only to their children.
                  God defend them, and heaven's heaviest curses fall upon those misers who are
                  hoarding gold while many of these heirs of poverty and a noble name are with-
                  out food or raiment!
                  I was so fortunate as to capture two Federals, whom I brought to your city as
                  the first fruits of the 6000 taken by our brave boys on the field.
                  J. W. R.
                  [partial list of killed and wounded follows.]
                                                           Memphis Daily Appeal, April 8, 1862.

April 6, 1862 - April 7, 1862 - Excerpts from Federal reports relative to the treatment of the
                  wounded at field hospitals at Shiloh

                  Surgeon Robert Murray, U. S. A., Medical Director of the Army of the Ohio:
                  On the morning of the 6th, I was at Savannah, and being ordered to remain
                  there, I occupied myself in procuring all the hospital accommodations avail-
                  able in that small village, and in directing the preparation of bunks and other
                  conveniences for wounded. In the afternoon, the wounded were brought down
                  in large numbers. . . our medical and hospital supplies were. . . left behind. I
                  ordered the surgeons to take with them their instruments, hospital knapsacks
                  filled, and with such stimulants and important medicines as could be carried on
                  horseback. I. . . arrived at Pittsburgh Landing at 10 A. M. I found the main
                  depot for the wounded established at a small log house near the river. . . The
                  wounded were being brought in very rapidly and in large numbers. . . The only
                  house in the neighborhood was a log hut, fifteen by thirty feet, and the few
                  tents which had been pitched were already filled. We sought General Grant,
                  and obtained his order to press into our service any men that could be found,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 43
April 6, 1862

                   and to take possession of any tents that we could find and have them pitched. . .
                   During the remainder of the day and night of Monday (April 7)
                   The wounded were conveyed to hospitals in Savannah aboard steamships and
                   hospital ships, most notably the City of Memphis. In Savannah nearly every
                   building had been expropriated for use as hospitals. Many of the steamships
                   had been:
                   . . . fitted out by governors of states and by some of the local sanitary commit-
                   tees caused much irregularity [in moving the wounded to Savannah]. They
                   sought to receive wounded from their own states, received very reluctantly, or
                   declined to receive, wounded from other states or Confederate wounded, no
                   matter how uncomfortable they were on shore. . . many unnecessary operations
                   [were] performed by the amateur surgeons on board these boats.
                   . . . I arrived when the second day's fight (April 7) was half over, and found
                   some five or six thousand wounded to be provided for, with, literally, no
                   accommodations, or comforts, not even the necessaries of life, no bedding, no
                   cooking utensils, or table furniture, not even cups, spoons, or plate, or knives
                   and forks, no vegetables, nor even fresh beef. . . It was incessantly raining, and
                   the mud was very deep; it was impossible to obtain tents enough to shelter the
                   wounded, or straw for them to lie upon. The battle was raging a mile and a half
                   in front. . . The. . . men procured to act as police for the hospital depots, and as
                   nurses, cooks, and attendants, were from the panic-stricken mob who had
                   sought safety on the banks of the river, and, these men, it was impossible to
                   keep at work. . . We could not get teams [of horses], and not men enough to
                   carry hay to the tents, except in very insufficient quantities. We were, also,
                   very short of medical officers; the whole command averaged little over one to a
                   regiment. Much of the time of the few we had was occupied in procuring food
                   and attendants for the wounded, and even in pressing in details of men to bury
                   the dead, who were left for days unburied about the hospital depots. Many of
                   the wounded were not even dressed before they were sent off. . . By the sad
                   experience of this battle, I am confirmed in the opinion of the absolute neces-
                   sity of the addition to the medical department of a sufficient corps of medical
                   purveyors. . . also. . . there would be a large number of enlisted hospital
                   attendants. . .
                   Nearly one thousand of the Confederate wounded fell into our hands, and I am
                   happy to say that our medical officers and men showed them the same attention
                   that they did our own. Indeed, the men were more ready to nurse and to attend
                   to the wants of the wounded of the enemy than to our own men. I regret to say,
                   that they showed the utmost apathy and indifference to the sufferings of their
                   fellow soldiers, and were, with difficulty, forced into doing them any service,
                   while their curiosity and wish to converse with the wounded Confederates, in
                   some measure, overcame their inertness.
                   As the enemy advanced on Sunday [April 6], they took charge of many of our
                   wounded, and some were sent back to hospitals near Corinth. . . all testify to

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                                                                                      April 6, 1862

                 the kind treatment which they had received from the surgeons on the other
                 But one instance of mutilation was reported to me. A Confederate soldier was
                 found with his throat cut; but, as one of our colonels claimed to have taken a
                 battery, and to have cut off the head of a gunner with a knife which he wrested
                 from another rebel, this was perhaps the man. Our dead were buried by our
                 own men, as were also the dead of the enemy, and I have heard of no instance
                 of mutilated bodies being found. . .
                 It is remarkable that the conical balls extracted, both from our own wounded
                 and Confederates, were, in almost every instance, bent and twisted, and, in
                 some cases, spilt. They must be made of softer material than the European
                 minie balls; or, probably, owing to ours being molded not pressed.
                 R. Murray, Surgeon, U. S. A.
                 Medical Director of the Army of Ohio
                                    Medical and Surgical History, Appendix to pt. I, pp. 37-39.
                 Excerpt from the Report of Surgeon George H. Hubbard, U. S. V.
                 Most of the wounds were from the conoidal musket ball, and from long range;
                 but there were many wound, also, from shells and musket balls at short range.
                 The men were carried down the Tennessee [river] on transports as rapidly as
                 possible. . . Amputations were performed on the field. . . Chloroform was
                 freely used with only unpleasant results. . . Chronic diarrhoea, the natural con-
                 sequence of an inactive life and full diet, was the prevalent disease, and proved
                 fatal in a large number of cases. I was myself a sufferer from this disease from
                 March to June, and became so much debilitated that I was ordered by Surgeon
                 Charles McDougal. . . to Paducha, to enlarge the hospital accommodations
                                         Medical and Surgical History, Appendix to pt. I, p. 42.

April 6, 1862 - April 11, 1862 - Confederate Expedition from Greeneville into Laurel Valley,
                  NC NOTE 1

                 APRIL 6-11, 1862.-Expedition from Greeneville, Tenn., into Laurel Valley, N.
                 Reports of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, with congratulatory letter.
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April
                 17, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of an expedition sent by
                 my order into a portion of the State of North Carolina known as Laurel Valley,
                 lying near the Tennessee border, and in the vicinity of Bald Mountain:

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 45
April 6, 1862

                   A detachment of troops, composed of three companies of the Forty-third Ten-
                   nessee Regt., Lieut.-Col. Key commanding, moved from the town of Greenev-
                   ille, in this department, on the 6th instant, arriving on the 7th at a point on Bald
                   Mountain which had been occupied as a camping ground by a party of outlaws,
                   who had decamped two days previous to that time.
                   On the morning of the 8th our force moved down into Laurel Valley, a district
                   long known as a general resort and hiding place for outlaws, who have been
                   accustomed to send out from this point marauding parties into the adjoining
                   counties of Tennessee and North Carolina, greatly annoying the people in those
                   Directing his march through this valley, Col. Key met no regularly-organized
                   force, but his command was repeatedly fired on by parties of from 4 to 10 men,
                   who would then immediately retreat beyond his reach, the country being par-
                   ticularly favorable to this mode of warfare. A portion of the force was
                   deployed on either side of the line of march, the column being thus protected in
                   a measure, and the enemy driven from their hiding places. Owing, however, to
                   the impenetrability of the thickets, few of them could be killed and none cap-
                   This skirmishing was kept up on the 8th, 9th, and 10th, during which time
                   about 15 of the enemy were killed. The casualties on our side were 3 men
                   wounded-Privates Smith, Morgan, and Higdon, of Company A, the latter two
                   On the 11th the expedition returned to Greeneville.
                   The lieutenant-colonel commanding reports that there seems to be a regular
                   organization among the inhabitants of that portion of the country. The whole
                   population is openly hostile to our cause, and all who are able to serve are
                   under arms.
                   Lieut.-Col. Key reports the officers and men to have behaved themselves well
                   on this tedious and difficult march, and it is but justice to him to say that he
                   evinced unusual energy and forethought, conducting the expedition in a highly
                   creditable manner.
                   Respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                   Knoxville, Tenn., April 16, 1862.
                   SIR: With the hope that the information herein contained may be of service,
                   the commanding general of this department begs leave to call your attention to
                   the condition of affairs in a portion of North Carolina lying near the Tennessee
                   line and in the vicinity of Bald Mountain, known as Laurel Valley.
                   Repeated depredations having been committed on this side of the mountain by
                   armed parties of marauders from that quarter, the commanding general

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                                                                                       April 7, 1862

                 ordered, about the 5th of this month, a detachment of troops to proceed from
                 Greeneville, in the State of Tennessee, into Laurel Valley, with instructions to
                 put down any illegal organization of armed men that might be found there.
                 These instructions were carried out as far as the circumstances of the case
                 would permit, but as it was impossible to scour the country thoroughly, owing
                 to the thickness of the undergrowth, many outlaws probably remain there. The
                 commanding officer of the expedition reports that there seems to be a regular
                 organization among them, and that the entire population who are able to bear
                 arms are arrayed against us. He reports killing about 15 of them, with a loss on
                 our part of 2 killed and 1 wounded.
                 Notwithstanding the universal hostility of the people to our cause no private
                 property was molested, except what was necessary for our troops while there.
                 The commanding general respectfully recommends that some measures be
                 taken by the authorities of North Carolina to put a stop to these depredations.
                 I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 By order of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith:
                 E. CUNNINGHAM, Acting Aide-de-Camp.
                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 628-629.

           NOTE 1: Military forces sometimes served a law-enforcement function, as the fol-
                   lowing indicates. Most of the action occurred in North Carolina, but the ex-
                   pedition originated in Tennessee.

April 7, 1862 - Proclamation by Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative removal of the
                   City Council and Mayor of Nashville for failure to take the oath of alle-
                   giance to the U. S.

                 WHEREAS, At an election held in the city of Nashville on the last Saturday of
                 September, 1861, for the purpose of electing a Mayor, Aldermen and Common
                 Council for said city, the following officers were elected to the respective
                 offices, to-wit:
                 Richard B. Cheatham, Mayor.
                 For Alderman of the First Ward—Jno. E. Newman.
                 For Councilman of the First Ward—John Coltart and John Hooper.
                 For Alderman of the Second Ward—James T. Bell.
                 For Councilmen of the Second Ward—Geo. S. Kinnie and Charles S. Thomas.
                 For Alderman of the Third Ward—Peyton S. Woodward.
                 For Councilmen of the Third Ward—L. F. Beech and Wm. Shane.
                 For Alderman of the Fourth Ward—James M. Hinton.
                 For Councilman of the Fourth Ward—Wm. S. Cheatham.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 47
April 7, 1862

                   For Councilmen of the Fifth Ward-Jordan P. Coleman and W. H. Clemons.
                   For Alderman of the Sixth Ward—B. S. Rhea.
                   For Councilmen of the Sixth Ward—John J. McCann and James Haynie.
                   For Alderman of the Seventh Ward—A. H. Hurley.
                   For Councilmen of the Seventh Ward—Isaac Paul and F. O. Hurt.
                   For Alderman of the Eighth Ward—C. K. Winston.
                   For Councilmen of the Eighth Ward—John E. Hatcher, and C. A. Brodie.
                   And, WHEREAS, The following persons of the afore-named, to wit: R. B.
                   Cheatham, Mayor, James T. Bell, P. S. Woodward, James M. Hinton, B. S.
                   Rhea, A. H. Hurley, C. K. Winston, John Coltart, John Hooper, Geo. S. Kinney,
                   Chas. S. Thomas, L. F. Beech, Chas. E. H. Martin, William R. Demonbreun,
                   Jordan P. Coleman, W. H. Clemens, John J. McCann, James Haynie, Isaac
                   Paul, F. O. Hurt, John E. Hatcher and C. A. Brodie have heretofore failed, and
                   now refuse to come forward and be qualified according to law, by taking the
                   oath prescribed in the 10th Article, Section 1st, of the Constitution of the State
                   of Tennessee, and therein have manifested such disloyalty and enmity to the
                   Government of the United States, as renders it unsafe for the public good that
                   they should exercise the functions of the offices aforesaid. Now, therefore, I,
                   Andrew Johnson, Governor of the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the power
                   and authority in me vested, do declare the aforesaid offices vacant, and said
                   persons above mentioned are hereby enjoined from exercising the functions of
                   said offices, or performing any of the duties thereof, or receiving the emolu-
                   ments of the same, from this day.
                   And the following named persons are hereby appointed and commissioned,
                   after being duly qualified, to perform the duties of said offices, as required by
                   law, and receive the profits and emoluments thereof until their successors are
                   elected, respectively as follows, to-wit:
                   Councilman for the First Wars—Wm. Roberts.
                   Alderman for Second Ward—John Hu. Smith.
                   Councilman for the Second Ward—Chas. Walker.
                   Alderman for Third Ward—G. A. J Mayfield
                   Councilman for Third Ward—K. J. Morris.
                   Alderman for Fourth Ward—M. M. Monahan.
                   Councilmen for Fourth Ward—Lewis Hough and M. Burns.
                   Councilmen for Fifth Ward—Joseph B. Knowles and W. P. Jones
                   Alderman for Sixth Ward—M. M. Brian.
                   Councilmen for Sixth Ward—T. J. Yarbrough and Wm. Driver.
                   Alderman for Seventh Ward—M. G. L. Claiborne.

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                                                                                        April 7, 1862

                  Councilman for Seventh Ward—Wm. Stewart.
                  Alderman for Eighth Ward—Jos. C. Smith.
                  Councilman for Eight Ward—James Cavert.
                  By order of Governor,
                  Andrew Johnson
                                                  Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 278-279.

April 7, 1862 - Surrender of Island No. 10 to Flag Officer A. H. Foote, U. S. N.

                  Steamer Benton,
                  Off Island No. 10, April 7, 1862.
                  Two [Confederate] officers have this instant boarded us from Island No. 10,
                  stating that by order of their commanding officer they are ordered to surrender
                  Island No. 10 to the commodore commanding the gunboats. . . With General
                  Pope now advancing from New Madrid in strong force to attack in [General W.
                  W. Mackall's] rear, I am, with the gun and mortar boats, ready to attack in
                  front, while General Buford here is ready to cooperate with the land forces; but
                  it seems as if the place is to be surrendered without further defense.
                  A. H. Foote
                  Flag Officer, Comdg. Naval Forces, Western Waters
                                                                   Navy OR Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 720.

April 7, 1862 - Confederate situation report for West Tennessee

                  HEADQUARTERS, Trezevant, Tenn., April 7, 1862.
                  Col. THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                  SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here and relieved Maj. King on
                  Saturday, 5th instant, having visited and conferred with Col. Jackson at Tren-
                  ton. He could not move under several days forward of that place. I found head-
                  quarters here with a company thrown forward at Hico, on picket to its right and
                  left, and Capt. Pell had just returned from Paris with the flag the enemy had left
                  hoisted on the court-house there, with no news of importance of the enemy. I
                  hear to-day through citizens that they sent to-day a large force there—perhaps
                  1,000 men. My scouts and pickets bring me no news of the enemy. The bridge
                  on Trenton and Dresden road, over the Obion, called Shade's Bridge, was
                  reported by a scout as burned last Friday; by whom not known. I learn all the
                  cavalry that we had in Henderson, at Lexington, has gone to Purdy, but not
                  officially. It is of importance that I be kept advised of such movements, as it
                  leaves my right very much exposed. I shall start a scout of a lieutenant and
                  thirty men to Huntingdon to-morrow at sunrise. I threw forward Capt. Guth-
                  rie's company to occupy my left front, with orders to send scout to Rogers' Mill

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 49
April 7, 1862

                   a short distance from Dresden. I have ordered all the companies of the regi-
                   ment here. Capt. Wicks' arrived this evening. I cannot learn where Hubbard's
                   and Houston companies are. I learn they are very small and very worthless. I
                   beg that two other new and well-armed companies be substituted in their
                   places, and respectfully urge it. I am not satisfied with the muskets in the hands
                   of a majority of King's late battalion. A great deal has to be done in the way of
                   equipment to make these men efficient. Gray's company had no bridles. I have
                   sent him of to procure them at Memphis. I am laboring to get all the reports
                   necessary to know the condition of each company.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   TH. CLAIBORNE, Col., [Sixth Confederate] Cavalry.
                                                             OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 297-298.

April 7, 1862 - April 12, 1862 - Andrews' Raid on Confederate line of communications
                  between Chattanooga & Marietta, GA NOTE 1

                   MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., April 3, 1863.
                   Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:
                   DEAR SIR: Pardon us for intruding upon your private attention a few
                   moments, just long enough to lay before you an account of the trials of two of
                   the party who composed the Mitchel secret service expedition, and after perus-
                   ing the narrative, if you can in any way promote the interests of those men (for
                   they are worthy of promotion) you will oblige your obedient servants and con-
                   fer lasting favors upon the men.
                   LEWIS E. BREWSTER, Capt., Cmdg. Company E.
                   JOHN V. PATTERSON, First Lieut., Company C, Twenty-first Ohio Volun-
                   ASA C. SPAFFORD, Second Lieut., Company C, Twenty-first Ohio Volun-
                   Lieut. A. C. SPAFFORD:
                   SIR: You wished us to furnish a plain and unvarnished "statement" of the trou-
                   bles and trials experienced by us as parties connected with Gen. O. M.
                   Mitchel's secret service expedition. We herewith furnish you the required
                   information. On the 7th day of April, 1862, our company commander, Capt. A.
                   McMahan, came to us (Mark Wood and Alfred Wilson) and informed us it was
                   proposed by Gen. Mitchel to organize a party of men who would volunteer to
                   go on a secret and dangerous service expedition to the State of Georgia, the
                   purpose of which party was to destroy railroad bridges and cut off the railroad
                   communication between Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia, and Mississippi. We
                   volunteered to go, expecting to never return unless successful. Our division

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                                                                                     April 7, 1862

                 was at this time encamped at Shelbyville, Tenn. As soon as we signified our
                 assent to go, we were ordered to report to J. J. Andrews, who was to be the
                 leader of the party. Upon reporting we found there was to be a force of twenty-
                 two men from the various regiments in the division, and was also informed that
                 we would be reimbursed for all moneys we might expend while on this service,
                 if we returned, whether successful or not. I, Mark Wood, expended for a suit of
                 citizen's clothes, revolver, and expenses incurred while traveling, $125. Alfred
                 Wilson expended $15, money being furnished him (Wilson) by J. J. Andrews.
                 He expects no remuneration further than the above $15. We proceeded from
                 Shelbyville, Tenn., to Chattanooga. We then went to Marietta, Ga.; from Mari-
                 etta we came back north to a place called Big Shanty. There was a large rebel
                 force of 20,000 men in camp at this place—Big Shanty. Here we found a train
                 of cars with an engine, and while the conductor and brakemen were getting
                 their dinner we took possession; at a given signal we jumped aboard and
                 moved off toward Chattanooga, cutting the telegraph wires and tearing up the
                 track as we went. Unfortunately for us they pursued us so close that we had not
                 time to burn a certain bridge to stop the pursuit. We were also delayed by hav-
                 ing to meet five extra trains, which we could not do without exciting suspicion.
                 At last, despairing of success, and after running the train 100 miles, we had to
                 abandon it and run our chances of getting back to the Federal lines. All of the
                 party, with the exception of us (Wood and Wilson), were captured the same
                 day. We were not captured for seven days afterward, and then we got clear by
                 taking the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. Seven days more passed and
                 we were again arrested at Stevenson, Ala., within five miles of the Federal
                 lines. We were recognized by the enemy as parties to the bridge burners and
                 taken to Chattanooga in chains. At this place we found the balance of our com-
                 rades in chains, handcuffed, and chains around their necks secured by pad-
                 locks. The men were in a miserable condition. We were all confined in a dark
                 and loathsome dungeon, only thirteen feet square—a small place, we thought,
                 for twenty-two men. Andrews, our leader, was [tried] by court-martial
                 adjourned after trying Andrews and removed to Knoxville, where some of the
                 party was taken. At last we all met together in Atlanta, Ga., when we were
                 marched from the prison to the cars. At Chattanooga we were chained in Paris
                 by the neck and hands. In many instances the chains around our necks were
                 through the flesh to the cords, and those around our wrists were to the bone. On
                 the 7th day of June, 1862, Andrews was taken out and strangled to death. It
                 cannot be called hanging, for the cord was so long his feet touched the ground
                 so heavily they had to dig the earth away from under his feet and let him grad-
                 ually strangle to death. Seven more of our comrades were hung on the 14th day
                 of June, and on two of them the cords were so poor that when they dropped the
                 cords gave away and the men fell to the ground. They, however, tried it again.
                 The feelings of the remaining fourteen can be more easily imagined than
                 described. After we had seen our comrades taken out and disposed of in the
                 manner they were, terrible were the hours we passed, thinking every moment
                 we would be called upon to follow our comrades, for they told us we were all
                 to be hung.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 51
April 7, 1862

                      Four months were passed in this suspense of feeling, when we were informed a
                      court-martial was about to convene to try the balance of us, and expecting nei-
                      ther justice nor mercy, we made a firm resolve to either escape or die in the
                      attempt. The day at length arrived. The 15th day of October we broke jail, dis-
                      armed the guard, and made our escape. We took different directions. We (Wood
                      and Wilson) struck out east from Atlanta. After we had traveled a few miles we
                      proceeded south and west in order to elude pursuit. We at last took a southerly
                      direction and traveled twenty-two days through Georgia, Alabama, and Flor-
                      ida, eating only five meals of victuals during the twenty-two days, aside from
                      the berries we gathered in the woods. We had no money, and had to travel
                      nights to prevent being retaken. We at last arrived at Apolachicola, Fla., on the
                      Gulf coast, where we found the blockading of the Federal Navy. Oh, how the
                      Stars and Stripes did cheer our depressed spirits. When we first caught a
                      glimpse of them our trials and troubles for months were as nothing compared
                      with the joy of that moment. We forgot everything. We were taken on board of
                      the gun-boat Somerset, and treated very kindly by Capt. Crosman. We were
                      sent to Key West, and from there to Beaufort, S. C. At this place we were
                      ordered to report to Col. Hoffman, commissary-general of prisoners at Wash-
                      ington. Col. Hoffman gave us a report to forward to the general of this depart-
                      ment through my colonel, stating it would be unjust to place us in a position to
                      be retaken again, for if we were we should be tried and executed as spies. Col.
                      Hoffman then ordered us to report to our regiments, which we did, and arrived
                      at this place during the month of February, and were put on duty in the com-
                      pany and have been doing duty ever since. We have never remunerated for
                      money expended, nor have we been paid anything for rations not drawn. We
                      enlisted to serve the Federal cause, and are willing, if the country demands it,
                      to give our lives; at the same time we would like to be placed in such positions
                      that we need not fear the gallows; nor yet do we wish to leave the service, for
                      there are certain parties in the Confederacy, so styled, that we would like to
                      meet again, but not in the same circumstances we did at first.
                      We certify the above to be a true and correct statement.
                      MARK WOOD, J. ALFRED WILSON,
                      Members of Company C, 21st Regt. Ohio Vols., U. S. Army.
                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, pp. 347-349.

                NOTE 1: On a knoll in Bedford County, about two miles east of Shelbyville, members
                        of the Federal party which attempted to destroy the Western & Atlantic
                        Railroad in 1862, assembled before starting their marauding expedition. It
                        began with seizure of the engine "General" and ended with recapture of the
                        engine at the Georgia state line the same day. Several of the party were sub-
                        sequently hanged.
                      GEN. ORDERS, HDQRS. DEPT. OF EAST TENNESSEE, No. 54NOTE 1
                      Knoxville, June 14, 1862.

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                                                                                        April 7, 1862

                 I. At a general court-martial, held at Knoxville, by virtue of Gen. Orders, Nos.
                 21 and 34 (department headquarters, April 15, and May 10, 1862) whereof
                 Lieut. Col. J. B. Bibb, of the Twenty-third Regt. Alabama Volunteers, was
                 president, was tried
                 William Campbell, private, Company K, Second Ohio Regt., on the following
                 charge and specifications, to wit:
                 CHARGE: Violation of section 2 of the one hundred and first article of the
                 Rules and Articles of War.
                 Specification 1.-In this, that the said William Campbell, private Company K,
                 Second Ohio Regt., not owing allegiance to the Confederate States of America,
                 and being in the service and Army of the United States, then and now at war
                 with the Confederate States of America, did, on or about the 7th day of April,
                 1862, leave the Army of the United States, then lying near Shelbyville, Tenn.
                 and with a company of about 20 other soldiers of the U. S. Army, all dressed in
                 citizens' clothes, repair to Chattanooga, Tenn., entering covertly within the
                 lines of the Confederate forces at that post, and did thus, on or about the 11th
                 day of April, 1862, lurk as a spy in and about the encampments of said forces,
                 representing himself as a citizen of Kentucky going to join the Southern army.
                 Specification 2.-And the said William Campbell, private Company K, Second
                 Ohio Regt., U. S. Army, thus dressed in citizens' clothes, and representing him-
                 self as a citizen of Kentucky going to join the Southern Army, and did proceed
                 by railroad to Marietta, Ga., thus covertly pass through the lines of the Confed-
                 erate forces stationed at Chattanooga, Dalton, and Camp McDonald, and did
                 thus, on or about the 11th day of April, 1862, lurk as a spy in and about the said
                 encampments of the Confederate forces at the places stated aforesaid.
                 To which charge and specifications the prisoner plead, "Not guilty." The court,
                 after mature deliberation, find the accused as follows: Of the first specification
                 of the charge, "guilty." Of the second specification of the charge, "guilty." and
                 "guilty" of the charge.
                 And the court do therefore sentence the accused, the said William Campbell,
                 private Company K, Second Ohio Regt. (two-thirds of the members concurring
                 therein), as soon as this order shall be made public, "to be hung by the neck
                 until he is dead."
                 The proceedings in the foregoing case of William Campbell, private Company
                 K, Second Ohio Regt., are approved. The sentence of the court will be carried
                 into effect between the 15th and 22d days of June instant, at such time and
                 place as may be designated by the commanding officer at Atlanta, Ga., who is
                 charged with the arrangements for the proper execution thereof.
                 By command of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith:
                                                            OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10. pt. I, pp. 637-638.

           NOTE 1: Other paragraphs of this order promulgate the proceedings and findings of

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 53
April 8, 1862

                       the same court in the cases of Privates Martin Ross, Perry G. Shadrick, and
                       George D. Wilson, Second Ohio Infantry; John Scott, Twenty-first Ohio In-
                       fantry; and Samuel Robinson and Samuel Slavens, Thirty-third Ohio Infan-
                       try. They were tried on like charges and specifications, plead not guilty,
                       were found guilty, were sentenced as in Campbell's case, and sentences ap-
                   Letter from Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, U. S. Army.
                   SARATOGA, August 5, 1863.
                   SIR: In the Official Gazette of the 21st ultimo I see a report of Judge-Advo-
                   cate-Gen. Holt, dated March 27, relative to "an expedition set on foot in April,
                   1862, under the authority and direction," as the report says," of Gen. O. M.
                   Mitchel, the object of which was to destroy the line of communications on the
                   Georgia State Railroad between Atlanta and Chattanooga." The expedition was
                   "set on foot" under my authority. The plan was arranged between Mr.
                   Andrews, whom I had in employment from shortly after assuming command in
                   Kentucky, and my chief of staff, Col. James B. Fry, and Gen. Mitchel had noth-
                   ing to do either with its conception or execution except to furnish from his
                   command the soldiers who took part in it. He was directed to furnish 6. Instead
                   of that he sent 22. Had he conformed to the instructions given him it would
                   have been better. The chances of success would have been greater, and in any
                   event several lives would have been saved. The report speaks of the plan as an
                   emanation of genius and of the results which it promised as absolutely sublime.
                   It may be proper, therefore, to say that this statement is made for the sake of
                   truth, and not to call attention to the extravagant colors in which it has been
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   D. C. BUELL, Maj.-Gen.
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 634-635.

April 8, 1862 - Reconnaissance from Shiloh battlefield

                   APRIL 8, 1862.-Reconnaissance from Shiloh Battle-field.
                   Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army.
                   HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Tuesday, April 8, 1862.
                   SIR: With the cavalry placed at my command and two brigades of my fatigue
                   troops I went this morning out on the Corinth road. One after another of the
                   abandoned camps of the enemy lined the roads, with hospital flags for their
                   protection. At all we found more or less wounded and dead.
                   At the forks of the road I found the head of Gen. Wood's division. At that point
                   I ordered cavalry to examine both roads, and found the enemy's cavalry. Col.
                   Dickey, of the Illinois cavalry, asking for re-enforcements, I ordered Gen.
                   Wood to advance the head of his column cautiously on the left-hand road,

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                 whilst I conducted the head of the Third Brigade of the Fifth Division up the
                 right-hand road.
                 About half a mile from the forks was a clear field, through which the road
                 passed, and immediately beyond a space of some 200 yards of fallen timber,
                 and beyond an extensive camp. The enemy's cavalry could be seen in this
                 camp, and after a reconnaissance I ordered the two advance companies of the
                 Seventy-seventh Ohio, colonel Hildebrand, to deploy forward as skirmishers,
                 and the regiment itself forward into line, with an interval of 100 yards. In this
                 order I advanced cautiously until the skirmishers were engaged. Taking it for
                 granted this disposition would clean the camp, I held Col. Dickey's Fourth Illi-
                 nois Cavalry ready for the charge. The enemy's cavalry came down boldly to
                 the charge, breaking through the line of skirmishers, when the regiment of
                 infantry, without cause, broke, threw away their muskets, and fled. The ground
                 was admirably adapted to a defense of infantry against cavalry, it being miry
                 and covered with fallen timber.
                 As the regiment of infantry broke, Dickey's cavalry began to discharge their
                 carbines and fell into disorder. I instantly sent orders to the rear for the brigade
                 to form line of battle, which was promptly executed. The broken infantry and
                 cavalry rallied on this line, and as the enemy's cavalry came to it our cavalry in
                 turn charged and drove them from the field.
                 I advanced the entire brigade upon the same ground, and sent Col. Dickey's
                 cavalry a mile farther on the road. On examining the ground which had been
                 occupied by the Seventy-seventh Ohio we found 15 dead and about 25
                 wounded. I sent for wagons, and had all the wounded sent back to camp and
                 the dead buried; also the whole camp to be destroyed. Here we found much
                 ammunition for field pieces, which was destroyed; also two caissons, and a
                 general hospital, with about 280 Confederate wounded and about 50 of our
                 own. Not having the means of bringing these off, Col. Dickey, by my orders,
                 took a surrender, signed by Medical Director Lyle and all the attending sur-
                 geons, and a pledge to report themselves to you as prisoners of war; also a
                 pledge that our wounded would be carefully attended and surrendered to us
                 tomorrow as soon as ambulances could go out.
                 I inclose the written document, and a request that you will cause to be sent out
                 wagons or ambulances for the wounded of ours tomorrow; also that wagons be
                 sent out to bring in the many tents belonging to us, which are pitched all along
                 the road for 4 miles. I did not destroy these, because I know the enemy cannot
                 remove them. The roads are very bad, and the road is strewn with abandoned
                 wagons, ambulances, and limber-boxes. The enemy has succeeded in carrying
                 off the guns, but has crippled his batteries by abandoning the hind limber-
                 boxes of at least twenty guns.
                 I am satisfied the enemy's infantry and artillery passed Lick Creek this morn-
                 ing, traveling all last night, and that he left behind all his cavalry, which has
                 protected his retreat, but the signs of confusion and disorder mark the whole

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                   April 1862 — Page 55
April 8, 1862

                   The check sustained by us at the fallen timbers delayed our advance, so that
                   night came upon us before the wounded were provided for and dead buried,
                   and our troops being fagged out by three days' hard fighting, exposure, and pri-
                   vation, I ordered them back to camp, where all now are.
                   I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                   W. T. SHERMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 639-640.
                   Report of Thomas Harrison, Texas Rangers [unattached].
                   CAMP, NEAR CORINTH, April 11, 1862.
                   [COL.:] I have to report that, being left by you in command of the Texas Rang-
                   ers, 220 strong, on the morning of Tuesday last, I remained in the rear of our
                   retiring army until the evening of that day, when information was brought me
                   by a member of Col. Forrest's cavalry that a small body of the enemy's cavalry
                   had appeared on our right flank.
                   I immediately proceeded with my command, accompanied by a company
                   [about 40 men] of Col. Forrest's cavalry, to the point occupied by the enemy,
                   and finding him apparently in considerable force, and having formed my com-
                   mand in line of battle to his front, I made a personal reconnaissance of his
                   lines. This revealed his cavalry, about 300 strong, with a line of infantry in its
                   rear, the extent of which I could not determine, owing to a dense brush-wood in
                   which the latter was placed. I discovered too, as I thought and still think, artil-
                   lery almost entirely concealed by the thick undergrowth of timber.NOTE 1I
                   could not ascertain the strength of this battery.
                   Deeming it unadvisable to attack a force so strong and advantageously situ-
                   ated-their position and the nature of the ground rendering a charge by cavalry
                   extremely hazardous-I retired to a more favorable position, and learning here
                   that the enemy was attempting to pass my flank in force I commenced to retire
                   again to a point beyond that which it was supposed they would reach my rear.
                   At this time I met Capt. [Isaac F. ] Harrison, of Col. Wirt Adams' cavalry, com-
                   manding about 40 men of that regiment. He informed me that his regiment was
                   so situated as to prevent the flank movement attempted by the enemy.
                   Being joined by him I returned to my position near the hospital, where I found
                   Col. Forrest commanding in person the company of his cavalry above named.
                   On consultation with him it was determined to charge the enemy then formed
                   for battle to our front. The charge was immediately executed. The front line of
                   the enemy's infantry and his cavalry in its rear was put to flight; a portion of the
                   latter only after a hand-to-hand engagement with the Rangers had attested their
                   superior skill in the use and management of pistol and horse. My command not
                   having sabers and our shots being exhausted I ordered a retreat on the appear-
                   ance of a strong line of infantry still to our front, which was well executed by
                   the Rangers. I rallied and reformed them on the ground where the charge was

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                                                                                       April 8, 1862

                 begun, but the enemy did not advance. Shortly afterward I was ordered by Gen.
                 Breckinridge to the rear of his infantry and artillery.
                 I suppose 40 or 50 of the enemy were killed on the ground and doubtless many
                 more were wounded. We captured 43 prisoners. My loss was 2 killed [Cham-
                 pion and Earnest] and 7 wounded, among them Capt. [G. ] Cook, Lieut.'s [H. E.
                 ] Storey and Gordon; none mortally. Private Ash is missing.
                 I cannot state the loss of the companies co-operating with me. Col. Forrest I
                 learn, was slightly wounded.
                 The Rangers acted throughout the affair with admirable coolness and courage.
                 I cannot say more than that they fully sustained the ancient fame of the name
                 they bear; they could not do more. I cannot discriminate between them,
                 because each one displayed a heroism worthy of the cause we are engaged for.
                 Very respectfully,
                 THOS. HARRISON, Maj., Cmdg. Texas Rangers.
                 Col. J. A. WHARTON.
                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 923-924.

           NOTE 1: This is also known as the "Fallen Timbers" skirmish or engagement or affair
                   in some secondary sources. It is treated by many enthusiasts as a great day
                   for Confederate arms, and the fight in which Nathan Bedford Forrest was
                   wounded, near Michie.
                 A BRILLIANT AFFAIR.
                 We have to record another brilliant victory for the Confederate arms, which
                 occurred on Tuesday [8th] last, and was achieved by a small force of our cav-
                 alry, composed of a detachment of Col. FORREST'S regiment and a party of
                 Texas Rangers under Maj. THOS. HARRISON. The whole force was about
                 nine hundred, and was under command of Col. FORREST.
                 When our army commenced retiring from Shiloah on Monday [7th] evening,
                 Gen. BRECKINRIDGE'S brigade, with the cavalry, was ordered to bring up
                 the rear, and prevent the enemy from cutting off an of our trains. On Tuesday
                 afternoon the cavalry mentioned were attacked by a Federal force of two regi-
                 ments of infantry and one of cavalry, the latter being in the advance. After
                 receiving the enemy's fire, which killed and wounded ten, Col. FORREST, in a
                 few spirited words, called upon his men to advance upon the enemy, which
                 they did in the most gallant style.
                 At the first fire the cavalry of the enemy turned and fled, actually breaking the
                 ranks of their own infantry in endeavoring to escape the missiles of the Con-
                 federates. The result of this dashing affair was—Federal loss, killed and
                 wounded, two hundred and fifty, and forty-eight prisoners; Confederates, ten
                 killed and wounded.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 57
April 8, 1862

                   In this affair Col. FORREST received a painful, though not dangerous wound.
                   Just as he had brought down the colonel of the Federal cavalry, one of the
                   enemy fired at him with effect. The next instant a bullet from the colonel's pis-
                   tol revenged the personal injury have had received. The colonel will be with
                   his command in a few days.
                                                                 Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

April 8, 1862 - Martial law declared in Confederate East Tennessee

                   GEN. ORDERS, No. 21. WAR DEPARTMENT, A. AND I. G. O., Richmond,
                   April 8, 1862.
                   I. The following proclamation is published for the information of all con-
                   By virtue of the power vested in me by law to declare the suspension of the
                   privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Con-
                   federate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended
                   over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Maj.-Gen. E.
                   K. Smith; and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction (with the
                   exception of that enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills,
                   the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of
                   guardians to enter decrees and orders for the partition and sale of property, to
                   make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order
                   the payment of county dues), and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in
                   the department aforesaid.
                   In faith whereof I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal this eighth
                   day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.
                   JEFFERSON DAVIS.
                                                                  OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 403.

April 8, 1862 - Capture of Island No. 10 and surrender of Confederates at TiptonvilleNOTE 1

                   CAMP ON EAST SIDE OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER, APRIL 7, 1862—7 p. m.
                   Maj.-Gen. HALLECK:
                   Enemy in rapid retreat, leaving artillery, baggage, supplies, and sick. Paine is
                   near Tiptonville; Stanley within mile of him; Hamilton 3 miles in rear of Stan-
                   ley; Plummer now at landing on this side; our gunboats below Tiptonville on
                   the bank. Think we shall bag whole force, though not certain. No escape for
                   them below Tiptonville, except by wading shoulder deep in swamp. Whole
                   command well in hand and will move forward at daylight. Captured eleven
                   heavy guns, and enemy's famous floating battery, carrying fourteen guns,
                   which drifted down from Island 10. I think rebels are trying desperately to

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                                                                                       April 8, 1862

                 escape; many of them must be captured. Have already taken 100 prisoners.
                 Will occupy Island 10 early to-morrow unless enemy is assembled there in
                 force; capture it anyhow by evening. Send down all transports you can get at
                 once. Do not believe enemy will make another stand this side of Memphis. If I
                 can get transportation, I will be in Memphis in seven days.
                 JNO. POPE, Maj.-Gen., Commanding.
                                                                        OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 670.

           NOTE 1: Covered by Federal gunboats, Major-General John Pope landed part of his
                   army of 25,000 on the west shore of Madrid Bend, outflanking Confederate
                   defenses, causing Confederate forces to abandon the fortified island. Con-
                   federate Brigadier-General W. W. Mackall, retreating south, finding him-
                   self cut off by gunboats and high water, surrendered the remnant of the
                   Confederate force on the northern outskirts of Tiptonville.
                 UNITED STATES FLAG-SHIP BENTON, Island No. 10, April 8, 1862.
                 Maj.-Gen. HALLECK:
                 SIR: I have the honor to inform the department that since I sent the telegraph
                 last night announcing the surrender of Island 10 to me possession has been
                 taken of both the island and the works upon the Tennessee shore by the gun-
                 boats and the troops under command of Gen. Buford. Seventeen officers and
                 368 privates, besides 100 of their sick and 100 men employed on board trans-
                 ports, are in our hands unconditional prisoners of war.
                 I have caused a hasty examination to be made of the forts, batteries, and muni-
                 tions of war captured. There are eleven earthworks, with seventy heavy can-
                 non, varying in caliber from 32s to 100 pounders rifled. The magazines are
                 well supplied with powder, and there are large quantities of shot and shell and
                 other munitions of war, and also great quantities of provisions. Four steamers
                 afloat have fallen in our hands, and two others, with the rebel gunboat Gram-
                 pus, are sunk, but will be easily raised. The floating battery of sixteen heavy
                 guns turned adrift by the rebels is said to be lying on the Missouri shore below
                 New Madrid.
                 The enemy upon the main-land appear to have fled with great precipitation
                 after dark last night, leaving in many cases half-prepared meals in their quar-
                 ters, and there seems to have been no concert of action between the rebels upon
                 the island and those occupying the shore, but the latter fled, leaving the former
                 to their fate.
                 These works, erected with the highest engineering skill, are of great strength,
                 and with their natural advantages would have been impregnable if defended by
                 men fighting in a better cause. A combined attack of the naval and land forces
                 would have taken place this afternoon or to-morrow morning had not the rebels
                 so hastily abandoned this stronghold. To mature these plans of attack have
                 absolutely required the past twenty-three days' of preparation. Gen. Pope is

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 59
April 8, 1862

                      momentarily expected to arrive with his army at this point, he having success-
                      fully crossed the river yesterday under a heavy fire, which no doubt led to the
                      hasty abandonment of the works last night.
                      I am unofficially informed that the two gunboats which so gallantly run the fire
                      of the rebel batteries a few nights since, yesterday attacked and reduced a work
                      of the enemy opposite New Madrid mounting eight heavy guns. I regret that
                      the painful condition of my foot, still requiring me to use crutches, prevented
                      me from making a personal examination of the works. I was therefore com-
                      pelled to delegate that duty to Lieut.-Commanding S. L. Phelps, of the flag-
                      ship Benton.
                      A. H. FOOTE, Flag Officer, Commanding Naval Forces Western Waters.
                                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 674.
                      MEMPHIS, TENN., April 9, 1862.
                      [Gen. POLK:]
                      DEAR GEN.: I sincerely congratulate you upon the glorious victory that you
                      and your command have acted so conspicuous a part.NOTE 1 Since I left Island
                      10 I have had a severe attack of pneumonia. I am able to write to-day.
                      The pressure upon me for my report was so great that I was forced to dictate
                      most of it from a sick bed, and of course it is not full, and is imperfect. I regret,
                      too, that Gen. Stewart and Gen. Walker have not made reports to me. However,
                      I attribute it to official duties on the part of Gen. S. and to sickness on the part
                      of Gen. Walker.
                      If any reports have been sent direct to your office will you send me the reports
                      or copies?
                      I regret the sad news I hear from Island 10. The poor fellows worked and
                      fought without murmur as long as I was with them. I parted with them with
                      regret. It is a matter of mortification to me to find myself situated as I now am-
                      accused of drunkenness, &c. Nothing but an investigation of all my acts will
                      now satisfy me.
                      Yours, sincerely,
                      J. P. McCOWN.
                                                                         OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 131-132.

                NOTE 1: Confederate artillery units repelled U. S. Navy gunboats from the Madrid
                        Bend, Mo., environs on March 17, 1862. See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 179-181.
                      HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Camp five miles from
                      Corinth, Miss., May 2, 1862.NOTE 1

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                                                                                       April 8, 1862

                 On the 4th Commodore Foote allowed one of the gunboats to run the batteries
                 at Island No. 10, and Capt. Walke, U. S. Navy, who had volunteered (as
                 appears from the commodore's order to him), came through that night with the
                 gunboat Carondelet. Although many shots were fired at him as he passed the
                 batteries, his boat was not once struck. He informed me of his arrival early on
                 the 5th.
                 On the morning of the 6th I sent Gen. Granger, Col. Smith, of the Forty-third
                 Ohio, and Capt. L. H. Marshall, of my staff, to make a reconnaissance of the
                 river below, and requested Capt. Walke to take them on board the Carondelet
                 and run down the river, to ascertain precisely the character of the banks and the
                 position and number of the enemy's batteries. The whole day was spent in this
                 reconnaissance, the Carondelet steaming down the river in the midst of a
                 heavy fire from the enemy's batteries along the shore. The whole bank for 15
                 miles was lined with heavy guns at intervals, in no case exceeding 1 mile.
                 Intrenchments for infantry were also thrown up along the shore between the
                 batteries. On his return up the river Capt. Walke silenced the enemy's batteries
                 opposite Point Pleasant, and a small infantry force, under Capt. L. H. Marshall,
                 landed and spiked the guns.
                 On the night of the 6th, at my urgent request, Commodore Foote ordered the
                 Pittsburgh also to run down to New Madrid. She arrived at daylight, having,
                 like the Carondelet, come through untouched. I directed Capt. Walke to pro-
                 ceed down the river at daylight on the 7th with two gunboats, and if possible
                 silence the batteries near Watson's Landing, the point which had been selected
                 to land the troops, and at the same time I brought the four steamers into the
                 river, and embarked Paine's division, which consisted of the Tenth, Sixteenth,
                 Twenty-second, and Fifty-first Illinois Regiments, with Hougtaling's battery of
                 The land batteries of 32-pounders, under Capt. Williams, First United States
                 Infantry, which had established some days before, opposite the point where the
                 troops were to land, were ordered to open their fire upon the enemy's batteries
                 opposite as soon as it was possible to see them.
                 A heavy storm commenced on the night of the 6th, and continued with short
                 intermission for several days. The morning of the 7th was very dark, and the
                 rain fell heavily until midday. As soon as it was fairly light our heavy batteries
                 on the land opened their fire vigorously upon the batteries of the enemy, and
                 the two gunboats ran down the river and joined in the action.
                 The whole force designed to cross had been drawn up along the river bank, and
                 saluted the passing steamers with cheers of exultation. As soon as we began to
                 cross the river the enemy commenced to evacuate his position along the bank
                 and the batteries along the Tennessee shore opposite Island No. 10. His whole
                 force was in motion towards Tiptonville, with the exception of the few artil-
                 lerists on the island, who in the haste of retreat had been abandoned.

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April 8, 1862

                   As Paine's division was passing opposite the point I occupied on the shore one
                   of my spies, who had crossed on the gunboats from the silenced battery,
                   informed me of this hurried retreat of the enemy. I signaled Gen. Paine to stop
                   his boats, and sent him the information, with orders to land as rapidly as possi-
                   ble on the opposite shore and push forward to Tiptonville, to which point the
                   enemy's forces were tending from every direction. I sent no force to occupy the
                   deserted batteries opposite Island No. 10, as it was my first purpose to capture
                   the whole army of the enemy.
                   At 8 or 9 o'clock that night (the 7th) the small force abandoned on the island,
                   finding themselves deserted, and fearing an attack in the rear from our land
                   forces, which they knew had crossed the river in the morning, sent a message
                   to Commodore Foote, surrendering to him. The divisions were pushed forward
                   to Tiptonville as fast as they were landed, Paine leading. The enemy attempted
                   to make a stand several times near that place, but Paine did not once deploy his
                   columns. By midnight all our forces were across the river and pushing forward
                   rapidly to Tiptonville.
                   The enemy, retreating before Paine and from Island No. 10, met at Tiptonville
                   during the night in great confusion, and were driven back into the swamps by
                   the advance of our forces, until, at 4 o'clock a. m. on the 8th, finding them-
                   selves completely cut off, and being apparently unable to resist, they laid down
                   their arms and surrendered at discretion. They were so scattered and confused
                   that it was several days before anything like an accurate account of their num-
                   ber could be made.
                   Meantime I had directed Col. W. L. Elliott, of the Second Iowa Cavalry, who
                   had crossed the river after dark, to proceed as soon as day dawned to take pos-
                   session of the enemy's abandoned works on the Tennessee shore opposite
                   Island No. 10. and to save the steamers if he possibly could. He reached there
                   before sunrise that morning, the 8th, and took possession of the encampments,
                   the immense quantities of stores and supplies, and of all the enemy's batteries
                   on the main-land. He also brought in about 200 prisoners. After posting his
                   guards and taking possession of the steamers not sunk or injured he remained
                   until the forces from the flotilla landed. As Col. Buford was in command of
                   these forces, Col. Elliott turned over to his infantry force his prisoners, batter-
                   ies, and captured property for safe-keeping, and proceeded to scour the country
                   in the direction of Tiptonville, along Reelfoot Lake, as directed.
                   It is almost impossible to give a correct account of the immense quantity of
                   artillery, ammunition, and supplies of every description which fell into our
                   hands. Three [Confederate] generals, 273 field and company officers, 6,700
                   privates, 123 pieces of heavy artillery, 35 pieces of field artillery) all of the
                   very best character and latest patterns), 7,000 stand of small-arms, tents for
                   12,000 men, several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an immense quantity of
                   ammunition of all kinds, many hundred horses and mules, with wagons and
                   harness, &c., are among the spoils. Very few, if any, of the enemy escaped, and
                   only by wading and swimming through the swamps.

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                                                                                         April 8, 1862

                 The conduct of the troops was splendid throughout, as the results of this opera-
                 tion and its whole progress very plainly indicate. We have crossed this great
                 river, the banks of which were lined with batteries and defended by 7,000 men.
                 We have pursued and captured the whole force of the enemy and all his sup-
                 plies and material of war, and have again recrossed and reoccupied the camps
                 at New Madrid, without losing a man or meeting with any accident.
                 I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 JNO. POPE, Maj.-Gen., Commanding.
                                                                       OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 88-90.

           NOTE 1: The conclusion of the Federal siege of Island No. 10 on April 8, 1862 can
                   be said to have begun on April 4. The following excerpt from the Report of
                   Major-General John Pope is illustrative of the events leading to the surren-
                   der of Confederate forces at Tiptonville.

April 8, 1862 - Assistant Secretary of War, Thomas A. Scott, to Secretary of War, E. M. Stan-
                   ton relative to the fall of Island No. 10

                 NEW MADRID, April 8, 1862.
                 Just returned from Tennessee. General Pope's movement has been a glorious
                 success. Captured the rebel general, and nearly all his forces are prisoners.
                 They will number about 5,000. Over 100 pieces of heavy artillery at Island No.
                 10, and along the river shore a large amount of arms and property of every
                 description. The rebels sunk six steamers. Will endeavor to have five of them
                 raised. If transportation arrives to-morrow or next day we shall have Memphis
                 within ten days, and General Pope can cooperate with General Grant at Corinth
                 in wiping out secession. Captain Walke, of the gunboat Carondelet, is entitled
                 to great credit for his efficient cooperation with General Pope to effect the
                 crossing of the river.
                 THOMAS A. SCOTT, Assistant Secretary of War.
                 Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
                                                                Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 722.

April 8, 1862 - An Iowa soldier's observations on the mass burial of Confederate soldiers at
                  Shiloh battlefield

                 Where the retreat commenced on Monday afternoon are hundreds and thou-
                 sands of wounded rebels. They had fallen in heaps and the woods had taken
                 fire and burned all the clothing off them and the naked and blackened corpses

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 63
April 8, 1862

                   are still lying there unburried[.] On the hillside near a deep hollow our men wer
                   hauling them down and throwing them into the deep gulley [.] One hundred
                   and eighty had been thrown in when I was there. Men were in on top of the
                   dead straightening out their legs and arms and tramping them down so as to
                   make the hole contain as many as possible[.] Other man on the hillside had
                   ropes with a noose on one end and they would attach this to a mans foot or his
                   head and haul him down to the hollow and roll him in[.] Where the ground was
                   level it was so full of water that the excavation filled up as fast as dug and the
                   corpse was just rolled in and the earth just thrown over it and left.
                   War is hell broke loose and benumbs all the tender feeling of men and makes
                   them brutes [.] I do not want to see any more such scenes and yet I would not
                   have missed this day for any consideration[.]
                                                                          Boyd Diary, April 8, 1862

April 8, 1862 - Mrs. J. B. Gray's modest suggestion

                   A Gunboat Proposal.
                   Editors Appeal: I wish to make a proposition through your columns to the
                   ladies of Tennessee. That proposition is, that we purchase an iron-clad steamer,
                   to aid in the formation of the Navy of the Confederate States. Having already
                   given what is more precious than money, or any earthly treasure-some of us
                   our beloved husbands, and most of us our noble sons, let us unite our efforts to
                   strengthen their hands and cheer their hearts by the purchase of such a vessel,
                   which, with the blessing of God, may prove as formidable to our enemies as
                   the Virginia. I propose to give to the Secretary of the Navy or his order one
                   hundred dollars to the attainment of this object. An equal sum from each patri-
                   otic lady of the State will accomplish it. Messrs. Editors, please speak for me
                   and my sisters. Ask them to respond to this appeal, and say that you will
                   become the agents for our noble purpose. The money will be paid whenever it
                   is called for, through you. I mention ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS, in order
                   that more of us may share in the honor.
                   Mrs. J. B. Gray
                                                             Memphis Daily Appeal, April 8, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - Confederate situation report from Hickman and Obion counties

                   From the vicinity of Union City we learn that the enemy continues to prowl
                   around in the neighborhood in parties of one to three hundred. Our cavalry-five
                   hundred in number-are scouting in opposition. Some four hundred of the
                   enemy's cavalry have been hemmed in between the forks of the Obion river,
                   near Adams' Mill in Obion county, by Col. Jackson's command. The bridges on
                   the middle and north forks of the river have been destroyed, and as the rivers
                   are not fordable our troops are confident of being able to make the enemy

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                                                                                       April 9, 1862

                 The Federal force at Hickman on Sunday was a small detachment of cavalry.
                 All the artillery and infantry engaged in the affair at Union City returned
                 immediately to Hickman, and embarked on their transports down the river,
                 leaving only cavalry.
                                                                 Memphis Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - Absolom A. Harrison's (Company D, 4th Regiment, Kentucky Calvary Vol-
                  unteers) letter home describing the march from Kentucky and condition
                  of Nashville and environs

                 Nashville Tenn. April 9th, 1862
                 Dear Wife,
                 I take my pen in hand to inform you that I am tolerable well at present and
                 hope these few lines may find you are enjoying the same blessing. We have got
                 to this place after a long and tedious march. We got here last Sunday. The
                 country through which we have passed is the worst torn up country I ever saw.
                 The fences are nearly all burnt along the road and lots of the houses deserted
                 and some of these torn all to pieces. We find some Union men down here but
                 they are very scarce in this part of the world. This is a fine country about Nash-
                 ville. There is some of the finest houses here that I ever saw and plenty of
                 Negroes. We have had two or three insurrections in the regiment. When we
                 fixed to start from Bardstown all the regiment except our company refused to
                 go until they were paid off. But our company took the lead and the rest fol-
                 lowed after. Then when we got to Munfordville and got our money they
                 refused to go any further until we got arms and the Colonel went and got some
                 guns that had been refused by several other regiments and told us when we got
                 to Gallatin we should have better arms but we come to this place and this
                 morning the Colonel ordered us to march on to Columbus 45 miles from here
                 and selected our company to take the lead. But they told him plainly they
                 would not go any further without better arms and I have heard that there is no
                 more arms to give out to cavalry. I do not know what will be the result. I have
                 not heard from you since I sent you that money but I hope you have got it. I
                 would like to be at home with you all but I don't know when I can come. There
                 is no chance to get a furlough now. You must write as often as you can and
                 direct your letters to Nashville, Tenn. until I write again. You must be con-
                 tented as you can and stay where you are until I can get back again and trust to
                 Providence. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate hus-
                 band until death.
                 A. A. Harrison

                                                   Absolom A. Harrison Correspondence.NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in [Hereinafter Absolom A. Harri-
                   son Correspondence]

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 65
April 9, 1862

April 9, 1862 - The courageous Governor

                   Gov. Harris in the Field.
                   Governor Harris was present on the field during the terrible struggle at Shiloah,
                   and while there he played a brave and active part. We learn that, in the course
                   of the action on Sunday [6th]. A Tennessee regiment, on being ordered to the
                   charge, showed some symptoms of wavering. Gen. Johnston called the atten-
                   tion of the Governor to the fact. That gentleman at once rode up to the regi-
                   ment, addressed to them a few stirring, thrilling words, and placing himself at
                   their head, ordered the charge. The charge was made—it proved unsuccessful.
                   Again he led them, and, the second time the enemy stood the shock. A third
                   time he brought them to the contest, and with a vigor so determined, that the
                   foe gave way and retreated, leaving a considerable number of prisoners on the
                   hands of the Tennessee boys and their gallant Governor.
                                                                  Memphis Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - "From Union City."

                   From the vicinity of Union City we learn that the enemy continues to prowl
                   around in the neighborhood, in parties of from one to three hundred. Our cav-
                   alry—five hundred in number—are scouting in opposition. Some four hundred
                   of the enemy's cavalry have been hemmed in between the forks of the Obion
                   river, near Adams' mill, in Obion county by Col. Jackson's command. The
                   bridge on the middle and north forks of the river have been destroyed, and, as
                   the rivers are not fordable, our troops are confident of being able to make the
                   enemy capitalize.
                   The entire Federal force at Hickman on Sunday [6th] was a small detachment
                   of cavalry. All the artillery and infantry engaged in the affair at Union City
                   returned immediately to Hickman, and embarked on their transports down the
                   river, leaving only their cavalry.
                                                                  Memphis Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - "The Crockett Rangers."

                   This company, composed of members of No. 5 fire company of this city, and
                   attached to the 154th Tennessee regiment, was in the fiercest of the fight on
                   Sunday last. The regiment, as a whole, won a proud name for Memphis, and
                   the Rangers contributed their share to the general victory.
                   The casualties of the companies, so far as we have been able to ascertain, were
                   as follows: Killed—2d Lieut. M. Roach, Corporal McLevy, Privates John
                   Lovejoy, Wm. Bauer and James Donnelly. Wounded-John Hennifer, Samuel
                   Cowan, Thos. Grogan, Jeff Garrett, David Randolph, Frank Lyons and Samuel

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                                                                                       April 9, 1862

                  Mr. Hennifer was shot through both thighs—wound dangerous; Mr. Cowan
                  received a flesh wound in the arm; Mr. Grogan, flesh wound in leg; Mr. Gar-
                  rett, do.; Mr. Randolph, in stomach, probably mortally; Mr. Lyons, flesh wound
                  in leg; Mr. Ellison, one finger shot off.
                                                                 Memphis Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - "The Victorious on the Field of Shiloh."

                  It is our proud privilege this morning, to congratulate our fellow citizens
                  throughout the Confederacy, our fellow-citizens throughout the Confederacy,
                  on the success that has crowned our arms on the corpse-heaped plain of
                  Shiloah. For two days have the brave soldiers of the South, stood the utmost
                  efforts the finest troops the North could make against them. Men well drilled,
                  armed with the most perfect weapons, modern skill can produce, and in posses-
                  sion of those numerous advantages which the expenditure of unstinted mil-
                  lions, and free access to the workshops of Europe impart, were driven before
                  them in ignominious flight. Breast to breast our gallant boys stood before the
                  confident foe; but unawed by their swelling cohorts, their proud array their
                  pompous panoply, they charged them with a weapon no art can produce no
                  money buy—the chivalrous attribute of Southern COURAGE. With sparkling
                  eye, cheek unblenched, eager step, and unfailing soul, they marched on the
                  opposing ranks—they baffled their mightiest efforts, they subdued their loftiest
                  rage, they drove back their seried files, and taught the vaunting legions that
                  brave hearts and iron wills, sting by a sense of wrong, and fired with the ardor
                  of patriotism, cannot be conquered. In the pages of history the hard-won field
                  of Shiloah will have a name among the great battle-grounds of the world.
                                                                 Memphis Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 9, 1862 - Preparing to receive the wounded in Memphis

                  Irving Hospital.-Under the care of Dr. C. S. Fenner, who was charged with the
                  work by the military authorities, the rooms in the Irving block, lately occupied
                  by the Southern Mothers, have been cleansed and fitted up with comfortable
                  beds. Doors have been broken through to allow of complete communication
                  between the suits of rooms. A large kitchen has been fixed up with the neces-
                  sary appendages. There was but one patient there last evening, Lieut. Craw-
                  ford, who resides fifty miles down the Mississippi railroad; he was wounded in
                  the battle of Sunday last, receiving a bayonet stab in the eye. He is doing well,
                  and will return home to-day. The hospital, when we went over it, was already
                  favored with the presence of ladies-kind-hearted and compassionate matrons,
                  full of the angel-like spirit of Florence Nightingale-who were waiting to
                  bestow their soothing cares on the suffering soldiers, as soon as they should
                  arrive. Under the care of Dr. Fenner, who is experienced, industrious, patient,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 67
April 10, 1862

                   and of kind manners, we expect to see the Irving Hospital well and satisfacto-
                   rily conducted.
                                                            Memphis Daily Appeal, April 9, 1862.

April 10, 1862 - Confederate physician's bravery and workers' donation for wounded sol-

                   Bravery of a Surgeon-We are informed by soldiers who participated in the bat-
                   tle of Shiloh, that Dr. W. C. Cavanaugh, Surgeon to the second Tennessee
                   (Colonel Walker's) regiment, displayed much bravery upon the battlefield. He
                   extracted balls on the field and made those who tried to "play of wounded" go
                   back to their posts. All who saw Dr. Cavanaugh speak in the highest praise of
                   The employees of. . . Winn & Co., (saddle & harness factory) handed Mr.
                   Lofland, treasurer, six hundred and seventy dollars yesterday for the benefit of
                   the wounded soldiers [of Shiloh].
                                                                  Memphis Argus, April 10, 1862.

April 10, 1862 - Confederate report on five day scout, Hickman to Union City to Dresden,
                  relative to strong Union sentiment in West Tennessee and difficulties with
                  independent companies

                   •See March 31, 1862--Capture of Union CityNote 1
                   HDQRS. CAVALRY, Trenton, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
                   Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:
                   MAJ.: I have just returned from a five days' scout in the direction of Hickman;
                   remained one night at Union City, and thence toward Dresden. The enemy's
                   cavalry did not make their appearance. I found everything quiet on my line.
                   The Union feeling throughout the upper country is very strong, and the man-
                   agement of these men is one of the most delicate and perplexing of all to me.
                   Our Southern friends beseech me not to interfere with the Union men, since
                   they will be certain to report them, and thereby bring down a retaliation on the
                   part of the Federal troops much more harsh and severe than any that we could
                   have the heart to show our enemies. I have therefore determined not to arrest
                   any Union sympathizers unless known to be aiding and abetting the enemy.
                   I have made a reconnaissance of the country above this, and am of the opinion
                   that there is no line nearer to the enemy than the one from Dresden through this
                   place across to Dyersburg to be convenient to a telegraph office. There seems
                   to be but little disposition displayed by the citizens of Weakley and Obion
                   Counties to sell provisions and forage to the Confederate Government, since
                   they invariably refuse to take Confederate notes in payment.
                   The Obion bottoms are at present almost impassable, which will prevent my
                   forming a new line above this point. I can guard the line, however, by sending

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                                                                                      April 11, 1862

                 out from time to time strong scouting parties to operate in the country about
                 Union City and Dresden.
                 The independent companies attached to my command are an expense to the
                 Confederacy and do very little service, since they are not acquainted with the
                 country. I would respectfully recommend the merging of all these companies
                 (with the exception of Dillard's) into one, and have the election of company
                 officers, then muster them into one, and have the election of company officers,
                 then muster them into service for the war, and if they do not wish to do this,
                 discharge them. They are now a heavy expense for the service rendered. Capt.
                 D. G. Reid, with a squad of 15 men, is operating on my line under the authority
                 of Gen. Beauregard, and I would state for the information of the general com-
                 manding that he is doing great damage to our cause. He is reported to me by
                 good citizens to be engaged in taking horses from Union men on the line and
                 near Dresden, thereby causing the Union men to retaliate upon our friends; in
                 fact, I consider the party a nuisance, and have the honor to request his removal
                 from my line.
                 I was sufficiently near Island 10 on last Sunday and Monday to hear the firing,
                 which was very heavy. I presume you have heard the result; it is reported by
                 parties from there that one gunboat ran by the island on Friday night and two
                 more on Sunday night; our batteries were abandoned and spiked Monday and
                 the infantry force surrendered on Tuesday morning; a good many poor made
                 their escape and are coming in here daily.
                 Capt. Neely's company arrived here to-day; Haywood's company not yet
                 arrived. I would respectfully request that Capt. Robertson's company be
                 ordered here at once, as I need them very much. I have lost the copies of my
                 order and my report of the Union City affair, and would like to have copies of
                 both sent me. For the present my headquarters will be at this place.
                 I am, major, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                 W. H. JACKSON, Col., Cavalry.
                                                          OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 407-408.

April 11, 1862 - Skirmish at Wartrace

                 APRIL 11, 1862.-Skirmish at Wartrace, Tenn.
                 Report of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April
                 28, 1862.
                 GEN.: I have the honor to report that on the 10th instant a detachment of the
                 Eighth Tennessee Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Starnes, was sent out from Hills-
                 borough, in this State, by order of Brig.-Gen. Maxey, for the purpose of scour-
                 ing the country lying near the western slope of the Cumberland Mountains.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 69
April 11, 1862

                   This force, consisting of about 200 men, came upon a body of the enemy, 600
                   strong, at Wartrace, in Bedford County, and immediately attacked them in their
                   After a short engagement our men were withdrawn, with a loss of 3 killed and
                   8 wounded. The killed are Lieut. Wilson, Dr. Drahe, and Private Austin Stan-
                   ley. The names of the wounded are not given. Lieut.-Col. Starnes reports kill-
                   ing a considerable number of the enemy, but owing to the fact that they fought
                   from their tents, their exact loss could not be ascertained. A good effect was,
                   however, produced, as it was a surprise to the enemy, and so alarmed him as to
                   stop for some time the running of trains on the Nashville and Chattanooga
                   The officer commanding the expedition reports that the officers and men of his
                   command behaved themselves with great gallantry.
                   Respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                                    OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 644.
                   The Wartrace Skirmish.—A gentleman from Shelbyville has given us some
                   particulars of the skirmish at Wartrace, eight miles from Shelbyville, which we
                   noticed the other day. A company of Col. Starn's cavalry, belonging to Floyd's
                   brigade, came at daybreak upon a part of the Forty-second Indiana, of less than
                   half their own numbers under Maj. Shanklin of Evansville. A desperate fight
                   ensued in which four Federal soldiers were killed and twenty-five slightly
                   wounded. Four rebels were killed on the spot, and twenty of them wounded,
                   two or three mortally. Among the rebels killed were Capt. Wilson, of Chapel
                   Hill, and Dr. Duke, surgeon of the battalion. One of the rebels who had been in
                   Shelbyville a few days previous, passing himself off as a Union man, was shot
                   through the forehead with a minnie ball. Our informant says that our troops
                   behaved with wonderful gallantry.
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 17, 1862.

April 11, 1862 - Changes brought about in Memphis by the War.

                       "The Peculiarities of the Day."
                   In the whirl of passing events we scarcely notice the strange things that are
                   daily happening and existing around us. The bonnet that the ladies wear in the
                   streets and at church, excited but little attention, but, if in 1882 we should hap-
                   pen to see a portrait of a person wearing a bonnet of 1862, how strange it will
                   appear to us-so it will be of the events of eighteen hundred and sixty-two. How
                   those of us who are then living, will be listened to with gaping mouth and star-
                   ing eye, as we relate events and circumstances of "the war!" The war has
                   affected almost every department of our life, and rudely torn away the whole
                   habits of our past existence. Our dress, food, literature, business, devotions,

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                                                                                     April 11, 1862

                 pursuits, out-of-door conduct, and fireside conversation, are all changed and
                 modified by the influence of the war.
                 What would the people of the South have said two years ago, to any one who
                 should have predicted that they would get their breakfasts without coffee, and
                 drink the juice of parched rye as a substitute, without a work of complaint or a
                 wry face? Yet, the fact is done. The failure of our usual supplies of barreled
                 meat from the cities of the West, has made a change in the diet of every man
                 and woman in the Confederacy, and a no less striking changed in the produce
                 of the plantation. How astonishing it will appear, in a few years, that a time
                 existed when planters raised corn and potatoes, fattened hogs and cultivated
                 garden vegetables, while cotton was by universal consent neglected, and this at
                 a time when cotton was worth in Liverpool twenty-eight cents a pound, yet
                 selling on the plantation at five cents. How odd it will be to remember that cer-
                 tain merchandise was forbidden to be brought into the city, and certain kinds of
                 produce to be taken out; and that in many places in the markers and stores,
                 dealers could sell only at prices dictated to them by a Provost Marshal. While
                 our eating is thus affected, our drinking is no less so—slings, juleps, smashes,
                 and all the paraphernalia of drunkenness, is in a state of suspension, and every
                 groggery in the city is closed. Not only is the coffee gone we drank without
                 families at home, but the brandy we pledged our friend's health is abroad.
                 Our dress is affected to an equal extent with our food. The very books, that
                 with places of glaring colors used to show us how the beaux and ma'ams of
                 New York and Philadelphia wore their hats and bonnets, cats and dresses, are
                 no longer to be found among us. We do not know what the fashions are, and
                 without a grumble don anything we can find in the stores that is to be bought;
                 and the stores, having no means of replenishing their stock with "new goods
                 from the East," our "go to meeting coats" are often more remarkable for their
                 comfort, than for their elegance.
                 In our business there is a change that in twenty years will make every listener
                 doubt as he hears the story. Days pass by in which neither railroad trains or
                 steamboats bring a pound of freight. 'ChangeNOTE 1hour passes without a visi-
                 tor at the mart of commerce, without a document being placed upon the bulle-
                 tin board, a sample on the table, or a sale on the register. What is more, every
                 store closes at two o'clock in the afternoon, and the city one-half of every day
                 has the quietude of Sunday.
                 In our reading we have no books "just published," no New York weeklies or
                 monthlies, no European magazines; have not read Dickens' last, or commenced
                 Collin's new story. Have not seen the last principal "star" on the stage, and do
                 not know who is the reigning prima donna at the opera. Our newspapers have
                 felt the martial influence as strongly as other things. They never had so much
                 variety as not, since FAUST pulled the press; they are of all sizes and colors,
                 and sometimes contain four pages, and sometimes two. They are short enough
                 for a pocket handkerchief one day, and big enough for a table cloth another.
                 They assume as many hues as Niagara in the sunshine, and are by turns blue,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 71
April 11, 1862

                      yellow, green, red, purple, grey, and common brown packing paper. At church
                      our prayers have conformed to new events, or if they do not conform there are
                      indications that the war can extend its prerogatives beyond the precincts of the
                      Our very medicine has experienced its share of the change; Epson salts have
                      become an expensive luxury, and quinine is a treat "niggers and poor white
                      folks" find beyond their reach. Even our sleeping apartments have been
                      invaded, and blankets are all gone to the soldiers' tents. Politics are dead. A
                      political enemy is a curiosity only read of in books. We have no Whigs, no
                      Democrats, no Know-Nothings, no nothing. Our amusements have revolution-
                      ized. The winter has passed by without a company having engaged at the the-
                      ater, or a single circus having spread tent. Our people have done their own
                      playing and their own singing, and the most accomplished ladies in town have
                      spent the mornings in sewing coarse shirts or pantaloons for the soldier to
                      wear, and sung in public at night to gain money for the soldier's equipments.
                      How far we might extend this list every reader of our remarks knows, but brief
                      as it is, a few of the changes the war is brought upon us as it enumerates, it con-
                      tains the mention of facts that will excite wonder if read twenty years hence.
                                                                     Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

                 NOTE 1: Local slang for "Cotton Exchange."

April 11, 1862 - Criticism of Confederate deserters and looters at Shiloh

                      All accounts we have from the battle of Shiloah agree in blaming in the stron-
                      gest terms the large numbers of our unworthy soldiers who seemed to have on
                      the battle field but two objects: Firstly, to plunder the Federal tents; secondly,
                      to secure their spoils. They cared not to know what had become of their com-
                      rades after the victory of Sunday, and cared less yet to participate into another
                      fight, but scattered away in all directions leading to a place of safety. Many
                      will, of necessity, be captured by the Federal cavalry, and for them we have no
                      sympathy. Many have effected their object, and saved themselves and plunder:
                      but let them remember that in their fight they have also acquired an everlasting
                      stain upon their reputation as soldiers and patriots. The country will remember
                      is, and steps will be taken hereafter to interfere with such disgraceful conduct.
                                                                     Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

April 11, 1862 - Reassessing the battle of Shiloh

                      THE BATTLE AND ITS RESULTS.
                      It will be seen by the telegraph dispatches sent to us from Corinth on yesterday,
                      and, which we publish in another column, that the battle of Shiloah has not

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                                                                                       April 12, 1862

                 been renewed by either side up to this day, all rumors to the contrary notwith-
                 The inaction of the Federals after the engagement of last Monday is for us a
                 virtual acknowledgment off our victory. We held our ground up to the last hour,
                 and retired at leisure, bringing everything away with us that we chose, to the
                 full extent of our means of transportation, over most wretched roads. Gen
                 BRECEKNRIDGE brought up the rear guard with our cavalry, and wherever
                 the enemy showed himself, trying to annoy our movements, we repulsed them
                 with loss.
                 That the drama of the battle is ended at Corinth, is not likely. But, at any rate,
                 the two first acts permit us to auger well to the end. The Western army, under
                 command of Gen. GRANT, has found out, at a fearful expense, that we have a
                 Confederate army, and BEAUREGARD had conquered for himself the right of
                 being addressed by them as a Confederate commander. After the battle of
                 Shiloh they will acknowledge us as equals—after the battle of Corinth, they
                 will acknowledge us as superiors.
                                                                Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

April 11, 1862 - The surgeon's painful error

                 Our Hospitals.-We have now two fine hospitals open in the city, the Overton
                 and the Irving. The former is in charge of Dr. G. W. Currey, assistant surgeon,
                 P. A. C. S. Dur Curry gained a large store of experience while having charge of
                 the hospital of the Southern Mothers. He is a valuable member of the surgical
                 staff. We regret to say that he is suffering considerably at present from the
                 effects of making a slight wound in his hand while engaged in an amputation.
                 This does not prevent him, however, from exercising all his usual activity. Dr.
                 Fenner has the Irving hospital in excellent order. He has secured the valuable
                 services of Mr. and Mrs. Brewster in the house department.
                                                          Memphis Daily Appeal, April 11, 1862.

April 12, 1862 - "Horrible Desecration."

                                            NOTE 1
                 The Nashville Patriot            of the 13th says:
                 We have been credibly informed that some of the United States troops were
                 yesterday [12th] rehearsing the skirmish drill and going through other evolu-
                 tions in Mount Olivet Cemetery. No pretext in the world can justify such a
                 shameful outrage upon the sacred feelings of the citizens of Nashville as this.
                 The flowers and plants flourishing there are the sad mementoes of many a
                 bereaved heard, perhaps the only comforts left to them in the wide world is to
                 nourish and protect them, hoping some day to make their bed also their verdant
                 beauty. How cruel, then, to deprive us, when thus situated, of this melancholy
                 pleasure, when the whole world affords no other. One must feel to know how
                 keep in the heart sinks an affliction of this character. We do not believe that any

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 73
April 12, 1862

                       gentleman in the army would tolerate or let pass unrebuked that measures will
                       be immediately taken by the proper persons to support and prevent a repetition
                       of the offense.
                                                                      Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862.

                 NOTE 1: The Nashville Patriot is not extant.

April 12, 1862 - After the battle of Shiloh, in the wake of Buell's advance to Shiloh; the
                  observations of Charles Alley, 5th Iowa Cavalry while in Savannah

                       . . . Genl. Buell's army had also passed and left desolation in their track, fences
                       destroyed, grain fields used for pasture or roads. Oh, how clearly did it show
                       the evil of war. Their trains were scattered along the road which from rain and
                       travel was almost impassable. Last Sunday [6th] as I lay in bed I could hear the
                       incessant war of artillery, and when I came back here I could see the gad fruits
                       of it, wounded men in every direction. The rebels attacked our troops and the
                       fight was a severe one. Oh May God bless our arms and make us victorious in
                       every battle and may peace be speedily restored by the complete triumph of
                       law and order over anarchy and rebellion, and may we give all the glory to the
                       God who is our strength.
                                                                                             Alley Diary

April 12, 1862 - Report of Confederate Flag Waving in Manchester

                       We find the following items in the Huntsville Advocate of the 9th inst.
                       In Manchester, Tenn., the other day, about 70 Federal cavalry entered the town,
                       there being no resistance. As they passed Mrs. E. N. Marcell's house (her hus-
                       band being in our army) she waved a Confederate flag; the Captain demanded
                       its surrender; she refused to give it up; he then threatened to burn her house,
                       and finally ordered four men to present arms and take aim at her, but still she
                       waved the flag and refused to give it up. At last, one of them snatched it from
                       her and the 70 made off with it. All honor to her! Let the men of Tennessee and
                       North Alabama imitate Mrs. Marcell's boldness.

                                Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Georgia], April 12, 1862.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 12, 1862 - "It is really laughable to me to hear a naturalized citizen attempting to
                   ostracize people to the manor born." Pro-Union sentiment in Clarksville

                       For the Nashville Union.
                       Clarksville, April 12, 1862.

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                                                                                        April 12, 1862

                  Mr. Editor: At last a paper is published in Nashville which need not blush at its
                  name, "The Union." Thank God! the time for Free Speech, and a Free Press has
                  come. . .
                  This town, as you are well aware, is strongly Secession having cast but one
                  vote for the Union at the time the State went out. A few votes were cast for the
                  Union in my district, but altogether in the country a very meagre sentiment
                  only was expressed at the polls. Voting at that time, however, was but a poor
                  index of what was the feeling then, much less of what it is now. I talked but
                  yesterday with some of my farming friends, and two that I had never dreamed
                  were anything but "rebels," I found to be strong Union men. One said that he
                  had never voted on the Secession question at all, knowing that he could do no
                  good, and the other said he only voted that way through advice of friends, that
                  "we ought to be united, so as to prevent civil war in our own borders," but that
                  now he regretted it—always thought it was wrong, &c., &c. . . Writing of the
                  "Union men" in town here, let me assure you that there are a goodly number—
                  more than I ever dreampt of while we were not allowed to speak our senti-
                  ments; and in the country (my word for it)—the next gathering at the polls will
                  make the "Scottish chiefs," (as one of my neighbors calls them) of the rebel-
                  lion, open their eyes. It is a fact that the most noisy of these fellows in town are
                  Scotchmen—Scotch Tobacco buyers and Harness makers—rich and poor so
                  they are Scotch; seem to think they can not be loud enough in their denuncia-
                  tions of the d——- Yankees. It is really laughable to me to hear a naturalized
                  citizen attempting to ostracize people to the manor born. But till I hear from
                  you, I dare not be lengthy, not knowing that your columns are open to corre-
                  spondents, and especially to those who can give you nothing but country news.
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862

April 12, 1862 - Shortage of help at the Irving Hospital

                  Servants Wanted.-We are directed by Dr. Fenner, the excellent physician of the
                  Irving Hospital, to call attention to the fact that help is wanted very greatly, and
                  those who will send negroes of either sex will render a great good to the suffer-
                  ing soldiers. Will country friends notice this?; All that can be has been
                  obtained in the city. Milk, all kinds of vegetables, and old linen, will be very
                  gladly received. The friends of the suffering soldier will do much good by
                  noticing and doing what they can.
                                                           Memphis Daily Appeal, April 12, 1862.

April 12, 1862 - June 5, 1862 - U. S. Naval Operations on the Mississippi River against Fort

                  CAIRO, April 12, 1862. (Received 10 a.m., 13th )

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April 12, 1862

                   The flag-officer left New Madrid at noon with the flotilla and mortar boats en
                   route for Fort Pillow. A large body of troops accompanied.
                   A. M. PENNOCK,
                   Senior Officer.
                   CHIEF OF BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, Navy Department.
                   Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy, of the arrival of the flotilla at New
                   Madrid, Mo., en route to Fort Pillow.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, New Madrid, April 12, 1862.
                   SIR: I arrived here last evening with the flotilla, consisting of gun, mortar
                   boats, tugs, towboats, and transports, and would this morning have proceeded
                   down the river, but am detained for the present by the army, but hope that Gen-
                   eral Buford's two or three regiments will be ready early to-morrow, in which
                   case I shall proceed down the river to Fort Pillow, or any place where opposi-
                   tion is made to our progress toward Memphis.
                   I am informed that there are lying about 15 miles from this place, down the
                   river, some seven rebel gunboats, mounted with six and seven rifled and large
                   caliber guns, upon an average; these are the General Polk, Pontchartrain, Liv-
                   ingston, McRae, Ivy, and one other, name not known. It is hardly probable that
                   these boats will make a stand, but will run as we approach them till they reach
                   the cover of their heavy batteries.
                   The fortifications at Fort Pillow, 80 or 90 miles above Memphis, I am also
                   informed on good authority, consist of a long line of breastworks (some 3 to 5
                   miles), with a ditch and timber in front or before it, or in face, the fortifications
                   being on top and at the front of steep bluffs and running inland, with quite a
                   number of guns placed along the breastworks at the salient points. There are, or
                   rather were, on the 17th March, upward of forty heavy guns mounted at Fort
                   Pillow, and 1,200 negroes working on the batteries still, to strengthen this
                   stronghold. The guns mounted are heavy rifled, some five or six 10-inch
                   columbiads, some 8-inch, and remainder 32-pounders. We may also meet with
                   some opposition at Osceola in running down the river, as a battery is said to be
                   planted there.
                   As General Buford is prevented from accompanying us by General Pope's
                   directions, I shall proceed immediately toward Memphis with the flotilla. Gen-
                   eral Pope, I believe, designs to follow this evening or to-morrow with quite a
                   large force.
                   Please excuse this hurried communication, as the mail boat is waiting and we
                   are getting underway.
                   I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                   A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy, regarding the movement of the flo-
                 tilla and transports under Major-General Pope, U. S. Army, to Fort Pillow.
                 FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, April 14, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 11th instant I proceeded with the flo-
                 tilla from Island No. 10 to New Madrid, and left; that place with all our force
                 on the 12th instant, and anchored the same evening near and just below the
                 Arkansas line, 50 miles distant from New Madrid.
                 Early in the morning General Pope, with transports conveying his army of
                 20,000 men, arrived from New Madrid. At 8 a.m. five rebel gunboats rounded
                 the point below us, when the gunboats, the Benton in advance, immediately got
                 underway and proceeded in pursuit and when within long range opened upon
                 the rebels, followed by the Carondelet and Cincinnati and the other boats.
                 After an exchange of some twenty shots, the rebel boats rapidly steamed down
                 the river and kept beyond our range till they reached the batteries of Fort Pil-
                 low, a distance of more than 30 miles. We followed them until within a mile of
                 Fort Pillow, within easy range of their batteries, for the purpose of making a
                 good reconnoissance, at considerable exposure, however, but it was not till we
                 had rounded to, and ran some distance upstream, when the enemy opened fire
                 upon us, and then with no effect, their shot, most of them, going beyond us.
                 Having accomplished our object, I tied the flotilla up to the banks on the Ten-
                 nessee side out of range of the forts for the night.
                 General Pope, with Assistant Secretary Scott, came aboard at 3 p. m., when it
                 was arranged that the mortar boats should be placed in the morning on the
                 Arkansas shore, within range of the forts, to be protected by the gunboats, and
                 General Pope, with most of his force, should land 5 miles above, with the view
                 of getting his army, if possible, to the rear of the fortifications and make the
                 attack in rear while we should, with gun and mortar boats, attack them in front.
                 This place has a long line of fortifications, with guns of heavy caliber; their
                 number or the number of their men I have not yet been able to ascertain. The
                 secession feeling here, as I learn from several persons coming on board, is very
                 strong, and they express the opinion that the resistance will be very deter-
                 3 p. m.-General Pope has returned with his transports, and informs me that he
                 is unable to reach the rear of the rebels from any point of the river above, and
                 proposes to cut a canal on the Arkansas side, which will enable us to get three
                 or four of the gunboats below and thus enable him to cross the river below the
                 upper forts, and thus cut off the batteries. We shall thus have three ironclad
                 boats above and four below, which, I presume, will be all that will be required
                 in case the six gunboats of the rebels make an attack upon either division, as
                 three of our gunboats ought successfully to cope with six of theirs.
                 The mortars are now firing and have driven the rebel gunboats out of range
                 down the river. I shall continue to keep the Department informed of all move-

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April 12, 1862

                   The effect of my wound has quite a depressing effect upon me, from the
                   increased inflammation and swelling of my foot and leg, which have induced a
                   febrile action, depriving me of a good deal of sleep and energy. I can not give
                   the wound that attention and rest it absolutely requires until this place is cap-
                   I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                   A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.
                   CAIRO,April 15, 1862. (Received 16th.)
                   The flotilla has been within three-quarters of a mile of Fort Pillow and then,
                   returning, took up a position 2 miles farther up. The rebel gunboats escaped
                   below the fort.
                   Ten mortar boats are in position and had opened fire.
                   This is up to 6 o'clock last evening. General Pope's command occupy the
                   Arkansas side of the river.
                   A. M. PENNOCK, Senior Naval Officer.
                   CHIEF OF BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, Navy Department.
                   PITTSBURG LANDING,[TENN. ], April 15, 1862.
                   I have ordered General Pope's army to this place, but I think you had best con-
                   tinue the bombardment effort Pillow, and if the enemy should abandon it, take
                   possession or go down the river as you may deem best.
                   General Pope will leave forces enough to occupy any fortifications that may be
                   H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.
                   Flag-Officer FOOTE, Mississippi River.
                   CAIRO, April 16, 1862. (Received 17th.)
                   The mortars opened fire on the 14th and soon cleared the river of all vessels,
                   the shells falling in the rebel camp.
                   The rebel works are strong and extensive, and there will be much labor to get
                   in their rear.
                   Two deserters came on board the gunboats and say Thomas [B. ] Huger is in
                   command at Fort Pillow and Hollins gone below.
                   A. M. PENNOCK, Senior Officer.

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                                                                                    April 12, 1862

                 CHIEF OF BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, Navy Department.
                 Letter from Major-General Pope, U. S. Army, to Flag-Officer Foote, U. S.
                 Navy, transmitting copy of orders from Major-General Halleck.
                 HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, On board steamer J. D.
                 Perry, April 16, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to enclose copy of dispatch this moment received from
                 General Halleck.
                 I will leave with you two strong regiments, sufficient to garrison Fort Pillow
                 when it is evacuated. I move with my command to-night.
                 I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 JNO. POPE, Major-General, Commanding.
                 Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE, U. S. Navy, Commanding Flotilla.
                 PITTSBURG LANDING April 16, 1862.
                 Move with your army to this place, leaving troops enough with Commodore
                 Foote to land and hold Pillow should the enemy's forces withdraw.
                 H. W. HALLECK, Major-General.
                 Major-Genera] JNO. POPE.
                 Letter from Major-General Pope, U. S. Army, to Flag-Officer Foote, U. S.
                 Navy, transmitting copy of orders issued to Colonel Fitch, U. S. Army, regard-
                 ing cooperation.
                 HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, On board steamer J. D.
                 Perry, April 16, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to enclose copy of order delivered to Colonel Fitch, com-
                 manding Indiana brigade.
                 I shall leave between 5 and 6 o'clock to-morrow morning.
                 I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 JNO. POPE, Major-General, Commanding.
                 Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE, Commanding Flotilla.[Enclosure.]
                 HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, On board steamer J. D.
                 Perry, April 16, 1862.
                 COLONEL: The main portion of this army will move to-night. You will
                 remain at this place with the two regiments under your command on board two
                 steamers, which will be furnished to you by Brigadier-General Palmer.
                 Although not under the command of Flag-Officer Foote, commanding the flo-
                 tilla, you will render him every possible assistance in his operations upon the
                 river, communicating and cooperating with him as may be necessary.

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April 12, 1862

                   You will continue the examination of the flats and bayous in this vicinity, to
                   determine if it be practicable to cut through to the river a passageway for boats,
                   and if it be found practicable, you will commence the work at once, and will
                   hasten it to completion with the troops under your command.
                   In case Fort Pillow should be surrendered or evacuated, you will immediately
                   occupy the place with your command.
                   You will report by letter at every opportunity to the general commanding this
                   army your progress and position, giving a detailed and full account of all mat-
                   ters pertaining to your command, and directed to Pittsburg, Tenn.
                   By order of General Pope:
                   SPEED BUTLER, Assistant Adjutant. General.Colonel GRAHAM N. FITCH,
                   Commanding Indiana Brigade.Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy,
                   announcing the withdrawal of the forces under Major-General Pope, U. S.
                   Army, for operations in the Tennessee River.
                   FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, April 17, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that yesterday and the day pre-
                   ceding I had, with General Pope, made such arrangements, by combining our
                   own with the forces of the army, that our possession of this stronghold seemed
                   to be inevitable in less than six days. I had even stronger hopes of this desirable
                   result than I entertained even at [Island] No. 10 till the actual surrender was
                   tendered. Our object then, after leaving a force to garrison the place, was to
                   proceed to Memphis immediately, where, I had good authority for stating, we
                   would have been received without opposition. But the sudden withdrawal of
                   the entire army of General Pope this morning, under orders to proceed directly
                   up the Tennessee River to join General Halleck's command at Pittsburg, has
                   frustrated the best matured and most hopeful plans and expectations thus far
                   formed in this expedition. Two volunteer regiments under command of Colo-
                   nel Fitch were left here by General Pope to cooperate with the flotilla. While I
                   deeply regret the withdrawal of General Pope's command, I am not at all ques-
                   tioning the propriety and even the necessity of its presence at Pittsburg, and I
                   shall use every exertion, with the force remaining, to accomplish good results.
                   It is a great object to obtain early possession of this place and Memphis, as ten
                   of the rebel gunboats are now at Fort Pillow and ten others are reported as en
                   route to Memphis and daily expected at that place. It is reported that Com-
                   mander Hollins left Fort Pillow on Sunday to bring up the heavy gunboat Lou-
                   isiana, now about completed at New Orleans. With the exception of this latter
                   vessel, however, we have little to apprehend from the other rebel gunboats,
                   according to the representation of the four or six deserters lately coming to us
                   from the gunboats at Fort Pillow. At all events, the Department may rest
                   assured of every exertion being made on our part to accomplish the great work
                   entrusted to this expedition.
                   I send herewith copies of orders from Generals Halleck and Pope, from which
                   it will be seen, by one from the latter to Colonel Fitch, that, while I am acting

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                                                                                     April 12, 1862

                 under the orders of General Halleck, and the gunboats absent from my immedi-
                 ate command are acting under those of the generals where they are, that even a
                 colonel here is wholly independent of my orders and command. If this be right,
                 I presume that this command is also equally independent of the army, and that I
                 am to govern myself accordingly.
                 I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
                 A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy, expressing regret at the delay caused
                 by the withdrawal of troops under Major-General Pope, U. S. Army.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, April 19, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that, since my last communica-
                 tion of the 17th instant, we have been occasionally throwing shells into the
                 rebel fortifications from the mortar boats, which have been returned from their
                 rifled guns without producing any effect. Ours have compelled one encamp-
                 ment to remove its quarters; and from several deserters we learn, have other-
                 wise discomfited them.
                 One or two examinations made by Colonel Fitch, commanding the two regi-
                 ments left to cooperate with the flotilla by General Pope on withdrawing his
                 army, have been unsuccessful thus far in finding a bayou for our boats and a
                 position below Fort Pillow where a battery can be placed to command the river
                 below. I shall again render him assistance by sending our small boats, in hopes
                 that at a distance farther up the river we may be able to discover a bayou lead-
                 ing into a lake in which water sufficient may be found for our gunboats, with a
                 view of erecting a battery under their protection which will blockade the river
                 below and enable his force, although not exceeding 1,500 men, to come upon
                 the rebels in rear, while, with the remaining gunboats here, we attack them in
                 I am greatly exercised about our position here, on account of the withdrawal of
                 the army of 20,000 men, so important an element in the capture of the place.
                 Fort Pillow has for its defense at least forty heavy guns in position and nine
                 gunboats, six of them, however, being wooden boats, but armed with heavy
                 guns, with a force of 6,000 troops. Our force consists of seven ironclads and
                 one wooden gunboat, sixteen mortar boats, only available in throwing shells at
                 a distance and even worse than useless for defense, and a land force of two reg-
                 iments not exceeding 1,500 troops. Under these circumstances an attack on our
                 part, unless we can first establish a battery below the fort under the protection
                 of the gunboats, and to cooperate with it after its completion, would be
                 extremely hazardous, although its attempt might prove successful, and even be
                 good policy under other circumstances, but it can hardly now be so regarded,
                 as a disaster would place all that we have gained on this and other rivers at the
                 mercy of the rebel fleet, unless the batteries designed to command the river
                 from below are completed at No. 10 or at Columbus, which I very much doubt.

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April 12, 1862

                   I therefore hesitate about a direct attack upon this place now, more than I
                   should were the river above properly protected, although by it, and loss of
                   time, the rebels may succeed in getting up to Fort Pillow their entire fleet of
                   gunboats. As I stated in my last communication, had not General Pope's army
                   been withdrawn, we have every reason for believing that a plan we had
                   adopted would have insured the fall of Fort Pillow in four days, and enabled us
                   to have moved on Memphis in two days afterwards. It has always been my
                   expectation that a large army would cooperate with the gunboats, and now the
                   fall of Corinth and movement of our troops on to Memphis seem to be essential
                   to our holding this place and reaching Memphis with the flotilla.
                   I am surprised to see published in the papers that I have informed the War
                   Department that several gunboats are below Fort Pillow, and that Commodore
                   Foote regards its early capture as certain. I have not, of course, communicated
                   with the War Department at all, neither have I ever said anything to warrant
                   any portion of the fabricated notice in the papers.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   CAIRO, April 19, 1862——10 p. m.
                   News from the flotilla to 18th, morning. The mortars continued firing to the
                   annoyance of the enemy.
                   The flag-officer thinks the fort would have been taken in a few days if the army
                   had not been withdrawn.
                   General Pope's army left to-day, upward bound.
                   No communication with Cairo by rail nearer than Mound City.
                   Magazines flooded; ammunition saved and stored in scows and steamers.
                   River rising, and nearly over top of levee.
                   Let us know in time if flag-officer is to officer the rams building at Pittsburg
                   and Cincinnati.
                   A. M. PENNOCK, For Flag-Officer.
                   CHIEF OF BUREAU OF ORDNANCE, Navy Department.
                   CAIRO, ILL., April 19, 1862.
                   On the evening of the 16th General Pope received an order from General Hal-
                   leck to move his army immediately to Pittsburg Landing, leaving with gun-
                   boats force enough to garrison Fort Pillow, if evacuated by the enemy. Our
                   fleet left Fort Pillow next morning at daylight, and will all pass Cairo during

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 this night. Two regiments were left with gunboats. I report fully by mail, and
                 will go up Tennessee, reporting daily by telegraph and mail if possible.
                 THOMAS A. SCOTT.
                 Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War. Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S.
                 Navy, regarding continued bombardment of the batteries at Fort Pillow.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, April 23, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that since my last communica-
                 tion, with the exception of a day or two, when the heavy rains caused the mor-
                 tars to recoil dangerously on the wet platform, we have been shelling the rebel
                 batteries at Fort Pillow, and most of the time kept their gunboats beyond our
                 range. Colonel Fitch, in command of the 1,200 infantry left here by General
                 Pope, has been examining bayous and creeks with a view of getting guns to
                 blockade the river and prevent the new gunboats from coming up from New
                 Orleans and Memphis; but, as the rebels are in great force, and no tools or con-
                 veniences for cutting through the swamps were left by General Pope when his
                 army, so unfortunately for us, was withdrawn, he has made as yet no satisfac-
                 tory progress.
                 I am doing all in my power toward devising ways and means preparatory to a
                 successful attack on the forts, and shall continue to do so, but as the capture of
                 this place was predicated upon a large land force cooperating with the flotilla,
                 or its being turned by the army marching upon Memphis; and considering the
                 difficulties of fighting the flotilla downstream with our slow boats, compared
                 with upstream work, the Department will not be surprised at our delay and hav-
                 ing made no further progress toward the capture of this stronghold of the
                 rebels. I shall, however, do all in my power to be successful here, and exert
                 myself even beyond my impaired health and strength toward the accomplish-
                 ment of this great object.
                 The rebels are strongly fortified on land, and have eleven gunboats lying near,
                 or rather below their fortifications. A resident of the place informs me this
                 morning that thirteen gunboats are now here, seven of which, however, are
                 mere river steamers, with boilers and machinery sunk into hold and otherwise
                 protected, but they carry from four, six, to eight guns of heavy caliber, some of
                 which are rifled. The other boats are iron-plated or filled in with cotton. The
                 large steamer of sixteen or twenty guns, being plated and named the Louisiana,
                 has not arrived, but is daily expected from New Orleans.
                 I have thus given the Department the best information I can obtain from the
                 most reliable sources from resident Union men and the twelve deserters from
                 the enemy, whose accounts, however, are conflicting, many of them giving
                 fabulous numbers of men, guns, and gunboats. We have not force enough to
                 hold the place if we take it.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer.

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April 12, 1862

                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   P. S. -In a picket skirmish yesterday the rebels lost one killed, and one or two
                   wounded, no loss on our side. A. H. F.
                   Mrs. General Buckner, when here from Columbus, said that there they feared
                   the gunboats, and only the gunboats, and she was anxious to visit them. The
                   rebel papers and prisoners all say that the gunboats demoralize their army.
                   In Pillow's official report, who says that he and Floyd were in Fort Donelson,
                   and that the gunboats made a most desperate attack upon it, and did the fort
                   great injury, but that the fort sunk two of the gunboats and disabled the other
                   two. The rebels in person and in their papers speak with great respect of the
                   gunboats. An army major told me that we were purposely held back from
                   Nashville that General Buell might take it, although that officer sent for a gun-
                   boat, which went off Nashville before he entered the city. General Halleck
                   refers to General Smith taking possession of Clarksville and says not a word
                   about gunboats, whereas three days before, I took possession, hoisted our flag
                   on the forts, and issued my proclamation.
                   [A. H. FOOTE. ]
                   Pillow's official report was destroyed by mistake. I get this information from
                   Lieutenant Shirk.
                   Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy, proposing an initiative movement by
                   running the blockade of Fort Pillow.
                   FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, April 30, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that, from information deemed
                   reliable, the rebels have thirteen gunboats and rams a few miles below Fort Pil-
                   low, and that on the 27th instant, at 3 a.m., an attack was contemplated by those
                   boats on the flotilla, and preparations made accordingly. The attack, however,
                   has not taken place. The reason assigned for its delay, or abandonment, as
                   given by several deserters, is that a council of war was held and the rebels con-
                   cluded the attack was impracticable. We are prepared for an attack at any
                   moment, but unless there is an additional number of rebel gunboats reinforcing
                   them, I question whether the attack will be made. Should it be made, however,
                   our position here is a bad one, as our slow steamers can hardly stem the cur-
                   rent, and in grappling with the enemy we should drift under the guns of the
                   fort, which are but 4 or 5 miles below the upper gunboats. In view of this, there
                   are strong reasons for our taking the initiative, and in a dark night, by running
                   the blockade, get below the fort and attack the rebel boats and rams with our
                   seven ironclad gunboats. I should much prefer this course, and our officers and
                   men are ready for the hazardous service, which, if successful, would enable us
                   to turn from below, after destroying the rebel fleet, and attack the fort
                   upstream, and afterwards proceed to Memphis.

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                 On the other hand, the objections are that in running the blockade we might
                 leave one or two rebel steamers behind us, which would come up to destroy
                 our transports, mortar boats, and command the river above us, soon leaving us
                 without coal or ammunition below; and, added to this, we have but 1,200
                 troops, a portion, or one regiment of which, a military officer of rank informs
                 me, is not in all respects efficient, and thus the force is not equal to holding the
                 place, while we should proceed on to Memphis; and again, if disaster should
                 occur to us, the rebel gunboats would have complete possession of the river or
                 rivers above us, as I believe that No. 10 is [has] not even yet had its guns
                 mounted to command the river, although I have strongly urged it. Had General
                 Pope not been ordered away with his 20,000 troops, we should, before this,
                 humanly speaking, [have] been in possession of Fort Pillow and Memphis, and
                 even had the general left a sufficient number of troops under General Buford,
                 who so effectually cooperated with me at No. 10 and wanted to remain with me
                 with his 2,000 men, we would have been able to do more than we can do now,
                 although Colonel Fitch is an officer of the highest intelligence and gallantry,
                 but wants more men.
                 The Department will see from this statement the difficulties and embarrass-
                 ment of my position. My course of action must soon be decided upon, and I
                 shall act with a single eye to what is deemed best, under the circumstances, to
                 insure success in our operations.
                 I must beg the indulgence of the Department for the appearance of this com-
                 munication, as I am especially weak and unfit for writing to-day.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant.
                 A. H. FOOTE, Flag Officer.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Order of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Commander Dove, U. S. Navy, com-
                 manding U. S. S. Louisville, to report for duty at Fort Pillow or below.
                 U. S. FLAG STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 10, 1862.
                 SIR: On the receipt of this order you will immediately get underway with your
                 vessel and make all possible dispatch in reporting yourself to me at this point
                 or below.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Commander B. M. DOVE, U. S. Navy, Commanding Gunboat Louisville,
                 Hickman, Ky.
                 Order of Flag-Officer Davis, U. S. Navy, to the captain of Bell-Boat No. 8.
                 U. S. FLAG STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 10, 1862.
                 The captain of the Bell-Boat No. 8 will be pleased to make all possible dis-
                 patch in reaching this squadron.

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April 12, 1862

                   The services of the boat are required for the Government use immediately, and
                   whatever private engagements the boat may have they must be for the present
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   FLAGSHIP BENTON, Above Fort Pillow, Mississippi River, May 10, 1862.
                   (Via Cairo, Ill., 11th.) The naval engagement for which the rebels have been
                   preparing took place this morning. The rebel fleet, consisting of eight ironclad
                   gunboats, four of which were fitted with rams, came up handsomely. The
                   action lasted one hour. Two of the rebel gunboats were blown up and one sunk,
                   when the enemy retired precipitately under the guns of the fort. Only six ves-
                   sels of my squadron were engaged. The Cincinnati sustained some injury from
                   the rams, but will be in fighting condition to-morrow. Captain Stembel distin-
                   guished himself. He is seriously wounded. The BENTON is uninjured. Mortar
                   boat No. 16, in charge of Second Master Gregory, behaved with great spirit.
                   The rebel squadron is supposed to be commanded by Commodore Hollins.
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River pro
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary Navy.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, commanding Mississippi Flotilla pro
                   tem., regarding engagement at Plum Point Bend, above Fort Pillow.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 11, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that yesterday morning, a little
                   after 7 o'clock, the rebel squadron, consisting of eight ironclad steamers, four
                   of them, I believe, fitted as rams, came around the point at the bend above Fort
                   Pillow and steamed gallantly up the river, fully prepared for a regular engage-
                   The vessels of this squadron were lying at the time tied up to the bank of the
                   river, three on the eastern and four on the western side, and (as they were trans-
                   ferred to me by Flag-Officer Foote) ready for action. Most of the vessels were
                   prompt in obeying the signal to follow the motions of the commander-in-chief.
                   The leading vessels of the rebel squadron made directly for mortar boat No. 16,
                   which was for a moment unprotected. Acting Master Gregory and his crew
                   behaved with great spirit; during the action he fired his mortar eleven times at
                   the enemy, reducing the charge and diminishing the elevation.
                   Commander Stembel, in the gunboat Cincinnati, which was the leading vessel
                   in the line on that side of the river, followed immediately by Commander Kilty,
                   in the gunboat Mound City, hastened to the support of the mortar boat, and
                   were repeatedly struck by the enemy's rams, at the same time that they disabled
                   the enemy and drove him away.

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                 The two leading vessels in the middle of the enemy's line were successfully
                 encountered by this ship. The boilers or steam chest of one of them was
                 exploded by our shot, and both of them were disabled; they, as well as the first
                 vessel encountered by the Cincinnati, drifted down the river.
                 Commander Walke informs me that he fired a 50-pound rifle shot through the
                 boilers of the third of the enemy's gunboats of the western line, and rendered
                 her, for the time being, helpless. All of these vessels might easily have been
                 captured if we had possessed the means of towing them out of action, but the
                 steam power of our gunboats is so disproportionate to the bulk of the vessels
                 that they can accomplish but little beyond overcoming the strength of the cur-
                 rent, even when unencumbered.
                 The action lasted during the better part of an hour, and took place at the closest
                 quarters. The enemy finally retreated with haste below the guns of Fort Pillow.
                 I have to call the especial attention of the Department to the gallantry and good
                 conduct exhibited by Commanders Stembel and Kilty and Lieutenant Com-
                 manding S. L. Phelps.
                 I regret to say that Commander Stembel, Fourth Master Reynolds, and one of
                 the seamen of the Cincinnati, and one of the Mound City, were severely
                 wounded; the other accidents of the day were slight.
                 The Cincinnati and Mound City are injured, and must, sooner or later, go up
                 the river to be repaired.
                 I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Mississippi Flotilla, pro tem.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Report of Commander Walke, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Carondelet,
                 regarding engagement at Plum Point Bend.
                 U. S. GUNBOAT CARONDELET, May 10, 1862.
                 SIR: About half past 6 o'clock this morning the rebel fleet, consisting of eight
                 gunboats, made their appearance, steaming up the river toward our mortar boat
                 and the gunboat Cincinnati. I had all hands called, beat to quarters immedi-
                 ately, and prepared for action. About 6:30 got underway by your order and
                 steamed down the river toward the enemy's leading boat, which appeared to be
                 a ram, intent on running down the Cincinnati.Being about three-eighths of a
                 mile distant, I opened fire on her with our bow guns. The ram ran into the Cin-
                 cinnati, striking her on the starboard quarter as she attempted to avoid the
                 enemy's prow, firing her broadside and bow guns into her before and during the
                 collision. Both vessels turned, the Cincinnati heading up the river, and the ram
                 down the river, evidently disabled and unmanageable, as she dropped down
                 without firing a shot, as far as I saw or can ascertain. I kept our bow guns firing
                 upon her until two other rebel gunboats came up, steaming rapidly for the Cin-
                 cinnati, when I turned our bow guns on them, bringing our port broadside guns

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April 12, 1862

                   to play upon the ram. As the enemy's second and third gunboats approached
                   the Cincinnati, we fired a 50-pound rifled shot (apparently) through the boilers
                   of one of them while running into the Cincinnati, as they exploded immedi-
                   ately, and she dropped downstream, helpless, leaving her consort above us. By
                   this time we had drifted down below the rest of our fleet. Our head being up the
                   river, we kept our broadside and stern guns constantly firing on the enemy's
                   fleet until they retreated out of sight.
                   We were struck by fragments of an exploded shell; also by two grapeshot,
                   amidships, which appeared to come from the gunboat Pittsburg. She fired sev-
                   eral shot just over us and we were at the time more in dread of her shot than
                   those of the enemy, but providentially there were no killed or wounded on
                   board the Carondelet. We expended fifty-seven 64-pounder, 32-pounder and
                   rifled solid shot, and three rifled shells.
                   Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,
                   H. WALKE, Commander, U. S. Navy.Commodore C. H. DAVIS, Command-
                   ing Mississippi Flotilla.
                   Report of Second Master Gregory, U. S. Navy, regarding engagement at Plum
                   Point Bend.
                   MAY 10, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with your order, I have
                   opened fire from mortar boat No. 16 upon Fort Pillow at 6 o'clock a.m.
                   After firing five shells the enemy's gunboats rounded the point above the fort
                   in full view and not more than three-fourths of a mile distant. I at once trained
                   my mortar upon them, loaded for that short range, and fired, bursting my shell
                   directly over them. I continued that practice during the engagement that
                   ensued, which lasted about forty minutes, in which our whole fleet of gunboats
                   were engaged as also were theirs.
                   During the action I received two 32-pound shots through my boat above the
                   deck. Several appeared to go over us. We had no one hurt.
                   The enemy retired, with what damage I do not know.
                   I continued to fire after their retreat until 5 p. m., when I received orders to
                   cease firing. I have expended 57 charges during the day.
                   All of which is respectfully submitted.
                   T. B. GREGORY, Second Master, in charge of one division of the mortar boats.
                   Capt. HENRY E. MAYNADIER, Commanding U. S. Mortar Boats on the
                   Western Waters, near Fort Pillow.
                   Mortar boat No. 16, in charge of Second Master Gregory, participated in the
                   engagement, firing the first shell and continuing the firing during the action. A
                   rebel gunboat, supposed to be the Sumter, came within 60 feet of the mortar

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                 boat and fired two 32-pound shot through the iron blinds, and two volleys of
                 musketry, which did not penetrate. The crew of the boat consisted of the sec-
                 ond master and 14 men, none of whom were injured.
                 Respectfully submitted.
                 HENRY E. MAYNADIER, Captain, U. S. Army.[Telegram]
                 CAIRO, May 11, 1862.
                 The rebel gunboats and rams made an attack on our flotilla yesterday morning.
                 Two of their gunboats were blown up and one sunk. The remainder returned
                 with all possible haste to the protection of their guns at Pillow.
                 WM. K. STRONG, Brigadier-General.
                 Major-General HALLECK.
                 Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, announcing the death of Fourth Master
                 Reynolds, of the U. S. S. Cincinnati.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 12, 1862.
                 SIR: It is with great regret that I have to inform the Department that Mr. G. A.
                 Reynolds, fourth master of the U. S. gunboat Cincinnati, died this morning at 2
                 o'clock from the wound received during the engagement on the morning of the
                 10th instant.
                 He was a young man of unblemished character, and distinguished himself dur-
                 ing the engagement and while at the closest quarters with the enemy, by cour-
                 age and devotion to his duty.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Hon. Groton WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, rewarding injuries to vessels, Captain
                 Stembel's wounds, and the valor of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Hoel, of the
                 U. S. S. Cincinnati.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 12, 1862.
                 SIR: The gunboats Mound City and Cincinnati were so much injured by the
                 enemy's rams that it was necessary to run them on the banks. When the former
                 was freed from water it was discovered that it was impossible to repair her
                 here; she was therefore sent to Cairo yesterday. The Cincinnati is not yet clear,
                 but I have sent for the necessary means. I am in hopes, when we are able to
                 examine her injuries, that we shall find it possible to repair her with the means
                 in our own hands.
                 The severity of Captain Stembel's wounds rendered it expedient, according to
                 medical advice, to send him to Cairo.

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April 12, 1862

                   After he was wounded, the command of the Cincinnati devolved upon Acting
                   [Volunteer] Lieutenant William R. Hoel. I can not praise more than they
                   deserve his high valor and ability. He sets the highest example to those below
                   him, and if it were possible to give him a permanent position worthy of his
                   merits, the Navy would be the gainer as well as himself.
                   Our scouts report the enemy employed in repairing their gunboats. The present
                   reduced number will probably be increased by additions from below. Flag-
                   Officer Foote thought it might be the intention of the enemy to pass the flotilla
                   and ascend the river, and if they should attempt to do so, such is their vast
                   superiority in speed, that pursuit would be hopeless. Everything indicates an
                   intention on the part of the enemy to come up again; and if there are rams, as I
                   understand there are, being fitted up under the direction of the War Depart-
                   ment, at Pittsburg, Cincinnati, or elsewhere, for service in this river, now is the
                   time to make them useful.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   [Endorsement 1.]
                   DEAR GENERAL: Can't the rams be hurried?
                   [Endorsement 2.]
                   Mr. Watson says that all that can be done to hurry up the rams is already done.
                   Of the two heaviest vessels, one started for New Albany last night and the
                   other will start to-morrow night, guns or no guns. These are the last.
                   Yours, respectfully,
                   M. C. MEIGS.
                   G. V. Fox, Esq., Assistant Secretary Navy.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, referring to the position of the flotilla
                   since the action at Plum Point.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 13, 1862.
                   SIR: Since my communication of yesterday nothing of real importance has
                   As a result of the engagement of Saturday the flotilla occupies a position
                   nearer to Fort Pillow than before.
                   Hoping to profit by this, the enemy, fired mortars and heavy guns during the
                   whole night, but without doing us any injury.

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                 At noon a flag of truce from below brought up Doctor William R. Thrall, U. S.
                 Army, released on parole in exchange for Doctor Yandell of the other side.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla pro tem, Mississippi
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Report of Lieutenant Phelps, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. BENTON,
                 regarding the engagement at Plum Point Bend.
                 U. S. GUNBOAT BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 11, 1862.
                 MY DEAR SIR: You will have heard of the fight yesterday morning. Eight
                 rebel gunboats came up to the point, and four or five of them proceeded at once
                 toward the Cincinnati, then covering the mortar boat, one of the rebel boats,
                 with masts, being considerably in advance. Captain Stembel, in the most gal-
                 lant manner, steamed up, rounded to, and opening fire, stood down for the
                 rebels. As he approached the fire was withheld, the ram striking Stembel's ves-
                 sel in the quarter and swinging both broadsides to, when, the muzzles abso-
                 lutely against the rebel boat, a broadside was poured into her, making a terrible
                 crashing in her timbers. The rebel swinging clear made downstream, with part-
                 ing salute of other guns, in a helpless condition. By this time the BENTON,
                 Mound City, and Carondelet were far enough down, half way at least, to Stem-
                 bel's assistance to open an effective fire the Pittsburg not yet clear of the bank
                 and the Cairo just sending a boat out to cast off her hawsers. The St. Louis
                 came down pretty well; two rams were making for the Cincinnati and one
                 again hit her in the stern, receiving the fire of the stern guns. That boat struck
                 Stembel twice, doing little damage, but using sharpshooters to such effect as to
                 dangerously wound Stembel and the fourth master, Mr. Reynolds, and one man
                 in the leg. By this time we were in their midst and I had the satisfaction to blow
                 up the boilers of the ram that last hit the Cincinnati by a shot from our port bow
                 42 rifle. I fired it deliberately with that view, and when the ram was trying to
                 make another hit. Another ram had now hit the Mound City in the bows, and
                 had received the fire of every gun of that vessel in the swinging that followed
                 the contact. We interposed between another and the Mound City and the rascal,
                 afraid to hit us, backed off, when he also blew up from a shot I fired from the
                 same rifle, hitting only a steam pipe or cylinder. All their rams drifted off dis-
                 abled and the first one that blew up could not have had a soul remaining alive
                 on board, for the explosion was terrific. We could have secured two or three of
                 them had we had steam power to do so, but as it was, saw them drift down
                 helpless under the fort, and one is said to have sunk in deep water. The mortar
                 boatmen acted with great gallantry, firing away to the end. The rebels fired two
                 32-pounder shots through the mortar boat and two volleys of musketry into
                 her, without hurting a man.

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April 12, 1862

                   The Mound City had her bow pretty much wrenched off and was run onto the
                   shoal opposite where we had been lying. The Cincinnati ran to the bank below
                   where we laid when you left, and sunk in 11 feet water.
                   The Champion, steamer, fortunately arrived, having on board a 20-inch steam
                   pump, and the Mound City is now afloat, but greatly damaged. The Cincinnati
                   will be raised in twenty-four hours. My plan of logs suspended is immediately
                   to be tried. The wounded of the squadron are 5; killed, none. Stembel we hope
                   will recover. He did splendidly; so all did, saving as above stated. The loss of
                   the rebels must be very heavy; their vessels were literally torn to pieces, and
                   some had holes in their sides through which a man could walk. Those that blew
                   up—it makes me shudder to think of them.
                   I have written very hastily, knowing that you would be anxious to hear and
                   would find excuses for my style and writing, in remembering with what busy
                   circumstances we must be surrounded just now, and I am very nervous from an
                   unwonted amount of exertion and movement. I count off the days, anxious for
                   them to roll around, when you will return, and the Eastport, with some power,
                   come to the squadron with your flag flying.
                   All hands went into the fight with a will. We have no news from below. Colo-
                   nel Fitch will land his force in the morning.
                   This I believe is the first purely naval fight of the war.
                   May heaven bless you, my dear sir, and restore you to us in health very soon.
                   Respectfully and very truly, yours,
                   S. L. PHELPS.
                   Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE,U. S. Navy, Cleveland, Ohio.Report of Fleet Cap-
                   tain Pennock, U. S. Navy, regarding the engagement at Plum Point Bend.
                   U. S. NAVAL DEPOT, Cairo, May 13, 1862.
                   MY DEAR FLAG-OFFICER: Mr. Mitchell has just arrived here on the Pol-
                   lard with Captain Stembel, who is attended by Doctor Beau-champ, of the
                   Great Western.I am most happy to be able to state that the captain's wound,
                   although very severe, and causing him a vast deal of suffering, will not prove
                   fatal. The ball entered his shoulder just above the shoulder blade, on the right
                   side, and passing through the neck, came out in the front of the throat, directly
                   under the chin. The surgeon is of the opinion that no arteries have been severed
                   and that no secondary hemorrhage will ensue, particularly as at the present
                   time he is so rapidly improving in his breathing.
                   The attack, it appears, was not intended to be a general one on the part of the
                   rebels, but merely an endeavor to sink the gunboat guarding the mortar, to cut
                   the latter loose and allow it to drift down with the current and then secure it for
                   their own use. The rebel fleet made its appearance at a few minutes past 7
                   o'clock on Saturday morning—eight gunboats and rams and two or three tugs.

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                 They made directly for the mortar which had greeted their appearance by a
                 shell which exploded directly over the largest boat. The Cincinnati was guard-
                 ing the mortar, and immediately slipped her hawser, and stood out to meet
                 them, apparently endeavoring to get below and fight them bow on, but failed.
                 One of the rams then made for her and struck her twice astern, doing but little
                 injury. The other was preparing to assist her when the Mound City came into
                 the fight, thus leaving the Cincinnati but one antagonist. At this juncture Cap-
                 tain Stembel so handled the Cincinnati, and at the same time shooting the pilot
                 of the ram, she veered and struck the Cincinnati on the plating amidship. As
                 she struck a broadside was poured into her from the Cincinnati, which disabled
                 her, and she drifted away from the action and at the same moment Captain
                 Stembel was shot from the deck of the ram; one of the sailors killed the man
                 who shot him immediately. All of the boats were engaged by this time. The
                 BENTON fired into one of them and it is said blew her up. The Cincinnati had
                 received a blow on her starboard quarter, which opened her clear to the shell
                 room, and when the rebels retreated she was run out on the bar, immediately
                 below where the BENTON formerly lay, and where she settled in 12 feet of
                 water. The Mound City received a blow in the bow which damaged her consid-
                 erably, and she ran her head on the bank and rigged a temporary bulkhead. She
                 arrived here to-day for repairs. As soon as I received word that she was coming
                 I sent for Mr. Hambleton and made arrangements for having her hauled out
                 She will be ready for service in about four days. Fortunately for us I had sent
                 down the steamer Champion, whose boats have pumps rigged for pumping out
                 sunken vessels, and after she had pumped the water out of the Mound City, and
                 assisted her part of the way up the river, she started back to raise the Cincin-
                 nati. I also sent down the submarine bell boat and I hope in a short time to be
                 able to inform you that she is raised. The Louisville has also joined the flotilla.
                 I sent to-day your keys and the letter of General Villepigue by mail.
                 Trusting that a change of scene and climate may speedily insure your return to
                 the flotilla, I remain, my dear flag-officer,
                 Very respectfully, yours,
                 A. M. PENNOCK.
                 [Flag-officer FOOTE. ]
                 Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Colonel Hogg, U. S.
                 Army, regarding the services of a gunboat.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 11, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: I have had the pleasure to receive your letter of the 9th instant, to
                 which I have given the most careful consideration.
                 In the action with the rebel fleet yesterday morning two of my gunboats, the
                 Cincinnati and Mound City, were placed hors de combat. Theenemy, having
                 still a considerable force, lies below the guns of Fort Pillow and is actively

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April 12, 1862

                   employed in repairing damages. It is possibly his intention to renew the
                   engagement. Under these circumstances I must have the Louisville with me
                   until the Cincinnati and. Mound City are ready, for service. This will be very
                   soon. I will leave you the least possible time without a gunboat.
                   I am expecting some of Mr. Ellet's rams down the river every moment, and I
                   will send you, if not the Louisville, a vessel that will afford sufficient protec-
                   tion to the post you command as soon as this juncture of affairs is terminated.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   Lieutenant-Colonel HARVEY HOGG, Commanding U. S. Forces at Hickman,
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, referring to the condition of the U. S.
                   steamers Cincinnati and Mound City.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 14, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that nothing new has tran-
                   spired since yesterday.
                   The vessels containing the requisite means for clearing the Cincinnati have
                   arrived, and we are now at work with every promise of success. I mentioned in
                   my last dispatch that the Mound City had been sent to Cairo. I have since
                   learned that her injuries are more serious than we thought. I hope to be able to
                   send the Cincinnati to Cairo to-day.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   Personal letter of congratulation from Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy, to Cap-
                   tain Davis, U. S. Navy, on the engagement at Plum Point Bend.
                   CLEVELAND,May 15, 1862.
                   MY DEAR DAVIS: I congratulate you and hope that a vote of thanks and pas-
                   sage of the naval bill will make you an admiral for your ready coming to my
                   relief when too ill to do my duty, and making such a glorious fight.
                   I was interested to find those fellows so plucky, and must confess to some little
                   envy in not being able to have taken a hand in your dashing affair.
                   I reached here with less fatigue than I anticipated, but was bored by the good
                   people everywhere to speak and show myself. I feel it to be unmerited on my
                   part, this wonderful attention, and it is particularly unpleasant, associated with
                   my leaving to you liability for another fight at any moment.
                   I am in a great hurry to return and relieve you; my heart is with the flotilla, but
                   I was in a condition wholly unfit to command when I left, and did right in leav-

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                                                                                          April 12, 1862

                 ing, as the interests of the flotilla required it. I feel rather better, and hope in
                 two weeks to leave for Cairo to join you as soon as possible.
                 Excuse my incoherent note.
                 Yours, ever affectionately,
                 A. H. FOOTE.
                 Letter of congratulation from the Acting Secretary of the Navy to Captain
                 Davis, U. S. Navy, forwarding promotion for Acting Master Gregory.
                 NAVY DEPARTMENT, May 16, 1862.SIR: Your dispatch of the 11th instant,
                 reporting your successful engagement on the 10th instant, is received.
                 You have performed your whole duty. The officers and men of the flotilla edu-
                 cated to victory under Flag-Officer Foote have fulfilled the expectations of the
                 Promote Acting Master Gregory to an acting [volunteer] lieutenant.
                 I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 G. V. Fox, Acting Secretary.
                 Flag-Officer CHAS. H. DAVIS, Commanding (pro tem) the Western Flotilla,
                 Order of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, U. S.
                 Navy, transmitting order for Captain Maynadier, U. S. Army, commanding
                 mortar fleet.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 16, 1862.
                 SIR: I enclose herewith an order upon Captain Maynadier, commanding the
                 mortar fleet, for the detail of the crews of the navy howitzers to be landed in
                 the proposed expedition; each howitzer will be accompanied by a seaman from
                 the squadron.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding U. S. Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                 Lieutenant-Commander LE ROY FITCH,U. S. Navy, Commanding Steamer
                 Judge Torrence, Mississippi River.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 16, 1862.
                 SIR: It is the intention of the colonel commanding to take with him four of the
                 mounted navy howitzers in the proposed expedition, and I will thank you
                 therefore to detail from the mortar fleet a sufficient number of men for crews
                 for these howitzers. This number will be fixed by Lieutenant Commanding
                 Fitch. One man from the squadron will accompany each howitzer.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                     April 1862 — Page 95
April 12, 1862

                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding U. S. Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                   Captain H. E. MAYNADIER,U. S. Army, Commanding Mortar Fleet, Missis-
                   sippi River.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, regarding condition of injured naval ves-
                   sels and referring to discussion of plan of attack upon Fort Pillow.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 16, 1862.
                   SIR: The gunboat Cincinnati left for Cairo last evening. The injury she sus-
                   tained proved to be much more serious than at first reported. It is reported to
                   me that the repairs on the Mound City are nearly concluded.
                   General Quinby, from Island No. 10, visited me this morning early, in company
                   with Colonel Fitch, commanding the brigade at this place. A plan of combined
                   operation having for its object the capture of Fort Pillow was discussed and
                   agreed upon. The preliminary steps are now in progress.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River, pro
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   Report of Lieutenant Phelps, U. S. Navy, regarding various matters of interest.
                   U. S. GUNBOAT BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 17, 1862.
                   MY DEAR SIR: Since my very hurried letter after the fight the other morning
                   I have absolutely been unable to write.
                   The Cincinnati was only raised night before last and got off for Cairo.
                   The bell boat had no crew, and we had trouble about the machine. Mr. Hoel
                   was left alone. One master killed and two sick. We ran the Benton to the stern
                   of the Cincinnati and remained there till she left, and I assisted Mr. Hoel,
                   besides getting logs, chains, railroad iron, etc., with which to secure the boats
                   against rams. We are putting railroad iron about the stem of this boat, which is
                   her weak part. General Quinby is coming down with some artillery, cavalry,
                   and infantry, and a combined attack is to be made on the fort in about three
                   days' time. Everything has been quiet about the fort and where the gunboats lie
                   below. Two of their rams are missing. Deserters say that 108 were buried from
                   their vessels after the fight. A good many deserters and refugees are coming in
                   and passing up to Cairo, some 30 to 50 per day.
                   We are now anchored across the river a little below where we lay when you
                   left. Captain Dove is here with the Louisville. Now we have the Cairo, Pitts-
                   burg, and Louisville to "count" among the six vessels of the fleet. I would
                   rather have either one of the other two than all three. [Commander] Kilty did
                   handsomely in the fight. Neither the Pittsburg nor Cairo got into it, and the St.
                   Louis can hardly be said to have done so. Commander Davis now has got the
                   run of matters very well. The plan of attack proposed is the old one—land on

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 the bluff, open heavy mortar fire, and follow up with attack by gunboats. What
                 the rebel boats can do remains to be seen.
                 The great craft building in Memphis has been taken up the Yazoo to be fin-
                 ished, and a mechanic from there says it will be fifteen days before she will be
                 ready. We must catch her there before she can be fitted out. I have not time this
                 morning, being so much interrupted, to write about all the little matters of the
                 fleet of which I know you would like to be informed. Suffice it to say that
                 things go much as before. I miss you a great deal, as all do, though, of course,
                 with such a gentleman as Captain Davis there could be nothing but the most
                 agreeable relations. Captain Pennock writes that the Eastport will be ready in
                 thirty days. I trust then you may be entirely recovered and come to realize a lit-
                 tle pleasant cruising in what will be the dashing vessel of the fleet. Thirty days
                 make but a little count and will soon pass.
                 I am, respectfully and very truly, yours,
                 S. L. PHELPS.
                 Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE,U. S. Navy, Cleveland, Ohio.
                 Appointment by Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, of Robert B. Smith as fourth mas-
                 ter on the U. S. S. Cincinnati, for faithful performance of duty.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER, BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 18, 1862.
                 SIR: In consequence of the faithful and energetic manner in which you have
                 performed the duties of executive officer of the gunboat Cincinnati since our
                 late engagement, made known to me by the report of Acting [Volunteer] Lieu-
                 tenant Hoel, you are hereby appointed fourth master of that vessel, to fill the
                 vacancy occasioned by the death of the gallant and lamented Mr. Reynolds.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding U. S. Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                 ROBT. B. SMITH. Esq., Fourth Master Gunboat Cincinnati, Cairo, Ill.
                 Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, announcing the arrival of reinforcements.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 21, 1862.
                 SIR: I have the honor to say to the Department that General Quinby arrived last
                 evening with reinforcements.
                 He is employed to-day in a reconnoissance, which is to determine the route to
                 be taken by the troops.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 CAIRO, May 21, 1862. (Received 22d, 12:15 a.m.)

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 97
April 12, 1862

                   Advices from flotilla announce probable evacuation of Fort Pillow. The
                   steamer Kennett, which went down with flag of truce with number of prisoners
                   to be exchanged, returned to flotilla without seeing any signs of life at the fort,
                   or as far as could be seen below it. General impression is that enemy has fallen
                   back on Fort Randolph, 12 miles below. Two hours after the Kennett returned,
                   rebel steamer with flag of truce came up from below, took off prisoners from
                   Kennett, and steamed down the river.
                   H. E. THAYER. Colonel E. S. SANFORD.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, acknowledging Department's letter of
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 22, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the very gratifying letter of
                   the Department of the 16th instant. Its approval and commendation of the con-
                   duct of the officers and men of the Western Flotilla in the naval engagement of
                   the 10th instant will be an additional stimulus to them to perform their duty
                   again on a similar occasion.
                   In compliance with the orders of the Department, I shall have the pleasure to
                   promote Acting Master Gregory to the rank of acting [volunteer] lieutenant,
                   dating the appointment on the 10th instant.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla.Hon. GIDEON
                   WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. Semiofficial report of
                   Lieutenant Phelps, U. S. Navy, regarding matters of interest.
                   U. S. GUNBOAT BENTON, Near Fort Pillow, May 22, 1862.
                   MY DEAR SIR: * * *
                   The Mound City is now here ready for service again, and the Cincinnati will be
                   ready in about one week. It is strange how that inevitable month in the case of
                   the Eastport drags its slow length along, never beginning, always one day in
                   advance of present time. To-day's mail informs us that she will be ready in one
                   month; so did the mail on the 22d of April last. General Quinby examined the
                   river bank opposite Fulton to-day, and the guns have arrived to put in battery
                   there, so that by day after to-morrow we may hope to have something doing.
                   The commodore sent Captain McGunnegle down with the party reconnoiter-
                   ing. Seven gunboats are reported at Fulton. They are all, except one or two,
                   strangers to the colonel, those exceptions being the rams, that came up before
                   to attack. All the boats there now are probably rams. Driving those away with a
                   battery, so as not to be in our way while under the fort, is, of course, leaving us
                   free for the main work. Some of the boats are secured to a considerable extent
                   about the bow and stern and all have logs suspended along the sides where
                   there is no plating. We are putting railroad iron on the stern and quarters of this
                   vessel. The rebels have dismounted nearly every gun on their vessels, depend-
                   ing on small arms and rams. Jeff Thompson, the nightmare of every post com-

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 mander on the Mississippi, is the commander of the rebel fleet just below us,
                 yet the commandant at New Madrid this night lies in an unquiet bed, assured
                 that the immortal Jeff is after him with those naked and starved swamp rats.
                 The Tyler and Lexington are forced out of the Tennessee by low water, and will
                 join the fleet here, being much needed. Will you believe it, application was
                 made for them to remain at Cairo to protect that place, there being considerable
                 apprehension? The Conestoga is to look after Hickman and Columbus and will
                 be within call of Cairo. Affairs go on much as usual with the squadron. Some
                 few changes among the lower officers caused by sickness. Mr. Thomas M.
                 Parker has gone as fourth master to the Louisville. I fear he will fail. Mr. Reed
                 has applied for a master's mateship on board the Great Western. I suggest send-
                 ing Mr. Henry Wilkins there and keeping Mr. Reed here, as the better of the
                 two for our purposes. Captain Walke I have not seen for several days. Little
                 Thompson is very busy getting his vessel secured, so that when the rebels
                 come around the point again he can pitch into them. Of the Cairo nothing is
                 known except that she was heard of to-day as wanting coal, being about out of
                 that commodity and pretty much run ashore for provisions. The St. Louis, I am
                 satisfied, will now be found up to time everywhere. That hospital boat has not
                 yet come down. It takes so long to do anything. There are a good many sick; in
                 this vessel more than one-tenth.
                 Very respectfully and truly, yours,
                 S. L. PHELPS.
                 Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE, U. S. Navy, Cleveland, Ohio.Order of Captain
                 Davis, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant McGunnegle, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S.
                 S. St. Louis, to assist in army reconnoissance.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 22, 1862.
                 SIR: You will report yourself this Thursday morning at 7:30 o'clock to Briga-
                 dier-General Quinby, commanding the military forces of the United States at
                 this point, to take part in a reconnoissance to be made under his direction at and
                 near Craighead Point, [Ark.].
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Comdg. U. S. Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                 Lieutenant Commanding W. McGUNNEGLE, U. S. Navy, Commanding Gun-
                 boat St. Louis, Mississippi River.
                 Order of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Lieutenant Blodgett, U. S. Navy, com-
                 manding U. S. S. Conestoga, to assist in army reconnoissance.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 23, 1862.
                 SIR: On the receipt of this communication you will consider your vessel at
                 present subject to the orders of General Quinby. Any previous orders conflict-
                 ing with this are hereby canceled.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 99
April 12, 1862

                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Comdg. U. S. Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                   Lieutenant Commanding G. M. BLODGETT,U. S. Navy, Commanding Gun-
                   boat Conestoga, Mississippi River.
                   Report of Lieutenant Blodgett, U. S. Navy, of receipt of orders.
                   U. S. GUNBOAT CONESTOGA, Off Hickman, Ky., May 23, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of my orders, dated May 22,
                   1862. I shall act in obedience to them and inform you if anything of importance
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   G. M. BLODGETT, Lieutenant, Commanding, U. S. Navy. Flag-Officer C. H.
                   Davis, Commanding Naval Forces, Western Waters. Report of Lieutenant
                   Blodgett, U. S. Navy, of receipt of orders.
                   U. S. GUNBOAT CONESTOGA, Off Columbus, Ky., May 24, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform you that I have received your communication
                   dated May 23, 1862, placing this vessel under the orders of General Quinby.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   G. M. BLODGETT, Lieutenant, Commanding, U. S. Navy.
                   Flag-Officer C. H. DAVIS, Commanding Naval Forces, Western Waters.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, giving the results of a reconnoissance by
                   Brigadier-General Quinby, U. S. Army.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 24, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that the result of General
                   Quinby's reconnoissance is that he considers a greater number of troops than
                   that which he has with him necessary for the success of the operations we have
                   had in contemplation.
                   He has returned to Hickman with his command, where he will wait for rein-
                   We have reliable information concerning the enemy's force on shore and afloat.
                   The force on shore numbers about 3,000 men, including a well-trained Louisi-
                   ana regiment of 1,200 men. The force afloat has recently been increased by the
                   addition of another gunboat or ram.
                   Since I last wrote the Department, Lieutenant Colonel Ellet has brought down
                   four of the rams, hastily prepared for service. I have no doubt that they will be
                   useful in the event of another engagement.
                   The Mound City has rejoined the flotilla.
                   All the gunboats are to be defended forward and aft in their weak and unpro-
                   tected parts by a framework of cypress logs.

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                                                                                     April 12, 1862

                 It is far from my expectation that the rebel gunboats will venture to renew the
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River,
                 Pro tem.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C. Letter
                 from Colonel Pitch, U. S. Army, to Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, informing him
                 of the operations of the enemy in strengthening the works at Fort Pillow.
                 HEADQUARTERS, On board Steamer Henry Von Phul, May 26, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: The enemy in Fort Pillow have within the past few days repaired
                 and remounted one battery near the water line, and have a considerable force
                 now at work upon another, which is assuming somewhat large proportions.
                 These facts I know from personal observation had this p. m. from the shore of
                 the main channel of the river opposite the fort. They may have been previously
                 known to you, yet I deem it my duty to communicate them, notwithstanding
                 the seeming probability from the long silence of our mortar fleet that the policy
                 concluded upon may be to permit the enemy to quietly complete his works.
                 Yours, respectfully,
                 G. N. FITCH, Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
                 Commodore DAVIS, Commanding Flotilla.
                 Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet off Fort Pillow, ready for
                 aggressive action.
                 ABOVE FORT PILLOW, May 26, 1862.
                 I arrived at my fleet yesterday, leaving one of my boats at New Albany, ready
                 to follow in twenty-four hours. The others are all here.
                 I visited Commodore Davis immediately to obtain his views and offer coopera-
                 tion. The commodore intimated an unwillingness to assume any risk at this
                 time, but will communicate with me again, after further reflection, touching
                 my proposition to him to run below these batteries and surprise the enemy's
                 fleet and transports before they can escape up the tributaries.
                 To me, the risk is greater to lie here with my small guard and within an hour's
                 reach of a strong encampment of the enemy, than to run by the batteries and
                 make the attack. I shall, if necessary, repeat the proposition the moment the
                 Switzerland arrives with the barges I have prepared to shelter the boats. I wish
                 to take advantage of the high water.
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding.
                 Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 101
April 12, 1862

                   Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                   Navy, requesting pass for an official messenger.
                   STEAM RAM QUEEN OF THE WEST, May 26, 1862.
                   Colonel Ellet wishes to send the bearer, Mr. Roberts, with a mail and official
                   dispatches to the Secretary of War; and will be obliged to Commodore Davis,
                   if it is compatible with the discipline he has established, to order that a pass
                   from Colonel Ellet shall be sufficient to allow his messengers to go on the mail
                   boats on public business, so as to avoid detention and the necessity of estab-
                   lishing a separate line for his fleet.
                   Commodore DAVIS.
                   Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram
                   Fleet, furnishing pass requested by the latter.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 26, 1862.
                   DEAR SIR: I have the pleasure to send you herewith a pass for your orderly,
                   Mr. Roberts, which I have put in a general form in order that he may make use
                   of it from day to day.
                   If Colonel Ellet should desire to add a second messenger, a steward, or servant,
                   he can do so upon his own order, which the captains of the mail boats will be
                   required to respect as a sufficient authority.
                   I have the pleasure to be, colonel, with great respect, your most obedient ser-
                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer.
                   Colonel Ellet, etc.,
                   Colonel E. will be obliged to make provisions for the subsistence of his
                   orderly, etc.
                   Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                   Navy, proposing to run below Fort Pillow and attack the Confederate fleet.
                   STEAM RAM QUEEN OF THE WEST, Above Fort Pillow, May 28, 1862.
                   COMMODORE: Referring to the suggestion which I submitted when I called
                   on you the 25th instant, for a combined movement with a view to surprise and
                   destroy the enemy's gunboats, rams, and transports, now lying below the guns
                   of Fort Pillow, I beg leave to suggest in addition that, unless such a movement
                   is promptly made, I fear the opportunity for it may possibly be lost altogether.
                   The river is now in good condition but falling rapidly. Commodore Farragut's
                   fleet is probably advancing, and as it approaches Memphis the rebel steamers
                   of all classes will doubtless seek to hide in tributaries which are now navigable
                   for them to enter, but which, if our advance is delayed, may not be navigable
                   for us when we wish to pursue.

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                 I would be pleased, therefore, if the proposition, after the consideration you
                 have given it should meet your concurrence, to join the whole or a portion of
                 rams under my command to the whole or even a single one of your gunboats,
                 and placing them all under the shelter of barges which I have prepared for the
                 purpose, and hope will very soon arrive, run below Fort Pillow by daylight and
                 attack the rebel fleet wherever it can be found.
                 The stern-wheel boats which I have provided and fitted up as rams will make
                 excellent towboats for carrying along any amount of coal which may be
                 needed to run as far as we may wish and return.
                 The importance of this movement is, I think, likely to be very great, in view of
                 the battle which is now daily expected at Corinth. If that battle results in our
                 favor, by occupying the river below and by destroying the rebel fleet, we will
                 deprive the defeated army of its means of crossing the Mississippi and renew-
                 ing the contest on the other side. If the battle should result in our defeat, we can
                 still afford most valuable service by cutting off the river supplies of the enemy.
                 Submitting this suggestion again for your consideration, I have the honor to be,
                 commodore, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                 Commodore C. H. DAVIS. Flag-Officer of the Mississippi Gunboat Squadron.
                 Minutes of conversation between Commodore Davis, U. S. Navy, and Colonel
                 Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, above Fort Pillow, May 27, 1862.
                 I proposed an advance of our joint fleets, pass Fort Pillow, surprise and attack
                 the enemy's gunboats, etc., below, and hold the river there.
                 The commodore would consider it, and did not feel disposed at present to incur
                 any risk. He was apprehensive of a movement below, but in case of disaster the
                 commerce and cities above might be exposed to the rebel gunboats.
                     May 27.-2 o'clock p. m., received a message from the commodore request-
                 ing me to send a boat down the river to protect some mortar boats which had
                 just commenced shelling the enemy. He had sent the Carondelet.Letter from
                 Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, propos-
                 ing mode of attack upon Fort Pillow and Confederate fleet.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, May 28, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: I have thought over a great deal the subject of our conversation on
                 Monday morning, and have come to the following conclusion:
                 It will be most expedient and proper that the gunboats should take the front
                 rank in a naval engagement with the enemy, and that the rams, coming up in
                 the rear, should watch for an opportunity, either to take the enemy in the flank,
                 to assail any straggler, to assist any disabled vessel of our squadron, and to
                 pounce upon and carry off any disabled vessel of the enemy.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 103
April 12, 1862

                   The gunboats of the flotilla and the rams bear to each other the relation of
                   heavy artillery and light skirmishers; to expose the latter to the first brunt and
                   shock of battle would be to misapply their peculiar usefulness and mode of
                   It is my wish, therefore, in the event of a naval engagement, that the rams
                   under your command should follow in the rear and on the wings of my squad-
                   ron; particular instructions being given to their captains to profit by every
                   opportunity of assailing a vessel of the enemy's flotilla, or making a prize of
                   one of his disabled boats.
                   If these directions are agreeable to you, I will thank you to communicate them
                   to the captains under your immediate command; if not, we will confer again
                   upon the subject.
                   When one or more of the mortar boats go down to take the station for bom-
                   bardment I will thank you to direct one of the rams to go down also and take a
                   station near them, and to be ready to encounter a sudden dash on the part of one
                   of the rebel rams. But I take the liberty to say, colonel, that the rams, being, as
                   they are, unarmed, incur an unnecessary risk in running under the range of the
                   enemy's guns as the ram now on guard has done this morning, and that it would
                   be a matter of great mortification if any vessel of our combined squadron were
                   to suffer an injury from the guns of the rebels without the means of retaliation.
                   Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   Colonel ELLET, Steamer Queen of the West, Mississippi River. Letter from
                   Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, regard-
                   ing method of cooperation.
                        QUEEN OF THE WEST, Above Fort Pillow, May 28, 1862.
                   DEAR SIR: I have just received your note of to-day, touching the subject of
                   our conversation of Sunday morning and the mode in which the rams can best
                   cooperate with the gunboats in resisting an attack by the enemy.
                   The enclosed communication, which I had written this morning and was about
                   to send to you when I received your note, will explain the current of my own
                   thoughts on the same subject, my view being, as you will perceive, to act as
                   soon as possible, on the offensive. I will be much obliged to you for your views
                   on the suggestions which I have ventured to submit in this note, whenever your
                   conclusion is formed.
                   I concur in your opinion of the needless exposure of the rams to the enemy's
                   guns, to which you allude, and had myself gone out to forbid it, and to direct
                   them to lie above the mortars which it is their business to guard. But I was
                   myself on board the little tug which subsequently dropped down below Craig-
                   head Point, wishing to see the position of the batteries which it may presently
                   be necessary for me to pass by, and to obtain a precise knowledge of the bear-
                   ing of the channel from the pilots on board.

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                 Allow me to add, commodore, that almost the only efficient service these rams
                 can render is that for which they were specially built, viz.,: to run into the
                 enemy, with good speed and head on, and sink him.
                 With that view my instructions which I have given have been to wait while we
                 remain here until the enemy advances so far above the Point that he can not
                 refuse the collision and retreat, and then go in, each boat for itself, and strike
                 wherever the blow can be delivered to the best advantage.
                 I fear it would be unsafe to change this order at this late hour for to-night, but I
                 will be very happy to confer with you fully on the whole subject, so that the
                 orders for the future may be well understood and made as simple as possible.
                 I am, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                 Commodore C. H. Davis,Flag-Officer, etc.
                 Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Fitch, U. S. Army, regarding
                 measures for the relief of refugees.
                 MAY 29, 1862.
                 COLONEL: It was my intention to have the Conestoga up the river [Missis-
                 sippi] to afford relief to the refugees along its banks and to bring them to this
                 place [Fort Pillow ?] for protection or for passage to Cairo. But the state of
                 affairs at Hickman and in that vicinity renders it expedient that the Conestoga
                 should remain under the orders of General Quinby.
                 Under these circumstances it will be necessary to employ a transport for this
                 service, in execution of which I invite your cooperation.
                 I will put a howitzer on board the steamer Wisconsin or Champion, placing her
                 under the command of Lieutenant Erben, of the Navy, if you will have the
                 goodness to put on board what, in your judgment, will be a sufficient number
                 of troops with their subsistence for a day. You will dispatch her as soon as pos-
                 sible after receiving your reply to this communication.
                 I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Colonel G. N. FITCH, Commanding Brigade, Near Fort Pillow, Tenn.
                 Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Captain Maynadier, U. S. Army, giv-
                 ing information obtained from a deserter regarding mortar practice.
                 MAY 29, 1862. DEAR CAPTAIN: A very intelligent deserter came in this
                 morning, who told us, among other things, that the mortar practice had been
                 very good yesterday and the day before and that a piece of one of the bombs
                 had gone through General Villepigue's quarters.
                 The name of the man about whom Captain Pennock wrote and I spoke to you
                 about the other day is John Driscoll.

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April 12, 1862

                   Yours, truly,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Flag Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   H. E. MAYNADIER, Captain, Tenth Infantry, Commanding Mortar Fleet.
                   Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, proposing to move alone
                   against Fort Pillow and Confederate fleet.
                   MISSISSIPPI RIVER, Above Fort Pillow, May 30, 1862.
                   Immediately on arriving here, five days ago, I called to see Commodore Davis
                   on the flagship BENTON, and then suggested a joint movement to destroy the
                   enemy's fleet and command the Mississippi below Fort Pillow. The commo-
                   dore promised to communicate with me again on that subject after giving it
                   further consideration.
                   Not hearing from him, I renewed the suggestion in a note three days afterward,
                   and was promised a reply yesterday. Up to this time I have not received it. I
                   shall inform him to-day of my readiness to move alone next Monday morning,
                   unless, in the meantime, he should conclude to allow one or more of his gun-
                   boats to participate. Delay will be fatal to the usefulness of this fleet.
                   CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet.
                   Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
                   Letter from Brigadier-General Quinby, U. S. Army, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                   Navy, regretting inability to cooperate.
                   HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Columbus, Ky., May
                   30, 1862.
                   COMMODORE: Your favor of the 28th instant was received last evening, and,
                   though I have nothing of importance to communicate, I reply to it thus
                   promptly to express my high appreciation of its kind and cordial tone, and also
                   my unqualified conviction of the wisdom of your policy in remaining in your
                   present position until events further develop themselves.
                   I deeply regret my inability, as now situated, to cooperate with you effectively.
                   The safety of the different points within my district is of the first importance,
                   and I feel that it would be unwise to withdraw from them, even temporarily,
                   troops enough to aid materially in reducing the rebel works before you. I have
                   both written and telegraphed for reinforcements, and hope that Major-General
                   Halleck can find it in his power to send them. Should he do so, I will call upon
                   you at once and consult upon the place of operation.
                   The De Soto has just arrived with your second note and the Mr. Jones, escaped
                   from Fort Pillow. His statements are evidently colored by his feelings and his
                   desire to have his persecutors punished. As he was a close prisoner while at
                   Fort Pillow, he could have had but little opportunity to judge of the strength of

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                 the works and the number and disposition of the rebel forces. I am disposed to
                 take his statements with some abatement.
                 The package of tea was duly received, for which, and your instructions to the
                 captain of the B. to accept my passes, you will please accept my heartfelt
                 I am, commodore, with high respect, your friend and obedient servant,
                 I. F. QUINBY.
                 Commodore C. H. DAVIS,U. S. Navy, Commanding Western Flotilla, Fort Pil-
                 low, Tenn.
                 Letter from Colonel Fitch, U. S. Army, to Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, regarding
                 a rumor of the proposed evacuation of Fort Pillow.
                 MAY 31, 1862.
                 SIR: Please examine these men, this morning from the fort. According to their
                 statement the fort is about to be evacuated to-day or to-night, although such
                 statements do not accord exactly with the further statement that General Price
                 is expected there. I propose to have the reported expected arrival of four trans-
                 ports to-day watched, and shall myself go down to take a look at Island 34,
                 where the presence of a party was yesterday reported. I will send another small
                 party around Craighead Point to opposite the fort.
                 G. N. FITCH, Colonel, Commanding.
                 Commodore DAVIS,U. S. Navy, Commanding Flotilla.
                 Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                 Navy, regarding an intended attack upon Confederate gunboat.
                 STEAM RAM SWITZERLAND, June 1, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: I am just now informed that a rebel gunboat is lying opposite the
                 point on the Tennessee shore. I propose, therefore, to send down a little tug and
                 try to bring her within reach of a couple of rams which I will hold in readiness
                 in the bend on the Arkansas side.
                 Yours, very respectfully,
                 CHARLES ELLET,Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                 Commodore C. H. DAVIS. Flag-Officer,etc.
                 Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                 Navy, stating his intention of running the batteries of Fort Pillow.
                 MISSISSIPPI RIVER, Above Fort Pillow, June 1, 1862.
                 COMMODORE: I am very anxious, for the reasons already submitted, to
                 avoid further delays; and I am therefore preparing to run below Fort Pillow, in

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April 12, 1862

                   accordance with my previous suggestions to you, weather permitting, at early
                   dawn next Tuesday.
                   The hope of obtaining the support of at least one gunboat has induced me to
                   postpone this expedition from day to day, being not only deeply impressed
                   with the influence which the presence, bearing, and example of a portion of
                   your brave command would have on my raw recruits, but also with a sense of
                   the substantial addition to the strength of my fleet, which the guns of a single
                   armed boat would afford. But should you not deem it expedient to allow even
                   one gunboat to share this enterprise, permit me to say that I would be very
                   much gratified to have on board my vessels, as volunteers, the company of a
                   few of the gallant gentlemen and brave men of your command, for the sake of
                   the example alone which all connected with the Navy are sure to offer when-
                   ever the opportunity is presented to them to engage in a daring and patriotic
                   I remain, commodore, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                   CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                   Commodore C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, etc.
                   Instructions of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, regarding proposed
                   attack upon Confederate gunboat.
                   STEAM RAM SWITZERLAND, June 1, 1862.
                   A rebel gunboat or ram is reported on the Tennessee shore below Craighead
                   Point. Lieutenant George E. Currie will go on board the tender Dick Fulton and
                   take command of Lieutenant Hunter's detachment and direct Captain Cadman
                   to drop down toward the rebel boat, but well off from the point, the object
                   being to incur as little risk as possible from the fire of the fort, though enough,
                   if the position of the rebel boat permits it, to induce her to endeavor to capture
                   the Fulton.Lieutenant Currie is instructed to drop down stern foremost when
                   nearing the point, so as to be always ready to retreat. He will move on his
                   retreat so as to expose the pursuing steamer to an attack from the Queen of the
                   West, the Lancaster, the Lioness, and the Horner, which will be kept in position
                   in the bend on the Arkansas side, far enough above the point to enable them to
                   gain headway at the moment of collision.
                   Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet, who will command the Lancaster, Lieutenant Cran-
                   dall of the Lioness, and Lieutenant Davis on the Horner, will all act in accor-
                   dance with their instructions, and judge by the motions of the Queen, which
                   will be the flagship in this movement, when to make their attack.
                   If either boat should be disabled she should anchor at once, and it will be the
                   duty of the others to bring her off.
                   [C. ELLET, Jr.], Colonel, Commanding.
                   Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram
                   Fleet, extending good wishes for success.

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                    BENTON, June 1, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: I have received your note proposing to bring a rebel gunboat
                 within reach of your rams. I heartily wish you all possible Success.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla.
                 Colonel CHARLES ELLET,Jr., Commanding, etc.
                 Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram
                 Fleet, declining cooperation.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, June 2, 1862.
                 SIR: I have received your letter of yesterday. I decline taking any part in the
                 expedition which you inform me you are preparing to set on foot to-morrow
                 morning at early dawn.
                 I would thank you to inform me how far you consider yourself under my
                 authority; and I shall esteem it a favor to receive from you a copy of the orders
                 under which you are acting.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 CHARLES ELLET,Jr., Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet, Mississippi River.
                 Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                 Navy, commanding Western Flotilla, stating his view of their relations.
                 MISSISSIPPI RIVER, Above Fort Pillow, June 2, 1862.
                 COMMODORE: I have received your note of this morning, informing me that
                 you decline taking any part in the expedition I have been preparing to set on
                 foot to-morrow morning at early dawn, and requesting me to inform you how
                 far I consider myself under your authority, and also desiring me to furnish you
                 a copy of the orders under which I am acting.
                 While regretting sincerely your indisposition to cooperate in a movement
                 against the enemy's fleet, lying within easy reach, I take great pleasure in giv-
                 ing you all the information you ask for.
                 I do not consider myself at all under your authority. My fleet was fitted up
                 under the orders of the War Department, and was sent forward in great haste, in
                 the hope that it might be here in time to contribute to avert such a disaster
                 anticipated at the Department as that which recently befell two of the gunboats
                 when assailed by the rebel rams.
                 I will, with pleasure, send you such portions of my instructions as have any
                 relation to my duties here to-morrow morning, merely stating to you now that
                 it is the expectation and intention of these instructions that I shall not move
                 against the enemy without your concurrence, provided you consider the partic-

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April 12, 1862

                   ular movement which I propose as bearing hurtfully upon the general opera-
                   tions which you are conducting.
                   In that case it is intended that your disapprobation shall restrain me. But I do
                   not understand that you are to be held in any way responsible for my opera-
                   tions, or are at liberty to interfere with them if they merely involve hazard to
                   my own command.
                   Should you have received any instructions at all conflicting with these I would
                   be obliged to you to inform me of the discrepancy.
                   In the meantime, permit me to say that I came here to do good service, and for
                   nothing else, and to that end I shall waive all question of your right to indicate
                   to me any attack proper to be made; and will respond to your call with the
                   utmost, alacrity, and give you as instantaneous and complete use of my whole
                   force as if you had the right to command it.
                   I trust, therefore, that no question of authority need be raised. It is my intention
                   to continue, as I have done, to communicate all my plans to you in advance,
                   and to keep prepared to aid in the execution of all yours as soon as you deem it
                   proper to intrust me with them; to do nothing contrary to your wishes, but to
                   move against the enemy the moment you intimate that you are yourself ready,
                   or that my advance will not interfere with your own programme.
                   I continue, commodore, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                   CHARLES ELLET,Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                   Commodore C. H. DAVIS, Commanding Western Flotilla.
                   Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                   Navy, regarding the spirit of his instructions from the War Department.
                   STEAM RAM SWITZERLAND, Above Fort Pillow, June 3, 1862.
                   SIR: My instructions received from the honorable Secretary of War run
                   through various dispatches, the greater portions of which are wholly irrelevant
                   to the points which now interest you.
                   In a dispatch dated April 25, the honorable Secretary uses this language:
                   It is unnecessary to say, except to guard against misapprehension, that the
                   expedition must move upon the enemy with the concurrence of the naval com-
                   mander on the Mississippi River, for there must be no conflicting authorities in
                   the prosecution of war. If any doubt should arise in your mind and you need
                   further instructions, please telegraph, etc.
                   A part of my reply to this dispatch, of the same date, April 25, I will also quote,
                   as the best means of showing you the spirit of my instructions:
                   The clause in your instructions requiring the concurrence of the naval com-
                   mander on the Mississippi might embarrass me much. That officer might not
                   have confidence in my mode of warfare. My purpose has not been to remain
                   with the gunboats, or even to show my fleet there, until ready to push on, pass

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                 the batteries, drive my rams against the enemy's armed vessels and transports
                 wherever they can be found, relying much on the suddenness and audacity of
                 the attack for its success.
                 I fear that the naval commander might not concur in the propriety of such a
                 movement, which is not in accordance with naval usage, and that he might
                 compel me to lie idle above some fortified position until the flood abated, and
                 the opportunity to surprise the enemy in my own way would be lost.
                 I trust you may think proper to reconsider this limitation of my authority, and
                 leave me free to act on my own judgment, but of course with respectful defer-
                 ence to the gallant officer in command on the Mississippi, by whose good
                 advice I certainly shall not fail to profit.
                 In response to this, April 26, the honorable Secretary uses the following lan-
                 The peculiarity of the enterprise which you have undertaken induced the
                 expression "concurrence," instead of placing you distinctly under the com-
                 mand of the naval commander. There ought not to be two commanders on the
                 same element in war operations. But, as the service you are engaged in is pecu-
                 liar, the naval commander will be so advised, and will be desired not to exer-
                 cise direct control over your movements, unless they shall manifestly expose
                 the general operations on the Mississippi to some unpardonable influence,
                 which is not however anticipated.
                 The expression, "unpardonable influence," is doubtless a telegraphic misprint,
                 but means some irreparable injury.
                 From this you will be able to gather the spirit of my instructions, which con-
                 template an advance beyond these fortified positions, whenever I may think it
                 practicable or advisable to go by, with the single reservation that I must respect
                 your objection to the movement, if, in your opinion, the success of your gen-
                 eral operations will be jeopardized by that which I propose to undertake.
                 I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding Ram Fleet.
                 Commodore C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, etc.
                 Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, of proposed attack on Con-
                 federate gunboat.
                 ABOVE FORT PILLOW, June 3, 1862.
                 I am about to move with two of my boats against a rebel gunboat lying under
                 the guns of Fort Pillow. An exaggerated view of the powers of these rebel rams
                 has spread among my fleet from the gunboats, and I feel the necessity of doing
                 something to check the extension of the contagion.
                 I am fully impressed with the hazards of this enterprise, but I deem the object
                 sufficient to warrant the movement. I will take command of the Queen. My

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April 12, 1862

                   brother, Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet, will follow with the Monarch, so as to dou-
                   ble the chance of reaching the rebel boat.
                   I wish you to understand, however this enterprise may turn out, that it is not a
                   rash act, but one which I have deliberately contemplated with a definite and
                   sufficient object.
                   I wish also to place on record the fact that for whatever ill befalls this fleet you
                   are not responsible, for you have given me from the commencement all the
                   support and aid which it was in your power to contribute. I shall take volun-
                   teers only on both boats.
                   [C. ELLET, Jr.], Colonel, Commanding.
                   Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
                   Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Captain Davis, U. S.
                   Navy, regarding results of a reconnoissance.
                   STEAM RAM SWITZERLAND, Above Fort Pillow, June 3, 1862.
                   SIR: I sent out a small party last evening under command of Lieutenant-Colo-
                   nel Ellet, and accompanied by a detachment from the command of Colonel
                   Fitch, and also by several pilots from this fleet, with a view to ascertaining
                   whether the rebel gunboat was still lying off the point and in a position where I
                   could reach her with one of my rams without exposing her too long to the
                   enemy's batteries.
                   Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet has reported to me that the gunboat had left, and that
                   he then allowed two of his men to go over to a tow-head where they could
                   examine the fortifications on the opposite shore at closer view. The conclusion
                   at which he arrived, from what he and his party saw, was that Fort Pillow is
                   being evacuated.
                   I propose to send out another party to-day, if the weather is clear enough for
                   observation, to go farther down the river, with a view to ascertain whether the
                   enemy's fleet may not have also evacuated, and if it has not, what facilities its
                   position presents to assail it, intending, if the report should justify the advance,
                   to move immediately against it.
                   I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding.
                   Commodore C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, etc.
                   Letter from Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, to Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram
                   Fleet, defining the relations between them.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Fort Pillow, June 3, 1862.

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                 COLONEL: I have had the honor to receive your letters of the 2d and 3d
                 instant, the latter containing a copy of the instructions of the War Department
                 defining your position.
                 I understand from these instructions that your vessels are not under my control,
                 that I am not responsible for their movements, and that your undertakings do
                 not necessarily require my concurrence or approval.
                 On your arrival here I communicated to you a general outline of the plan of
                 operations agreed upon between General Quinby and myself, and when the
                 time arrives for putting it into execution I shall have the pleasure to make you
                 acquainted with all the details, and to invite your cooperation. In the meantime
                 I have no desire to oppose or circumscribe your movements. My opinion is
                 unfavorable to your attack, as I understand it, but your mode of warfare is
                 novel, and the service is peculiar; and under the circumstances of the case I
                 willingly defer to your judgment and enterprise.
                 I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Colonel CHARLES ELLET, Commanding Ram Fleet, Mississippi River.
                 P. S. -I shall wait with interest to hear the result of your reconnoissance of to-
                 Letter from Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, to Colonel Fitch, U. S.
                 Army, informing him of the continuance of the reconnoissance.
                 STEAM RAM SWITZERLAND, June 4, 1862.
                 DEAR SIR: I think it most prudent to let you know that I have just sent out a
                 very small party to start below the open field, near the cabins, and move down
                 the levee toward Fulton, to continue the reconnoissance commenced yesterday.
                 I give you this information to guard against any mishap from the possible
                 meeting of your scouts and this little party if you should have any out.
                 Yours, truly,
                 CHARLES ELLET,JR., Colonel, Commanding.Colonel G. N. FITCH.
                 Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, regarding the expedition
                 against the Confederate gunboat.
                 MISSISSIPPI RIVER, Above Fort Pillow, June 4, 1862.
                 SIR: For the purpose of testing the temper of a doubtful crew and ascertaining
                 the strength of the enemy's position, I determined yesterday to take the Queen
                 of the West and try to reach a rebel steamer lying around Craighead Point under
                 the guns of Fort Pillow.
                 The captain, two out of three of the pilots, the first mate, and all the engineers,
                 and nearly all the crew, declined the service, and were allowed to go off with
                 their baggage to a barge.

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April 12, 1862

                   Hastily forming a new crew of volunteers, I took command of the boat and
                   directed Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet to follow in the Monarch at supporting dis-
                   tance. The captain, David M. Dryden, and all the crew of the Monarch stood at
                   their posts. The rebel steamer slipped lines and escaped before I could reach
                   her. The firing of the fort was it short range, and quite brisk, but I think only
                   revealed about seven or eight guns, corresponding with the count previously
                   made in two land reconnoissance by Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet. My boat was
                   not hit. While the strength of the rebel batteries seems to be greatly overrated,
                   their fleet of rams and gunboats is much larger than mine. It consists of eight
                   gunboats, which usually lie just below the fort, and four others at Randolph, a
                   few miles farther down.
                   Commodore Davis will not join me in a movement against them, nor contrib-
                   ute a gunboat to my expedition, nor allow any of his men to volunteer so as to
                   stimulate the pride and emulation of my own. I shall therefore first weed out
                   some bad material and then go without him.
                   CHARLES ELLET,Jr., Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                   Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. Report of Lieu-
                   tenant-Colonel Ellet, commanding steam ram Monarch, regarding the part
                   taken by that vessel in the expedition against the Confederate gunboat.
                   HEADQUARTERS STEAM RAM MONARCH, June 4, 1862.
                   SIR: I have the honor to report to you that, in accordance with your instructions
                   received yesterday, the steam ram Monarch was got underway immediately
                   after the Queen of the West started and followed her down the river, keeping at
                   such a distance as not to impede in any way the action of the Queen and vet
                   near enough to afford assistance or protection if she should be fortunate
                   enough to engage the enemy in action. The Monarch was held in this position
                   until she had been for some minutes in fair range of the enemy's batteries, and
                   until the enemy's gunboat, toward which you were directing the Queen, was
                   observed to have made good her retreat, and the Queen was rounding to return
                   upstream. I then ordered the Monarch to be put about and returned unharmed
                   through the enemy's fire to our former anchorage.
                   It affords me great pleasure here to state that not one man on this boat, from the
                   first master to the cabin boy, accepted the offer to remain behind if they did not
                   like the expedition; every man went. And it is but justice here to say that each
                   one acted coolly and prudently in his own department, and did his duty man-
                   fully and well, handling the boat under the enemy's fire with as much coolness
                   as if on a holiday excursion.
                   Most respectfully submitted, etc.
                   ALFRED W. ELLLET,

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                 Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding the Steam Ram Monarch. Colonel
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Commanding Steam Ram Fleet. Report of Colonel
                 Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, regarding the appointment of engineers.
                 MISSISSIPPI RIVER, above Fort Pillow, June 4, 1862.
                 SIR: When all the engineers of the Queen declined the hazard of the expedition
                 of last evening two young men from my military guard offered to handle the
                 engines and run the boat wherever I wished to take her, and did so coolly and
                 I trust that I have not exceeded my authority in detailing R. L. Groomes and W.
                 W. Jackson, both privates of Company G, Sixty-third Illinois Regiment, and
                 giving the first the position and pay of chief, and the second the position and
                 pay of first assistant engineer, for which they have licenses. I must have men
                 who will stand by the engines and wheel under all circumstances. Not one of
                 the soldiers on board hesitated to share the fate of the steamer.
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr. Colonel, Commanding, etc.
                 Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. [Telegram]
                 FORT PILLOW, TENN., June 5, 1862—4:30 A. M.
                 Arrangements were completed for a combined assault on the fort at 7 a.m. at a
                 weak and accessible point, but the works were abandoned last night, and the
                 guns and commissary stores destroyed. We are in possession, but propose pro-
                 ceeding to-day toward Memphis. I report by mail.
                 G. N. FITCH, Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
                 Major-General POPE, commanding District of Mississippi.
                 Report of Colonel Fitch, U. S. Army, regarding an extended reconnoissance.
                 FORT PILLOW, TENN., June 5, 1862—4:30 a.m.
                 On June I a laborious reconnoissance was made, which developed the fact that
                 behind Flower Island, parallel with the chute between that island and the main
                 shore, an approach to Fort Pillow could be made by infantry to Cole [Cold]
                 Creek, within 30 yards of the enemy's outer works and near the junction of the
                 creek and Flower Island chute.
                 The following morning this reconnoissance was renewed and its results veri-
                 fied, and it was also ascertained that at the point where Cole [Cold] Creek
                 could be crossed not a gun from the batteries could be brought to bear, while
                 the ridges in the rear of and overlooking the fortifications would enable our
                 infantry to approach and command them.
                 On the third morning three companies of this command, under Major Bring-
                 hurst, of the Forty-sixth Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, was ordered to open a
                 road parallel with the chute, secreted from observation by the timber on Flower
                 Island and the mainland.

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                   Unfortunately, four of Colonel Ellet's rams, not knowing this detail had been
                   sent forward, dropped around Craig head Point, for the purpose of observation,
                   and were fired upon by the enemy, and the shot overreaching the boats, fell in
                   the vicinity of the working party in the woods, whereupon the major com-
                   manding deemed it prudent to retire and abandon the work.
                   It being too late after this unfortunate movement to do anything more that day,
                   Captain Schermerhorn, of the Forty-sixth Regiment Indiana Volunteers, was
                   ordered the next morning, with a detail from that regiment and the Forty-third
                   Indian a Volunteers, to finish the contemplated works. This he promptly
                   accomplished undiscovered by the enemy.
                   All the troops were ordered on board the transports the same evening, with the
                   intention of surprising and storming the fort, and all arrangements perfected for
                   having a combined attack between the land forces and the gunboats last
                   evening; but appearances, as well as the statement of a deserter last evening,
                   made us apprehend that the enemy was evacuating. Therefore, instead of
                   marching by the contemplated route, I dropped down at 3 a.m. with a small
                   party on one of the transports (the Hattie Gilmore), preceded by open row-
                   boats, containing Captain Sill and Lieutenant Troxell, with a few men. We
                   dropped directly but cautiously toward the fort, and found our apprehensions
                   verified. The enemy was gone, having left at about 1 or 2 o'clock this morning.
                   The Hattie Gilmore, in passing the ram fleet and BENTON, gave notice what
                   her signal would be if the enemy had left and what if they remained, and was
                   followed very soon by Colonel Ellet's rams, and after an interval by the gun-
                   boats and the other transports, the signal that there was no enemy in sight hav-
                   ing been given.
                   I am not able to state at this time the amount of property in the fort, but my
                   impression is that it can not be properly garrisoned without a new armament
                   and a corps of artillerists. For all practical purposes one or two gunboats would
                   be more effective than my command of infantry, I propose, therefore, to pro-
                   ceed directly toward Memphis this p. m., leaving one company here to collect
                   the property. Captain Davis, commanding flotilla, leaves also one gunboat, I
                   await orders.
                   Yours, respectfully,
                   G. N. FITCH, Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
                   Major-General JOHN POPE, Commanding District of Mississippi.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, transmitting copy of a delayed dispatch
                   announcing the evacuation of Fort Pillow.
                   U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Memphis, June 12, 1862.

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 SIR: I have the honor to transmit to the Department a copy of a telegraphic dis-
                 patch which I sent from Fort Pillow, but which, through a misapprehension of
                 the captain of the mail boat, was not delivered.
                 I received this morning your telegraphic dispatch of the 10th, which I have
                 answered by telegraph.
                 A division of the squadron, under Commander A. H. Kilty, was on the point of
                 sailing for White River to form a junction with General Curtis, but will now be
                 delayed until Colonel Fitch can prepare the commissary transports to accom-
                 pany it.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag Officer, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River,
                 pro tem.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Fort Pillow, Thursday morning, June 5,
                 Fort Pillow is evacuated; the last of the rebels left between 1 and 2 o'clock this
                 The artillery and commissary stores are mostly destroyed. Preparations were
                 set on foot for a combined attack which was to have taken place on Wednesday
                 morning, but was unavoidably postponed until this morning, when it was antic-
                 ipated by the retreat of the enemy.
                 I am making preparations for moving down the river with the greater part of
                 my force, accompanied by transports having on board Colonel Fitch and his
                 C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, announcing the evacuation of Fort Pillow
                 by the Confederate forces.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Fort Pillow, Thursday Morning, June 5,
                 1862-8 a.m.
                 SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that on Tuesday Colonel Fitch
                 communicated to me the result of an important reconnoissance on the Tennes-
                 see bank of the river, which he had just completed. This reconnoissance led to
                 the discovery of a mode of approach to an unguarded point of the enemy's
                 works, laid open by the falling of the water, but the construction of a floating
                 bridge over Cole's [Cold] Creek and other similar preparations were necessary
                 for the passage of the troops.

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April 12, 1862

                   It was agreed between us that a combined attack should take place on Wednes-
                   day morning as soon after daylight as possible, but an unforeseen occurrence,
                   by interrupting the construction of the bridge, compelled us to postpone the
                   attack until this morning.
                   Yesterday, however, the works at Fort Pillow were abandoned by the rebels, the
                   last of whom disappeared between 1 and 2 o'clock this morning.
                   We are now in possession of the works, where we find the artillery and a great
                   amount of commissary stores destroyed. I am not yet informed whether any of
                   the great guns remain uninjured.
                   I am moving down the mortar fleet, the ordnance and store vessels, towboats,
                   barges, etc., and preparing to proceed down the river.
                   Colonel G. N. Fitch, at the head of the whole or a portion of his brigade, will
                   accompany the squadron in his own transports.
                   It is our intention to occupy Memphis with the least possible delay.
                   I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                   C. H. DAVIS, Captain, Commanding Western Flotilla, Mississippi River.
                   Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                   WASHINGTON, [D. C. ], June 5, 1862.
                   I have a dispatch from Colonel Ellet, commander of the ram fleet at Fort Pil-
                   low, dated at that place yesterday. He informs me that he has been there a con-
                   siderable time, and has made repeated applications to Captain Davis,
                   commander of the gunboats, for leave to attack the enemy's fleet, but has been
                   uniformly refused. Captain Davis not only refuses to join Mr. Ellet or give him
                   the protection of a single gunboat, but also refuses to allow Ellet to attack on
                   his own hook, nor will he allow any of his force to volunteer with Ellet. I regret
                   the President would not place the fleet under your command. Ellet, however,
                   made one demonstration, but the rebels slipped anchor and escaped. He says
                   the strength of the rebel batteries is greatly overrated. He declares his intention
                   to go on without the gunboats.
                   EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
                   Major-General HALLECK, Corinth.
                   FORT PILLOW, June 5, 1862. (Received 11.40 p. m. 8th.)
                   On my return to Fort Pillow I found the gunboats moving down the river. I pre-
                   sume that there will be no further obstacle unless we encounter one at Mem-
                   CHAS. ELLET, Jr., Commanding Ram Fleet.

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                                                                                      April 12, 1862

                 Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON.
                 Report of Colonel Ellet, commanding Ram Fleet, announcing the evacuation
                 of Fort Pillow.
                 OPPOSITE RANDOLPH, 12 MILES BELOW FORT PILLOW, June 5, 1862.
                 SIR: To my mortification the enemy evacuated Fort Pillow last night. They
                 carried away or destroyed everything of value. Early this morning Lieutenant-
                 Colonel Ellet and a few men in a yawl went ashore, followed immediately by
                 Colonel Fitch and a part of his command. The gunboats then came down and
                 anchored across the channel.
                 I proceeded with three rams 12 miles below the fort to a point opposite Ran-
                 dolph, and sent Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet ashore with a flag of truce to demand
                 the surrender of the place. Their forces had all left, two of their gunboats only
                 an hour or two before we approached.
                 The people promised to respect the flag which Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet
                 The guns had been dismantled and some piles of cotton were burning. I shall
                 leave Lieutenant-Colonel Ellet here in the advance and return immediately to
                 Fort Pillow to bring on my entire force. The people attribute the suddenness of
                 the evacuation to the attempt made night before last to sink one of their gun-
                 boats at Fort Pillow.
                 Randolph, like Fort Pillow, is weak, and would not have held out long against a
                 vigorous attack by water.
                 The people express a desire for the restoration of the old order of things,
                 though still professing to be secessionists.
                 CHARLES ELLET, Jr., Colonel, Commanding.
                 Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
                 CAIRO,June 6, 1862.Dispatch boat just arrived; reports the evacuation of Fort
                 Pillow and occupation by our troops. Most of the flotilla had passed below
                 A. M. PENNOCK, Commander, etc.
                 Hon. G. WELLES, Secretary Navy.
                 Report of Lieutenant Thompson, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Pittsburg,
                 regarding condition of affairs in Fort Pillow after evacuation.
                 U. S. GUNBOAT PITTSBURG, Off Fort Pillow, Tenn., June 8, 1862.
                 SIR: I find, on examination of the works here, the rebels have done but little
                 damage to the works before they left, and they are in a good condition to be
                 occupied by either party. Some of the guns are I differently spiked, others are
                 not spiked at all, the carriages having only been fired.

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April 12, 1862

                   In the fort are carriages upon which, for ordinary use, the guns can be easily
                   mounted, and will effectually command the channel.
                   I respectfully request to know if I shall spike the guns.
                   There is also scattered about the works a large quantity of shell, grapeshot, etc.,
                   which can be easily removed by teams.
                   I learn many of those residing back in the county are violent secessionists, and
                   several farmers have come in requesting permission to go up the river to avoid
                   guerilla bands they say are organizing.
                   I hear of a man residing some distance in the country endeavoring to get a band
                   One or more guns could easily under cover of night be mounted, or with mus-
                   ketry from behind the earthworks, hills, etc., they could suddenly at night
                   annoy considerably our transports, and before I could bore through the embra-
                   sures, etc., to harm them, they could retreat to a place of safety.
                   I would respectfully state I am of the opinion to occupy, their works will tend
                   much to avoid annoyance to our transports, give an asylum to those that love
                   the Union, and keep the back country quiet.
                   I learn the rebel authorities have had small bands roaming through the country
                   destroying cotton, etc., to avoid its failing into our hands.
                   Of those coming in to go up the river is an individual who has furnished infor-
                   mation to the squadron. He says he has been posted on their blackboard and
                   has to secrete himself in the woods until he can get his family ready to leave. I
                   respectfully request to know if conveyance will be afforded for those desiring
                   to leave, and what answer shall I give them.
                   I have two and a half days' coal, full steaming, on board and request to know
                   where I am to get coal.
                   In obedience to your orders, I secured the anchor and cable which was used for
                   the coal barges and have it now on board. It is of considerable weight, and I
                   would like to dispose of it as soon as convenient.
                   I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   EGBERT THOMPSON, Lieutenant, Commanding.
                   Commander CHARLES H. DAVIS, U. S. Navy, Commanding Western Flo-
                   P. S. -Two deserters, representing themselves from the rebel army at Memphis,
                   have come on board, requesting to go up the river. I will forward them by the
                   first boat.
                   Report of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, transmitting report after examination of
                   the works at Port Pillow by Lieutenant Phelps, U. S. Navy, and Colonel Pitch,
                   U. S. Army.

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                                                                                         April 12, 1862

                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Memphis, June 15, 1862
                 SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that I requested Lieutenant
                 Commanding S. L. Phelps, of this ship, to employ a part of our brief stay at
                 Fort Pillow in making a rapid inspection of the works, in company with Colo-
                 nel Fitch, and I have the pleasure to transmit herewith, for the archives of the
                 Department, the report containing his description of their extent and strength.
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
                 C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Comdg. Western Flotilla, Mississippi River, pro
                 Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C.
                 U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Fort Pillow, Tenn., June 5, 1862.
                 SIR: In conformity with your directions I made a hasty examination of the
                 works at this point, only, however, having time to pass over the more promi-
                 nent portions.
                 The outer line of entrenchments, flanking upon Cold Creek, at a point some
                 600 yards above the water battery, ascends the bluff in an irregular zigzag, to a
                 prominent and narrow ridge lying between the Hatchee River and the Missis-
                 sippi, whence it trends away, at a sharp angle, along the ridge in the direction
                 of Fulton and flanks upon the bluffs on the Mississippi above that landing,
                 making a circuit of from 4 to 5 miles.
                 These lines consist of a heavy embankment, planked upon the inner face, with
                 a dry ditch of an average of 8 feet depth and width. Considerable numbers of
                 pieces of artillery have once been mounted along this extended line. An abattis
                 of fallen timber is cut without the entire length.
                 There is an inner line of works of similar construction, though not of one
                 unbroken circuit as in the case of the outer line, and altogether it is estimated
                 the entrenchments are 10 miles in length.
                 The entire land embraced within the circuit of these works is exceedingly
                 rough and broken, sharp ridges, deep gorges, and valleys, with small spring
                 runs, traverse it in all directions, while the greater part of the surface is covered
                 with a heavy growth of timber. There are prominent points along the inner line
                 of defense from which artillery swept the outer works, while the entrenchments
                 and rifle pits were disposed to enfilade and command the approaches effected
                 by the broken surface.
                 Two crescent batteries are also erected near the summit of the river bluffs to
                 assist in the landward defenses.
                 The water batteries are constructed at the base of the bluffs in the face of it, and
                 in the gorges by which it is broken. The water battery proper consisted of ten
                 guns, but was much injured in the late flood. A heavy columbiad was mounted

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April 12, 1862

                   in a casemated work constructed in a ravine higher up the river and above the
                   level of the ten-gun battery. This work is destroyed by fire. To the left and
                   higher up is a sunken battery of six heavy guns, and still higher up is a 10-inch
                   columbiad occupying another ravine and sweeping over a large arc. On the
                   river below the ten-gun battery, and constructed by excavation from the bluff at
                   some elevation, is a bastioned work of six heavy guns in front and several
                   flanks. In this is a 13-inch mortar, burst. Still higher up on the bluff are other
                   columbiads, mounted mostly in works across ravines and in batteries of one
                   and two guns.
                   Single guns (32-pounders) are also placed in position along the bluffs to as far
                   as Fulton, 3 miles below the fort.
                   These works are constructed and disposed with great skill and with vast labor;
                   but a fatal mistake had been made in the depression that could be given the
                   guns in all save the water battery, since, in a moderate stage of the river, our
                   boats could have hugged the shore and passed under their fire.
                   I will here mention that Colonel Fitch, commanding Forty-sixth Indiana Regi-
                   ment, had constructed a road through swamps on the upper side of Cold Creek,
                   where no such attempt seems to have been anticipated, and had made prepara-
                   tions for crossing the creek and entering there within the lines while the fleet
                   should open fire in front. From thence he could easily have captured, by a rear
                   attack, the crescent battery on the bluff above, after which the different river
                   batteries would have been entirely exposed to his riflemen, firing from above
                   and in rear. The movement was made in accordance with this plan, adopted and
                   prepared for during several previous days, but the rebels had fled from the
                   works during the night, burning everything in their power.
                   I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   S. L. PHELPS, Lieutenant, Commanding, and Acting Fleet Captain.
                   Flag-Officer CHAS. H. DAVIS, U. S. NAVY, Commanding (Pro tem.) Flotilla
                   Western Waters.
                   Extracts from diary of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, commanding Western Flo-
                   tilla, pro tem., May 13 to 31, 1862.
                   May 11, [1862].-The enemy came up yesterday in very gallant style; the ves-
                   sels were commanded by spirited fellows, who had evidently made up their
                   minds to take it at the closest quarters and in the roughest way. We had scouts
                   out yesterday, and we find that they are hard at work repairing damages,
                   though only six of their gunboats were in sight. These gunboats of the rebels
                   were built, I believe, by individual subscriptions; and Colonel Fitch, the mili-
                   tary commander here, had in his hands day before yesterday two numbers of a
                   Memphis paper in Which the severest comments were made upon the ineffi-
                   ciency of their commanders. Colonel Fitch said, when he told me of it, that he
                   thought they would be stimulated to some effort of a desperate nature.

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                 It is evident that the public opinion, such as it may be, demands some effort,
                 some display of earnestness and determination, on the part of these people,
                 who have collected a force without, at first, any apparent purpose of using it. I
                 have no doubt we shall have another fight soon if our gunboats do not come up
                 the river, or if Corinth and Memphis do not fall.
                 If the Cincinnati and Mound City were not so completely crippled, Colonel
                 Fitch and I would be already engaged in the execution of a plan for reducing
                 Fort Pillow, of which he is the author, and which I found on the tapis when I
                 came out. As it is we must wait for several days.
                 May 21, [1862].-General Quinby came down last evening with reinforcements,
                 and last night we had a council of war. According to the best information, they
                 (the rebels) have very few people now at Fort Pillow. The story is that they
                 have gone down to Randolph. . . Their gunboats are not in their usual anchor-
                 age. Our plot is a good plot. We require a little luck to carry it out successfully.
                 There are at Cairo and St. Louis, on the stocks and unfinished, vessels that
                 would make us perfect masters of the river and everything in it. But they will
                 not be finished till the war is over. Is not this truly provoking?
                 I can not tell what damage I did to the rebel fleet. Two of their vessels dropped
                 out of action, enveloped in steam and smoke, in the first fifteen minutes, and
                 one appeared to sink as she rounded the point. The information given by the
                 refugees (who are numerous) is that she was kept afloat twenty-four hours and
                 then sank, and that we killed 108 of the rebels. This is the least estimate; others
                 give more.
                 I am doing nothing just now. General Quinby, after reconnoitering the ground,
                 came to the conclusion that he had not men enough to undertake the combined
                 movement we had agreed upon, and he has gone back to wait for more. * * *
                 May 28, [1862].-A party of deserters from the fort came in day before yester-
                 day and another yesterday. They agree in the number of troops, etc., and also in
                 portraying the condition of the rebel soldiers as one of suffering from want of
                 good and sufficient food, and of general disgust and discontent. . .
                 May 29, [1862].-I have now an addition of five or six rams to the squadron,
                 and the gunboats have received the protection of cypress logs and iron rails in
                 their weakest parts. If I could get at them (the enemy's fleet), I should make the
                 attack myself, and my own anxiety is now, not to avoid, but to renew the fight
                 clear of the guns of Fort Pillow. . .
                 I am sending a steamer up the river to-day to pick up the poor refugees, who
                 stand on the banks begging our mail boats to take them on board with their
                 families. * * *
                 May 31, [1862].—Fort Pillow has neither been evacuated nor reinforced. We
                 know its status pretty well from day to day (the deserters are frequent), and to-
                 day is the first time we have had any intimation of a movement looking toward

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 123
April 12, 1862

                   evacuation, and to-day we receive intelligence, which we think reliable, of the
                   evacuation of Corinth. Our scouts are always on the alert.
                   Of one thing be assured, that, if ever I get near that rebel fleet again, I shall
                   destroy it, unless they anticipate me themselves.
                   June 3, [1862].- * * * There has been a little skirmish between two scouting
                   parties, in which a rebel officer was killed; and further, there have been some
                   movements during the night and during the two previous days, indicating an
                   intention on the art of the rebels to evacuate. * * * If General Quinby were here
                   we would try to anticipate their movements.
                   June 5. [1862].-Colonel Fitch discovered several days ago a weak and assail-
                   able point by which he proposed to attack the enemy's works by land while I
                   encountered the batteries in front. It was agreed between us that this should
                   come off yesterday morning, but a foolish movement of Colonel Ellet pre-
                   vented it in a way that could not have been foreseen. The movement was then
                   to have been made this morning, as soon after daylight as possible. But the
                   rebels retreated yesterday and last night, after, as usual, destroying everything.
                   * * * These works are very extensive and very strong. . .
                   I am now lying under the batteries of Fort Pillow, waiting for Colonel Fitch to
                   return from some examinations he is making. As soon as he comes back we
                   will make our preparations for going down the river. I do not believe that there
                   is any force at Randolph. If not, there is probably no interruption between here
                   and Memphis, except, perhaps, the enemy's gunboats, and they would detain us
                   but a short time.
                   Report of Brigadier-General Thompson, C. S. Army, regarding the operations
                   of the enemy.
                   C. S. RIVER DEFENSE SERVICE, Gunboat General Bragg, Sunday, May 4,
                   1862—3 p. m.
                   GENERAL: We are patiently awaiting the turn of events, and do not see much
                   prospect for a fight at the present time. The enemy have changed their position
                   since I came here, and keep their gunboats on each side of the river in a posi-
                   tion to command a long stretch, where we can not reach them without being
                   under a cross fire for from forty to fifty minutes. They have twelve mortar
                   boats, but never have more in position than two, which fire at irregular periods
                   during the day, but are towed away each night. We have eight boats of the
                   river-defense fleet here. The navy boats are dismounting their guns. We are
                   doing a good service by keeping the enemy at a distance from Fort Pillow, but
                   I have not the confidence in the fleet which I was led to expect by the represen-
                   tations made me. The majority of these boats are not fast enough to catch a
                   retreating boat, but any that may pass Fort Pillow are at our mercy, and should
                   any of their boats be imprudent enough to lie at the point they occupied when
                   we came here, we can sink them with our three fast boats. We will wait and
                   watch and hope.
                   Yours, most respectfully,

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                                                                                      April 14, 1862

                 M. JEFF THOMPSON, Brigadier-General, Missouri State Guard Command-
                 ing Marines and Gunners.
                 Major-General G. T. BEAUREGARD, C. S. Army, Corinth, Miss.
                 Already answered as follows: "Hope ere long you will be able to test with suc-
                 cess the efficiency of your boats, which are now the last hope of closing the
                 river to the enemy's gunboats. Should you not have speed enough against the
                 boats upstream, I hope you will be able to destroy those of the enemy reported
                 to be coming up from New Orleans.
                 G. T. BEAUREGARD.
                                                               Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 4-54.

April 13, 1862 - Reconnaissance on Purdy Road (near Adamsville)

                 •See March 31, 1862--Skirmish on the Purdy Road, near Adamsville

April 13, 1862 - General Pope's triumphal entry into Shelbyville

                 Union Feeling in Tennessee.—An officer of Col. Pope's Fifteenth Kentucky
                 Regiment, writing to his brother in this city and describing its entrance into the
                 town of Shelbyville, Bedford county, Tenn., gives the following glowing and
                 cheering account of the loyalty of the inhabitants.—Louisville Journal.
                 They came out in showers to welcome us, and the ladies waved their handker-
                 chiefs and flags to such a degree that it set us all wild. Such shouts and huzzas
                 you never heard. As we drew near Shelbyville it was raining pitchforks, but
                 that made no difference; some of the ladies came out in the rain, to the fences,
                 and waved their handkerchiefs and cheered us. And the men—you ought to
                 have seen them. The rain was coming down in torrents, and they had kept their
                 hats close down to keep it from running down their necks, but when they saw
                 the flags they had to pull off their hats, rain or no rain, wave them, and yell as
                 loud as possible. Lieut. Col Jouett had his hat off so long and got his head so
                 wet that the hair commenced sprouting on top of it! Then when we got into
                 camp, it seemed as if they could not do enough for us. They sent us all sorts of

                                                   Nashville Daily Union, April 13, 1862. NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 14, 1862 - Excerpt from a Chicago Tribune report transport of Federal wounded at

                 The great fleet of over one hundred transports poured into the very heart of
                 Secessia, that which some military medical man terms the "blue massNOTE 1 for

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 125
April 14, 1862

                       the cure of the rebellion." Savannah, in Hardin county, on the east bank of the
                       river, was made Gen. Grant's headquarters, but the bulk of the troops were
                       thrown forward to Pittsburg Landing, twelve miles further up the river on the
                       opposite bank. Savannah is a town of 1,500 inhabitants. (This figure may be
                       too high!) The bluff there is bold and high, the town lying a little back. Dr.
                       Reilly reached Savannah on Tuesday, April 1st. Gen. Grant's headquarters
                       were in the large brick house of Mr. Cherry, on the verge of the bluff, a sound
                       Union man.
                       There were only three regiments there at that time, the 52d and 53d Illinois, the
                       52d Indiana, and the troop of Capt. Ned Osband, detached from Col. Dickey's
                       4th Illinois Cavalry as Gen. Grant's body guard. Gen. Grant daily went up the
                       river on his steamer, the Tigress, to supervise operations at Pittsburg.
                       We must follow the wounded surgeon on board the hospital steamer City of
                       Memphis, which was filled with the wounded. She took two loads of wounded
                       to Savannah, where excellent hospital preparations had been made, though
                       limited in extent. If Dr. Reilly remained on board and preferred to bring his
                       wound much farther northward for treatment, no one will blame him."The
                       Grove" is quite another place from a crowded military hospital.

                                                         Chicago Daily Tribune, April 14, 1862.NOTE 2

                 NOTE 1: "Blue mass" was a mercury compound regularly utilized by physicians for
                         its strong cathartic effect.

                 NOTE 2: As cited in:

April 14, 1862 - A. A. Harrison's (Company D, 4th Regiment, Kentucky Calvary Volunteers)
                  letter home

                       Nashville, Tennessee April 14th, 1862
                       Dear Wife,
                       I take my pen in hand to write you again. I am well at present and all the boys
                       from Hardin are well. I hope this letter finds you and the rest of the folks well.
                       We are still at this place yet having been here ever since yesterday and I expect
                       we will leave this place tomorrow for some place further south. We have not
                       got arms yet except the old guns that I wrote about in my last letter and no
                       prospect of getting any other kind. So I don't think we will go to where the
                       main army is. But we will be left to guard our bridges or something of the kind.
                       There has been a tremendous fight near Corinth, about 100 miles from here,
                       and the Secesh got badly whipped as usual. They lost 40 thousand men. And
                       our side lost from 15 to 20 thousand. The rebels fought——- had to retreat
                       and——- our main army. We are further from the seat of war now than when
                       we were at Bardstown. I was appointed quartermaster sergeant last Saturday.
                       My wages now are 21 dollars a month. I am exempt from all kinds of duty
                       except weighing out the rations to the companies and a good deal of writing

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                                                                                        April 14, 1862

                  although I have a good deal of leisure time. And I have to go to town every day
                  as our camp is about 3 miles from Nashville. Our Colonel was thrown out
                  today and a man by the name of Smith appointed in his place and also one of
                  our doctors was discharged for drunkenness. I think there will be a chance to
                  get a furlough in two or three weeks. Do not go too far——- back. I would be
                  very glad to see all of you and to stay with you if I could but I will have to be
                  contented until I can come. I send you some more money in this letter. The
                  whole sum of 10 cents. It is what they call southern scrip. This country is full
                  of them of all sizes from 5 cts. to $1.00. And they are both sides are fixing for a
                  big fight at Corinth but we will not be there if they fight very soon. We did hear
                  today that the rebels were leaving Corinth but we don't know whether it is so or
                  not. I am writing this by candle light in the quartermaster's tent. And the bugle
                  has sounded for us to blow out our light. So I must bring my letter to a close.
                  You must not fail to write as often as you can and trust to Providence that we
                  may meet again soon to part no more.
                  A. A. Harrison
                  P. S. Tell Lissy if she don't write to me I sha'nt bring her a beau when I come
                  home. Dear wife I could not write all I want to write in a week. If I could be
                  with you I could find enough to talk about to last a month. But I will have to
                  content myself to writing some of the most important things and leave the bal-
                  ance. I have got a very good office. It is nearly the same as keeping store. I can
                  go where I please, stay as long as I please and sleep as long as I please. I do not
                  have to drill or stand guard or go out on scouting expeditions. In fact I am in
                  very little danger if the whole does not get killed or taken prisoner. We cannot
                  hear of any rebel troops nearer this place than Corinth which is 110 miles from
                  here. Just as currant here as silver. This is a pretty country here and everything
                  is earlier than in Ky. The trees are all green and now some of the leaves are
                  nearly as large as my hand. The dogwood trees are out in full bloom and other
                  things in proportion. The weather was very hot the day we got here. I thought it
                  was hot enough for July but it has been cooler since until——- getting hot
                  again. There is a lot of corn planted down here and some of it coming up. You
                  must write as often as you can for I would like to hear from you every day if I
                  could. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate husband
                  until death.
                  A. A. Harrison
                                                            Absolom A. Harrison Correspondence

April 14, 1862 - Special Agent D. C. Donnohue to Secretary of the Interior, C. B. Smith, rela-
                  tive to problems encountered in obtaining cotton seed

                  Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee
                  April 14, 1862
                  Hon. C. B. Smith

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 127
April 14, 1862

                   Secretary of the Interior
                   Washington City, D. C.
                   Dear Sir,
                   I arrived at this place on the 6th Inst. Just as the fight commenced—have not
                   been able to get the cotton seed aboard the boats on account of the confusion
                   occasioned by the fight and unless our army moves at an early day I will have
                   to change my location and look for more peaceful regions I have an awful sup-
                   ply in this neighborhood if they can only be gotten—
                   I forwarded the first shipment according to your directions—I fear they will all
                   be planted to soon—and be lost as cold spring weather destroys the growth of
                   the cotton—Cotton is seldom planted here before the first of May—I will write
                   you again in a few days—I have written some of the incidents of the fight as I
                   witnessed the most of it—
                   D. C. Donnohue
                                                                        Letters of D. C. Donnohue.

April 14, 1862 - "We call the attention of the Council to the importance of making all teach-
                  ers take the oath, female as well as male." Meeting of the Nashville City

                   Resolutions before the City Council, Public Schools, etc.
                   The resolutions subjoined were laid before our City Council by Capt. Driver, at
                   their meeting on Monday (14th) evening last:
                      Resolved, That the Mayor of the city of Nashville be, and he is hereby
                   requested and instructed to have the flag of the flag of the United States placed
                   upon all public property belonging to this corporation.
                       Resolved, That the Board of Education are hereby required during the
                   present week to take the oath of office taken by ourselves and other officers of
                   this city or resign.
                       Resolved further, That the Superintendent, together with every male teacher
                   in the city of Nashville, shall be, and they are hereby requested to take the oath
                   of allegiance prescribed to us, within five days from the passage of this resolu-
                   tion, or resign their respective positions.
                       Resolved, That we cordially thank the officers and soldiers of the United
                   States for the unexampled kindness and courtesy hitherto extended to our fel-
                   low citizens, and that, as men striving together with them for the re-establish-
                   ment of the government of our fathers, we pledge them our most sincere and
                   hearty co-operation.

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                                                                                     April 14, 1862

                     Resolved further, that for hospital purposes and for barracks, the Federal
                 authorities be permitted to have access to hydrants without charge.
                 We publish these resolutions for the purpose of giving them our hearty appro-
                 bation. They are eminently just and proper, and are so expressed as to give no
                 cause of offence to any one who is not a bitter enemy to his country. The reso-
                 lutions which are of the greatest importance are the two in reference to our
                 Public Schools. Indeed we cannot conceive of any question within the wide
                 range of legislation which so deeply concerns the welfare and proper moral
                 culture of our children, and therefore of the very stability and happiness of
                 society itself, than that which embraces in its scope the education of the young.
                 In Sparta, in Athens, in Rome and the Jewish theocracy, as well as in the
                 enlightened nations of Europe, patriotism and loyalty have been ordered by
                 legislation to be instilled into the minds of the young by those who had charge
                 of their education. A school-room is the last place to be polluted by the step of
                 a traitor to his or her country. We would as soon send a son or a daughter of
                 ours to a gambling house or a brothel to have their minds and morals formed as
                 to a school controlled by a rebel and a traitor. Away with such teachers of the
                 young! We regret that the resolution does not include female as well as male
                 teachers. The omission should by all means be supplied. Of the two we regard
                 female rebel teachers as the most dangerous. A short time before the arrival of
                 the Union troops at this place a female teacher in the Hume School in this city,
                 was in the habit of making her pupils sing a song whose stupidity, wretched
                 rhyme and rhythm, and treason were all alike abominable. Here are two verses
                 of it: "Oh have you heard the joyful news?

                    Virginia has Old Abe refused,
                    Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!
                    Virginia joined the Cotton States,
                    The news of which each heart elates
                    Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!
                    We'll die for Old Virginia,
                    Hurrah! hurrah!
                    Virginia joins the Cotton States,
                    The news of which each heart elates
                    Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!
                    We'll die for old Virginia!
                    Ah! the stars and bars we'll fling on high,
                    And for our homes we'll fight or die,
                    Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!
                    Our cause is right, our quarrel just—
                    In the God of battles we will trust,
                    Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!
                    We'll die for old Virginia,
                    Hurrah! hurrah!

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 129
April 15, 1862

                        We'll die for old Virginia.
                        Our cause is right—our quarrel just—
                        In the God of battles we will trust,
                        Hurrah! hurrah!
                        We'll die for old Virginia.
                   And so on through four long tedious, dreary, stupid verses of idiotic reiteration.
                   The teacher who would introduce such trash into a school of young children,
                   deserves an immediate discharge on the ground of incompetency. We call the
                   attention of the Council to the importance of making all teachers take the oath,
                   female as well as male. And some of them should be dismissed without being
                   required to take the oath. The subject is one of momentous importance. Let the
                   work be done thoroughly and promptly. The resolutions in reference to the
                   Union officers and soldiers are well merited compliments to their chivalry,
                   generosity and magnanimity. Every word in them is deserved.
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 17, 1862.

April 15, 1862 - Skirmish at Pea Ridge

                                                                    No circumstantial reports filed.

April 15, 1862 - Campbell county Confederates and Bloodhounds

                   The Dogs of War.
                   Among the astounding developments of the last few months is the following
                   advertisement taken from the Memphis Appeal. Its brands and ear-marks are
                   well known in this community who have had a chance to read it in papers
                   nearer home:
                   "Bloodhounds Wanted.
                   "We, the undersigned, will pay five dollars per pair for fifty pairs of well bred
                   hounds, and fifty dollars for one pair of thoroughbred bloodhounds that that
                   will take the track of a man. The purpose for which these dogs are wanted is to
                   chase the infernal, cowardly Lincoln bushwhackers of East Tennessee and
                   Kentucky (who have the advantage of the bush to kill and cripple many good
                   soldiers) to their tents and capture them. The said hounds must be delivered at
                   Captain Hanmer's Livery Stable by the 10th of December next, where a mus-
                   tering officer will be present to muster and inspect them.
                   "F. N. McNairy,
                   "F. H. Harris
                   "Camp Grinfort, Campbell co., Tenn., Nov. 16. [1861]
                   "P. O. —Twenty dollars per month will also be paid for a man who is compe-
                   tent to train and take charge of the above named dogs."

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                                                                                      April 15, 1862

                 Gallant Col. McNairy! Chivalric Capt. Harris! Brave, noble, manly! Five dol-
                 lars a pair for "fifty pair of well bred hounds"—fifty dollars for "one pair of
                 thoroughbred bloodhounds that will take the track of a man!" Capt. Hanmer's
                 Livery Stable! Recruiting service most honorable! Headquarters most fitting!
                 Recruits most select; none but well bred and thoroughbred need apply! Time is
                 precious—opportunity short. It is now the 16th of November; by the 10th of
                 December they must be delivered or the door of Capt. Hanmer's Livery Stable
                 will be forever shut! Thrice happy they who come in time—lucky dogs! A
                 mustering officer, kennel inspector awaits your coming, to welcome you into
                 the ranks of the chivalry, the wellbred; the thoroughbred! the flower of our
                 youth! Paradise of caninity! No common dogs there! Curs and spaniels and ter-
                 riers and pointers and setters and the "bull pups" shut out! They can't come in!
                 Tray, blanche, and sweetheart, be off! Get out tiger! You cuff! twenty dollars a
                 month, secesh money to a competent drill officer! Hardee's tactics, dogmati-
                 cally displayed! Magnificent corps, fifty pair of well drilled hounds, that is a
                 hundred, rank and file! One pair of thorough bred bloodhounds, that is two, for
                 the staff! One hundred and two dogs, besides Colonel McNairy and Capt. Har-
                 ris, one hundred and four in all; not counting Captain Hanmer, not the muster-
                 ing officer, nor the drill master, "competent to train and take charge of the
                 above named dogs!" Go where the field of glory waits you! Not damsels dis-
                 tressed, nor martyred saints, nor the Holy Sepulchre, shall exhaust your noble
                 championship! Yours is a sublimer mission, a far higher pursuit; "to chase the
                 infernal, cowardly Lincoln bushwhackers of East Tennessee and Kentucky!"
                 Fortunate if you catch them; thrice fortunate if they don't catch you! Whatever
                 laurels you win, by Cerberus, save your dog skin! Greatly will your puissant
                 leader value that; if it were not for aught else it will make him a winter cap and
                 some boots to save his own! But the poor, cowardly East Tennesseans, alas!
                 alas! Their offence is rank, it smells! Taking advantage of the rush not only to
                 kill, but to cripple "many good soldiers!" There is no hope for such miscreants
                 and cowardly too, not thorough bred they, not even well bred! common, very!
                 Woe betide them! chased to their tents, captured, dragged to Camp Grinfork,
                 Campbell county and then—horror of horrors! O murderous McNairy, O mad-
                 dened McNairy; O mighty McNairy; O monstrous McNairy! O marvellous
                 McNairy, O mysterious McNairy, O multitudinous McNairy, O magnanimous
                 McNairy, O mellifluous McNairy, O meritorious McNairy, O merciful
                 McNairy, O Mister McNairy, O McNairy dry so! dog on it, don't!
                 Ha! do you say you are misunderstood? that you didn't mean the four-footed
                 kind when you advertised for dogs; that when you said fifty pair of well-bred
                 hounds you had an eye to the hundred members of the Legislature; that Capt.
                 Hanmer's stable is nothing more than the building on Capitol Hill; the muster-
                 ing officer to muster and inspect them, nobody less than the run-away Gover-
                 nor (Eureka, Eureka, Eureka,) the "one pair of thorough-bred bloodhounds,"
                 the two chief members of his Military Board (a second Daniel); and the man
                 "competent to train and take charge of the above named dogs," found in the
                 illustrious Major General of all our forces. Poor, miserable men of East Ten-

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 131
April 15, 1862

                       nessee! How wretched is their lot! Well might they say, in view of this calamity
                       impending, if you please, let it be the other kind of dogs!

                                                         Nashville Daily Union, April 15, 1862. NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 15, 1862 - Free rent in Confederate Nashville

                       Houses for Rent.
                       Gov. Johnson is frequently visited by poor women of the city, wives of soldiers
                       in the rebel army, who have been thrown out of their houses; and are in rain
                       seeking for shelter for themselves and children. For the benefit of that class of
                       persons we republish several advertisements which have heretofore appeared
                       in our city papers and we trust they will profit by their notice. A hint we trust
                       will be sufficient.
                       Houses Rent Free.
                       Nashville, April 22, 1861.
                       Editors Union and American:
                       Please allow me to state that I will furnish house room to ten families, whose
                       protectors join the companies and go to the wars now raging, rent free until
                       their return home, or until the close of the war.
                       W. S. Whiteman.
                       Rent Free.
                       I have three small houses, five rooms each, which I will let to the families of
                       those actually in service in fighting Lincoln's hordes, free of rent, till the war
                       closes or till their return.
                       L. Powers,No. 34 Market street.
                       aprl25 '61
                       To Volunteers: I have charge of some 5 or 6 houses, the occupancy of which
                       will be cheerfully given to the families of volunteers, free of charge during the
                       war or period of enlistment.
                       James Corbitt, Corner Jefferson and Cherry sts. apl26 3t.
                                                                 Nashville Daily Union, April 15, 1862.

Page 132 — April 1862                                                  TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                        April 16, 1862

April 15, 1862 - Off Limits

                  We understand that Gen. Dumont is taking care to prevent his officers and sol-
                  diers from visiting improper houses in the city, by putting guards around such
                  as the conduct of the inmates inculcate for them to resort to.
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 15, 1862.

April 16, 1862 - Skirmish in SavannahNOTE 1

April 16, 1862 - Assessing the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh; the impressions of Charles
                  Alley, 5th Iowa Cavalry

                  Crossed to Pittsburgh Landing and in moving to our camp we crossed the battle
                  field. If the east side showed the destruction caused by troops on the march,
                  here everything told of the terrible physical struggle. Large trees shot off in the
                  middle, and the bark of about every tree riddled by musket balls, in fact almost
                  every twig shot away. It looks to be almost an impossibility for men to live in
                  such a storm of shot as was raging here, and so indeed it would be if the men
                  were right here at the time the balls flew so thickly. But they generally go over
                  those they are aimed at. The ground was torn up by shot and shell, and close to
                  each other an all sides were graves of men and horses. The stench that arose
                  from the field was almost sickening and a great deal of sickness prevailed
                  among the troops after the battle. . . We were almost defeated, but than God for
                  His blessing on the strong arms of our brave soldier, we were victors. May we
                  praise Him.
                                                                                        Alley Diary

            NOTE 1: According to CAR only. This event is neither referenced in OR, nor Dyer's
                    Battle Index for Tennessee.

April 16, 1862 - Colonel John T. Wilder's letter home to his wife in Indiana, relative to activ-
                  ities concurrent with the battle of Shiloh and its aftermath

                  Camp at Pittsburg Tenn., Apr. 16th '62
                  Dear Pet,
                  I telegraphed you immediately after the great battle to let you know there was
                  nothing the matter with us. Our Reg't did not get here until Monday night, too
                  late for the fight. We, that is, Gen. Hascall, with the 17th Ind., 26th O., and 600
                  cavalry were send from Columbia to Lawrenceburg Tenn. to disperse a gang of
                  rebels, at the same time that the rest of the Division came on here, we went
                  down there and done it, capturing 5000 lbs of bacon, a couple dozen guns two
                  drums a flag, 6 horses & saddles and wounding two secesh cavalry also getting
                  their mail—the balance ran—we then made our way for this place to get here
                  after marching 10 days continuously. (the last three, 25 miles a day) to be too

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 133
April 16, 1862

                       late for the fight- well, the fight was terrible, they whipped Grant the first day,
                       and Buell drove them from the ground the next day, soundly thrashed, our divi-
                       sion took the advance tuesday morning after the fight. I have had it ever
                       since—we lay in the wood without tents, and have to carry our provisions 5
                       miles on our backs—our teams and tents will be over the river tomorrow—I
                       will not attempt to tell you of the awful destruction of the battle ground which
                       covered a space of about 25 square miles—the dead lay on every acre of it
                       when we came home—there was just about two rebels for each one of ours—
                       probably about 3,000 in all dead—hundreds of trees shattered to splinters, gun
                       carriages torn to bits, dead horses by the drove, heads, arms, legs and mangled
                       bodies strewn around, all combined to make up a picture of horrors that it
                       would be well for infernal political leaders to look on, and if they did not then
                       learn to mind their own business, to be made a part of —you cannot imagine
                       how little value one puts upon human life after riding among such scenes for
                       day, as I have, in tracing roads, placing pickets &c. the rebels are reported as
                       very much demoralized, they haven fallen back to Corinth and are busily
                       entrenching—but they cannot stand our determined attack, which will be made
                       within a short time—We have them now cut off from the east by R. R. and will
                       soon have full possession of the Mississippi River—I think their cause is
                       nearly used up, at least their army is—my health is good, Jake is complaining a
                       little, but all the rest are well—it is too late & I must close, as we get up at 4
                       every morning and form a line of battle to prevent any surprise at daylight—
                       good Bye remember me to all—
                       As ever, your true husband
                       J. T. Wilder
                       Write to me at Pittsburg Tenn. did your bird (?) get through safe—

                                                                               Wilder Collection.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Library Special Collections.

April 16, 1862 - One Hoosier's experience at the Battle of Shiloh; the letter of Private Will-
                  iam Richardson, Company H, 25th Indiana Regiment, to his uncle

                       Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn., April 16th, 1862
                       Mr. Thomas Jones:
                       Respected Uncle—With delight do I grasp my pen in order to write you a few
                       lines to let you know how I am getting along—how I enjoy a soldier's life and
                       how time is passing off with me. Also to let you know of our great battle that
                       we have had here.
                       I am in good health and have generally enjoyed good health, though I have for
                       a few days past been troubled with toothache considerably. The health of the
                       soldiers is not very good at present. The diarrhea is very bad among the boys.
                       One of Co. E died last night and was buried this morning. Cousin Davy Turn-

Page 134 — April 1862                                                 TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                        April 16, 1862

                 ham is as fat as a bear and came through the fight all right. I too came out with-
                 out a scratch.
                 This was a terrible battle that we had here. Old Gen. Beauregard chose to
                 attack us on last Sabbath morning a week ago, April 6, 1962, and did accord-
                 ingly about 7:00 in the morning. We never knew anything of an attack till we
                 heard the cannon begin to roar, and then the rebels were already inside of our
                 lines. I think that our General was a little careless by not having out picket
                 guards in order to give us sufficient time to prepare for an attack. But instead of
                 this our General let the rebels advance upon us in columns of thousands, whip
                 and cut up our men before we could get out and get the movements of their
                 flanks. We had to march some two miles, regiment after regiment, before we
                 could open fire upon them; and by the time we could all get out and get the run
                 of their movements, they had our men retreating. Therefore I think they had
                 superior advantage over us.
                 Our regiment met the rebels and fought them bravely, but as they had a supe-
                 rior force to us we were obliged to retreat, but according to order we fell back a
                 few rods and formed again and gave the scoundrels a terrible fight. We suc-
                 ceeded in driving them back a little, but they came again upon us in much
                 greater numbers, and we had to retreat inch by inch almost till about 4:00 in the
                 evening when we got reinforced by a few thousand. We then made another
                 charge upon them and made them fall back about a mile. This ended the fight
                 for the night. During the night, Gen. Buell arrived with a part of his forces and
                 placed them, regiment after regiment, in front of our columns, all ready to
                 renew the fight. At daylight we moved forward about a mile when we met the
                 rebels ready for battle again; but in less than a hour, we had them getting back
                 faster than they advanced the day before. But they fought like mad dogs. They
                 would fall back a little and rally again, and fight desperately. I just thought that
                 they would fight us till they were all killed. They would come up in such good
                 order. We would flank them and we sometimes would nearly have them sur-
                 rounded, but they would fight their way out. But they fought more bravely than
                 they would have done had they not drunk so much whiskey mixed with gun-
                 powder. The wounded rebels nearly all had whiskey in their canteens as I was
                 told. We drove them until about 4:00 in the evening when the stampede
                 became general with them, and they all took leg bail, each man for himself.
                 Our cavalry followed them until dark, when they returned with several prison-
                 ers. Many of the rebels threw their guns and knapsacks away, and I expect are
                 at their homes very well satisfied. I believe I would be at least if I were a rebel.
                 They have returned back to Corinth, where they formerly were-about 18 miles
                 from here. Their loss is said to be about 15,000 and ours 10,000. Oh uncle, this
                 was a terrible battle. I have heard thunder storms and other great noises, but
                 nothing to compare with the noise that we made here. It was a continual roar-
                 ing. It put me in mind of a steamboat letting off steam with one clap of thunder
                 right after another continuously for two days. I could see the fire blazing from
                 the cannon and one dense fog of smoke continuously rising all the time. I tell
                 you if this was not enough to make a man feel a little scary I do not know what

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 135
April 17, 1862

                       would. In many places one could stand and see the dead and wounded lying so
                       think that he could count 30 or 40 without moving out from his tracks. Some
                       with their brains shot out, some with their whole heads shot off, some with legs
                       and arms shot off and such a groaning was never heard before I suppose as was
                       heard here. An in many places the trees and bushes are cut off like grass
                       almost. Many large trees are cut down by cannon balls. Oh I do not see how as
                       many of us escaped as well as we did. I will tell you now of those that were
                       killed and wounded although I suppose you have heard before this time. Capt.
                       Baltsman of Co. A, 1st Lieut. Brickett of Co. C and 1st Lieut. Patterson of Co.
                       G were killed. These were all the commissioned officers in our regiment that
                       were killed. Henry Morris, Henry Wright, E. B. Wilson, Geo, McKinsey and I
                       J. Vanwinkle of Co. E were killed; also Thomas B. Handy and Chandley Red-
                       field of Co. H and Samuel Smith of Co. K were killed. Several others of differ-
                       ent companies were killed. Our Lieutenant Colonel was wounded slightly in
                       the leg. Will Jones was wounded in the leg so badly that his leg will have to
                       come off.
                       Your true friend.
                       William Richardson

                                                                   Letter of William RichardsonNOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:, with permis-
                         sion from Cyndee Wagner.

April 17, 1862 - Skirmish near Woodson's Gap, East Tennessee

                       Report of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, with instructions in reference
                       to enlistment of Union refugees.
                       KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 23, 1862.
                       SIR: On the 17th instant 475 Union men of East Tennessee were captured en
                       route for Kentucky [at Woodson's Gap], and sent, by Maj.-Gen. Smith's order,
                       on the 20th instant, to Milledgeville, Ga. Some of them expressed a wish
                       before leaving to enlist in the Confederate States Army. They were not permit-
                       ted to do so, because of the apprehension that they might [not] be faithful here
                       to their oath of allegiance. Elsewhere they may make good soldiers. Remem-
                       bering your request, the major-general commanding directs me to say that you
                       have whatever authority he can give you to proceed to Milledgeville, Ga., and
                       enlist as many of them as consent for service in South Carolina, or elsewhere
                       except in East Tennessee.
                       Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                       H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                                      OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 649.

Page 136 — April 1862                                                TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                       April 17, 1862

                 Report of Capt. H. M. Ashby, Company C, Fourth Battalion Tennessee Cav-
                 KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 26, 1862.
                 SIR: According to your order of the 16th I left Knoxville at 4 p. m., with about
                 40 men from my company and the same number of Capt. Bradley's, and pro-
                 ceeded to Clinton, where I was joined by 40 men of Capt. Gillespie's company,
                 under Lieut. King. I marched all night, reaching Jacksborough about sunrise
                 next morning.
                 Five miles above Jacksborough, at Big Creek Gap, I left Capt. Bradley, with
                 his command, to reconnoiter the country between that point and Fincastle, 5
                 miles above Big Creek Gap, there to await further orders. With the remainder
                 of my command I pressed on to Woodson's Gap, 6 miles beyond Fincastle,
                 where I detached Lieut. Gibbs, of my company, with 10 men, to guard the road
                 coming into Woodson's Gap from the direction of Clinch River. I then pressed
                 forward with the remnant of my command to watch some passes a few miles
                 In a short time a courier from Lieut. Gibbs informed me that he had captured
                 the advance guard of the tories, when I immediately changed direction and
                 returned to Woodson's Gap. The tories had by this time come in full view, with
                 an apparent force of from 700 to 800 men. I at once ordered Lieut.'s Owens and
                 Gibbs, of my company, to attack them in the rear with 25 men, while I charged
                 them in front, thereby preventing their crossing to Cumberland Mountains.
                 After an hour's fight I succeeded in capturing 423 prisoners, killing about 30
                 and wounding the same number.
                 Five members of my company were seriously wounded during the engage-
                 ment; among the number Lieut. Gibbs.
                 Capt. Bradley's company was not engaged in the fight, having been left, as
                 stated above, at Big Creek Gap.
                 Officers and men under my command behaved with great gallantry.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 H. M. ASHBY, Capt. Company C, Fourth Battalion Tennessee Cavalry.
                                                             OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt, I, pp. 649-650.

April 17, 1862 - Capture of Union refugees near Woodson's Gap

                 •See April 17, 1862--Skirmish near Woodson's Gap, East Tennessee

April 17, 1862 - Skirmish near Monterey

                                                                   No circumstantial reports filed.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 137
April 17, 1862

April 17, 1862 - Members of the Washington Artillery [Memphis] petition for release from
                  Federal prisoner-of-war camp

                   CAMP DOUGLAS, Chicago, April 17, 1862.
                   Col. JAMES A. MULLIGAN,
                   DEAR SIR: We, the undersigned members of the Washington Artillery now
                   prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, would respectfully submit to you the facts
                   connected with the company from the organization to the present time, hoping
                   by an honest and true statement we may prove ourselves free in a great mea-
                   sure from rebellion against the United States. The members of this company
                   for the past two years have made their homes in the State of Tennessee; a por-
                   tion in the city of Memphis. Their occupations vary, all however depending on
                   his own exertions for a livelihood—our interests where we could make the best
                   living. During the excitement in that portion of the south we found it necessary
                   for us to form ourselves in some way as soldiers or quit our homes, which with
                   our families as many of us have depending on us for support and our limited
                   means we were not able to do. We therefore formed ourselves as a home-guard
                   recognized by the Governor of Tennessee to do duty in and about the city of
                   Memphis for the space of one year unless sooner discharged dating June 1,
                   1861. Articles were drawn to this effect signed by Governor Harris and Gen.
                   Pillow, then in command at Memphis. We performed those duties as best we
                   could for some five or six months, when an order came contrary to those drawn
                   in good faith for the company to be transferred to the Confederacy which the
                   men refused to do. There is not a man at present in the company that has taken
                   an oath to support the Confederate States nor do they intend to do so. We have
                   always been an independent company, and with the exception of a few have
                   never received a dollar in money from the Confederacy. The company for
                   some time was almost entirely disbanded, feeling that they were no longer
                   obligated to perform the duties either in the State of Tennessee or the Confed-
                   eracy as our articles entered into were violated. We therefore retired to our
                   former occupations, which we were permitted to do unmolested for some three
                   or four months when without questioning we were arrested; some placed in
                   confinement and sent to Columbus, Ky., until the evacuation of that place,
                   when they were again transferred from infantry to heavy artillery at Island No.
                   10. Those who were fortunate enough to escape going to Columbus were then
                   arrested, taken from infantry to heavy artillery at Island No. 10. Those who
                   were fortunate enough to escape going to Columbus were then arrested, taken
                   from the work-bench and sent to the Island, some not being there but a few
                   days when they were surrendered.
                   These are facts briefly stated. We wish to be liberated from captivity by honor-
                   able means. Our families, those who have them, are depending on them [us] for
                   their living. We are willing with honest hearts and pure motives to take the oath
                   of allegiance to the United States, giving all we can give, our words of honor as
                   men, to truly and faithfully maintain our oaths. We respectfully, submit our-
                   selves to your kind consideration.

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                                                                                      April 17, 1862

                 WILLIAM C. PARKE.
                 [And 28 others.]
                                                                  OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, pp. 459-460.

April 17, 1862 - "The Women of the Revolution"

                 There is nothing more striking in the proceedings connected with the revolu-
                 tion now in progress, than the part taken in it by the women of the South. They
                 are bearing their full share of the burden, and performing to supererogation,
                 duties they have undertaken on the impulse of a devoted and self-sacrificing
                 patriotism. In sharing the privations, and assuming a share of the labors essen-
                 tial to the final success of the cause in which the country is now engaged, the
                 ladies of the South have not forsaken that gentleness of demeanor, nor those
                 retires and modest habits that make them so engaging and so lovable. What
                 they do is performed under impulses that are kept within the sway of propriety,
                 with the calmness of well-regulated reason, and the circumspectness that flows
                 from good sense.
                 The have all the warmth of patriotism, and the desire to render personal service
                 in their country's cause, that distinguished that miracle of her sex, JOAN OF
                 ARC. But they have no wild imaginings, no mystical dreams; they hear no
                 strange voices calling them to their country's aid, as did the inspired maid of
                 Orleans. For the women of the South of this day to know their country requires
                 their aid is enough-they need no other call. Neither with JOAN OF ARC do
                 they step from that gentle and loving domain where their mild graces, their
                 quiet dignity, and their modest attractions make them so powerful, and so irre-
                 sistible. They assume not, with the martyred JOAN, habiliments unbecoming
                 her sex; they put on no coat of mail, they wield no sword, they march not at the
                 head of advancing armies, nor mix in the blood and carnage of the battle. The
                 pattern they imitate is no JOAN OF ARC, issuing the work of command, amid
                 the clangor of arms; no CHARLOTTE CORDAY, apostophyzing liberty at the
                 guillotine; but FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE, the noble woman who has dem-
                 onstrated that patriotism can be allied with benevolence, and active service in
                 the cause of the country with the retiring characteristics of the female sex.
                 Since the war broke out, how many thousands of our gentle countrywomen,
                 ladies raised in affluence whose fingers were more familiar with the piano keys
                 than the needle, have spent months in laboriously sewing at the coarsest mate-
                 rial to make clothing for our young men in the field. We have seen them from
                 "early morn to dewy eve," seated patiently in some school-room, church or
                 vestry, toiling as faithfully as the unhappy heroine of "The Song of the Shirt" at
                 their laborious task. A rude, rough, harsh task it was, but "the boys" wanted
                 clothing, and the country wanted the boys, and that was incentive enough and
                 payment enough.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 139
April 17, 1862

                   At the moment we are writing, hundreds of the gentlest ladies of the city are
                   leaving their elegant homes where all the appliances and luxuries wealth pro-
                   cures surround them, to spend the day in hospitals, where sick and wounded
                   soldiers are detained from their active duties in the field by wasting suffering.
                   Overcoming the disgust that the least fastidious must feel at entering rooms
                   crowded with beds, in which lie patients moaning with pain or wasting with
                   disease, they seat themselves beside the sufferers couch; no, not crouch, but
                   plain, prosy, hospital pallet, and look on and aid while the physician lays bare
                   gaping wounds, while blood flows, and the lance pierces the torn flesh. They
                   cool the brow with icy applications, smooth the pillow, administer the neces-
                   sary potions, kindly coax the sufferer to partake of food offered with smiles,
                   and reasoned with words of sympathy, and soft, womanly winningness, that is
                   of itself the best of all medicine to the sick and suffering soldier, who can have
                   no fond mother, no loving sister to watch, and soothe, and comfort in the pain,
                   the lassitude, and the weary, weary hours of sleepless restlessness. Often we
                   have watched delicately raised ladies performing kindnesses such as these, and
                   more than it is necessary here to specify, until we have felt fully the sentiment
                   experienced by a grateful Irishman, when he said of one who kindly nursed
                   him in his sickness: "When I began to get better I used to lie for hours in my
                   bed watching her, expecting every minute the wings would start from her
                   shoulders, and she would fly back to heaven where she belonged."
                   But the Southern women do more than these things-they give their sons to their
                   country. Stifling the pleadings of their hearts, subduing their fears, conquering
                   the anguish that is rending their souls, deliberately encountering the days of
                   fearful expectancy, and nights of despondent sleeplessness that must be their
                   portion during the absence of their children, they send their loved ones forth to
                   the battle. These are the sacrifices which "the women of the revolution" are
                   An incident that occurred in this city yesterday, which is mentioned in another
                   part of this paper, illustrates the spirit that prevails among the ladies of the
                   South at this moment. A soldier arrives mortally wounded from the field; the
                   lady to whom he is engaged-one standing high on account of her attractive
                   powers, amiable disposition, and unusual talent and acquirement-in order that
                   she may have a wife's sacred right to lavish upon him all her cares, all her
                   wealth of love, all the treasures her heart has hoarded up with a miser's care, to
                   pour upon him when he should be her own-united her fate with his, and his few
                   days will be gladdened, his sufferings lightened, his last moments soothed by
                   the accomplishment of the great wish of his life.
                   When we contrast woman's' devotion, her cares, her toils, her self-immolation,
                   her untiring labors, with what man does in the struggle of war, how striking is
                   the difference! Man's path is strewed with carnage and deluged with blood;
                   devastation, flame and death mark his desolating course; but woman's toils and
                   efforts are all for good. They are glorified with the halo of charity; sympathy,
                   gentleness and kindness immortalize her deeds. She seeks to shelter the house-
                   less, clothe the shivering, cure the sick, and assuage the sufferings of the

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                                                                                       April 17, 1862

                 wounded. With such attributes of affection and mercy about her, a sacred
                 beauty, a holy purity environs her, and consecrates her works of mercy.
                 The history of the Southern revolution that will be read by future generations,
                 will recount great deeds performed by brave and gallant men, heroes who died
                 on the battle-field for their country's gain; but the story will be one of destruc-
                 tion and death. How bright will be the page in which "the women of the revolu-
                 tion" are mentioned-with what reverence will their deeds be regarded—what a
                 solemn sanctity will enshroud their memories! Earnestly will the women of the
                 future commend to the imitation of their daughters the lofty virtues of "the
                 women of the revolution."
                                                                Memphis Appeal, April 17, 1862.

April 17, 1862 - Illegal cotton trade with the North in East Tennessee and Georgia

                 "Tennessee Vindicated"
                 A letter from Chattanooga to the Atlanta Confederacy says:
                 Much has been said and written of late concerning the clandestine cotton spec-
                 ulation by traitorous East Tennesseeans. That much of it is true, we have no
                 sort of doubt. This sort of game has been going on for months, and it is well
                 known that there is, at this time, more cotton stored away in East Tennessee
                 than has been during any one year for the past twenty. But it is known, also,
                 that Tennesseans are not alone in this nefarious business. A few traitorous
                 Georgians have a finger in the pie; also, many of them have co-operated with
                 the East Tennessee speculators by selling them cotton when they knew it was
                 to be shipped to certain points on the East Tennessee and Virginia and East
                 Tennessee railroads, to await the arrival of Lincoln's army when it would be
                 immediately transmitted to Yankeedom.
                 Not only this, it is even asserted, upon good authority, that Georgians have
                 formed partnerships with Tennesseeans, and have bought up and shipped cot-
                 ton to the line of the East Tennessee roads for the purpose of selling it to the
                 Yankees, should they succeed in getting into this country. Now that the plot has
                 been discovered, and further shipment on the State road prohibited, a spas-
                 modic effort is being made to cast the odium wholly upon Tennesseeans. Let
                 justice be done to all; let the truth be known, and let not the Georgia tories
                 attempt to make a scape goat of their brother tories in East Tennessee, when
                 both are alike culpable. A tory is a tory, be it known, whether he breathes the
                 mountain atmosphere of East Tennessee, or sniffs the balmy breeze of the gal-
                 lant Empire State.NOTE 1
                                                                Memphis Appeal, April 17, 1862.

           NOTE 1: Georgia.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 141
April 17, 1862

April 17, 1862 - Military Governor Andrew Johnson favors release of Tennessee prisoners of
                  war who affirm they will take the oath of allegiance

                   EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1862.
                   Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
                   SIR: Inclosed herewith I send a petition from certain members of Tennessee
                   regiments at Camp Douglas in which they express a strong desire to renew
                   their allegiance to the Government and become true and loyal citizens.
                   I will only state in presenting this petition for the consideration of the War
                   Department that whenever circumstances shall justify the discharge of prison-
                   ers of war from this State entertaining such views and feelings as are set forth
                   by these petitioners their reappearance among their friends and relatives will I
                   doubt not exert a great moral influence in favor of the perpetuity of the Union.
                   With great respect, your obedient servant,
                   ANDREW JOHNSON.
                   CAMP DOUGLAS, April 10, 1862.
                   To His Excellency ANDREW JOHNSON.
                   Governor of the State of Tennessee:
                   Your petitioners of the Forty-second, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth
                   Regiments of Tennessee Volunteers, [recruited in] the counties of Stewart,
                   Montgomery, Robertson, Dixon, Cheatham, Humphreys, Hickman and Perry
                   captured at Fort Donelson and now held as prisoners of war at Camp Douglas,
                   being desirous of being released and wishing to return to our homes and fami-
                   lies in our native State as true and loyal citizens of the Union, in confirmation
                   of which we are willing to take the oath of allegiance and hold it inviolate. In
                   view of your political and personal influence with the Federal Government
                   together with the interest you have with hitherto and we believe still feel for
                   the people of Tennessee, has induced us to make this petition to you hoping
                   that you will use your influence in our behalf.
                   We, the orderly sergeants of the different regiments, express the sentiments of
                   our respective companies.
                   [Names of petitioners omitted.]
                                                                   OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, pp. 457-458.

April 17, 1862 - Soldiers' complaints in Murfreesboro

                   Murfreesboro' Barracks.
                   We have received a communication signed MANY SOLDIERS, from Mur-
                   freesboro, which makes some grave complaints about the want not only of

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                                                                                        April 17, 1862

                  comforts but of actual necessities for the benefit of the sick soldiers at that
                  place. The letter states that the General Hospital is crowded to excess; that the
                  barracks for the convalescent are also overrun and there are no sleeping
                  accommodations, no [decent?] cots nor mattrasses; that there is a [lack of?]
                  medicine, no accommodations for [illegible] and proper cleanliness, no fuel
                  [illegible] no nurses. If these statements be true, immediate attention should be
                  given by the military authorities to the condition of the suffering soldiers. No
                  reasonable want of one who has offered himself to the service of his country
                  should be neglected. Gratitude as well as humanity demands that all such evils
                  [herein?] complained of by our Murfreesboro' correspondents be promptly cor-
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 17, 1862

April 17, 1862 - Confederate soldier John Offield's letter to his father

                  Kingston Tenn. Apr 17th '62
                  Mr. Joseph Offield Snr.
                  Dear Father:.
                  . . . I was sorry to hear of James enlisting for I know he cannot stand the fatigue
                  of a camp-life. It is hard enough for me to keep up much less a man who has
                  the Rheumatism. I don't want you to let him go, and tell [him] that I said he
                  cant stand it 3 months before he will be sent to the hospital. . . We have had
                  several very hard trips since we left Knoxville and have stood them very well.
                  On our last near the Cumberland river, we had a fight with some Yankee home
                  guards as they call themselves, though we call them jay-hawkers. They killed
                  as you are already informed, 2 of our boys. . . Henry Haley and Samuel Jones
                  [and they] wounded four. . . C. R. Millard[?] O. S. Brisco, A P [?] Smith and
                  David Malone. We killed 15 of them and wounded abut 20. There was only
                  four Co. in the fight, and only 17 of our boys there; while the yanks numbered
                  about 120 men. . . The people here and every where we have seen since we left
                  Va. are almost intirely Union, but I believe they are more so here than any
                  place we have been[.] There is a great stir about reenlisting and reorganizing
                  the Regt the first volunteers will not more than half reenlist in that Regt yet
                  they have enough recruits to supply their places[s]. It is also rumored that a law
                  [was] passed in the house of congress to Richmond to impress all the volun-
                  teers now in the field but I think there is nothing of it, brought the conscription
                  Bill did pass; and the; militia are all called out. . .
                  Jno. Offield

                                                                    Offield Correspondence.NOTE 1

            NOTE 1: Leona Taylor Aiken, ed., "Letters from the Offiield Brothers, Confederate
                    Soldiers from Upper East Tennessee," East Tennessee Historical Society
                    Publications, 46, (1974), pp. 116-125. [Hereinafter cited as: Offield Corre-

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 143
April 17, 1862


April 17, 1862 - Memphis military hospital report

                   Wanted at the Irving.-Dr. Fenner has got the Irving Hospital in excellent work-
                   ing trim. His assistants are industrious in the performance of their duties, and
                   the ladies are giving invaluable aid, but serious inconvenience and difficulty is
                   felt on account of the want of servants. There are many who cannot attend to
                   aid in nursing the sufferers themselves, and who by submitting to a little incon-
                   venience at home, can send a negro. Let the wanted aid be given.
                   The Wounded Soldiers.-There are now many wounded soldiers in the hospitals
                   of this city. The ladies, God bless them, are attending upon them with unremit-
                   ting kindness, but many little necessaries and comforts are required for them
                   beyond what are allowed by the government. To procure these, money is
                   wanted, and many of our citizens have contributed nobly. That the public gen-
                   erally, may have the opportunity of rendering their assistance, Prof. Miller has
                   generously undertaken to get up a concert, the proceeds of which will be paid
                   over for the benefit of the wounded soldiers. The concert will take place at the
                   theater on Monday evening next, and we doubt not a substantial amount will be
                   raised for our brave sufferers.
                                                            Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.

April 17, 1862 - The "Free Market" in Memphis

                   The Free Market.-We want our citizens to keep in mind that we have a free
                   market in this city, at which, three times a week, the necessaries of life are dealt
                   out "without money and without price" to the needy families of soldiers in the
                   service of the Confederacy from this city. The following statement, for which
                   we are obliged to T. A. Nelson and H. B. Chiles, Esqs., shows what the society
                   that sustains the "free market" is doing:; We are now feeding, of soldiers' fami-
                   lies, 4,109 which consumes each week 2,318 lbs. bacon, 265 lbs. flour, 50
                   bushels peas, 900 lbs. rice, 75 bushels potatoes, 2,000 lbs. sugar, 120 gallons
                   molasses, 55 bushels corn meal; 2 sacks salt, 4 boxes soap; also vegetables
                   when we have them; the value of which is $1,456.95. The applications for
                   relief are increasing from week to week. The funds on hand are ample for
                   present purposes, and we rely confidently on the liberality of our citizens in
                   sustaining the society for the future. We are desired to say that the society
                   would be very thankful to country friends if they would send vegetables or any
                   other produce of the farm or the garden they can spare, to No. 10 Shelby street,
                   between Union and Gayoso, for distribution. They can thus afford valuable
                   assistance to a noble object.
                                                            Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.

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April 17, 1862 - Thirty rented slaves sought to tend wounded and sick Confederate soldiers

                 The Wounded Soldiers.-We want to hire thirty negro men to serve at the vari-
                 ous hospitals in the city. Parties having negroes will comfort and relieve the
                 wounded soldier, by sending them to the hospitals, and will receive for their
                 services twenty-five dollars per month.
                 W. O. Lofland, Sec'y and Treas. of the Committee for the Relief of Wounded
                                                         Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - "The Conscript Act"

                 We are indebted to Governor Harris for the following synopsis of the Conscript
                 Act of the Confederate Congress, telegraphed to him by the Secretary of War:
                 OF WAR.
                 As act has passed both Houses of Congress, placing in the military service of
                 the Confederate States for three years, or the war, all persons between eighteen
                 and thirty-five years of age, who are not legally exempt from military service.
                 All twelve month volunteers between these ages to serve two years from the
                 term of their enlistment, and all of them under eighteen and over thirty-five to
                 remain ninety days, unless their places are sooner supplied by recruits. The
                 twelve months men who have not yet received bounty or furloughs are to have
                 them-the furloughs to be granted in such numbers and at suited times, as the
                 Secretary of War may deem compatible with the public service.
                 Re-enlistments, for the purpose of changing from one regiment, battalion or
                 company to another, unless already perfected by actual transfer, are in effect
                 canceled; and all authorities to raise new corps are vacated, unless within thirty
                 days from the passage of the act the organization is complete and has the requi-
                 site number of recruited from persons not now in the service. Companies of
                 infantry are to have one hundred and twenty-five, field artillery one hundred
                 and fifty, cavalry eighty.
                 All corps of twelve months volunteers shall have the right, within forty days,
                 on a day to be fixed by the commander of the brigade, to elect all their officers
                 which they had a right heretofore to elect—such officers to be commissioned
                 by the President.
                 All white males between eighteen and thirty five subject to military duty and
                 not now in service, are to be enrolled and mustered in and sent to the old regi-
                 All discharges from expiration of term of service and transfers of re-enlisting
                 to new corps will be immediately stopped.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 145
April 18, 1862

                   G. W. RANDOLPH, Sec'y of War.
                                                                    Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - Instructions to attack and disperse Unionists leaving East Tennessee

                   HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 18, 1862.
                   Col. JOHN C. VAUGHN, Cmdg., &c., Kingston, Tenn.:
                   COL.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you that large
                   numbers of Union men are leaving this and adjoining counties, intending to go
                   through the passes of the Cumberland into Kentucky. He directs that all the dis-
                   posable cavalry of your command be sent with the utmost dispatch to operate
                   between Clinton and the north valley of Powell's River and intercept them in
                   their attempt. Few of them are armed.
                   You will give the officer commanding the cavalry instructions to attack and
                   disperse these men wherever they may be found.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                                     OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 429.

April 18, 1862 - "Has Memphis Done Its Duty?"

                   •See August 9, 1862--"Where are the Young Tennesseans?"
                   It is a common thing for strangers, on arriving in this city, to express surprise at
                   the large numbers of men, out of uniform, they meet with in the streets. They
                   have just arrived from a little town, or village, that has patriotically put forth its
                   strength, and sent out its sons to the war. The place for weeks before they left
                   was in a blaze of enthusiasm, and excitement was at a fever height. They arrive
                   at Memphis, and see hundreds of persons daily thronging the streets, who bear
                   about them no mark of connection with military affairs; they also hear the top-
                   ics of the day discussed with dispassionate calmness, and to their eye—just
                   dazzled with the brilliant and certainly honorable display of the patriotism of
                   the spot they have left—the people with whom they come in contact in Mem-
                   phis appeal cold and indifferent. Strangers reaching this city, under these cir-
                   cumstances, not uncommonly complain that Memphis is apathetic and that it is
                   behind in the discharge of its duty. Volunteers arriving here—full of the zeal
                   that rises when the uniform is first put on, and the musket first handled—have
                   been heard to exclaim: "We came to fight for Memphis, but she does not fight
                   for herself?"
                   This complaint is made sometimes in sorrow, sometimes in anger, but as it is
                   often made with a conviction of its accuracy, it is desirable that the real state of
                   the case should be known. It is true that the fiery enthusiasm which exists in a
                   town, or village, on the departure of a large number of its citizens for the scene

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                                                                                      April 18, 1862

                 of war, is not to be found effervescing daily in our streets. When our first com-
                 panies were raised and left the city, we were not deficient in our display of this
                 quality. Our men shouted as loud and our lady patriots waved their handker-
                 chiefs as eagerly, as can be done anywhere. Enthusiasm is an effervescence,
                 that among a people bent on carrying out a grave purpose, settles down to a
                 feeling of calm, but intense and earnest determination; Memphis has arrived at
                 that point. Enthusiasm is like the dazzling rocket that flies sparkling through
                 the air; the stern resolve of an intelligent people resembles the cannon ball,
                 which presents little that is taking to the eye, but accomplishes its purpose with
                 deadly energy. It is also to be remembered that the military display that so
                 attracts the notice of the stranger, and so profoundly moves him, is a daily
                 spectacle in our streets, and has ceased to be novel. So much for what has been
                 mistaken for cold feeling. We have next to notice the charge that while people
                 have their homes to fight for Memphis, Memphis does not fight for itself.
                 The stranger entering our city and promenading the streets is not naturally sur-
                 prised to find so many persons walking about, lingering at the street corners, in
                 the hotel parlors, and about public places, having apparently little or no occu-
                 pation, yet being, for anything the spectator can discover, unconnected with the
                 army. We first call the stranger's attention to the fact, that he is necessarily
                 unable to tell, whether her crowds he meets in the streets are principally citi-
                 zens of the place, or whether they are mostly strangers; he generally supposes
                 that, with small exception, they are Memphis people. This supposition is erro-
                 neous. Our city has for some time been in the neighborhood of live operations;
                 this has caused an influx of all sorts of persons having business with the camps
                 or on a visit to friends in the army. It is also the report of refugees from Ken-
                 tucky, Missouri, Nashville, and all that part of Tennessee now invaded by the
                 enemy. Here ordnance stores, clothing, artillery, provisions, etc., have been
                 obtained, forwarded, or made for the army. Here transportation, quartermas-
                 ters, ordnance, and other government offices are located and ma[jor offic]es for
                 recruiting have been opened. Here the Legislature has met, and here state and
                 county business, and business connected with the Confederate States, has been
                 transacted. Here also persons on travel arrive in large numbers by river and
                 railroad and the interruption of the ordinary regularity of transit, frequently
                 detains people here for days, who, in ordinary times, would remain but for a
                 few hours, or simply pass on them without stopping.
                 Let the reader class in his mind clerks, mechanics, shipbuilders, laborers, and
                 the many "hangers-on" that are always near an army, passing backward and
                 forward, and he can easily imagine that we must necessarily at this time—with
                 active operations at Fort Pillow on one side of us, and at Corinth on the other,
                 beside our connection with what has been up the White and Arkansas rivers—
                 we have an unusual influx of strangers not only arriving and departing, but
                 remaining in our midst. A large portion of these, although in government ser-
                 vice and connected with the army, wear no uniforms, and are taken for civil-
                 ians. We may also remark that when members of the army, belonging in the
                 city, are here on furlough or on business, it is usual for them, when not directly

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 147
April 18, 1862

                   on service, to put aside the attire of the camp, and appear in public in their ordi-
                   nary dress.
                   We think the stranger, disposed to censure the people of Memphis, who reads
                   this, will acknowledge that the matter now appears under a different aspect.
                   For the correctness of our statement, we would, in the first place, refer the
                   reader to the hotel registers. He will find that, throughout the winter, the arriv-
                   als have been immense, much larger than when the city was open to travel to
                   and from the whole United States. By inquiry of the hotel clerks, he will find
                   that frequently the Gayoso, Worsham, and other hotels, have been compelled
                   to send away all who arrived after nine o'clock in the evening. In the second
                   place, we could ask the censorious, especially if they have visited Memphis
                   before, to look in at our banks, office stores, and counting-rooms, and observe
                   how few clerks and assistants are at work, compared with what is usual. Even
                   the entire stranger cannot help being struck when his attention is called to this;
                   to those who knew this city before the late changes, the difference will be star-
                   tlingly perceptible. We might mention other matters, but the above will amply
                   suffice to convince the candid mind, that the number of Memphis people now
                   in Memphis is very much less than is usual, while the number of strangers
                   present in Memphis is much more than usual.
                   We had thought of speaking of the vast proportion of our male population who
                   have forsaken their usual occupations for the field; and of telling of the enor-
                   mous contributions that have been and are now made here for the war, for the
                   comfort of soldiers in the camp for fitting out companies, for aiding sick and
                   wounded soldiers, for the support of the families of soldiers, and for other
                   objects, in which the property of our citizens has been unstintedly lavished in
                   behalf of the patriotic object which the united South is fighting. Such an enu-
                   meration of our efforts. . . though intended to relieve our city, from a mistaken
                   and undeserved imputation might be mistaken for a vain parade of what we
                   have done-not for the purposes of making a display and winning praise, but for
                   our fair country's cause. We, therefore, rest our case on the explanation given
                   and fear not that the candid and conscientious reader, when asked "Has Mem-
                   phis done its duty?" will unhesitatingly reply in the affirmative.
                                                                   Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - Federal order to terminate the transport of dead Confederates to Kentucky

                   April 18th, 1862
                   Head Quarters 7th Brigade
                   April 18th, 1862
                   Capt. Green-

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                                                                                     April 18, 1862

                 Direct guards to stop the Transfer of deceased Rebels to Kentucky or Else-
                 where north.
                 By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley, Comdg. Post
                                                           Records of Adjutant General's Office

April 18, 1862 - Federal scout in the Trezevant environs, and railroad bridge burned over
                  the north fork of the Obion river burned by Confederates

                 "BRIDGE BURNED."
                 The Federals appear to be moving beyond Humboldt and some consternation
                 has been excited by their proceedings. Sixty-four cavalry soldiers, some infan-
                 try, and a battery are reported to be quartered ten or eleven miles beyond Treze-
                 vant, on the McLemore and Paris road. They made search on Friday [18th] in
                 the house of a gentleman in that neighborhood for the proprietor, who has been
                 a government agent furnishing provisions. He escaped their hands and escaped
                 to this city. A general threat has been made that if any of the LINCOLN pickets
                 are killed, the inhabitants will be held responsible.
                 On Friday a report, we are informed, was prevalent that the enemy were com-
                 ing down in full forces; for this or some other reason, it is stated, Capt. CLAI-
                 BORNE, who is in command of our cavalry in that direction, gave orders to
                 have the bridge over the north fork of the Obion destroyed. The bridge was
                 burned and a considerable portion of trestle work with it. The bridge was one
                 hundred and thirty feet span, and one of the best on the Memphis and Ohio rail-
                 road. It was situated between the Trezevant and McKenzie stations. There is no
                 rolling stock beyond the burned bridge.NOTE 1
                                                                Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862

           NOTE 1: Neither the bridge burning nor the Federal scout are indexed in the OR nor
                   referenced in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

April 18, 1862 - Military Governor Andrew Johnson and a Nashville housing problem

                 Amusing Dialogue.
                 A very entertaining dialogue occurred some days ago in the Governor's office,
                 between Governor Johnson and two rebel ladies of this city, who had come to
                 complain of the occupation of a residence belong to the rebel husband of one
                 of the ladies, by a Federal officer. The conversation was substantially as fol-
                    Lady. I think it is too dreadful for a woman in my lonesome condition to
                 have her property exposed to injury and destruction.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 149
April 18, 1862

                       Governor. Well, Madam, I will inquire into the matter, and if any injustice
                   has been done, will try to have it corrected. But your husband, you admit, has
                   gone off with the rebels, and you abandoned your dwelling.
                      Lady. My husband went off South because it was to his interest to do so.
                   You musn't find fault with anybody for taking care of himself these times. You
                   know, Governor, that all things are justifiable in war.
                       Governor. Well, Madam, it appears to me that this broad rate of yours will
                   justify taking possession of your house. According to your maxim, I don't see
                   any reason for helping you out of your difficulty.
                        Lady. Oh! but I didn't mean it that way.
                       Governor. No, Madam, I suppose not. I will try to be more generous to you
                   than your own rule would make me. I do not believe in your rule that "all
                   things are justifiable in time of war." But that it is just what you rebels insist
                   upon. It is perfectly right and proper for you to violate the laws, to destroy this
                   Government, but it is all wrong for us to execute the laws to maintain the Gov-
                   The rebel ladies looked around in various directions, and seemed to think that
                   they had opened a knotty argument on a dangerous subject, with a very hard
                   adversary. Heaving a long sigh, they retired, to become, we earnestly hope,
                   "wiser and better men."
                                                            Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - "Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich rebels to the victims
                  whom they have trapped in their damnable net."

                   Rebel Liberality to the Poor.
                   Some "Old Treasures"—The Poor Used as Catspaws by Rich Rebels.
                   In the Nashville Union and American of April 22d, 1861, the bloody-minded
                   Secession organ which called for confiscation, banishment, imprisonment and
                   hanging for all who remained loyal to the Union, we find this exceedingly
                   magnanimous and stirring offer from one of our citizens. The editor of the
                   Union calls it—
                   The Voice of a Venerable Patriot.—R. C. Foster, Sr., sends to the Patriot the
                   following patriotic proposition, which we gladly publish:
                   ["]Nashville, April 22, 1861.
                       To the Editors of the Patriot: From age and infirmity I am unable to do ser-
                   vice on the battle-field for the rights of the South; but I am a volunteer with any
                   number of Tennesseans under like disability, to pay annually to the Governor
                   of Tennessee two hundred dollars for the comfort and support of the wives and
                   children of the citizens soldiers of Tennessee, whilst serving in defence of the
                   constitutional rights of the South.

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                                                                                       April 18, 1862

                 R. C. Foster, Sr.["]
                 Noble, warm and generous proposition! It does credit to humanity. The prom-
                 ise held out is splendid. We have no doubt that many a poor mechanic, many a
                 needy laborer as he embraced and kissed his wife and children before going
                 into the rebel army pointed his family to this generous card, and consoled them
                 in their bitter bereavement by exhibiting it all-comprehensive philanthropy.
                 What about the fulfillment of the promise? Has it ever happened? Who has
                 heard of it being done? What has become of this fostering care so kindly
                 pledged to the poor? Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich
                 rebels to the victims whom they have trapped in their damnable net. We pub-
                 lished the other day a list of cards from wealthy Nashville rebels, similar to the
                 one which we have given above, in the magnificence of their promises and the
                 nothingness of their fulfillment. Yes, confiding and misguided men have been
                 seduced from their country's flag, and their dependent families, and are now
                 wandering utterly deserted, friendless and penniless, in distant States, aban-
                 doned by the very tempters whose poisoned tongues and hollow professions
                 corrupted, misled and ruined them. The Secretary of the Sanitary Commission
                 at St. Louis wrote to Gov. Johnson on the 19th of March, that citizens of Ten-
                 nessee formerly belonging to the rebel army were "wandering through the
                 streets of that city without the means of living or returning to their homes."
                 Gov. Johnson called upon the men of this place who had made so grandilo-
                 quent promises for aid, but not one dollar has been given! There is the real
                 spirit of the Secession leaders. They are eager to use the poor as tools to do
                 their work, and then cast them contemptuously away when they have got into
                 power. The rebel organ itself, the Nashville Union and American, could not
                 refrain from rebuking the extortion practiced by the wealthy upon the poor, and
                 denounced it in its issue of September 18, 1861, in these terms:
                 ["]We have an army of women in our midst, with an average of three children
                 each, whose husbands are fighting out battles. These mothers earn about thirty
                 cents a day, when they can get the work to do. Their helpless offspring are clad
                 in the thin and worn garments of last spring, shoeless and stockingless. They
                 are to be shod and clothed for the winter, and fed, even if it be upon cheap
                 bread alone. Yesterday reminded us that they must have fires to protect them
                 from "winter's chilly blasts." There is within the limits of the city a sufficiency
                 of coal. If economically used, to last until spring. This coal cost only peace
                 prices to mine and deliver it here, and twenty days ago, as we are informed, it
                 could have been bought at twenty cents per bushel, and a handsome bonus
                 would have been paid to the person who would have found a purchaser,
                 because it would have been a good speculation on the part of holders to have
                 sold out at that rate. Yesterday thirty five and forty cents per bushel were
                 demanded, with an intimation that to day the price may be fifty cents.
                 In the name of humanity, shall this army of women and helpless children, the
                 wives and children of the brave men who are paying their lives that we may
                 have peace and independence—freeze, because the exorbitant prices
                 demanded by holders had placed coal out of the reach of their limited means?

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 151
April 18, 1862

                   A more gloomy prospect for winter certainly never has hung over the poor of
                   this city and especially in cases where the heads of families have gone to drive
                   the invaders from Southern soil. Almost every necessity of life has gone up to
                   worse even than famine prices. It really seems as if sharpers had combined to
                   monopolize the trade, and to fatten upon the necessities of those who are fight-
                   ing the battles of their country. We hear one universal complaint that the prices
                   of almost every comfort as well as necessity, are exorbitantly high. The people,
                   who [illegible] now by their labor than they did before the war commenced,
                   cannot [illegible] stand or appreciate this [illegible] advance and they naturally
                   conclude that speculators are at the [illegible] We are at a loss to how the poor
                   of Nashville are to be cared for the coming winter, under the circumstances that
                   surround us.
                   The course pursued by tradesmen generally in the South has produced a great
                   deal of discontent, and not without apparent reason.["]
                   Here we have a picture of wretchedness and suffering in the families of those
                   who had gone off after these enemies of their race, Harris, Bishop, Polk,
                   Cheatham, and others, which is enough to chill one's blood. And this is pre-
                   cisely the goal of suffering to which this hellish rebellion is hurrying the
                   masses with the swiftness of Niagara's rapid. The rich rebels and those belong-
                   ing to the "first families," (which usually means those who manage to live
                   without working or paying their debts,) get good offices, or else amass fortunes
                   by speculating off the necessities and miseries of the poor.
                                                              Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - Newspaper editorial condemning cruelty to animals

                   Cowper wrote—
                   "I would not enter on my list of friends
                   (Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,
                   Yet wanting in sensibility,) the man
                   Who needlessly sets foot on a worm.
                   This sentiment was forcibly brought to mind the other day as we were passing
                   along the street, by observing a fellow belaboring a horse most unmercifully
                   for some fancied obstinacy in the animal, which, after all, was the result of the
                   manner in which he had been trained, harnessed and driven. It seemed impossi-
                   ble for the horse to understand or comply with the wishes of the man who
                   drove him, and flying into a towering passion, John fell upon and beat him in a
                   most cruel manner. This, however, did not make the horse do as he desired
                   him, and he was forced to treat him kindly before he could get him to budge in
                   the direction he was trying to force him.
                   Cruelty to animals is one of the most common evils of the day, and exhibitions
                   of it are to be seen on almost every street. It is no uncommon thing to see a

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                                                                                         April 18, 1862

                 horse or mule forced to pull a dray with almost double the weight upon that a
                 prudent man would be willing his horse or mule should pull, and if he falters or
                 exhibits weariness, the driver pounds him soundly for it. It is no wonder horses
                 and mules driven in drays wear out so soon. The hard usage to which they are
                 usually subjected is not only cruel, but calculated to render them worthless in a
                 very short time. We believe that more of this evil is seen in the cities and towns
                 than in the country. In the latter, men are more careful with their horses, and the
                 consequence is they last longer, and are not only more valuable, but more ser-
                 viceable. The opinion has been advanced, and we believe it to be a correct one,
                 too, that he will unnecessarily give pain to the most insignificant of animals,
                 has not the disposition to make an agreeable companion or a fast friend. It is
                 generally the case that he who is in the habit of wantonly torturing animals, and
                 especially those that are so serviceable as the horse, is destitute of those finer
                 sensibilities which adorn the human character, and wants but the power and
                 opportunity to give pain to beings like himself.
                 There is a law of our State which makes cruelty to domestic animals a misde-
                 meanor. In sections 1668 to 1672 of the code of Tennessee, it is provided that
                 "if any person cruelly beat, torture, or use any horse, ox, dog, or other animal
                 in which individuals may have a property, whether his own or a third person's,
                 he shall forfeit fifty dollars for each offence, to any person who will sue there-
                 for; that "any person who in any way disfigures such an animal not his own, so
                 as not to fall within the provisions," just cited, "shall forfeit twenty-five dollars
                 for each offence," and "it is the duty of justices of the peace, sheriffs and con-
                 stables to see that the foregoing provisions of law for the protection of animals
                 are carried out; and in such cases, the officer bringing the offender to justice, is
                 entitled, besides his legal costs, to one-half the penalty, the other half to go to
                 the treasury of the county." These provisions "do not affect the right of the
                 owner of an injured animal to suit for damages, nor do away with the penalties
                 of the criminal code in such cases." "If either of the offences mentioned in this
                 article is committed by a slave, he may be punished by not less than ten nor
                 more than thirty-nine stripes, under the order of any justice of the peace before
                 whom he is brought and convicted."
                 The corporation law of this city is not so severe, but sufficiently so to prevent
                 the evil to which we refer. It provides that any person who shall be guilty of
                 cruelty to any beast of burthen by violent and unusual treatment, by beating or
                 otherwise, within the limits of this corporation, shall be subject to a penalty of
                 not less than one nor more than ten dollars for each offence.
                 The law, both State and city, is very explicit on this point, and there are num-
                 berless cases in which it would be a righteous act to enforce it.
                                                               Nashville Dispatch, April 18, 1862.

April 18, 1862 - April 19, 1862 - Confederate foraging expedition from Trenton to Ripley

                 HEADQUARTERS [C. S. ] CAVALRY, Ripley, Tenn., April 19, 1862.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 153
April 19, 1862

                   Col. THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Corinth:
                   In compliance with orders received per telegraph from headquarters of the
                   army, I marched my command from Trenton to this place, arriving yesterday.
                   Have reported to the Gen. commanding at Pillow. I find a great scarcity of hay,
                   fodder, and oats in this neighborhood; sufficient corn to subsist the animals for
                   ten or fifteen days. I consider the Forked Deer very effectually obstructed, and
                   I am of the opinion that the enemy will not attempt to come to Key Corner, and
                   hence by land to Fort Pillow. The country between Trenton and Dyersburg I
                   consider the richest portion of the State of Tennessee; abundant supply of
                   bacon, corn, and hay. The owners are anxious to dispose of these articles to the
                   Confederacy. The commissary of my command will be able to purchase flour,
                   meal, and bacon for the regiment in the neighborhood, and will have to draw
                   supply of sugar, coffee, and other rations from Pillow. From a description of
                   the country, I am satisfied that my line could be best protected by moving back
                   toward Dyersburg some ten miles. I have now under my command eight com-
                   panies of my regiment proper and two independent companies.
                   I consider it best to merge the two. Capt. Haywood, whose company belongs to
                   the regiment, has not reported to me, and says that he is independent of the
                   command, under the orders of Gen. Beauregard. Since his joining the army he
                   has manifested a spirit of insubordination which, if it is not checked, will ruin
                   this regiment. He needs bringing into harness and I respectfully request of the
                   general commanding that he be ordered to report to me. Capt. D. G. Reed, who
                   has a squad of fifteen men operating about Union City and Dresden, Is bring-
                   ing a bad name upon the cavalry of this country by taking horses from Union
                   and Southern men and not respecting private property. I am well satisfied that
                   these independent companies, thrown loose upon the country, are a disgrace
                   and nuisance to the community where they may chance to serve. Being aware
                   that the general commanding is anxious to have these irregularities corrected, I
                   have taken the liberty of reporting them.
                   I am, colonel, with high respect, your obedient servant,
                   W. H. JACKSON, Col. of Cavalry.
                                                            OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 304-305.

April 19, 1862 - Confederate bridge destruction at Purdy

                   Bethel, Tenn., April 23, 1862.
                   Maj. LAWRENCE L. BUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., First Army Corps:
                   MAJ.: I have the honor to state, for the information of the major-general com-
                   manding this corps, that on Saturday evening last I received a telegraphic com-
                   munication from Gen. Beauregard, directing me to "send forthwith a strong
                   working party to obstruct roads in advance of Purdy."
                   This order I immediately complied with by a detail, all told, of about 180, with
                   two days' cooked rations, under a field officer, accompanied by Maj. Lea, chief

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                                                                                     April 19, 1862

                 engineer, and had the party on the road by day Sunday morning, the order hav-
                 ing been received too late Saturday evening to move infantry, but in the mean
                 time I had Lieut.-Col. Brewer's cavalry at Purdy at work on Saturday [19th]
                 night destroying bridges.
                 The work not being fully completed I defer a report. . .
                 S. B. MAXEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                          OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 434-435.

April 19, 1862 - Authorities ordered to repress Union resistance to Confederate conscription
                  in East Tennessee

                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 19, 1862.
                 Maj. W. L. EAKIN, Cmdg., &c., Morristown, Tenn.:
                 MAJ.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you, in response
                 to your communication of 18th instant, that you will arrest all Union leaders
                 who circulate exaggerated reports of the military draft, and thereby induce
                 ignorant men to fly their homes and go to Kentucky.
                 Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                          OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 429-430.

April 19, 1862 - Governor Isham G. Harris defends managers of the Memphis and Charles-
                  ton Railroad from charges of incompetence and disloyalty by Confederate
                  military officials

                 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Memphis, Tenn., April 19, 1862.
                 Gen. SLAUGHTER:
                 Having learned that the managers of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad are
                 censured to some extent, and even suspected of disloyalty, by the military
                 authorities, from the fact that a part of the rolling stock and machinery of that
                 road fell into the hands of the enemy when Huntsville was captured. I do not
                 propose to enter upon explanation as to who is responsible for this misfortune.
                 I leave them to make their own explanations, and only desire to state, as a mat-
                 ter of justice to the president and superintendent of that road, that I have for
                 years known those gentleman intimately, and know the fact that they were
                 zealous and industrious Southern-rights men at a time when the overwhelming
                 majority of our people were Union men, and when a man was more or less odi-
                 ous if regarded as a secessionist.
                 Though differing with me on other political questions, they earnestly supported
                 me and my policy throughout this revolution and from the beginning of the

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 155
April 19, 1862

                       war. I know of no two gentlemen in the State who have been more disposed to
                       sacrifice their time, their energies, and their private fortunes for the promotion
                       of the cause of the Confederate States. There are none whose loyalty I would
                       be more willing to trust. As railroad men they have been heretofore eminently
                       successful, and certainly possess very high business qualifications.
                       This much I have deemed it proper to say as a matter of justice to them.
                       Very respectfully,
                       ISHAM G. HARRIS.
                                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt, p. 56.

April 19, 1862 - U. S. Sanitary Commission report on the Murfreesboro barracks

                       U. S. Sanitary Commission Rooms,
                       Nashville, April 18, 1862.
                       Dear Union: I saw an article in your paper of yesterday, complaining of the suf-
                       fering of our soldiers in the hospital and barracks at Murfreesboro'. I visited
                       them immediately, and find that all has been done for the sick there that could
                       be done. There was a time when the Hospital was filled to overflowing; and
                       there was no doubt suffering for a few days, such as we would be glad to avoid,
                       and which is now remedied.
                       The Barracks are in very good condition; the rooms clean, the men under good
                       discipline, and had enough of good food.
                       As the result of my visit, I can say that I believe that Dr. Wm. N. Eames, sur-
                       geon in charge of Hospital and Barracks, and Dr. R. N. Millikin, who gives all
                       his time to the Barracks are both deserving of praise for their successful labors.
                       We sympathize with the sick soldier, away from home and home comforts, and
                       fully realize that they often do and must suffer privations unused to them at
                       their homes. We are sending them the donations prepared for them by the
                       friends they have left behind them, which we hope will add to their comfort.
                       A. N. Read, Sanitary Inspector.

                                                         Nashville Daily Union, April 19, 1862. NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 19, 1862 - Nashville's female teachers and the oath

                       Some of the female teachers in the city are highly enraged at the Union
                       because it advocates administering the oath of loyalty to them. We can't help it.
                       We are not only in favor of administering the oath to all ladies who are
                       employed in the public schools in training up our children, but to make the
                       business certain we would like to administer the oath ourselves to all the pretty

Page 156 — April 1862                                                 TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                       April 20, 1862

                  ones. We have a way of clinching it and making it stick. It softens the tempers
                  of the angelic creatures. When they are done taking our version of the oath,
                  they look as placid, as contented and as blissful as if they had been saying their
                  prayers. Come along, girls, and hold up our hands!

                                                    Nashville Daily Union, April 19, 1862. NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 19, 1862 - Nashville High Schools close as a result of war

                  The High School department of the city schools has been discontinued. This
                  step has been taken because of the want of funds to meet the expenses of that
                  and the other departments. In the present deranged condition of affairs gener-
                  ally, it is found impossible to make collections to meet all the expenses of the
                  city schools, and it has been deemed advisable by the Board of Education to
                  discontinue for the present the exercises in the higher department, which is the
                  most expensive. the other departments will be continued as heretofore.
                                                               Nashville Dispatch, April 19, 1862.


                  Notwithstanding the presence of the Lincoln soldiery in Clarksville, they have
                  been unable to squeeze out the patriotism of the ladies of that city. A corre-
                  spondent writes us as follows:
                  'Secesh girls in Clarksville, Tenn., are conquered but not subdued; for they
                  have, right under the very noses of their Yankee oppressors, formed themselves
                  into a bona fide company, well drilled, which they call, very appropriately, and
                  doubtless in derision of the well-known feats of said oppressors, "The Rebel
                  Masked Battery." They appear on the street frequently in complete Confederate
                  uniform, which consists of rather a short grey dress, blue stripes down the
                  sides, coat sleeves, blue cuffs, tight waists, with blue lapels, standing collars,
                  secession cravats, and the whole profusely trimmed with gold lace and brass
                  buttons, ad infinitum. Turned up black hats with a long black feather in front,
                  with a gold star and white buckskin gauntlets. Complete the dress: deadly pis-
                  tol and dagger; there are about seventy-five in the company. The Federals are
                  on the qui vive to find out where the young ladies drill, but that they manage to
                  conceal with woman's usual strategy. Hurrah, for the Clarksville girls.
                  We suggest that the Feds at Clarksville had
                  "Better let the girls alone."
                                                                 Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 157
April 20, 1862

April 20, 1862 - "The Reported Mutiny at Nashville."

                       We have heretofore noticed reports brought to this city, of mutinies among the
                       Federal troops at Nashville. Here is another report, which we find in the Knox-
                       ville Register, to which paper it was telegraphed from Chattanooga on the 3d
                       A distinguished Missourian, just from Middle Tennessee, brings important
                       He reports that a Kentucky regiment rebelled near Nashville a few days since
                       on account of Lincoln's recent message. Two Indiana regiments were drawn
                       out to suppress them. The Kentuckians ordered them to halt at a distance of
                       sixty yards. The Indianians refused, when the Kentuckians fired upon them,
                       killing and wounding four hundred. The remainder ran.
                       They buried, he says, two hundred and eighty who died in six days, last week,
                       near, Columbia from small pox.
                       He reports the Federal army rapidly becoming demoralized on account of the
                       constant killing of their pickets, and the approach of summer. This is
                       reliable.NOTE 1
                                                                       Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862.

                 NOTE 1: Sources offering independent corroboration of this unique story have not yet
                         been located. There were probably more deaths by small pox than deaths re-
                         sulting from the reported mutiny. In any event if there was a mutiny the
                         number of dead must be grossly exagerated. The story is most likely a rumor
                         of war.

April 20, 1862 - The Bank of Tennessee and the United States Court in Nashville

                       The Nashville Union, of April 20, has these items:
                       "We are told that the Bank of Tennessee, and perhaps, the other banks, have
                       removed their deposits and all their specie into the Southern Confederacy. If
                       this be so, it is a gross outrage on the rights of the depositors, and the officers
                       should be held strictly accountable. Let it be investigated forthwith. The
                       amount placed in the Bank by depositors amounted, accoridng to its own
                       report, to the enornmous sum of $8,865,000. Have the people been robbed of
                       all this by an institution favored with the peculiar privilege by the State?
                       The April Term of the United States Court for the District of Tennessee will
                       commence on Monday (to-morrow) the 21st inst. His Honor Judge Catron,
                       who is now in the city, will preside. It will doubtless be one of the most deeply
                       interesting Courts ever convened in this country."
                                                                       New York Times, April 27, 1862.

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                                                                                      April 21, 1862

April 20, 1862 - Death of Wisconsin Governor Louis P. Harvey at Savannah, Tennessee

                  CAIRO, ILL., April 20, 1862.
                  President LINCOLN:
                  Governor Harvey, of Wisconsin, was drowned last night about 11 o'clock at
                  Savannah, on the Tennessee River, while passing from one boat to another. All
                  search for his body had proved fruitless up to the time dispatch left.NOTE 1
                  W. K. STRONG, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                                       OR, Ser. III, Vol. 2, p. 122.

           NOTE 1: Apparently the governor's remains were never found.

April 20, 1862 - Observation on the Confederate flag

                  We saw a young lady on the streets recently with a Confederate flag pinned
                  across her bosom. We guess it was a rebel flag floating over cotton breast-

                                                    Nashville Daily Union, April 20, 1862. NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 21, 1862 - Cyrus F. Boyd's observations relative to the appearance of Shiloh battlefield

                  Weather cool and chilly. Has rained for five days and the roads are impassable.
                  This is the most Godforsaken country I ever saw. We move camp about every
                  day and in the woods all the time. This is one vast graveyard and shall we ever
                  get out to it[.] The rains have washed the earth from the dead men and horses.
                  Skulls and toes      are sticking up from beneath the clay all around and the
                  heavy wagons crush the bodies turning up the bones of the buried, making this
                  one vast Golgotha [.] Sometimes our tents come over a little mound where
                  sleep[s] some unknown soldier who has died for a principle but his survivors
                  have not even marked his last resting place or given him the burial of a faithful
                  dog. What a mockery these lines seem—
                  "lest are the brave who sink to rest
                  With all their Country's wishes best."
                                                                      Boyd Diary, April 21, 1862.

April 21, 1862 - "I cannot do anything in the cotton seed business until the army moves." D.
                   C. Donnohue's letter to Assistant Secretary of the Interior J. P. Usher

                  Savana Tennessee
                  April 21st 1862

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 159
April 21, 1862

                   J. P. Usher Esq
                   Assistant Scty of the Interior
                   Dear Sir
                   I am still at this place which is in the vicinity of the great Battle—we are hav-
                   ing incessant rains—Genl. Pope is arriving with his division of the Army—and
                   I suppose we will now have a forward move, if the roads will at all permit—I
                   cannot do anything in the cotton seed business until the army moves—The
                   seed I have bought are all out of our lines and wagons cannot be had to bring
                   them into the boats—I think I am not mistaken in public sentiment here. The
                   poor or labouring men are the only union men but they cannot easily be
                   brought up to the point of asserting their manhood—Some of the more
                   inteligent of them are pleased with the emancipation of slaves in the District of
                   Columbia - & they hope to [see] the slaves emancipated every where—They
                   say slaves caused the rebellion and ought to suffer—Most of the mechanics
                   talk in this way but mechanics are few and far between here—There are others
                   here to say they are for the Union but some of them who are home plashing
                   Union have two or three substitutes in the rebel army—I do not think that our
                   Military leaders act with Candor or Justice—I have known them to allow men
                   to pass through our lines and insult our soldiers hunting negroes and have more
                   facilities and protection than you could have extended to yourself—I care not
                   on what business you might visit the army unless you might be hunting
                   negroes —I know it is very hard to get along with this slavery question but I do
                   think when if a negro runs off from a traitor to the government that always had
                   protected him in the right to own negros —it asking a great deal from me to
                   have my son to catch and hide the negro until the traitor ties him—Yet other
                   men have it to do who are just [as] good as me or my son it is all wrong—I
                   almost fear that the negroes will prove the utter ruin of our nationality—I have
                   nothing to say about the policy of the government but if it should turn in the
                   end that in attempting to hold four millions of miserable Africans in bondage,
                   twenty six Anglo-Saxons should have their freedom—would it not be a sad
                   comment upon our boasted institutions—It is easy to see the end of this rebel-
                   lion from Washington institutions—It is easy to see the end of this rebellion
                   from Washington City—but when your get in this latitude it seems to have just
                   begun. Our Army has not moved three miles farther sought than where they
                   were camped when they were attacked on the 6th Inst—it is true we drove
                   them from the field on Monday but they fell back in good order and have not
                   been attacked since so you can see that both armies were willing to quit! I learn
                   that the rebels are reinforcing and will fight again in the neighborhood of
                   Corinth Miss—They can better afford to wait better than we and as our army
                   will be unfit for fighting in six weeks from this time on account of sickness—
                   We should drive them or fight them at once as all must see that we have all to
                   loose and nothing to gain by delay—Governor Harvey of Wisconsin, was
                   drowned at this landing night before last—by accidentally stepping over the
                   guard of the boat—That I have been staying on for several days—he was here
                   taking care of and hunting up the wounded from Wisconsin and had been very

Page 160 — April 1862                                            TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                     April 21, 1862

                 active and had most of his wounded on board when by some mistake he steped
                 in the river and was soon our of the each of help. The Gov was a young man of
                 good habits and [it is] said posses more than ordinary talents—I had been in
                 conversation with him not more than five minutes before he was drowned—his
                 friends offer a $1000.00 [reward] for the recovery of his body—but so far have
                 not succeeded in obtaining it.
                 I think I will make some money on cotton if ever our army moves—I have a
                 good chance to do so & will do it but the boats are all in Govt employment, and
                 I have to proced with great caution so as not to have the cotton burned I have
                 not and dont intend to have the vandals to burn anything of mine—I am not to
                 pay them until the cotton gets to Paducah.
                 Will be in Washington as soon as I possibly can—Cant hear any thing from
                 there or any other place—
                 Your Friend
                 D. C. Donnohue
                                                                     Letters of D. C. Donnohue.

April 21, 1862 - April 23, 1862 - Confederate authorities order Mrs. Andrew Johnson and
                  Mrs. Horace Maynard to leave East Tennessee

                 MARSHAL, April 21, 1862.
                 Mrs. ANDREW JOHNSON.
                 MADAM: By Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith I am directed to respectfully require
                 that you and your family pass beyond the C. S. line through Nashville if you
                 please in thirty-six hours. Passports will be granted you at this office.
                 Very respectfully,
                 [W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.
                 April 21, 1862.
                 Mrs. MAYNARD, Knoxville.
                 MADAM: By order of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith I am directed respectfully to
                 require that yourself and family pass beyond the C. S. line in thirty-six hours.
                 W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 23, 1862.
                 Dr. F. A. RAMSEY, Surgeon.
                 DOCTOR: I am directed by the major-general commanding to inform you in
                 response to your communication of this date that Mrs. Maynard will not be

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 161
April 22, 1862

                   required to leave before the expiration of the time at which you state she will
                   be able to bear the fatigue of travel.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                                          OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 883.

April 22, 1862 - Military Governor Johnson favors releasing local Confederate sympathizer
                  Gen. Murray contingent upon his taking the oath of allegiance to the
                  United States

                   EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., April 22, 1862
                   Col. MATTHEWS [Provost Marshal].
                   DEAR SIR: From all that I can learn in connection with Gen. Murray's arrest I
                   am thoroughly satisfied that it would be the better policy to release him upon
                   condition of his renewing his allegiance to the Government and entering into
                   security for a reasonable amount for the faithful observance thereof. I should
                   not hesitate in taking this course if I had caused the arrest to be made. His
                   release will accomplish far more than sending him away. He is a mere militia
                   general, elected by the people, authorized by the militia law and commissioned
                   by the Governor. He was never in the Confederate service as I understand who
                   are to be sent away. I think it would be better to make some examination of
                   their cases before giving them so much importance. It is much better to keep
                   some here so far as affecting the public mind than to send them away. Many of
                   these men are not known beyond their immediate neighborhood, and can exert
                   no influence whatever upon the State or beyond its limits. I think that you or
                   some other person ought to be authorized to make a partial examination at least
                   of these cases before they are dignified with a trip examination at least of these
                   cases before they are dignified with a trip North or any other point beyond the
                   limits of the State.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   ANDREW JOHNSON.
                   P. S. -I hope that you will submit this letter to Capt. Greene as I understand he
                   has control of these cases. If he has not such control then to Gen. Dumont.
                   A. J.
                                                                          OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, p. 470.

April 22, 1862 - Plea to General Beauregard to expedite exchange of Clark's Regiment com-
                   posed of Henry County citizens captured at the fall of Island No. 10

                   MEMPHIS, April 22, 1862.
                   Gen. G. T. BEAUREGARD.

Page 162 — April 1862                                             TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                     April 22, 1862

                 DEAR SIR: I trust you will not consider the application I am about to make as
                 officious or improper. I desire to ask your early effort toward effecting an
                 exchange for our prisoners recently captured at Island No. 10, in the Madrid
                 Bend. My apology for the request may be found in the fact that one of the regi-
                 ments, commanded by Col. John M. Clark, is composed entirely of citizens of
                 Henry County, Tenn., the county in which I reside. I am personally acquainted
                 with very many of them and cherish for all of them the deepest sympathy and
                 highest regard. I do not know that my humble services could be available in
                 any way toward the accomplishment of the desired object, but would willingly
                 render any aid in my power. I have just returned from Richmond and beg to
                 tender you my heartfelt thanks for your patriotic, able and chivalrous defense
                 of our great valley. Long may you live to wear the chaplet your arms have won,
                 and may its garlands grow greener and fresher as they grow older.
                 Your friend and obedient servant,
                 JON. D. C. ATKINS.
                 Answer: He has already sent to offer to exchange prisoners but for the present
                 the enemy decline. He desires me to thank you for your kind wishes.
                                                                       OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, p. 856.

April 22, 1862 - Life in the midst of death; the birth of Baby Empress

                 The Empress. . . left Pittsburg Tuesday noon, with three hundred and fifty-
                 seven patients. . . On board was also a party of nurses and other assistants from
                 St. Louis. During the passage a number of amputations were performed, and
                 ten of the patients died.
                 In the midst of the scene of suffering and death, a woman on board, the wife of
                 a missing soldier who was in the fight at Pittsburg, gave birth to a female
                 infant. The woman accompanied or closely followed her husband to Pittsburg,
                 and, on the second day of the fight, while the conflict was raging around here,
                 was engaged in searching for him on the battle-field. While thus employed she
                 received a gunshot wound—a flesh wound only—in the breast. Failing, at last,
                 to find her husband, in despair she took passage on the Empress. Her child
                 received the name of the steamer.
                 The missing father is said to be a Polander or Norwegian, with a long name,
                 which our informants find it impossible to remember.

                                                          Chicago Times, April 22, 1862. NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in:

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 163
April 22, 1862

April 22, 1862 - Observation on cotton

                       We have no sort of feeling for a man whose head is filled with cotton, or a
                       woman whose bosom is ditto.

                                                        Nashville Daily Union, April 22, 1862. NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 22, 1862 - Picket skirmish at Fort Pillow.

                       •See April 12, 1862-June 5, 1862-U. S. Naval Operations on the Mississippi
                         River against Fort Pillow

April 23, 1862 - Confederate road obstruction near Purdy

                       •See April 19, 1862--Confederate bridge destruction at Purdy

April 23, 1862 - Confederate Proclamation to the Disaffected People of East Tennessee;
                  holding women and children hostage to induce loyalty to the Confederacy

                       The major-general commanding this department, charged with the enforcement
                       of martial law, believing that many of its citizens have been misled into the
                       commission of treasonable acts through ignorance of their duties and obliga-
                       tions to their State, and that many have actually fled across the mountains and
                       joined our enemies under the persuasion and misguidance of supposed friends
                       but designing enemies, hereby proclaims:
                       1st. That no person so misled who comes forward, declares his error, and takes
                       the oath to support the Constitution of the State and of the Confederate States
                       shall be molested or punished on account of past acts or words.
                       2d. That no person so persuaded and misguided as to leave his home and join
                       the enemy who shall return within thirty days of the date of this proclamation,
                       acknowledge his error, and take and oath to support the Constitution of the
                       State and of the Confederate States shall be molested or punished on account of
                       past acts or words.
                       After thus announcing his disposition to treat with the utmost clemency those
                       who have been led away from the true path of patriotic duty the major-general
                       commanding furthermore declares his determination henceforth to employ all
                       the elements at his disposal for the protection of the lives and property of the
                       citizens of East Tennessee, whether from the incurious of the enemy or the
                       irregularities of his own troops and for the suppression of all treasonable prac-

Page 164 — April 1862                                                TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                       April 23, 1862

                 He assures all citizens engaged in cultivating their farms that he will protect
                 them in their rights, and that he will suspend the militia draft under the State
                 laws that they may raise crops for consumption in the coming year.
                 He invokes the zealous co-operation of the authorities and of all good people to
                 aid him in his endeavors.
                 The courts of criminal jurisdiction will continue to exercise their functions,
                 save the issuing of writs of habeas corpus. Their writs will be served and their
                 decrees executed by the aid of the military when necessary.
                 When the courts fail to preserve the peace or punish offenders against the laws
                 these objects will be attained through the action of military tribunals and the
                 exercise of the force of his command.
                 E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Department of East Tennessee.
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Office Provost-Marshal,
                 April 23, 1862.
                 To the Disaffected People of East Tennessee:
                 The undersigned, in executing martial law in this department, assures those
                 interested, who have fled to the enemy's lines and who are actually in their
                 army, that he will welcome their return to their homes and their families. They
                 are offered amnesty and protection if they come to lay down their arms and act
                 as loyal citizens within the thirty days given them by Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith
                 to do so.
                 At the end of that time those failing to return to their homes and accept the
                 amnesty thus offered and provide for and protect their wives and children in
                 East Tennessee will have them sent to their care in Kentucky or beyond the
                 Confederate States lines at their own expense.
                 All that leave after this date with a knowledge of the above acts their families
                 will be sent immediately after them. The women and children must be taken
                 care of by husbands and fathers either in East Tennessee or in the Lincoln Gov-
                 W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.

                                                    OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 640-641. NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: See also OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, pp. 882, 884.

April 23, 1862 - Federal policy toward civilians in Lebanon, a commander's argument in
                  favor of benevolence

                 Lebanon, Tennessee
                 Hd. Qrs. Detacht. 23d Brigade
                 April 23rd. 1862

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 165
April 23, 1862

                   Gen. Johnson
                   Mil. Governor of Tenn.
                   Dear Sir
                   I had the honor to receive today. . . your letter of 21st. Inst. with writ for the
                   arrest of Jefferson J. Ford and others-Following the prudent suggestion con-
                   tained in your letter I had a conference with Ex-Governor Campbell and Jordan
                   Stokes Esq. whereupon we determined that the interposition of military author-
                   ity (which would naturally create panic in the minds of people already terribly
                   exorcised with apprehensions) for the proper punishment of that class of small
                   political offenders who can be so readily reached and dealt with by the civil
                   authorities so so[o]n as your court shall be organized, would be impolitic and
                   therefore unwise-Whatsoever may be the antecedents of the persons named,
                   having learned from Mr. Haley and William B. Stokes Esq. that at present they
                   are pursuing their legitimate business quietly, we deem it most prudent to let
                   investigation wait upon the due process of law, and so instructed Mr. Haley,
                   who has the natural anxiety of the wronged to see retribution dealt out. I have
                   already had Mr. William Floyd and Mr. Alfred Bone before having been
                   arrested by one of my scouting parties upon information obtained from their
                   neighbors. After investigation I discharged Bone from military arrest without
                   administering the oath to him-And Floyd, who informed me that upon taking
                   his seat as Legislator he had taken an oath of allegiance to the Southern Con-
                   federacy I required to renounce such allegiance and take the oath of allegiance
                   to the Federal Government, which he most willingly and I discharged him.
                   When I came here with my command I found the people full of apprehensions
                   of outraged and unknown evils caused by the foul misrepresentations of our
                   army industriously circulated by the rebel leaders, which I attempted to relieve
                   by publicly stating to them, that while I was at war with rebels in arms and
                   would arrest all such found-non beligerents had nothing to fear-as rather than
                   molest them in person or property, in all legitimate pursuits I would protect
                   them, and my aim has been to keep that promise. While the enmity incident
                   with and inseparable from the accursed insanity of rebellion remains in the
                   hearts of many-all of their apprehensions have long since vanished and busi-
                   ness is beginning again to seek its proper channels. Seeing that the policy
                   adopted and pursued by me is working to the reclamation of many misguided
                   men in this community-I would be the more unwilling, unless specially urged,
                   to arouse new apprehensions by exercising military power needlessly.
                   As you kindly left the matter to my discretion after conference with Messrs
                   Campbell & Stokes I have taken the liberty of stating to you in brief the rea-
                   sons which influence my non-action in the premises until further advised by
                   I would take great pleasure in obeying any order from you or in adapting any
                   suggestion you may be kind enough to give for the benefit of the great cause in
                   which we are engaged[.]

Page 166 — April 1862                                             TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                       April 24, 1862

                  M[arcellus] Mundy, Col. Commanding Post
                                                 Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 325-326.

April 23, 1862 - Fatality in Murfreesboro

                  Man shot.
                  We learn that a young man was shot near Murfreesboro, on last Sunday by one
                  of the guard while attempting to pass the pickets. The guard hailed him four
                  times, when he replied that he would not stop for any d____d Abolitionist,
                  whereupon one of the soldiers shot him through the heart. The deceased was a
                  citizen of the town.
                                                           Nashville Daily Union, April 23, 1862.

April 24, 1862 - Skirmish at Lick Creek

                                                                   No circumstantial reports filed.

April 24, 1862 - Skirmish on the Shelbyville Road

                                                                   No circumstantial reports filed.

April 24, 1862 - Reconnaissance to Pea Ridge, Tennessee

                                                                   No circumstantial reports filed.

April 24, 1862 - Mrs. Horace Maynard seeks Confederate passports for slaves

                  April 24, 1862.
                  M. T. HAYNES, Esq.
                  SIR: Mrs. Maynard applies for passports for two servants understood to be
                  slaves. I am directed to ask your decision as to whether they are her property or
                  W. M. CHURCHWELL.
                                                                         OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 884.

April 24, 1862 - Aftermath at Shiloh Battlefield

                  The Horrors of the Battle-field of Pittsburg.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 167
April 24, 1862

                       The most curious feature is a sort of neutral hospital just this side of their lines.
                       In it are wounded from both parties, attended by the physicians of whichever
                       side at the time has possession. To their comrades the rebels seem inhumanly
                       inattentive. Not a day passes but numbers are brought in from the woods, some
                       found close to their pickets. Half a dozen were carried by us this morning. . .
                       They are generally dressed in homespun, or "butternut"—not showily, but
                       comfortably. . . In company with Capt. Jewett Wilcox, of the Platte Valley, we
                       yesterday passed again over the grounds. The terrible stench from its putrefy-
                       ing bodies is daily becoming more sickening, so shallow being the graves that
                       poisonous gases escape easily from the mass of corruption and nestle down
                       near the earth, seeming loath as those lately living to leave it. Mile after mile
                       we met the same graveyard atmosphere, and occasionally a head peered from
                       some rude mound, or a limb, rigid and slightly corrupted, was thrust into view.
                       For ages to come, the battle-field of Pittsburg, or, as Beauregard aptly terms it,
                       Shiloh, will be a scene of melancholy interest. Five thousand died there, and
                       other thousands will go through life disfigured, or linger out an existence upon
                       sick beds. Had any great success been gained, the price weighed against the
                       effect might not seem dear, but as it is our army holds the same position it did
                       three weeks ago, and has lost a tenth part of its number in killed, wounded, and
                       missing. . .
                       —Cor. St. Louis Republican.

                                                                   Chicago Times, April 24, 1862.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 24, 1862 - Mrs. Werner's Participation in the battle of Shiloh

                       Heroic Women.
                       At the battle of Pittsburg Landing there was a woman who accompanied her
                       husband, and after the battle began to rage on Sunday she was urged to leave
                       the field. She refused to do so, and, instead, busied herself all day in carrying
                       the wounded back to a place of safety as they fell around her. While she was
                       thus engaged, another young woman, who had also accompanied her husband,
                       was struck and instantly killed by a cannon ball, within a few feet of her. The
                       brave woman was, as may be imagined, greatly fatigued, and even made ill by
                       her exertions on the field. Her name is Mrs. Werner. . . Her husband fell on the
                       battlefield, and she is entirely alone. . . More than this, while engaged in her
                       humane work, she tore all her underclothing into strips to tie up the wounds of
                       the fallen soldiers, and consequently she came here destitute of even the most
                       indispensable articles of clothing.

                                                      Daily Missouri Republican, April 24, 1862.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

Page 168 — April 1862                                                   TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                    April 24, 1862

April 24, 1862 - Satirical analysis on the Confederate primer

                 Rev. Dr. McFerrin's Confederate Primer.
                 Nothing is more worthy of being perpetuated than valuable contributions to lit-
                 erature. The literature of a nation is its crown of glory, whose reflected light
                 shines far down the swift-rolling waves of Time, and gladdens the eyes of
                 remote generations. This beautiful and (to our notion) finely expressed senti-
                 ment was suggested to our minds in turning over the pages of Reverend Dr.
                 McFerrin's Confederate Primer, which we briefly noticed yesterday. We feel
                 that we then passed too hastily over a work so grand in its conception, so
                 benevolent in its purpose, and so brilliant in its execution, and we therefore
                 recur to it again, and will now proceed to regale our readers with some of the
                 choicest boquets culled from this greenest field among all the flowery pastures
                 of Minerva. The Primer, after giving the alphabet in due form, offers some lit-
                 tle rhymes for youngsters, which are perfect nosegays of sentiment, of which
                 the following will serve as samples of Dr. McFerrin's poetical genius:

                     At Nashville's fall
                     We sinned all.
                     At Number Ten
                     We sinned again.
                     Thy purse to mend
                     Old Floyd attend.
                     Abe Lincolns bold
                     Our ports doth hold.
                     Jeff Davis tells a lie,
                     And so must you and I.
                     Isham doth mourn
                     His case forlorn.
                     Brave Pillow's flight
                     Is out of sight.
                     Buell doth play,
                     And after slay.
                     Yon Oak will be the gallow's tree
                     Of Richmond's fallen majesty.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                              April 1862 — Page 169
April 24, 1862

                       We are compelled to cut short Dr. McFerrin's poetry, which is exquisite, and
                       pass over to his "Biographical Questions and Answers for little children."
                       Q. —Who was the first man?
                       A. —Gen. Pillow—because he was the first man to run off from Fort Donel-
                       Q. —Who is the strongest man?
                       A. —Gen. Price—for you can smell him a mile.
                       Q. —Who is the wisest man?
                       A. —Gov. Wise; for he has that discretion which is "the better part of valor."
                       Q. —Who is the most patient man?
                       A. —Gustavus A. Henry; for he waited more than sixty years for an office, and
                       at last was sent to Richmond.
                       Q. —Who are the most merciful men?
                       A. —The Nashville Vigilance Committee; for they saved their victims the sus-
                       pense of a trial.
                       Q. —Who are the most liberal men?
                       A. —Those who subscribed to the fund for the relief of the families of rebel
                       soldiers in Nashville.
                       But again we are admonished to desist from this seductive labor, and give
                       some specimens of the Reverend Doctor's taste in getting up reading lessons:
                       Lesson First. The Smart Dix-ie Boy. Once there was a lit-tle boy, on-ly four
                       years old. His name was Dix-y. His fath-er's name was I-SHAM, and his moth-
                       er's name was ALL-SHAM. Dixy was ver-y smart. He could drink whis-ky,
                       fight chick-ens, play po-ker, and cuss his moth-er. When he was on-ly two
                       years old, he could steal su-gar, hook pre-serves, drown kit-tens, and tell lies
                       like a man. Dix-y died and went to the bad place. But the Dev-il would not let
                       Dix-y stay there, for he said, "When you get big Dix-y, you would be head
                       Dev-il your-self." All lit-tle rebels ought to be like Dix-y, and so they will if
                       they will stud-y the Con-fed-er-ate Prim-er.
                       We have extracted enough from this excellent performance to show that it is
                       one of the great productions of this country, and will certainly occupy at no
                       remote period an enviable niche in the temple of literary fame.

                                                        Nashville Daily Union, April 24, 1862. NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

Page 170 — April 1862                                                TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                        April 24, 1862

April 24, 1862 - Cotton speculation causes Sumner county textile manufacturing plants to
                  shut down

                  A gentleman who resides in Sumner county informs us that the cotton manu-
                  facturing establishments in that county are unable to resume operations for the
                  want of cotton. The proprietors of these establishments represent that specula-
                  tors are buying up the cotton that is for sale and paying for it in southern funds,
                  and then shipping it to the Northern and Eastern markets where they re-sell it at
                  high figures and get paid in specie or United States Treasury notes, with which
                  they buy up Southern funds at a discount of from thirty to forty per cent. This is
                  a game that works both ways, and affords a wide margin for profits. It is thus
                  that our own manufacturers are unable to compete with the speculators. They
                  cannot, in the present condition of affairs, enter the market as competitors with
                  men who do the double business of cotton factors and money-changers. If there
                  was the usual amount of cotton on the market,—if the manufacturers of the
                  East and of Europe were well stocked, this state of affairs would not exist. But
                  the scarcity of cotton has sharpened the demand, and speculators are reaching
                  out wherever a bale can be procured. This operates oppressively upon our man-
                  ufacturers, and peculiarly so upon those who are dependent upon them for
                  We presume what is true in regard to the manufactories in Sumner county, is
                  equally true in regard to those in the other counties of Middle Tennessee. A
                  large number of operatives, both male and female, will thus be thrown out of
                  employment who could be earning a competency for the support of themselves
                  and families. . .
                                                               Nashville Dispatch, April 24, 1862.

April 24, 1862 - Nashville's Police Court

                  Police Court.
                  The Court yesterday morning presented a lively and gay appearance, the attrac-
                  tion being the arrest of several females for disorderly conduct.
                  The first case brought before his Honor the Recorder was a breach of the tip-
                  pling act, in selling lager beer contrary to law. The defendant was fined.
                  The next was a case of drunkenness—a plain and easy one—producing $25
                  towards the city finances.
                  Ann Morgan, an interesting looking girl, was then called up, and accused of
                  being drunk and disorderly. According to the evidence of Mr. Reddick, it
                  appears that Ann went to the Theatre on Tuesday night, while in a state of
                  blissful intoxication, and exhibited such jubilant and pugilistic spirits, that Mr.
                  R. advised her to return home. She determined, however, to maintain her
                  "rights," and insisted upon taking her seat in the circle set apart for the "frail
                  ones," when Mr. R. told her she would get into trouble if she did not keep quiet.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 171
April 24, 1862

                   A few moments thereafter a "sensation" was visible and a "muss" inevitable.
                   Ann was spoiling for a fight, and serious consequences might have been the
                   result, had not Mr. Reddick taken a revolver from her, and placed her in cus-
                   tody of a guardian of the peace. Ann, like a sensible girl, acknowledged, or
                   rather did not attempt to deny, the charge, and paid the penalty of her folly, to
                   the amount of $28.50.
                   Miss Miller was next called, and was asked what she had to say as to being
                   drunk and disorderly. She indignantly denied the drunk, but appeared to think
                   she might have been a little disorderly. An examination of witnesses corrobo-
                   rated her assertion, the "drunk" was scratched and the disorderly paid for.
                   Ann Brown, a nervous looking, fidgetty girl, was also accused of being disor-
                   derly, but an examination justified her in everything but using improper lan-
                   guage on the public street. She was therefore called upon to pay expenses.
                   The court then adjourned until this morning at 9 o'clock.
                                                                Nashville Dispatch, April 24, 1862.

April 24, 1862 - May 30, 1862 - Operations in the Shiloh area

                   Report of Maj.-Gen. John A. McClernand, U. S. Army, commanding Reserve
                   Corps, Army of the Tennessee, of operations from April 24 to May 30, 1862.
                   HDQRS. RESERVE CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Camp Jackson, July
                   4, 1862.
                   GEN.: My report of the part taken by my command, consisting of the First
                   Division of the Army of the Tennessee, in the battle of Shiloh, explains how
                   the enemy was driven from my camp on the 7th, and forced with great loss to
                   abandon the ground he had gained on the 6th of April. I will not dwell upon the
                   incidents of that great event now. It would be supererogatory to do so. They
                   have passed into glorious and imperishable history, and there let them rest.
                   Devoting my attention during the interval to measures necessary to repair the
                   consequences of a protracted and sanguinary battle, and to restore the vigor
                   and efficiency of my command, and having prepared the way by the construc-
                   tion of bridges, on the 24th, pursuant to order, I moved it to the front and
                   extreme right of the first advance made after the battle. Halting on the east side
                   of Owl Creek, and resting the right of the division on the bluffs overlooking the
                   creek, we pitched our tents and remained here until the 30th, meantime guard-
                   ing the passes of Owl Creek and making frequent cavalry reconnaissances
                   westerly in the direction of Purdy and southerly on each side of the creek in the
                   direction of Pea Ridge. Here, as a precaution against surprise, I threw up earth-
                   works, consisting of lunettes and intrenchments, covering my camp. These
                   were the first that had been thrown up south of the bluffs overlooking Pittsburg
                   The enemy, having taken refuge behind Lick Creek upon a lofty range called
                   Pea Ridge, commanding the approaches across the valley of that stream, felt

Page 172 — April 1862                                             TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                        April 24, 1862

                 secure in making sudden and frequent descents upon our advance pickets. To
                 arrest and punish these annoyances, on the 25th I ordered Col. M. K. Lawler
                 (Eighteenth Illinois), with six regiments of infantry, three companies of cav-
                 alry, and a section of McAllister's battery, to reconnoiter in front and on the left
                 of our position in the direction of Pea Ridge, to drive in the enemy's pickets
                 and outposts, and avoiding an engagement with a superior force, ascertain, if
                 practicable, his position, and then fall back upon our camp. Rapidly moving
                 forward in execution of this order, he had approached within a short distance of
                 the enemy's picket, when, in pursuance of instructions from Maj.-Gen. Grant, I
                 ordered him to halt and return his column to camp. On the 29th, however, a
                 general advance was made in the direction of Pea Ridge and Farmington. The
                 First Division, being in advance, was halted about 4 miles from Monterey, in
                 view of some of the enemy's tents on Pea Ridge. The enemy's pickets fled
                 before our advance, leaving us in possession of the ground they had occupied.
                 Near and in the rear of this point, known as Mickey's White House, we took the
                 position behind a branch of Lick Creek which had been assigned to us, and
                 pitched our tents. While here I caused a new road for some 3 miles and several
                 double-track bridges, in the direction of Pittsburg Landing, to be made, and
                 repaired the road still beyond to that place. At the same time and place I
                 received your order assigning me to the command of the Third Division of the
                 Army of the Tennessee, commanded by Maj.-Gen. L. Wallace, and the Fifth
                 Division of the Army of the Ohio, command by Brig.-Gen. Crittenden, with
                 the cavalry and artillery attached, including the siege trains, in addition to my
                 own division--together constituting the Army Corps of the Reserve. I immedi-
                 ately assumed command of the corps, but before the Fifth Division had joined
                 me, it, with one of the siege trains, was reassigned to Maj.-Gen. Buell.
                 On the 4th of May the reserves were moved forward by me, the Third Division
                 from their position near the Pittsburg and Purdy Bridge across Owl Creek to
                 Mickey's White House, and the First Division, under command of Brig.-Gen.
                 Judah, to the vicinity of Monterey. Encountering a heavy rain-storm on the
                 march the road became very bad, and Lick Creek so swollen as to be impass-
                 able without being rebridged. This I caused to be done, under the direction of
                 Lieut. H. C. Freeman, engineer of the corps. Nor should I omit to state that dur-
                 ing this march I received an order to send back a detachment of cavalry, under
                 instructions, to proceed to the most convenient bridge across Owl Creek, and
                 thence to the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, at or near Bethel, for the purpose of
                 destroying it. In conveying this order amid the storm and the press of troops
                 and trains, Capt. Norton, my acting assistant adjutant-general, coming in con-
                 tact with a miry, floundering horse, met with the misfortune of having one of
                 his legs broken; pressing on, however, he delivered the order.
                 Lieut. Col. William McCullough, with the small available force at hand, con-
                 sisting of only 250 Illinois mounted men, started about nightfall, and marching
                 through rain and mire all night 17 miles came to the road, and dismounting his
                 men under the enemy's fire, destroyed three bridges, a portion of the road track
                 and of the telegraph wire, throwing the latter into Cypress Creek. Having

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 173
April 24, 1862

                   accomplished this daring feat, he turned his small force against the enemy's
                   cavalry, and boldly attacking them drove them back in confusion upon and
                   through Purdy, killing a number of them and losing 1 man and several horses.
                   This achievement prevented the enemy from turning our flank at Pea Ridge
                   and while advancing upon Corinth. All credit is due to the officers and men
                   accomplishing it.
                   Encamping the Third Division at Mickey's White House and the First Division
                   south of Lick Creek and within a mile of Monterey, they remained here until
                   the 11th. Meantime heavy rains had fallen, sweeping away the bridge upon the
                   main road across Lick Creek and overflowing the banks of the stream. For the
                   purpose of preserving and facilitating our communications with the base at
                   Pittsburg Landing, I ordered a detail of 2,000 men, who, under the direction of
                   Lieut. Freeman, of my staff, and Lieut. Tresilian, engineer of the First Divi-
                   sion, renewed the old bridge, constructed a new one, corduroyed the valley of
                   the stream, and repaired the road for the space of some 5 miles back. At this
                   camp Col. M. K. Lawler, Eighteenth Illinois, who had been in command of the
                   First Brigade during the illness of Brig. Gen. John A. Logan, was relieved by
                   that officer. Brig. Gen. L. F. Ross was in command of the Second Brigade, and
                   Col. J. E. Smith, Forty-fifth Illinois, in the absence of Col. Marsh, Twentieth
                   Illinois, on sick leave, was in command of the Third Brigade. Col. Smith was
                   here relieved of the command of the Third Brigade by Col. Lawler, his senior
                   in rank. Being visited by His Excellency Richard Yates, Governor of the State
                   of Illinois, at this place, the First Division was drawn out and passed in review
                   before him, receiving the honor of his congratulations for their patriotic devo-
                   tion, the luster they had shed upon Illinois, and their soldierly appearance and
                   expertness. At this camp Gen. Logan resumed command of the First Brigade.
                   On the 11th the same division attack their tents and moved forward about two
                   miles and a half in the direction of Corinth, to the crossing of the old State line
                   with the Purdy and Farmington road, encamping here near Fielder's house. A
                   reconnaissance in the direction of Corinth was immediately made by Compa-
                   nies C and D, Fourth Illinois Cavalry [and]. . . came in contact with the
                   enemy's picket near Easel's house, on the Hack road, leading from Purdy to
                   Corinth, and drove back their accumulating numbers some distance. . . To
                   strengthen and secure so important a position rifle pits were dug and earth-
                   works thrown up as a cover both for our infantry and artillery. . .
                   Hearing that the enemy were using the Mobile and Ohio Railroad as a means
                   of so disposing his forces as to enable him to turn our right flank, attack us in
                   the rear, and cut off our communication with the base at Pittsburg, I ordered
                   Gen. Wallace to advance one of the brigades of his division to an intermediate
                   point on the line between his camp and the cross-roads. Col. Woods (Seventy-
                   sixth Ohio), commanding the Third Brigade of the Third Division, accordingly
                   moved forward with his brigade, and took and strongly fortified a commanding
                   position. . . Upon reaching the road he instantly encountered a detachment of
                   the enemy's forces which had been placed there to guard it, and rapidly driving

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                                                                                      April 24, 1862

                 them back, tore up the road for some distance, spoiling the rails by placing
                 them on ties and other timbers, which were fired, and thus destroyed. . .
                 On the 21st Gen. Logan's brigade, leaving the cross-roads, moved forward and
                 took a fortified position within 3 miles of the enemy's defenses around Corinth,
                 near Easel's house. At this date the two divisions comprising the reserves were
                 disposed in different detachments from the point named on the extreme right of
                 our general line of advance northward some 18 miles on the east of the Mobile
                 and Ohio Railroad and Owl Creek quite to Pittsburg Landing. This disposition
                 stamped them with the double character of an advance force and a reserve, and
                 subjected them to reserve, unceasing, and most dangerous duty. It was
                 expected of them to prevent the enemy from turning our right flank and inter-
                 rupting our communications with the source of our supplies at Pittsburg Land-
                 ing. This they did.
                 A farther advance upon Corinth having been determined upon on the 28th Gen.
                 Logan's and Gen. Ross' brigades were moved to the front and right of our gen-
                 eral line of advance, under command of Gen. Judah. . . they first directed their
                 march to the Bowie Cut on the railroad. Finding the enemy's picket here,
                 between whom and our own such an agreement existed, we notified them to
                 retire, which. . . they did, yielding us possession of the ground they had occu-
                 pied and the control of the road track within 2 miles of the enemy's defenses. . .
                 . . . Skirmishers were thrown out about 300 yards in front of the brigade and
                 were met by skirmishers of the enemy. Sharp firing soon ensued, and another
                 company from the Eighth Illinois, under command of Capt. Wilson, was
                 thrown forward to support their comrades already engaged. A spirited combat
                 ensued. . . .in which several of our men were wounded. . . Our farther advance
                 being restrained, we were left in the dark as to the loss sustained by the enemy,
                 which, however, is believed to have been considerable, Afterward and near
                 night the enemy's skirmishers, being increased, retaliated by making an attack
                 upon our skirmishers, confident of success by reason of the superiority of his
                 numbers. To his disappointment, however. . . the Eighth Illinois, boldly
                 advanced their companies, and after two rounds of musketry drove him back
                 discomfited. In this second skirmish 1 of our men was wounded, 7 of the
                 enemy killed, and still more wounded who were carried from the field. Night
                 followed, during which the brigade laid upon its arms, in the face of the enemy,
                 prepared to meet any emergency.
                 The conspicuous and pregnant fact that the enemy had allowed us to approach
                 within artillery range of his defense at this point without offering any formida-
                 ble resistance reasonably induced the belief that he had evacuated or was evac-
                 uating his camp at Corinth. . .
                 On the evening of the 29th. . . the enemy's guard renewed their attack upon his
                 picket line. . . a very severe skirmish ensued. . . According to information sub-
                 sequently obtained, the enemy lost 40 men killed and wounded in this combat,
                 which the lateness of the evening and the nearness of his position to his works
                 enabled him to carry off.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                April 1862 — Page 175
April 25, 1862

                       Having been relieved by other of Gen. Sherman's troops, which had come up,
                       the brigade returned to their camp the same night. This was the last engage-
                       ment which took place before the enemy evacuated Corinth and we occupied
                       that place.
                       On the 30th our forces entered the evacuated camp of the enemy at Corinth,
                       thereby adding to the series of successes which have crowned the arms of the
                       Yours, respectfully,
                       JOHN A. McCLERNAND, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                                  OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 753-758.

April 25, 1862 - Confederate escort to lead Mrs. Horace Maynard out of East Tennessee

                       Knoxville, April 25, 1862.
                       The following-named persons are allowed in charge of Lieut. Joseph H. Speed
                       to pass out of the Confederate States Government by way of Norfolk, Va.: Mrs.
                       Horace Maynard and three children.
                       [W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.
                                                                               OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 885.

April 25, 1862 - Description of Hamburg, Tennessee

                       Correspondence of the St. Louis Republican.
                       Pittsburg, April 25.
                       I made a visit this morning to Hamburg, three miles above here, and where
                       General Pope's army is encamped, also a great number of cavalry. This place is
                       a beautiful little village, shady and picturesque, full of inviting nooks for the
                       stranger to seek shelter from the heat. Trees loaded with foliage and deserted
                       gardens full of flowers line the short, wide streets. It had a population of two or
                       three hundred—it now has none at all. An abandoned post office and store tell
                       of some little former prosperity. The people of Hamburg were people of taste,
                       so the thousands of roses that adorn soldiers' button-holes give evidence. The
                       inhabitants have fled to the interior. . .

                                                                    Chicago Times, May 1, 1862.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1: As cited in:

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                                                                                     April 25, 1862

April 25, 1862 - D. C. Donnohue on cotton seed and the battle of Shiloh

                 Hamburg Tenn April 25th 62
                 Hon Cabel B. Smith
                 Secty of the Interior
                 Dear Sir,
                 Owing to the unexpected delay of our army in moving I have not been able to
                 secure but few cotton seed—Since my return from Savannah.
                 Since the smoke of the battle of Pittsburg Landing has cleared away—there
                 seems to be some misgiving on the part of our commander as to the propriety
                 of attacking the Rebels—Though Genl. Popes force are here—having landed at
                 the point—some five miles up the river from Pittsburg Landing I have this
                 morning got a pass for the purpose of visiting the cotton gins in this neighbor-
                 hood—where I learn there is considerable seed—the largest gin in this county
                 and the one at which I had some two thousand bushels of seed was burned by
                 the Rebels yesterday—the Rebel Cavelry are destroying all the cotton in the
                 country—Though we have a large force of Cavelry here—they do not appear
                 to be able to give relief to the people—Such a state of thing[s] as now exist
                 here will utterly ruin the Country—I cannot see that union men are treated any
                 better than traitors. Their cotton is taken from them by the convenience of the
                 army officers by reckless adventures without being paid for—while rich and
                 influencial traitors are permitted to ship their cotton on board of our boats in
                 the employment of the Govt. Since the battle here I have been able to control
                 no transportation—that I could make available for fear the teams would be
                 captured—though I am certain I have never asked for a team to run the slight-
                 est risk of falling into the hands of the enemy—no team was ever required by
                 me to go to any place until I had visited the place and learned that it was safe
                 not only for the team but for myself.
                 I very much fear that the seed I have forwarded under your direction will be
                 planted too soon and thereby be lost—Though I have taken pains to urge upon
                 those to whom they were sent not to plant them until the frosts of spring had
                 entirely disappeared—
                 Cotton frequently is not planted here until the tenth of May—I have procured
                 some seed of a new variety in this county that I think will mature in any part of
                 Indiana it is the only variety that fully matures in this climate—I will try and
                 have them at Cairo or Paducah in a few days—I have written directions in brief
                 for the planting cultivation of the Cotton crop to those to whom seed were
                 sent—to have not heard from them since but suppose they have been received
                 and probably published—though I made every possible haste to return here
                 before a battle would ensure - I failed to arrive in time—as I have written you
                 on a former occasion. The news having been sent over the Country that our
                 army had routed the rebels and driven from them the field is not exactly true,
                 they were driven from our camps and fell back and are now and have been ever

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 177
April 25, 1862

                   since the battle holding ground over which I traveled for several days after my
                   first arrival here—without seeing or even hearing of anyone who would cap-
                   ture or harm me in any way. I can do nothing in this country through the
                   agency of the natives. The men are mostly in the army & those who come to us
                   for protection seem to lack confidence in our final success—and cannot be
                   begged persuaded of hired to go to any place or do anything—We are having
                   almost interminable rains here which will perhaps to some extent prevent our
                   advance with our heavy artillery though the roads in this county are very fine,
                   but said to be impassable in the vicinity of Corinth some 16 miles from here.
                   The numbers comprising our forces here I suppose is hardly known to any-
                   one—as the number of regts is no index whatever I am certain the Regts will
                   not average four hundred fighting men if our dear bought victory at Pittsburg
                   Landing has provided any good result—it is giving our soldiers confidence that
                   they can whip an equal number of the rebels on a fair field—I see from the
                   official report of Genl Grant that our loss is about 1600 killed 3500 wounded &
                   missing the number killed is perhaps nearly right—but the number wounded &
                   missing is more than double and if it is ever know the muster rolls will show.
                   One thing I have learned from my observations on that battle field that the
                   officers who acted in such a way as to be of any advantage to their men were
                   either killed wounded or had a number of bullet holes in their clothes or had
                   one horse killed under them. So I think here after there need[s] to be no mistak-
                   ing who ought to be promoted after such a battle as the one at Pittsburg Land-
                   ing or Shiloh - as the Confederates call it which name is taken from [an] old
                   rude log church that stands about two miles from the river and about the mid-
                   dle of the battle field —which was in the main as fair for one side as the other
                   being principally in open wood & sufficiently cleared to move artillery without
                   any trouble—a few small farms entirely cleared off and a number of good
                   roads—of the number that skulker[s] from the field I am certain other states
                   furnishes a larger portion than Indiana—over in most cases the officers were
                   more to blame than the men. I seen one cowardly Captain drown in attempting
                   to swim to a steam boat after the firing had ceased. I don't thing there was a
                   great number drowned though others who were present think different.
                   Luft [Lieut.] James M. Alexander now acting quarter master of the 59th Ind.
                   Regt. informes me
                   That he has a recommendation on file in the war dept asking appointment of
                   assistant Commissary of Subsistance —I think Judge Hughes has been acting
                   as his friend in the matter—Luft [Lieut.] Alexander well and know him to be
                   worthy of the confidence of the Govt—and being a good business man and
                   now acting regtmental Q. M. - the appointment could not fail to give satisfac-
                   tion—Will be in Washington as soon as possible.
                   Your Obt. Servt.
                   D. C. Donnohue
                                                                       Letters of D. C. Donnohue.

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                                                                                       April 26, 1862

April 25, 1862 - Confederate report on Southern Unionism in the Savannah environs

                  We take the following from the Savannah, (Tenn.) correspondent of the Cin-
                  cinnati Gazette:
                  . . . Accounts of Southern Tennessee Unionism have been highly rose-colored,
                  from those of the first exploring gunboats on down. There are warm Union
                  men here, and in far greater proportionate numbers than at Nashville, but the
                  great mass of the people, and all the leaders are, as they have been, secession-
                  ists. Savannah itself is Union; I do not think the same can be said of the county,
                  and I am confident (after careful examination and inquiry,) that it can at any
                  rate be said of none of the adjoining counties.
                  The better classes here, except perhaps in Savannah, are all secessionists.
                  Where you find one intelligent, educated man on our side, you will find fifty
                  against us. I know no reason for blinking at such facts, or for exciting delusive
                  hopes, by exaggerating the Union sentiment. Continued successes, I make no
                  doubt, will develop abundance of new-born loyalty.

                                          [Houston] Tri-Weekly Telegraph, April 25, 1862.NOTE 1


April 26, 1862 - Skirmish at Atkins' Mill

                  No circumstantial reports filed.
                  Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, com-
                  manding cavalry division, of operations from April 23 to June 10, 1862, rela-
                  tive to the skirmish at Atkin's Mill, April 24, 1862.
                  Corinth, June 19, 1862.
                  GEN.: The division which I have the honor to command is composed of four
                  regiments of cavalry, of twelve companies each, comprising the First Brigade,
                  under Col. J. K. Mizner, consisting of the Third Michigan and Seventh Illinois,
                  and the Second Brigade, consisting of the Second Iowa and Second Michigan,
                  under Col. Elliott.
                  April 24.-Col. Elliott, commanding Second Brigade, with a battalion each of
                  Second and Third Michigan, Second Iowa, and Seventh Illinois, proceeded to
                  Greer's Ford. On the 26th Capt. Fowler, Second Michigan, while on escort duty
                  with his company, was fired upon by the enemy's pickets, severely wounding
                  Private John Foster, Company G. The enemy retreated, and the nature of the
                  ground forbade much pursuit. Four companies, same regiment, under Maj.
                  Shaw, drove in the enemy's pickets at Atkins' Mill. Had 1 man wounded. Col.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 179
April 26, 1862

                   Elliott's force for several days were continually scouring the country toward
                                                                   OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 727.

April 26, 1862 - Confederate imprisonment order for unionist W. H. Malone and release of
                  John Patterson

                   HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 26, 1862.
                   COMDG. OFFICER OF PRISON, Atlanta, Ga.
                   SIR: By direction of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commanding this military
                   department, I have to request that you will admit into the prison in which the
                   Union men of Tennessee are confined Mr. W. H. Malone, a gentleman who
                   bears this communication and whose loyalty is indorsed by some of the best
                   and most patriotic citizens of the State. Mr. M. proposes to enlist into the army
                   of the Confederacy such of the prisoners as may be disposed and whom he may
                   deem reliable for service without the limits of this department. The major-gen-
                   eral commanding heartily approves the motive which influences Mr. M., and
                   trusts that the object he would attain will as far as possible be advanced by the
                   authorities who have the prisoners in charge. You will release John Patterson,
                   one of the prisoners who was by mistake sent among the number.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                                         OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 885.

April 26, 1862 - Confederate authorities give Mrs. Andrew Johnson more time to prepare
                  for exile

                   April 26, 1862.
                   Mrs. ANDREW JOHNSON.
                   MADAM: Your note to Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith has been referred to this
                   office and I am directed respectfully to reply in order to give you more time to
                   make your arrangements for leaving. The time is extended thirty-six hours
                   from the delivery of this second note when the major-general hopes you will be
                   ready to comply with his request. You can go by way of Norfolk, Va., north, or
                   by Kingston to Nashville.
                   Passports and an escort will be furnished for your protection.
                   Very respectfully,

Page 180 — April 1862                                            TENNESSEE HISTORICAL COMMISSION
                                                                                     April 26, 1862

                 [W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.
                                                                       OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 885.

April 26, 1862 - Confederate authorities provide escort for Mrs. William B. Carter to be
                  exiled from Tennessee via Cumberland Gap and suspension of Confeder-
                  ate conscription

                 MARSHAL, April 26, 1862.
                 Mrs. WILLIAM B. CARTER, Elizabethton.
                 MADAM: I am directed by Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith respectfully to require
                 that you and your family pass beyond the C. S. line in thirty-six hours from the
                 delivery of this note by way of Cumberland Gap.
                 Passports and an escort will be furnished you for your protection to the
                 enemy's line.
                 Very respectfully,
                 W. M. CHURCHWELL.
                                                                 OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, pp. 885-886.
                 [No date.]
                 TO THE PUBLIC:
                 The militia draft under the State laws having been suspended by the proclama-
                 tion of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith he also suspends the operation of the con-
                 script bill in this department. It is expected all good citizens will return from
                 Kentucky. They will not be molested if they come to remain and cultivate their
                 farms and take care of their families.
                 W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.
                                                                        OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 886.

April 26, 1862 - E. Kirby Smith's situation report for East Tennessee

                 •See April 28, 1862--Imprisonment of East Tennessee Unionists
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 26, 1862.
                 Maj. T. A. WASHINGTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., C. S. Army:
                 MAJ.: Inclosed is a return of the troops serving in the department under my
                 Of the 11,074 present in "aggregate for duty," one regiment and two battalions
                 (1,030 effective) are unarmed; one regiment (Bradford's, 363 effective) is
                 partly armed with country rifles; Morgan's regiment is disloyal,NOTE 1and has
                 been ordered down from Cumberland Gap, to be sent out of the department;

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 181
April 26, 1862

                       Branner's and McClellan's cavalry (700 effective) are under orders for Gen.
                       Crittenden's command. This leaves an aggregate of 8,619 effective for duty;
                       1,143 of which are cavalry, generally indifferently armed and inefficient.
                       The line of the Cumberland is best defended by a force mobilized at some cen-
                       tral point. The enemy with superior forces threatening Chattanooga and Cum-
                       berland Gap from without and a disloyal people within requiring large
                       detachments to guard the line of the railroad, leaves a very inadequate com-
                       mand for defending the department.
                       A move of 5,000 men on Nashville would be productive of great results, but
                       situated as I am it could only be made at the sacrifice of the railroad and
                       My reports from Cumberland Gap, and through other sources, indicate a large
                       force on the Cumberland River, opposite the Gap. Their number is greatly
                       exaggerated; but have a formidable column has been collected and that a for-
                       ward movement may soon be expected from Kentucky is undoubted. The force
                       originally under Gen. Carter has been re-enforced by three regiments and a bat-
                       tery of artillery from Louisville, Ky. At least 7,000 Unionists from East Ten-
                       nessee have joined his command within the last three weeks, and the Federal
                       troops which were operating against Pound Gap are reported to have been
                       ordered to the same point. By information received from Lexington, Ky., a
                       large amount of transportation destined for Cumberland Gap had arrived there
                       on the 11th instant, and the belief was prevalent among our friends that East
                       Tennessee would be invaded from that point by a large force.
                       Re-enforcements should be sent to the department and arms for the unarmed
                       regiments forwarded without delay. More than 5,000 men cannot be concen-
                       trated for the defense of any one point. The enemy seems preparing to enter
                       East Tennessee with so formidable a column that, while every effort will be
                       made on my part to oppose him, unless re-enforcements are sent the safety of
                       the State and road will be endangered.
                       I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                       E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 453-454.

                 NOTE 1: It is not known what an entire Confederate regiment had done to warrant be-
                         ing identified as "disloyal." The OR offers no further information.

April 26, 1862 - Report of a new textile in Tennessee

                       Cow Hair vs. Wool.—The manufacture of cow hair mixed with cotton has
                       recently been introduced with perfect success. It is said to be quite as warm and
                       durable for coarse fabrics as wool and cotton. It is being manufactured in con-

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                                                                                        April 26, 1862

                  siderable quantities in Tennessee. One whole company has been uniformed
                  with it.—Ed.

                                              Austin (Texas) State Gazette, April 26, 1862. NOTE 1

            NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 26, 1862 - Mandatory oath of allegiance for public school teachers in Nashville

                  Our Schools.—It is with profound gratification that we record the adoption of
                  the following resolution, by our City Council:
                      Resolved, That the Superintendent, together with every teacher in each of
                  the Public Schools in the city of Nashville shall be and they are hereby
                  requested to take the oath of allegiance prescribed to us, within five days from
                  the passage of this resolution, or resign their respective positions.
                  We thank the Council for their manly and fearless action. Some timid persons
                  may condemn it at present, but ere long they will receive the enthusiastic and
                  unanimous plaudits of a grateful people. The children of the city will no more
                  be exposed to the abominable doctrines of men and women who are traitors to
                  the Government that protects them and pays them. Again, we say, all honor to
                  our City Council!
                                                           Nashville Daily Union, April 26, 1862.

April 26, 1862 - Irritation at female taunts of Federal officers in Nashville

                  We are told that a certain class of women, and a very small one, we are glad to
                  say, are in the habit of repeating, whenever an officer passes them on our
                  streets, in very audible tones, "There goes a Lincoln soldier-strap!" We think
                  that a "Lincoln soldier-strap" is quite as respectable as a strap who unsexes
                  herself by overstepping the limits of womanly modesty and self-respect.
                                                           Nashville Daily Union, April 26, 1862.

April 26, 1862 - Bottles for business; recycling in Civil War Nashville

                  Notice.—Having lost a large amount of bottles the last year, I am necessarily
                  compelled to call the attention of my customers to the fact that unless each and
                  every customer returns to my drivers the full number of bottles, or their equiv-
                  alent in cash, and also the corks, I will cease to supply such customers. Every
                  business man in this city is aware that if an article is sold at 40 cents, and that
                  customer destroys 10, 15, or 20 cents worth of bottles out of the 40 cents that is
                  paid for a dozen of spruce beer, it is better not to supply such customer. I am
                  aware there are many who save all my bottles, while there are others who wan-
                  tonly destroy or give them away. I hope all will take this into consideration,
                  and comply with the above in saving my bottles and corks.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 183
April 26, 1862

                   M. McCormack.
                                                                Nashville Dispatch, April 26, 1862.

April 26, 1862 - April 29, 1862 - Scout on Forked Deer River in Lauderdale County

                   CAVALRY CAMP, NEAR RIPLEY, TENN., April 29, 1862.
                   To the ADJUTANT, First Regt. Tennessee Cavalry, [C. S. A. ]
                   SIR: After returning to camp from a four days' scout on the Forked Deer River
                   I have the honor to submit the following report: According to orders received I
                   proceeded by the most direct route to Key Corner, a small village situated on
                   the banks of Forked Deer River, in Lauderdale County, State of Tennessee, dis-
                   tant from the Mississippi River about 15 miles, the road from this place (Rip-
                   ley) being one of the finest natural roads I know of in this portion of the State,
                   and at the present time in fine condition for the passing of any and all kinds of
                   vehicles; the country slightly broken, plenty of water, and settled by small
                   planters-forage and provisions of all kinds being scarce and difficult to obtain.
                   After passing the junction of the Ashport and Key Corner roads, I found small
                   quantities of cotton, from 10 to 30 bags; also small quantities in the seed and
                   stored in pens near the road. This state of things I found on all the roads leading
                   from Key Corner to the interior. After procuring all the information possible I
                   sent a detachment of men consisting of First Sergt. J. T. Lawler, Privates L.
                   Wilds, McCauley, Vanhorn, Lewellen, Robb, Marlow, Mills, and Marr-under
                   the command of Lieut. Kenneth Garrett, Company A (Shelby Light Dragoons),
                   men used to the river and accustomed to boating. The river, with its present
                   stage of water, is capable of floating small-class steamers. The bends being
                   short and numerous, I think it would not be practicable to undertake its ascen-
                   sion, the drift-wood being closely wedged in the channel proper and the cut off,
                   Bostick's Slough, being too narrow and crooked, only allowing about 6 inches
                   of water between the banks and the guards of the smallest boats. About middle
                   way of the slough there is a drift extending from bank to bank, yet, from all the
                   information I could get, I think its removal could be readily accomplished.
                   From the lower end of the slough Forked Deer is a broad, open stream, suffi-
                   cient to accommodate the largest class of steamers. After emptying into the
                   Obion, 4 miles from the Mississippi River, there is a gradual bend to where the
                   Obion empties itself into the Mississippi. About a quarter of a mile from the
                   mouth of the Obion, and floating in about 8 feet of water on the shore side, I
                   found the boat ordered to be inspected. It proved to be the wharf boat, built last
                   fall a year ago at Mound City, Ill., for the Memphis and Saint Louis Packet
                   Company, being about 180 feet long by 36 beam, her outside newly painted,
                   and her inner works of the most approved pattern, here estimated worth being
                   about $8,000. From all appearances the boat was intended for hospital pur-
                   poses, having a fine, large cooking-stove in her lower deck strewn with mat-
                   tresses and cottage bedsteads. In different apartments were found soldiers'
                   belts, epaulettes, cartridge boxes, and tent poles. The smoke of steamers above
                   being seen, the male inmates of the boat were ordered to the skiffs, and in a

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                 few moments our party was in the woods. In a short time the steamers passed
                 down, one (the N. W. Graham) having in tow a boat, supposed to be the wharf
                 boat lying at Mitchell's Landing, opposite Cottonwood Point. We returned to
                 the boat, and after removing the family from her, together with all their valu-
                 ables (with the exception of about $30 worth, being prevented from saving all
                 by the appearance of boats above Hale's Point), the boat was fired about 5.20 p.
                 m. and burned to the water's edge. Everything aboard was lost-chains, cable,
                 and a very large, splendid anchor. I am prepared to show that this boat was
                 towed to and put in possession of Isaac Bracken by a Federal gunboat manned
                 by Federal soldiers.
                 On Monday, the 28th instant, at Key Corner, I burned (believing it the only
                 means of keeping the Federals from taking possession of it) 91 bags of cotton,
                 supposed to belong to-Echols, of Dyersburg, Dyer County, Tennessee. I
                 weighed 10 bags, their average weights being 480 pounds; this average being
                 taken from the weight of 10 bags. The number of bags burned 91. . .
                 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 J. G. BALLENTINE, Capt. Company A, Cmdg. Scouting Party.
                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 651-652.

April 27, 1862 - Reconnaissance and skirmish at Pea Ridge

                 APRIL 27, 1862.-Skirmish at Pea Ridge, Tenn.
                 Report of Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand, U. S. Army.
                 HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, Camp Stanton, Tenn., April 27, 1862.
                 SIR: Upon returning from your headquarters to-day, in view of the information
                 given by the negroes whom I sent you, I ordered a reconnaissance by my cav-
                 alry, under Lieut.-Col. McCullough.
                 He has just come in, reporting that he went to Stantonville, 8 miles from Pitts-
                 burg, and on the road from that place to Purdy. On his way from Stantonville to
                 Pea Ridge he captured one of the enemy's cavalry scouts, who is now in my
                 camp. Upon arriving at Pea Ridge he encountered the enemy's pickets, killing
                 3 of them and driving others back. He met with these pickets about 5 miles
                 from my camp.
                 Two other negroes, picked up by my mounted pickets, report that they belong
                 to a man named Johnson, who lives about 4 miles from my camp. These
                 negroes say that the enemy's pickets were formerly posted at their master's
                 house, but are now about 1 mile beyond, and the enemy's camp about 4 miles
                 beyond that. It was also discovered by my cavalry that the road over which
                 they passed from the Purdy to the Corinth road was much cut up, probably by
                 the artillery of the enemy about the time of the battle of Shiloh.
                 Yours, &c.,

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 185
April 27, 1862

                   JOHN A. McCLERNAND, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. First Division.
                                                                    OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 652.

April 27, 1862 - Confederate orders to burn all cotton on the banks of the Mississippi River

                   HDQRS. ARMY OF THE WEST, Memphis, Tenn., April 27, 1862.
                   Capt. JOHNSON, Memphis:
                   SIR: You will proceed in the steamer furnished for the purpose by the quarter-
                   master along the Mississippi River. You will inform the planters on its banks
                   that the river is now open to the enemy, and that the interests of our country
                   demand that they shall at once destroy all of their cotton. No time is to be lost
                   in the execution of this duty. Should any hesitate or fail to comply with your
                   call upon them, you will yourself take possession of and burn the cotton, taking
                   care to injure no other property.
                   It is made your duty to see that all of the cotton within reach of the river is
                   destroyed at once. The proprietors will take an account of the amount
                   destroyed, as you will of all of which you may have to destroy yourself. These
                   orders are given to you by Gen. Van Dorn under instructions from Gen. Beau-
                   In executing the above orders you will go as far up and down the Mississippi as
                   the gunboats of the enemy will allow; and in the event of your being pursued
                   by them, if you cannot run your boat into a place of security from them, you
                   must, on abandoning, destroy her, to prevent the enemy from getting posses-
                   sion of her.
                   Very respectfully, yours,
                   DABNEY H. MAURY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                   (Copies to Lieut. Hill, Capt. Lyles, Capt. Clendening, Memphis.)
                                                                    OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 455.

April 27, 1862 - Expedition to Purdy

                   No circumstantial reports filed.
                   HDQRS. ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, Pittsburg, April 28, 1862.
                   Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Cmdg. Department of the Mississippi:
                   The expedition ordered this morning from general headquarters to go out the
                   Purdy road and destroy the railroad near Adams' has started, with three days'
                   rations in haversacks. The expedition consists of Maj.-Gen. Wallace's entire
                   brigade, with the exception of artillery. But one battery is taken. All the cavalry
                   belonging to my forces fit for duty and not otherwise employed accompany the

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                 U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
                                                                OR, Ser., I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 135.
                 Cincinnati "Commercial" Account
                 Camp Shiloh, Five Miles from Pittsburg Landing, April 30, 1862
                 On Sunday morning, Twenty-seventh instant, Gen. Grant ordered Gen Wallace
                 to make a demonstration in the neighborhood of Purdy, a town of about eight
                 hundred inhabitants, twenty-two miles distant from our camp, deriving a small
                 degree of importance from its location on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. It is
                 about twenty miles from Corinth, on a direct railroad line. It was not known
                 when the expedition started what force of the rebels had at the point, but it was
                 supposed they had a pretty strong garrison there, and were prepared to repel
                 such a cavalry "dash" as is ordinarily made for the destruction of railroad
                 bridges. Accordingly, it was determined to send a large force, and to make the
                 attack partake of the nature of a surprise. Seven regiments of infantry, from
                 Gen. Wallace's division, including the Seventy-eighth and the Twentieth Ohio,
                 two batteries of artillery, and the Fourth and Eleventh Illinois and Fifth Ohio
                 cavalry, were ordered to be in readiness by noon, with three days' cooked
                 rations. The preparations in the camp in which I chanced to be at the time the
                 order was received-the destination was of course not stated-were on such an
                 extensive scale that I thought the long-expected movement against Corinth was
                 about to be made, and without further deliberation resolved to proceed with
                 Col. Taylor's regiment.
                 We started at two o'clock P. M., Wallace, with the infantry and artillery in the
                 advance. Our road lay through woods, swamps and ravines, over "corduroy"
                 bridges and across swollen creeks, through mud and water of every variety of
                 depth and thickness. The weather when we left camp was very fine, though
                 very warm; the sun pouring his rays down upon us with tropical vigor, made it
                 uncomfortable to ride and fatiguing to march, and we had proceeded but a few
                 miles when the effect became visible in the many returning stragglers from the
                 infantry regiment who lazily dragged their muskets and themselves in a home-
                 ward direction.
                 We passed a number of very respectable residences, the first of the kind seen
                 by this army since its occupation of Pittsburgh. They are all owned by wealthy
                 men, every one of whom, we learned, are more or less identified with the rebel
                 cause; some are in the confederate army, others have sons in it, and others,
                 have contributed of their means to its support. A couple of officer stopped at
                 one of the houses to ask for a drink of water. The inmates, an elderly woman,
                 two handsome daughters, and a few young contrabands, appeared very much
                 excited at the approach of the Federal warriors. Before the officers had time to
                 state the peaceful object to their visit to the domicile, the old lady eagerly
                 exclaimed "He didn't want to go, but they told him he must, or he'd be took
                 prisoner." "We would like to get a drink of water of you, please," said Capt.

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April 27, 1862

                   H____; "we are very thirsty." Oh! yes, certainly," replied the agreeably aston-
                   ished matron."I thought as how ye come after my son, because he was in the
                   Southern army." A conversation followed, which resulted in the revelation that
                   a son of the hostess had been drafted for Beauregard's army; that he had fought
                   at Pittsburg, and was dangerously wounded on the first day of the battle. He
                   was conveyed to Corinth. His mother became apprised of his condition and
                   immediately sought the confederate military authorities, of whom she obtained
                   a "sick furlough" for him. He is now under the maternal roof, but will not sur-
                   vive his injuries.
                   About six o'clock we halted in the woods midway between Pittsburg and
                   Purdy. After an hour's delay Gen Wallace ordered the infantry and military to
                   bivouac for the night and the cavalry to proceed to Purdy. The General himself
                   made his headquarters of Rebellion Record the night in a neat frame house in
                   the neighborhood. The woods were soon illuminated with the great fires the
                   soldiers built, and around which they gathered to pass away the night. Strong
                   Pickets guards were stationed in every direction, so that they improvised Fed-
                   eral city in the wilderness of Tennessee felt secure from a rebel surprise.
                   The cavalry, numbering in all about two thousand continued the road to Purdy.
                   Col. Dickey, of the Fourth Illinois, was in command. We had enjoyed a few
                   hours of pleasant riding since five o'clock, but now our prospects changed, and
                   not for the better. As evening changed into night, the sky became thickly
                   clouded, and in less than an hour after our second start, the rain began to fall in
                   torrents. The road grew worse and worse as we advanced, and the night darker
                   and darker every hour. We had a guide, but he was a poor one, and had less
                   confidence in himself than we had in him. We proceeded, however, making our
                   wary by the dim outlines of the forest on either side of us. The rain continued;
                   at times it was furious. A great many of our men were unprovoked with over-
                   coats of water proof blankets, but the ward was forward! to Purdy! What was
                   hitherto darkness became impenetrable blackness, until we could not discern
                   an object three feet ahead of us. Consider two thousand mounted men now gal-
                   loping along a narrow road, now wading through a black swamp, and once or
                   twice almost swimming a swiftly running creek, and all of this in the darkest
                   night that any of the two thousand men ever saw. The "clashing of arms" was
                   for once a welcome noise, and formed the only guide by which we kept
                   At about twelve o'clock we came to a halt about two miles from Purdy, Col.
                   Dickey fearing, and very properly, that the whole party would get lost before
                   morning. As it was, a number of our men had abandoned the hope of being
                   able to keep up with us, and had remained along the road behind us. A whole
                   company at one time declared their inability to proceed, and still it rained
                   harder than ever. After standing still an hour under the "pelting and pitiless
                   storm," "about face!" was ordered, and we started for the point where we left
                   the infantry, arriving there just at daylight.

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                 Here the men were ordered to dismount and feed their horses. The effect of the
                 night's "tramp" was visible on every countenance. Many of our stoutest and
                 hardiest men "gave out" altogether and were compelled to return to camp when
                 morning came. Some of them lay down on the road-side, glad to seize the
                 opportunity of an hour's "rest," even though the rain beat heavily on their
                 closed eyelids.
                 At five o'clock the order was given for us to return-not to camp but to Purdy.
                 Many of us received the order with dissatisfaction, and some obeyed it with
                 reluctance. Col. Taylor, of the Fifth cavalry, was taken seriously ill (he was
                 quite unwell when he left camp, and could not command his regiment) the
                 Lieut.-Col. was also compelled from sickness to abandon his intention of
                 returning so the command devolved upon the senior Major, E. G. Ricker, an
                 officer who has given frequent proofs of his efficiency and valor. The entire
                 cavalry force started back, and in a couple of hours were in Purdy. They were
                 disappointed to learn that about one hundred rebels who had garrisoned the
                 place, had left just in time to save themselves.
                 Col. Dickey sent a small force to skirmish two miles below Purdy, (there were
                 three thousand rebels at Bethel, four miles below,) while another force
                 destroyed the railroad bridge two mile above it. The work was accomplished;
                 the bridge was torn up, and the connection between Purdy and Corinth com-
                 pletely destroyed. While the men were at a locomotive with four men-two
                 officers, one engineer, and a fireman-came from Bethel to ascertain what was
                 the matter. I should have said that our men had cut their telegraph wires also;
                 this caused the alarm at Bethel. Our skirmishers withdrew, let the locomotive
                 pass to where the road was town up, and issued forth to demand a "surrender"
                 the four men were taken prisoners, the locomotive destroyed, and thus ended
                 the expedition. None of our men were killed by the enemy, but I fear many of
                 them will die from exposure to inclement weather and the fatigue of the trip
                 experienced by all.
                 The cavalry returned to camp last night; the infantry and artillery this morning.
                 After what we have gone through, our leaky tents appear to us like metropoli-
                 tan hotels. I will speak for myself, and say I want no more expedition for sev-
                 eral days to come.
                                                          Rebellion Record, Vol. 4, pp. 529-530.

April 27, 1862 - Brigadier-General E. Dumont's prescription for punishing Confederate
                  civilian bridge burners

                 AFFAIRS IN TENNESSEE
                 The Penalty of Bridge Burning
                 Headquarters, U. S. Forces
                 Nashville, April 8, 1862

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April 27, 1862

                   Col.______: You desire to know what punishment should be visited upon per-
                   sons not connected with the army, who are guilty of throwing trains off the rail-
                   road track, burning bridges, ripping up the road, or cutting or injuring the
                   telegraph wire. You have reference, of course, to railroad and telegraph lines
                   now being used by our army. I reply that any one guilty of such offence, (which
                   is a crime against humanity and mankind,) endangering the lives of women and
                   children, non-combatant and citizen, as well as that of the soldier, should be
                   arrested and held for trial by Court-martial.
                   Who are to be suspected so as to justify for trial in the absence of positive and
                   immediate evidence identifying the guilty party?
                   When an enormous and flagrant crime is committed, and the perpetrator is
                   unknown, the common instincts of mankind seek him among those who have
                   given some evidence of being capable of such enormity, have had an opportu-
                   nity of committing the crime, and some motive or malice for its commission.
                   These acts are crimes against the Government of the United State. Murder the
                   innocent and unoffending; give aid and comfort to the enemy, and prove
                   enmity to the Union, and are not committed by Union men, but a person who,
                   although he may not have taken up arms or entered the army of the rebellion, is
                   hostile to the Government and against the Union, is one who well may be sus-
                   pected of such crimes as these, provided he lives or is found near where the
                   deed is done, had an opportunity of knowing it, and has used no means to
                   notify us or prevent it. Such persons must be taught that they must fight bridge-
                   burners and such like of themselves with suspicion as to be held for trial as the
                   perpetrators, or as accessory to the crime, and if found guilty, upon due proof,
                   that they will pay the penalty with their lives and their property.
                   You will doubtless find that the really guilty party usually tries to keep a negro
                   or some irresponsible white man, who has no character, no property to lose,
                   and whose life he cares not for, between him and danger, hoping to escape him-
                   self by proof of an alibi, that he was absent when the crime was committed,
                   that the deed was not done by his own hand. Suffer yourself to be led astray
                   and put upon the wrong scent by any such subterfuge. Such are not the class of
                   persons who commit those crimes, unless indeed, promoted to it by some
                   masked and designing but cowardly traitor in his country, who has influence to
                   beguile, inveigle and decoy, a life to forfeit, as well as property to be confis-
                   cated. The sooner such are taught that their lives and their property shall pay
                   the penalty of their crimes, the better. The course, then, here indicated, is to
                   protest the innocent above all things, but bring the guilty to the punishment due
                   to flagrant crime. This subject is not unattended with difficulties; but the inno-
                   cent must not suffer simply because the guilty are hard to detect, nor the guilty
                   escape, simply because they use dupes to accomplish their designs. This is the
                   way crime is to be dealt with. Now as to repairing the injury.
                   When an injury is done to a bridge, a railroad track, a train, or the telegraph
                   wires, I would compel the disloyal inhabitants, with their negroes, to repair it

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                 instantly. I would enforce the order, if disobeyed at the point of the bayonet,
                 and would give the time necessary to its performance.
                 E. Dumont, Brigadier General Commanding
                                                                New York Times, April 27, 1862.

April 27, 1862 - "You can find it on the map." Absolom A. Harrison's Letter home from

                 Wartrace, Bedford County, Tenn., Apr 27,1862
                 Dear Wife,
                 I take my pen in hand to write to you once more to let you know that I am well
                 at present and hope these few lines may find you enjoying the same blessing. I
                 read your letter today and was very glad to hear from you and to hear that you
                 was doing so well. I wanted to be at home with you but I could not and so I had
                 to try to be content. But I have watched every day for a letter for about——-
                 and was afraid to——-. I feel greatly relieved knowing you are now safe. I
                 want you to kiss the baby for me. Bless its little soul. I would give anything to
                 see it. We are at this place yet. I believe I told you in my last letter where this
                 place is situated. It is 55 miles from Nashville on the Nash & Chattanooga rail-
                 road. You can find it on the map. It is a rich country but not a very healthy one.
                 We have had several alarms since we have been here. Sometimes we hear that
                 the enemy are coming toward us with a large force and in a few minutes the
                 regiment is formed in line of battle but so are getting used to it so it is no——-
                 more than setting down to——- so often they get very——- because they can-
                 not get into a fight with the rebels. I expect we will leave this place in a few
                 days for some place further south but I don't know exactly where. You had bet-
                 ter direct your letters to Nashville until I write again. We will get our letters
                 just as soon that way as if they were directed to the very place where we are at.
                 One of our men, a German, was poisoned and died in about 15 minutes after he
                 was taken sick the other day. Several others have been poisoned but got well
                 again. We have to be very careful where we eat or drink in this country. Some
                 of the Secesh around boast that if they cannot kill us one way they will another.
                 Jo has been complaining but he is about well again. The rest of the Hardin boys
                 are all well. Eliza wrote for me to find the baby a name. I don't know what you
                 will call it without it is Susan Alice. However I leave it you to name it what-
                 ever you please so it is some pretty name. You must take good care of it until I
                 can get home which I hope may not be very long. Tell Eliza & Melissa, Mother
                 & Father & Bruce & Bet I would like to see them all and that they must write
                 to us. Tell Aunt Sissy I would like to see her too and John & Kitty too. You
                 must write as often as you can and take good care of yourself. So nothing more
                 at present but remaining your affectionate husband until death.

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April 27, 1862

                   A. A. Harrison
                                                           Absolom A. Harrison Correspondence.

April 27, 1862 - After the Battle of Shiloh

                   Camp of the Fifty-Third Regt., Ill. Vols.
                   Gen. McClernand's Division,
                   Near Pittsburg, Tenn., April 27.
                   To the Editor of the Chicago Times:
                   . . . For miles around the Landing it is a wilderness of woods, mostly oak, with
                   here and there, at long intervals, a dilapidated log house with outbuildings in
                   keeping—old cotton fields and orchards, which, though hanging full of young
                   fruit, look long neglected, and as though the few inhabitants who lived here
                   had been years from home. . . while the sending here of this multitude of sani-
                   tary committees, physicians, and nurses was prompted by the most humane of
                   motives, the plan was necessarily a hasty and imperfect one, and many of the
                   individuals sent, or, coming on their own account, particularly the medical gen-
                   tlemen, were not only indiscreet, but in some cases gave very decided evidence
                   of a want of good manners. A word or two will explain wherein. In the first
                   place, the urgent necessity for additional assistance, beyond that with which
                   each regiment is provided within itself, was immediately after the battle, while
                   the multitudes of wounded were lying upon the ground for miles, almost cover-
                   ing it. Of course the immediate exigencies would be, in such manner as possi-
                   ble, provided for before strangers from abroad could arrive. After which, under
                   the direction of medical officers, the important immediate operations were per-
                   formed, and the survivors provided for in the hospitals prepared before hand at
                   Savannah, or were placed on board hospital boats for transportation to different
                   points North. To all of which hospitals and boats, competent medical officers,
                   with nurses and attendants, were assigned, and who were personally responsi-
                   ble for their proper care, and whose duty it was to give them their personal
                   attention and observation. Of course no part of these duties could be assigned
                   by the medical officers, separately from the rest, to volunteer physicians while,
                   even if these were desirous of accepting the positions of subordinate atten-
                   dants, which, if any, they would necessarily be obliged to take, the business of
                   supervising and instructing them in their duties so that these should be done in
                   accordance with those inevitable "regulations" would of itself constitute a
                   heavy additional burden to medical officers under the circumstances, with no
                   compensating advantage. . . Moreover, in this wilderness of woods, in this
                   broken country, amid this multitude of regiments, covering miles and miles of
                   country,—amid this multitude of boats, and hospitals, and officials in charge,
                   new-comers are, of course, confused and confounded, lose their way, get
                   fagged out with fatigue, and, finally, for the most part, and except in special
                   cases, expend their energies fruitlessly. Surgeons have, uninvited, thronged
                   about the camps of different regiments, not only proffering their services, but

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                 have even had the effrontery to intrude into their hospitals, making prescrip-
                 tions, administering medicines, and even severely criticising and condemning
                 the practice of the authorized Surgeons!

                                                            Chicago Times, April 29, 1862.NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in:

April 27, 1862 - Report from Memphis by correspondent Felix De Fontaine, reporter for the
                  Charleston Daily Courier, relative to Federal prisoners of war in Memphis
                  taken during the battle of Shiloh

                 Memphis, April 27, 1862.
                 . . . As has been frequently stated, the enemy cannot withstand the bold, impet-
                 uous onsets of our bayonets, and it is to this as much as any other cause, that is
                 due the successes of the two days [at Shiloh]. The prisoners confess the superi-
                 ority of this style of prowess, freely admitting that notwithstanding their
                 improved arms, and their better drill, these advantages are of comparatively lit-
                 tle avail before the fearless daring to our boys. They complain, however, that
                 we fire too deliberately—taking dead aim, as one of them remarked, "just as if
                 you were shooting hogs." "Yes," was the reply of the Confederate, that's what
                 we are paid for; we are fighting nothing but hogs." The prisoners likewise gen-
                 erally remarked about the absence of intoxication among our troops. They had
                 the impression that Southern soldiers were little better than besotted vaga-
                 bonds, who rolled in bad whiskey, and fought like fiends, because drunk. I am
                 happy to corroborate the first impression. Among the thousands of troops I
                 have encountered in the West, I have seen but two who approached anything
                 like a hilarious condition, and these, I believe, were convalescents from one of
                 the hospitals, who were having their "blow out" on the last pint of whiskey that
                 had been prescribed by the surgeon. In the army at Corinth the same strict dis-
                 cipline has been observed, and especially in the division of General Bragg. He
                 is as rigid in this respect as if he had been all his life a temperance lecture, and
                 his "blockade" is most efficient.
                 The prisoners [point to] the ragged, well-worn clothing of our soldiers, and one
                 of them made a humorous speech. . . in which he contended that we would
                 fight a hundred per cent better with whole garments. . . "but," said he."You'll
                 do anyhow. You're a pretty good-looking set of fellers, take the long run, but
                 I'm d_____d if I wouldn't rather see you asleep than awake." Someone shouted
                 to him from the crowd-"I say old fel', you talk about fine looks, got any bag-
                 gage along?" "Yes, you lousy son of a whelp, plenty of it. I believe that's all
                 you fight for. You run a man ten miles just to get his clothes.

                                 Charleston, South Carolina, Daily Courier, May 6, 1862.NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: As cited in: "Notes and Documents: 'Nothing to Eat But Raw Bacon:' Letters
                   from a War Correspondent, 1862,: ed. James M. Merrill, Tennessee Histor-

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 193
April 27, 1862

                          ical Quarterly, Vol. 17, (no. 2) 1958, pp. 141-155.

April 27, 1862 - One Illinois soldier's observations and hopes for living in the Hamburg envi-

                       If any one has his doubts of the result of the subjugation of the South, let him
                       read the following true copy of a letter, found upon the battlefield near Corinth,
                       which was left behind by the author in his swift flight from the scene of con-
                       flict. Its contents serve to show the spirit by which the agrarian hordes of the
                       North are actuated in countenancing and supporting this war upon us:
                       Hamburg, Tennessee, April 27th, 1862.
                       My Dear Sue: I wrote to you a few days since. Fearing, however, that it has
                       been miscarried or intercepted, I write again. We are at this place, and expect to
                       move forward in a short time on Corinth, a distance of sixteen miles. We are
                       expecting a hard contested battle, as we learn the rebels are in large force. Well,
                       when that time comes up we will make the rebels feel the weight and power of
                       our steel. I have seen many of the natives of this country. They present a woe-
                       begone look. They look like they never had any advantages of an education. I
                       noticed some of the women's dresses. You ought to be here to take one gaze at
                       their huge appearance. Their hoops are made of grapevine and white oak splits.
                       I feel sorry for the poor ignorant things. Well, we will teach them, in a few
                       days, how to do without white oak and grapevine hoops. They are now the
                       same as conquered, and one more blow and the country is ours. I have my eye
                       on a fine situation, and how happy we will live when we get our Southern
                       home. When we get possession of the land we can make the men raise cotton
                       and corn, and the women can act in the capacity of domestic servants. The
                       women are very ignorant—only a grade above the negro and we can live like
                       kings. My love to all the neighbors. Kiss all the children for me, and tell them
                       pa will come back again. Adieu, my dearest Sue.
                       James Donley.
                       Mrs. Sue Donley, Mount Vernon, Illinois.
                       By the politeness of Mr. Allen.

                                                 [Houston] Tri-Weekly Telegraph, July 16, 1862.NOTE 1

                 NOTE 1:

April 28, 1862 - Skirmish near Monterey

                       APRIL 28, 1862.-Skirmish near Monterey, Tenn.
                       Reports of Maj. Gen. John Pope, U. S. Army.
                       ELEVEN AND A HALF MILES SOUTHWEST OF GRIER'S, April 28,

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                 [SIR:] Both roads are good; need short bridges and corduroys in places.
                 Sent out five companies of cavalry this morning; met 150 of enemy's cavalry
                 foraging; brisk skirmish and chase. Enemy lost 5 killed (1 major) and 19 pris-
                 oners. Our loss none. Small force, about 2,000, at Monterey, with one or two
                 light batteries. My whole force up and in hand. I do not know exactly the posi-
                 tion of Buell's force. My pickets connect through Elliott with Thomas. Am all
                 ready to move forward.
                 Have you received my dispatch of this morning in relation to movement on
                 Farmington with strong force? I think there is no considerable force of enemy
                 on any road this side of Corinth.
                 JNO. POPE, Maj.-Gen.
                                                                OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 453.

April 28, 1862 - Confederate orders to prepare to burn all boats in government service

                 SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 68. HDQRS. ARMY OF THE WEST,
                 Memphis, Tenn., April 28, 1862.
                 II. All boats in Government employ will be burned or otherwise destroyed, if
                 necessary, to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy.
                 By order of Maj.-Gen. Earl Van Dorn:
                 (Copy to Capt. Gunnels, commanding Third Louisiana Regt., Capt. Stewart,
                 [and] captain of each steamboat in port.)
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 458.

April 28, 1862 - Imprisonment of East Tennessee Unionists

                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 28, 1862.
                 Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.
                 GEN.: I have the honor to report that a portion of the Fourth Regt. Tennessee
                 Volunteers (Col. Morgan) will leave to-day for Milledgeville, Ga., in charge of
                 Union prisoners. The officer of the detachment is directed to report afterward
                 with his command to the military authorities at Savannah, Ga. In more than
                 one communication Brig.-Gen. Stevenson has reported many desertions from
                 this regiment to the enemy and urged its removal from Cumberland Gap.
                 Because of this and the general character of the regiment for disloyalty I have
                 thought it best to send it beyond the limits of this department. Being thus
                 removed beyond the influence of friends in the ranks of the enemy it is thought
                 these men may make loyal and good soldiers. I trust my action in this matter
                 will meet the approval of the Department.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                              April 1862 — Page 195
April 28, 1862

                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 886.

April 28, 1862 - Jurisdictional limits

                   HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 28, 1862.
                   Brig. Gen. D. LEADBETTER, Cmdg., &c., Chattanooga, Tenn.:
                   A citizen cannot be tried by a military court for an offense committed in a dis-
                   trict before the declaration of martial law. The offender will be held for trial by
                   some court in Georgia having jurisdiction of the case. This decision of the
                   Attorney-Gen. does not apply in cases where soldiers who are not citizens are
                   upon trial.
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 886.

April 28, 1862 - A. J. Campbell's failed mission to force Mrs. Andrew Johnson into exile

                   JONESBOROUGH, TENN., April 28, 1862.
                   Col. W. M. CHURCHWELL, Provost-Marshal.
                   SIR: My mission to Mrs. Johnson was unsatisfactory. She said she would not
                   go North but Judge Patterson and her son Charles have assured me that she
                   would go. You will please state what goods and chattels she will be allowed to
                   take with her; also how much money and if you are willing that her son Charles
                   shall accompany her. He is a young unmarried gentleman and I think should go
                   with his mamma. Mrs. Carter will go unhesitatingly but has a sick child just
                   now but can go in a few days. She says she has not the funds. She is in bad
                   health and must take a nurse with her, a slave. You will answer by 12 o'clock.
                   A. J. CAMPBELL.
                                                                           OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 887.

April 28, 1862 - "Affairs at Nashville."

                   Beersheba Springs, Tenn.
                   April 28, 1862
                   Editors Memphis Appeal:
                   I have just returned from Nashville. A perfect reign of terror exists there. Andy
                   Johnson says the people of Tennessee need expect nothing from here.
                   If you remember, Johnson, in his speech at Nashville, thanked the ladies for
                   their attention. There were just four women present on that occasion. Two of

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                 them were Dutch singing teachers, one an old blind Irish woman, and one a
                 Yankee "g'hal"—I supposed so from her dress.
                 The officers have their families with them. The women are common, red-
                 haired, grey-eyed specimens of Yankeedom—diminutive bonnets, large hoops
                 and Balmoral skirts. Leather gloves are all the rage.
                 Almost every lady in Nashville is a secessionist. There are a very few, how-
                 ever, of the lower class, who are against us. They have nothing to lose, and are
                 probably related in some way to those miserable wretches. I could write you a
                 number of amusing incidents, but shall not tire your patience.

                                                           Memphis Appeal, May 9, 1862NOTE 1

           NOTE 1: See also: Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Georgia], May 21, 1862. As cited

April 29, 1862 - Repulse of Federals at Cumberland Gap

                 Reports of Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, including orders for move-
                 ment of troops.
                 HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April
                 30, 1862.
                 The enemy attacked Cumberland Gap yesterday in force. I go to-day to re-
                 enforce Gen. Stevenson with all my available troops. Yesterday the enemy
                 attacked Gen. Leadbetter's command at Bridgeport. It was necessary to retreat,
                 and the bridge there was burned by Gen. Leadbetter.
                 E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                 Gen. S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen., Richmond, Va.
                 KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.
                 GEN.: The enemy has attacked at Cumberland Gap. Move with all your dis-
                 posable force toward Jacksborough. I will overtake you to-night or to-morrow
                 morning. You will withdraw all the cavalry, except one company at Clinton
                 and Cobb's Ferry, respectively. Those remaining will be directed to keep up
                 communication with this point, and also to communicate to you across the
                 country any important intelligence. You will take with you, if practicable, six
                 or seven days' rations, but be careful to have the wagons in condition to travel
                 lightly. The troops should be without impediments and in fighting order. If the
                 steamboat is at Clinton you will keep it there.
                 Respectfully, you obedient servant,
                 E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                 KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                               April 1862 — Page 197
April 29, 1862

                   GEN.: The major-general commanding has received your dispatch of the 28th
                   instant, and direct me to inform me to inform you that he will move immedi-
                   ately with all his disposable force up Powell's Valley to your assistance. He
                   will be to-morrow at Jacksborough.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                   KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.
                   Push on by forced marches toward Jacksborough and join Brig.-Gen. Barton.
                   Leave a sufficient force at Kingston.
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                   KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.
                   COL.: You will move your regiment immediately to the railroad depot, where a
                   train awaits to transport it to the terminus of the Kentucky Railroad. From that
                   point you will proceed to Clinton, Tenn., and report to Brig.-Gen. Barton.
                   Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
                   HDQRS., Fincastle, Tenn., May 3, 1862.
                   MAJ.: Since their repulse at Cumberland Gap, on the 29th ultimo, the enemy
                   have made no demonstration at that point. My intelligence is that they are
                   removing the obstructions in the Big Creek Gap road west of Fincastle. With
                   my effective force here (1,500) I shall operate through the mountain on their
                   rear, which is beyond support from the main body at Cumberland Ford.
                   Small as my command at this point is, it is all the disposable force in the
                   department, and was collected from every direction to co-operate with Gen.
                   Stevenson at Cumberland Gap.
                   The Georgia regiments ordered to this department were weak when reported;
                   they have since been so reduced by measles, mumps, and typhoid fever that
                   they do not average an effective strength of 300. Besides their numerical weak-
                   ness, they are disheartened by sickness and its effects. The troops lately raised
                   in Tennessee are in the same condition.
                   When my intelligence became conclusive that the enemy were concentrating
                   for an attack on Cumberland Gap, I telegraphed Gen. Marshall and asked his
                   co-operation. He replied that his command, all told, did not number 1,000, and
                   that he was inclined to doubt the accuracy of my information, having been so
                   often deceived himself, &c. In its present condition I can expect no assistance
                   from Gen. Marshall's command.
                   Whilst the people of East Tennessee believe my force to be large and effective,
                   to the department alone have I exposed its weakness and inefficiency.

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                 I shall resist the enemy's entrance into East Tennessee with all the means at my
                 disposal, but with the people in my midst enlisted against me, and with a force
                 of at least four to one, more efficient and better equipped, it will be alone assis-
                 tance from on High that enables us to maintain possession of the department.
                 In case of any irretrievable disaster, I have given instructions to the chiefs of
                 departments for the quiet and speedy removal of all their stores.
                 Respectfully, your obedient servant,
                 E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
                                                               OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. 1, pp. 75-77.

April 29, 1862 - Skirmish near Monterey at Adkin's House

                 Report of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, C. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey,
                 Tenn., April 29.
                 ADKIN'S HOUSE, ON MONTEREY ROAD, TENN., April 29, 1862—12.45
                 p. m.
                 MAJ.: A few minutes after my last note was written the cavalry which had
                 been left and Monterey came dashing through my lines a little beyond this,
                 reporting the enemy in hot pursuit in largely-superior cavalry force and infan-
                 try; not known how many. Most of Lieut.-Col. Kelly's command were halted
                 and formed in front some 400 to 600 yards; many, however, passed through
                 and have probably gone to Corinth. My dispositions had been made. A few
                 precautions were, however, added. The artillery (three pieces Washington
                 Artillery) was in the center of the right wing, sweeping the road. Our cavalry
                 was soon fired upon by large squadrons, perhaps 500 men, and, returning the
                 fire feebly, fell back. The enemy came in pursuit, and as soon as his columns
                 were unmasked, as previously directed, Lieut. Vaught, commanding the artil-
                 lery, opened upon the head of his column with canister and round shot and
                 soon put the whole to flight, killing one or two and several horses. I had not the
                 cavalry to pursue vigorously, but sent 50 men, under an officer, to follow on
                 and learn where he had gone. They followed to within 1 mile of Monterey and
                 report infantry and six pieces of artillery there.
                 Maj. Smith, commanding 150 mounted men, on his way from Corinth to Sand
                 Hill, came up while the firing was going on and promptly reported to me for
                 service. I ordered him to divide and form on my right and left and to send out
                 small parties for observation, &c., all of which he promptly executed.
                 After the enemy's cavalry had retreated beyond the range of our artillery I
                 ceased firing and occupied the position until half an hour ago, when I fell back
                 through a boggy wood to this position, on the hill commanding Mr. Atkins'
                 I had expected the infantry and artillery to move up after the cavalry was
                 repulsed; but waiting three hours for him, and finding this to be a better posi-

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                 April 1862 — Page 199
April 29, 1862

                   tion, I crossed the creek near Adkins' and took the position I now occupy. I was
                   much influenced in his move by a report which Lieut. Forrest, of Forrest's cav-
                   alry, made me after the repulse. He came, attracted by the firing, and reported
                   the enemy moving up the Hamburg and Corinth road in a column of 10,000
                   infantry. He had been posted with 20 men on this road yesterday morning at a
                   point near Babb's house. This morning he was driven in and cut off from his
                   retreat to me and came back toward Corinth till he heard the firing and
                   returned. If this information be true (and it concurs with former reports of
                   scouts), it is important. That road (the Babb) intersects the Monterey and
                   Corinth road 41/2 miles this side of Corinth, at Shope's house.
                   The roads are in wretched condition. It is almost impossible to get our artillery
                   through the mud with their weakened teams. A great deal of our cavalry cannot
                   be got to make a stand from the same cause.
                   Lieut. Vaught and his men deserve much praise for the coolness, courage, and
                   skill with which they handled their pieces. He was ably assisted by Lieut. Cha-
                   laron, who likewise displayed all the good qualities of an artillery officer. The
                   infantry did not fire a volley, but stood coolly, ready to do so when ordered.
                   I would be pleased to receive any suggestions from the general commanding at
                   all times in regard to my movements, and I shall endeavor to keep him
                   informed of what I do.
                   I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                   PATTON ANDERSON,
                   Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Outpost, &c.
                   P. S. -I have said one or two were killed, because the first officer who rode over
                   the field reported to me two; one who subsequently examined said he could
                   find but one.
                                                              OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 800-801.
                   Report of Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey,
                   Tenn., April 29.
                   HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, Army of the Mississippi, May 3, 1862.
                   MAJ.: I have the honor to report that as early as guides could be procured on
                   the morning of the 29th of April I marched to attempt the surprise of the rebel
                   force at Monterey and make a reconnaissance of the country. My force con-
                   sisted of the First Brigade of my division, Col. John Groesbeck commanding;
                   sixteen companies of cavalry, Col. W. L. Elliott commanding, with Dee's and
                   Spoor's batteries. We met the first of the enemy's pickets 2 miles north of
                   Monterey, and soon after learned that the enemy were probably retreating. In
                   accordance with Col. Elliott's desire, I directed him to follow with the entire
                   cavalry force at speed through their deserted camp and the village of Monterey.
                   The cavalry fell upon the retreating enemy, scattering them and taking some 20
                   prisoners. Maj. Love, Second Iowa Cavalry, pushed on the main Corinth road

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                  at a run until crossing a small bridge over a creek he was fired on by a cross-
                  fire of four pieces of artillery, not over 50 yards distant, shooting canister. He
                  here lost 1 man killed and 4 wounded. As he found the creek impassable,
                  excepting by the bridge, he returned to me for orders. Believing that the major-
                  general's instructions and the nature of the case did not justify an attack in
                  force upon the enemy's position, I marched my force back to camp. To Col.
                  Elliott and the cavalry belong the credit of this little dash, and I am happy to
                  bear testimony to their gallantry and readiness for service.
                  Inclosed please find reports of Col. Elliott and Maj. Love.
                  Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                  D. S. STANLEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Second Division.
                                                                   OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 799.

April 29, 1862 - Expedition to PurdyNOTE 1

                  No circumstantial reports filed.
                  HDQRS. ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, Pittsburg, April 28, 1862.
                  Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Cmdg. Department of the Mississippi:
                  The expedition ordered this morning from general headquarters to go out the
                  Purdy road and destroy the railroad near Adams' has started, with three days'
                  rations in haversacks. The expedition consists of Maj.-Gen. Wallace's entire
                  brigade, with the exception of artillery. But one battery is taken. All the cavalry
                  belonging to my forces fit for duty and not otherwise employed accompany the
                  U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
                                                                  OR, Ser., I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 135.

           NOTE 1: While there were No circumstantial reports filed relative to the expedition
                   to Purdy, the orders relative to it are available, and are dated the day before
                   the skirmish.

April 29, 1862 - Raid on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad near Bethel Station

                                                                    No circumstantial reports filed.

April 29, 1862 - Special Orders, No. 15, for the arrest of Joseph C. Rye, Cashier of the Bank
                  of Tennessee in Columbia, for treason

                  Head Quarters U. S. Forces
                  Columbia, Tenn. April 29, 1862
                  Special Order No. 15

TENNESSEE CIVIL WAR SOURCEBOOK                                                  April 1862 — Page 201
April 29, 1862

                   Sir: Capt. Thos. H. Green, Provost Marshall, will immediately arrest Joseph C.
                   Rye, Cashier of the Bank of Tennessee to answer to the charge of Treason
                   against the Government of the United States.
                   Joseph C. Rye will be closely confined to his residence without any intercourse
                   until he can be handed over to the military authorities at Nashville.
                   The Bank and all the Bank officials wherever situated will be placed in charge
                   of Capt. Edward M. McGovern assisted by a guard.
                   By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley
                                                           Records of the Adjutant General's Office

April 29, 1862 - "BURN THE COTTON."

                   We published in our last issue the order of General Beauregard, urging upon
                   the planters of the Mississippi valley the necessity and duty of burning all cot-
                   ton that is in danger of falling into the hands of the enemy. We cordially unite
                   with him in this injunction, and believe that the tried loyalty and patriotism of
                   our people will be fully equal to the sacrifice. It is beyond all cavil or dispute
                   the design of the Lincoln authorities to seize all of this staple which they can
                   lay their hands on, in the name of their government, and subject it to confisca-
                   tion. They have invariably pursued this policy, since our soul was first polluted
                   by their unhallowed footsteps. They will continue it, and it is now the privilege
                   and the duty of our planted to defeat their dishonest and infamous designs. The
                   only question is, shall our cotton be given to the flames with the certainly to
                   being paid by the Confederate Government, or shall the enemy be allowed to
                   seize and confiscated it to his own use and benefit without a farthing's compen-
                   sation. If the military authorities burn it, very well. But where they do not, let
                   the planters do so themselves. They are requested to keep an account of the
                   number of bales destroyed, and compensation will be duly made by our author-
                   ities, when the necessity of the destruction is established, at the proper time.
                   The "fires of patriotism" were soon blazing out from untold numbers of cotton
                   bales upon the approach of the enemy to New Orleans. Let the white smoke be
                   seen issuing from every town, village and plantation in the Mississippi valley,
                   when the verdict of necessity shall demand it. This policy defeats the thieving
                   design of the foe, and inflicts a blow upon him scarcely less powerful than the
                   rout of his armies or the defeat of his arms. By all means let it be tried-and tried
                   before it is too late..
                                                                   Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862

April 29, 1862 - Lack of confidence expressed in Memphis; contingency for evacuation

                   •See May 1, 1862--"IF THE ENEMY SHALL REACH MEMPHIS—WHAT

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                 The APPEAL will continue to punctually be issued in Memphis so long as the
                 city is in possession of the Confederate authorities. Should it, however, be
                 occupied by the enemy, taking a lesson from the despotic suppression of the
                 Nashville journals by ANDREW JOHNSON, we shall discontinue its publica-
                 tion, here and remove to some safe point in Mississippi, where we can express
                 our true political sentiments, and still breath the pure and untainted atmosphere
                 of Southern freedom. We cannot do such violence to our feelings as to submit
                 to a censorship under LINCOLN'S hireling minions that would deprive us of
                 the privilege of depressing at all times our earnest God-speed to the progress of
                 Southern independence, and write and speak what we think. Sooner would we
                 sink our types, press and establishment in the bottom of the Mississippi river,
                 and be wanderers and exiles from our homes.
                                                               Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862.

April 29, 1862 - Female entrepreneurs in Nashville

                 New Southern, Straw Hat and Bonnet Manufactory.
                 The People of Nashville and vicinity are informed that they can be supplied
                 with Hats and Bonnets from the production of their own soil—no way inferior,
                 if not surpassing any English importation or any handicraft of the Northern
                 States. Also, that their old Hats and Bonnets, however much soiled and out of
                 modern style, can be made to compete with new ones, in shape and finish, at
                 very short notice, and on reasonable terms. Hats and Bonnets are colored and
                 finished in superior style
                 Black lace Veils, &c., although reduced to an apparently worthless condition,
                 may be restored to their primitive beauty in color and finish. Feathers colored
                 white and red, and finished to equal new. All those who wish to see "old things
                 pass away and all things become new" in the way of Hats, Bonnets, Lace, &c.,
                 will please call at No. 151/2 Kirkman's Block, Summer street.
                 Mrs. Lloyd, Mrs. C. C. Dow.
                                                             Nashville Dispatch, April 29, 1862.

April 30, 1862 - A. J. Campbell and the exile of Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. William B. Carter

                 JONESBOROUGH, [April] 30, 1862.
                 Col. W. M. CHURCHWELL:
                 Mrs. Johnson, her two sons, Mrs. Carter and her two children will leave to-
                 morrow night for Norfolk. You will send passports, transportation for myself
                 and everything else that is necessary. Send them by the conductor of the next
                 train; if otherwise I will not get them in time. Also send me $50.
                 A. J. CAMPBELL.
                                                                        OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 887.

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April 30, 1862


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