IRRI - IRRI Medium Term Plan 2010 _-2012_ Bringing Hope_ Improving by liuqingyan

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									     International Rice Research Institute



    Medium-Term Plan 2010-12




       Submitted to the Science Council
                     of the

Consultative Group on International Agricultural
              Research (CGIAR)


                June 15, 2009
                 International Rice Research Institute

                           Medium-Term Plan 2010-12



                                      Table of Contents



  MTP Overview .............................................................................................. 3
     Introduction .............................................................................................. 3
     Highlights of Project Portfolio ...................................................................... 4
     Center Financial Indicators ......................................................................... 6
  Project Portfolio ............................................................................................ 8
     IRRI-1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking the roots of
     poverty .................................................................................................... 8
     IRRI-2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based systems: rice and the
     environment ........................................................................................... 31
     IRRI-3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an affordable
     urban staple ........................................................................................... 48
     IRRI-4: Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences of poverty..... 57
     IRRI-5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs of future
     generations for rice genetic resources ........................................................ 65
     IRRI-6: Information and communications: convening a global rice research
     community ............................................................................................. 81
     IRRI-7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice research ............ 92
     IRRI-Eco-regional Program: Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for the Indo-
     Gangetic Plains...................................................................................... 104
  Annexes .................................................................................................. 113
     Implementation of EPMR/CPER Recommendations ..................................... 113
  Financing Plan .......................................................................................... 114




IRRI                                            MTP 2010-12                                                      2
MTP Overview
Introduction

Over the last decade, the world has experienced three interlinked scientific and technological
revolutions unlike any other in such a short time span. First, the revolution in molecular biology
and genetics is yielding insights, only dreamed of a decade ago, into the functioning and nature of
organisms. Second is the revolution in data storage and computational power to handle the vast
amounts of data these discoveries entail. Third, the communications revolution allows exchange of,
access to, and distributed analysis of nearly unimaginably large and complex data sets. These
rapid advances are revolutionizing all aspects of rice science. How well the fruits of technology are
used will determine to a large extent the fate of rice production—the main global agricultural
undertaking.

Meanwhile, the physical environment—including the agroecosystems in which IRRI works—is
changing. It is now realized that climate change is not some vague future problem. It is already
damaging the planet at an alarming pace. Further, the institutional environment (IRRI’s partners
in advanced and national research institutions) and population concerns (the demography of
poverty and hunger) are changing also.

Under that changing situation, agricultural policymakers in developing countries are facing three
challenges simultaneously

      to reduce poverty and increase farm income,
      to assure household food security, and
      to rehabilitate and conserve the countries’ natural resources.

IRRI’s strategic plan for the period 2007–2015, Bringing Hope, Improving Lives, looks at the
implications for rice production of these changing environments, in the context of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs). It embraces the scientific and technological revolutions that have
made available opportunities that were unimaginable a decade ago when IRRI developed its
strategic plan IRRI Toward 2020. It also recognizes that advances in these areas alone are
necessary but insufficient to solve the enormous problems and challenges that face the world
today.

During the first part of 2008 the world faced its first major food crisis in several decades, and the
price of rice soared in a matter of weeks, thus dramatically affecting the lives of many of the
world’s poorest people who depend on rice for their daily sustenance. IRRI has analyzed these
issues and proposed solutions in a nine-point plan (see
http://solutions.irri.org/images/the_rice_crisis.pdf). Solving these problems requires not only
creative applications of science and technology but also appropriate policies and social
interventions. Our focus in 2010 remains much the same as indicated in the MTP 2009-2011.

Based on the careful analyses of the changes in the external environments, challenges and
opportunities, the CGIAR System Priorities, and IRRI’s comparative advantage and the resource
base, the strategic plan elaborates five goals:

Goal 1. Reduce poverty through improved and diversified rice-based systems.

Goal 2. Ensure that rice production is sustainable and stable, has minimal environmental impact,
and can cope with climate change.

Goal 3. Improve the nutrition and health of poor rice consumers and rice farmers.

IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                                 3
Goal 4. Provide equitable access to information and knowledge on rice and help develop the next
generation of rice scientists.

Goal 5. Provide rice scientists and producers with the genetic information and material they need
to develop improved technologies and enhance rice production.

IRRI’s special role in linking advances in science with the real-world problems of poor rice farmers
and consumers means that scientists doing cutting-edge research in advanced laboratories look to
IRRI as the link for translating and applying their technologies to achieve development impact,
while scientists and development experts in the NARES look to IRRI as a provider of appropriate
technology for solving intractable agricultural problems. IRRI benefits from a dynamic balance
among disciplines and from strength in both upstream and downstream research.

Highlights of Project Portfolio

We do not intend to make any substantive changes to our portfolio, and the highlights indicated in
the MTP2009-2011 remain much the same going into 2010.

IRRI’s programs. IRRI conceptualizes its activities being conducted in programs with clear
delivery mechanisms built upon a firm foundation of governance, management, support services,
and scientific disciplines.

IRRI began to implement its strategic plan in January 2007 through seven programs (―MTP
Projects‖):

   1. Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking the roots of poverty.
   2. Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based systems: rice and the environment.
   3. East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an affordable urban staple.
   4. Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences of poverty.
   5. Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs of future generations for rice
      genetic resources.
   6. Information and communication: convening a global rice research community.
   7. Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice research.

These programs are product and impact oriented with clearly defined activity domains and time-
bound targets and outputs, and may contribute to one or more goals of the strategic plan. Each
program has a number of working teams to achieve one or a set of outputs. The programs draw
expertise and supporting staff from IRRI’s discipline-based research divisions and/or centers, and
ensure collaboration with advanced research institutes (ARIs) and NARES. The mechanisms for
delivery and impact (the consortia and networks) are managed within the programs.

Implementation of this exciting research program began in January 2007 and the MTP was
favorably reviewed by the Science Council. Although we already see the need to make structural
adjustments, we have decided to make only very minor changes to program narratives and
outputs to reflect the inputs from earlier research and some constraints due to funding shortfalls
or staffing changes that will delay the delivery of some Output Targets. Links to CGIAR System
Priorities are clarified. However, we are able to expand a number of initiatives within our portfolio
due to increases of restricted grants as highlighted in the Center Financial Indicators section of the
MTP Overview.

Frontier Projects. Recent rapid advances in science and technology present a myriad of exciting
possibilities in different scientific disciplines that could revolutionize rice farming. Some challenges
with high potential payoffs also carry a degree of risk, and thus are not necessarily attainable,
especially within the term of a strategic plan. So they will almost certainly continue beyond the life

IRRI                                         MTP 2010-12                                              4
of the plan. IRRI has identified such research activities, with probability of development impact
and where good science and collaboration can make a difference, in three areas—improving the
photosynthetic efficiency of the rice plant (C4 rice), identifying and deploying drought tolerance
genes, and designing rice farming management systems that do not contribute excessively to
climate change, based on new rice varieties bred to withstand expected future environments. In
this latter respect we are focusing much more on adaptation to climate change than mitigation.

Since publication of the MTP 2007-2009 in June 2006, IRRI has convened planning workshops in
the following Frontier Projects: C4 rice, climate change, and drought, bringing together some of
the most eminent scientists from around the world to discuss and devise an appropriate research
agenda for each of these projects, and to establish the partnership mechanisms for their
implementation. The Institute has established an Applied Photosynthesis and Systems Modeling
Laboratory in support of the C4 Rice Frontier Project, a Drought Consortium, a Rice Climate
Change Consortium, and a Hybrid Rice Research and Development Consortium. The Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation is supporting a major initiative on C4 rice involving 13 laboratories around the
world.

Delivery of abiotic stress tolerant rice. A major focus in the rainfed environments is
developing rice cultivars that are tolerant to abiotic stresses, mainly drought, submergence and
salinity. There has been considerable progress both in developing varieties with higher level of
tolerance to these stresses and in understanding the genetic control of the traits. In 2007, IRRI
received major support for developing stress tolerant varieties through two large projects. The
project Stress Tolerant Rice for Africa and South Asia has been funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation ($19.8 million for 3 years) to enable IRRI and WARDA to work together and develop
varieties tolerant to drought, submergence, salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperature. In
addition, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan supported a project on Dissemination of
Submergence-Tolerant Varieties and Associated Production Practices to Southeast Asia (4.1
million yen for 2 years). Both projects emphasize the dissemination of improved varieties to
rainfed farmers.

Accelerating genetic discovery and utilization of germplasm resources. The gene bank
collection and breeding materials accumulated over time represent the foundation for all genetic
improvement and breeding activities. However, only a small fraction of the rice genetic diversity
has been actively used for gene discovery relevant to breeding programs. The key to making
more effective use of this tremendous resource is to improve our ability to predict which
accessions and chromosomal regions are most likely to contain the alleles needed for a given
research or development objective.

A prerequisite for routine exploitation of germplasm is to have a significant portion of the genetic
diversity documented at a genome-wide scale. IRRI has led a consortium effort to generate data
of genome-wide variation in 20 diverse rice lines. Even with this limited representation of genetic
diversity, we have begun to see the power of associating fine-scale genetic variation [in the form
of ―strings‖ of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)] with agronomic traits. DNA barcoding of
germplasm and specialized genetic stocks, coupled with phenotype data collected over time and
geographic locations, can provide a roadmap to track genetic regions important for agronomic
traits. We propose a consortium effort to conduct high-resolution genotyping of 2500 diverse rice
lines and to gather high-quality phenotype data. Such a genetic diversity research platform will
support gene identification in all aspects of genetic improvement and breeding activities.

Hybrid Rice Research and Development Consortium (HRDC). Hybrid rice technology has the
potential to raise the yield of rice and thus overall rice productivity and profitability in Asia. IRRI
has established the international Hybrid Rice Research and Development Consortium (HRDC) as a
new public-private sector partnership platform in the hybrid rice sector. The HRDC has three
major objectives:


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                                5
      Support research on developing new hybrids with enhanced yield heterosis, improved seed
       production, multiple resistance to stresses, and grain quality.
      Support research on best management practices for rice hybrids
      Improve information sharing, public awareness, and capacity building

More than 35 public and private sector organizations and companies with interest in hybrid rice
have already joined the HRDC. The consortium will significantly enhance the capacity for hybrid
rice research and product delivery, while providing services and support to the private sector in its
product development and delivery that will benefit the general public. Rice farmers in Asia will
benefit from accelerated access to hybrid rice-based technologies such as more and better hybrids,
quality seed, knowledge and services provided by the private and public sector.

IRRC and CURE. NARES and IRRI researchers work together on common issues of strategic
concern via the platforms provided by the Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments (CURE)
and the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC). Through these consortia, activities are on-
going throughout South and Southeast Asia. These extend across the range of agroenvironments
from the irrigated systems where increasing productivity is a main focus to those in the
unfavorable environments where low unstable yields and poverty are salient features. In the
irrigated environment, gains are expected from novel multi-disciplinary approaches to natural
resource management addressing the constraints to productivity. Activities focus on ecologically-
based pest management, appropriate nutrient management, improving labor and water
productivity, and reducing postharvest losses. In the unfavorable environments, unpredictable
rains and susceptibility to floods commonly expose farmers to high risk and the productivity gains
in the past have been limited. Progress on improving livelihoods will emphasize a combination of
rice varieties with tolerance to the abiotic stresses of drought, salinity and submergence combined
with appropriate crop management. The approach will seek to reduce risk and improve returns to
farm households.

Challenge Programs. IRRI participates actively in three Challenge Programs (CPs): in the
Generation (GCP), in HarvestPlus, in Water and Food (CPWF). Research at IRRI supported by the
CPs is embedded within the seven programs, their outputs, and output targets. In fact, the
Institute does not participate in research that is not defined in the MTP. Indeed, IRRI follows this
guideline for its whole agenda when seeking financial support from donors.

For the GCP, the interaction is a mixture of both commissioned research and competitive grants,
almost entirely commissioned research in HarvestPlus, and only competitive grants in CPWF. IRRI
reports back to each of the CPs on research implementation progress, achievements, and impact.
In this way the CPs themselves demonstrate the role of IRRI and other contributors in reaching CP
goals.

Center Financial Indicators
Financial outcomes in 2008
In 2008, IRRI’s revenue increased by 11% to USD37.53 million as the Institute was successful in
attracting significant new investments to further its mission and to continue in its leading role in
the important task of reducing poverty through rice science. This included new restricted grants
from the Asian Development Bank, ACIAR, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Chinese
Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Germany.

IRRI incurred a deficit of USD3.64 million in 2008. The deficit on normal operations was USD2.37
million. The remaining portion of the deficit (USD1.27 million) was due to use of the reserves for
designated research and management initiatives within the new Strategic Plan, such as the
Knowledge Pathways Initiative, Climate Change, and Drought Frontier projects.


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                                6
IRRI’s financial position remained stable with total assets of USD71.47 million. In terms of the
CGIAR ratios, both the liquidity and long-term stability indicators declined from 309 days in 2007
to 260 days in 2008 but remain above the CGIAR benchmarks.

Financial estimates for 2009
Total revenue for 2009 is expected to increase by 56% to approximately USD58.5 million.
Unrestricted revenue is expected to be 6% lower than the actual for 2008 but the restricted grant
revenues would be 83% higher.

Expenditure is estimated at USD60.02 million of which USD1.32 million will be drawn from
reserves to finance the Board approved designated activities as noted above. The resulting
planned deficit is estimated to be approximately USD1.53 million. IRRI’s financial ratios will
further decrease to 158 days but will still be healthy compared to the CGIAR benchmarks.

Financial proposal and plans 2010-2012
The financing plan for 2010 included in the 2010- 2012 MTP is based on known grants or on a
relatively conservative set of assumptions regarding new grants.

Total estimated grants expected in 2010 are USD56.02 million. Unrestricted funding is projected
at USD12.32 million, that is, 22% of the total and is expected to be slightly lower than the
estimate for 2009. Restricted and Challenge Program funding is estimated at USD43.70 million.
These estimates are based on ongoing restricted grants and Challenge Program contracts, as well
as high probability new restricted grants coming on line during the year. Other revenues were
estimated at USD1.10 million.

Expenditure is estimated at USD58.17 million or a decrease of about 1% from the 2009 estimates.

IRRI is projecting slight increases in funding for 2011 and 2012.

Risk Management
The Board continuously monitors the risk management system and risk mitigation measures. It is
satisfied with the progress made on implementing the risk management framework, which
includes a full-time risk management/quality assurance coordinator.

External Program and Management Review
The EPMR began in 2008 and a report was issued in early 2009. IRRI welcomes the
recommendations and is pleased to note that the EPMR panel felt that the Institute’s finances are
well managed and the internal control systems are functioning well.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                              7
Project Portfolio
IRRI-1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking
the roots of poverty

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale

Today, most of the regions with extensive poverty in Asia are dominated by rainfed ecologies
where rice is the principal source of staple food, employment, and income for the rural population.
Success has been limited in increasing productivity in rainfed rice systems. Rice yields in these
ecosystems—home to 80 million farmers who farm a total of 60 million ha—remain low at 1.0 to
2.5 t ha-1, and tend to be variable due to erratic monsoons. Excessive soil moisture in the wet
season and lack of it in the dry season limit opportunities for crop diversification out of rice. Poor
people in these ecosystems lack the capacity to acquire food, even at lower prices, because of low
productivity in food production and limited employment opportunities elsewhere. Many of the
people living in rainfed areas belong to ethnic minorities and, as such, their plight is often
compounded through social and political marginalization.

The rainfed systems confront droughts, submergence, problem soils, and other abiotic stresses.
Over the last three decades, potential solutions to many of these problems have been discovered
in cultivated and wild rice germplasm, making genetic enhancement a viable strategy for
improving the livelihood of the rural poor. Thanks to a number of scientific advances in recent
years, researchers have already identified promising genetic materials and clear breeding
strategies for the development of varieties with several important traits that were difficult to
address with conventional methods. Prospects are now good for breeding into high-yielding rice
varieties several important traits such as tolerance of drought, submergence, phosphorus
deficiency, and saline soils. High-yielding upland varieties are targeted for aerobic systems being
developed to address the problem of water shortage. Aiding our progress in this field is IRRI’s
unique ability to bring together the research performed in advanced research institutes (ARIs) and
the private sector in the industrialized countries with that of the NARES in developing countries.
The efficiency of breeding activities is enhanced through allele mining and gene discovery using
functional genomics (which will be undertaken in Program 5).

Poverty, the small size of farms, insecure tenure, and high risks in rainfed rice farming make
farmers unwilling to invest in improved rice production and resource management techniques,
thereby entrenching inappropriate farm practices that degrade natural resources. Soil conditions
and the crop establishment method have enormous consequences for nutrient availability and
management, weed competition, extraction of soil water, and adaptive strategies required by the
rice plant for successful performance. Water stress is frequently the main limitation to rice
productivity and yield stability in rainfed systems. The development and transfer of improved
farm-level resource management strategies require deeper understanding of the interactions of
soil, water, and pests; the integration of knowledge into the development of improved crop
management options; and the evaluation and refinement of options with farmer participatory
research. Reduction in risk in rice cultivation requires enhanced seedling vigor, improved crop
establishment methods to avoid drought and submergence, and better tolerance of sodium, iron,
and aluminum toxicity and phosphorus and zinc deficiency, combined with resistance to biotic
stresses, especially the blast fungus. Women, who are more heavily involved than men in rice
farming in poverty-stricken areas, need to be involved in farmer participatory research for
screening improved varieties and validating improved crop management options for the
technologies to be widely adopted.

IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                              8
In rainfed areas, scope is limited for increasing income through rice cultivation alone because of
(1) the small size of farms in rice-based systems and (2) the policy of keeping the price of rice
affordable for the poor. An increase in the productivity of rice, however, can release resources for
expanding the area for the production of nonrice crops and for other farm enterprises.
Diversification of the system can generate additional employment for landless households in
processing, storage, and marketing activities since their products are perishable and more
commercial in nature than rice. The use of shorter-duration rice varieties, improved crop and
resource management options, changes in timing of crop establishment, etc., can facilitate
intensification and diversification of low-productivity rice-based systems to optimize system
productivity and improve the livelihoods of marginal and small farmers.

This program seeks to develop superior germplasm and improved crop and natural resource
management practices that facilitate intensification and diversification of rainfed systems. The
program also seeks to find innovative and effective ways to communicate these practices to
facilitate adoption by resource-poor farmers. IRRI, in partnership with NARES and ARIs in
industrialized countries, will integrate upstream research in genomics, genetics, and physiology
with applied and adaptive research on crop improvement and management to develop elite
germplasm and best management options that would substantially increase and stabilize yield
under stress conditions compared to currently grown varieties, and share this germplasm with
NARES partners through the International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER). IRRI
will also facilitate and use the Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments (CURE), established
in 2002, to understand the site specificity of problems, validate and adapt new technologies with
farmer participatory research involving both men and women farmers, and fast-track the diffusion
of knowledge-intensive technologies by facilitating linkages among research, extension, and
development. While raising productivity in rainfed systems, IRRI and its partners shall ensure that
the quantity and quality of natural resources—soil, water, and biotic resources—are maintained so
that the capacity of our future generations to meet their food needs from these limited resources
is not compromised.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Research for developing superior rice germplasm tolerant of drought, submergence, and problem
soils aligns perfectly with the CGIAR priority of enhancing tolerance of selected abiotic stresses
(System Priority 2B). The program also addresses, through INGER and CURE, the CGIAR concern
on developing long- and short-term research strategies and policies to share germplasm and
technologies with partner NARES and capable regions (Priority 2A, specific goal 3). CURE provides
a platform for conducting research on the changing roles of producers, consumers, and civil
society organizations in technical innovation processes to identify the ways in which their roles
may enhance the impacts of R&D on poor people (System Priority 5C). Integrated land, water,
and forest management issues at the landscape level for the uplands in Output 4 relate to System
Priority 4A, whereas issues of intensification and diversification of rainfed systems in Output 5
relate to System Priority 4B on agroecological intensification in areas with low potential.

Project Outputs

This program has five outputs.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Superior drought-tolerant and aerobic rice germplasm and management
options developed for water-short rainfed environments by 2012.

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                             9
Description:

Almost half of the 60 million ha of rainfed lowlands and plateau uplands in Asia are drought-prone
and/or have a short monsoon season. Variation in rice production is closely related to total annual
rainfall, but, even when total rainfall is adequate, shortages at critical periods greatly reduce
productivity. The inherent risk in rice cultivation in the drought-prone ecosystem reduces
productivity even in favorable years because farmers avoid using inputs in optimal amounts when
they fear crop loss. Risk-reducing technologies can therefore encourage higher investment in
inputs, and adoption of high-yielding varieties, thereby increasing productivity and reducing
poverty.

Previous research at IRRI and advanced research institutes has shown that conventional breeding
for reproductive-stage tolerance is complicated by the strong relationship between plant
phenology and sensitivity to stress. Efforts to understand this relationship at the physiological and
molecular levels will continue and will feed into gene and QTL discovery programs. The difficulty of
selecting for improved yield under drought stress has led to efforts in recent years to identify
alleles for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting drought response, and introgressing them into
popular high-yielding varieties through marker-assisted backcrossing. The Drought Frontier
Project (DFP) will scale up gene and QTL detection and delivery for use in marker-aided breeding.
The development of high-throughput, high-precision phenotyping systems will allow QTLs for
drought resistance to be efficiently mapped, and their effects assessed on a range of drought-
related traits, moving the most promising into widely-grown rice mega-varieties. Identification of
QTLs for aerobic adaptation, introgressing them into popular high yielding early duration lowland
varieties for developing high yielding aerobic cultivars will deliver suitable technology for areas
with water shortage.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 4C: Improving water productivity; 5C: Improving rural institutions
and their governance; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty
and vulnerability;

Output 2: Superior germplasm and management options to overcome submergence
stress developed by 2012.

Description:

More than 20 million ha of rice lands (including land using supplementary irrigation during the
rainy season) in South and Southeast Asia are annually affected by flash flooding from heavy
rains and runoff from higher elevations, causing temporary submergence of the rice plant.
Complete submergence for 10 days or more can occur at any time during the growing season,
resulting in re-planting of seedlings, or partial to total crop failure. A major gene (Sub1) that
accounts for most of the variation in tolerance of submergence in rice varieties was identified. It is
being incorporated by marker assisted backcrossing into new or existing high-yielding varieties
that are locally adapted and possess the quality aspects preferred by local consumers. New genes
with additive effects to Sub1 need to be identified to augment the level of tolerance conferred by
this gene for areas where stress is more severe. Sources of tolerance of submergence during
germination have also been identified and this trait needs to be transferred into high-yielding
varieties. Stagnant flooding, where water stagnates to 30-50 cm in the field for longer duration
either in absence of or after flash flooding is a serious problem limiting the adoption of new
varieties in affected areas. Efforts are needed to identify germplasm with sufficient tolerance to be
used in breeding. Combining tolerance to these stresses will ensure wider adaptation and adoption
of new tolerant varieties.



IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            10
Combining superior germplasm with suitable management strategies such as nursery, seedling,
and nutrient management can substantially reduce losses from submergence. Agronomic and
physiological studies will be conducted on existing varieties and improved lines to assess the
effect of the Sub1 gene on yield, grain quality, seedling vigor, and other agronomic traits. New
and existing management options, including nursery and nutrient management strategies to
produce robust seedlings and enhance plant recovery after submergence, will be developed and
validated in farmers’ fields. Studies on farmers’ indigenous knowledge and practices, and criteria
for the selection of technologies, will be conducted to understand the constraints to technology
uptake and devise policy options for fast-tracking technology diffusion.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 4C: Improving water productivity; 5C: Improving rural institutions
and their governance; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty
and vulnerability;

Output 3: Superior germplasm with tolerance of salinity and other soil problems,
together with suitable management options, developed by 2012.

Description:

In South and Southeast Asia, problem soils (excess salt, nutrient deficiencies/toxicities) limit rice
productivity on more than 20 million hectares. A major problem in coastal areas of India,
Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Indonesia is salinity from salt intrusion that renders the soil
unproductive and/or unsuitable for rice farming. In inlands, salinity and alkalinity from
groundwater irrigation and release of sodium (Na) salt by weathering of inherent parent soil
materials have been expanding in northwestern India, Pakistan, and central Myanmar. Salinity is
also associated with additional abiotic stresses such as phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) deficiency
and iron deficiency/toxicity. Most rice soils are characterized by high P- and Zn-fixing ability and
currently about 50% of rice lands are P-deficient. In these areas, rice yields are low because
suitable tolerant high-yielding rice varieties are not available. In coastal areas, farmers often grow
only one crop during the monsoon season when fresh water is available and/or rainfall helps flush
salinity from the soil. Poverty is extensive because of the low productivity of land, and, in some
areas, farmers have resorted to traditional shrimp farming using brackish water to improve
livelihoods, which has had harmful effects on the environment.

Previous studies revealed considerable potential for increasing rice productivity in salt-affected
and other problem soil areas. Physiological and biochemical studies highlighted a few useful traits
that underlie tolerance of these stresses in rice. Two major QTLs, one for seedling-stage salt
tolerance (Saltol) and one for P-deficiency tolerance (Pup1), together with a few other QTLs, are
being tagged for marker-assisted breeding. Discovery of candidate genes is currently within reach
and could help combine superior alleles for tolerance of salt and other abiotic stresses associated
with problem soils. Nursery and nutrient management options together with proper handling of
seedlings during transplanting could reduce seedling mortality and improve crop stand. Various
soil reclamation methods and water management techniques could be effective in mitigating
harmful effects of excess salts and nutritional problems during the most sensitive stages of plant
growth. Further research to build on past achievements could contribute to higher levels of
tolerance in high-yielding varieties beyond the levels observed in any of the tolerant but low-
yielding landraces that farmers currently grow in affected areas. The new varieties could bring
additional land and water resources into use for rice cultivation and reduce the pressure on the
use of good quality irrigation water resources currently being demanded for other uses.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            11
to selected abiotic stresses; 4C: Improving water productivity; 5C: Improving rural institutions
and their governance; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty
and vulnerability;

Output 4: Superior germplasm and improved management options for uplands
developed by 2012.

Description:

The area under the upland rice-based system in Asia is estimated to be around 15 million ha,
including both the area sown and land used as a part of the rice-based rotation. Sloping and
plateau uplands account for a substantial rice area in Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, northeastern and
eastern India, and Nepal. Much of the Asian upland is characterized by high incidence of poverty,
poor physical access to markets, ill-functioning markets, and subsistence-oriented agriculture with
low productivity. Many households belong to minority ethnic and tribal groups that are
economically and socially marginalized and are the poorest of the poor. Rising population pressure
and the consequent intensification of marginal areas for food production have contributed to
environmental degradation and a further reduction in agricultural productivity.

IRRI’s approach to upland research has undergone a major paradigm shift in recent years from a
focus on ―upland rice‖ to ―rice in the uplands.‖ This new approach calls for intensification of
favorable pockets in uplands for food production so that pressure to intensify food production in
less favorable and more fragile areas can be reduced. It involves integrated land, water, and
forest management at the landscape level for uplands.

The major biophysical constraints to productivity growth of rice in uplands are low soil fertility, soil
erosion in sloping areas, severe weed infestation, rodents, blast fungus, nematodes, and root
aphids. Over the past decade, important scientific progress has been made in addressing this
seemingly intractable set of constraints, thus substantially improving the likelihood of reducing
poverty and protecting the environment. These scientific gains need to be further consolidated
and translated into specific technologies suited to major production systems in the uplands.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses; 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5B: Making
international and domestic markets work for the poor; 5C: Improving rural institutions and their
governance; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and
vulnerability;

Output 5: Resource management options and strategies for intensification and
diversification of rainfed systems developed by 2012.

Description: For areas with short and erratic monsoons, such as the plateau uplands in eastern
India and Bangladesh, system productivity and farmers’ livelihoods could be improved through the
development and deployment of shorter-maturity rice varieties so that residual moisture could be
used for growing pulses, oilseeds, and vegetables in the seasonally fallow land after rice. In
coastal areas with brackish water, the expansion of highly profitable shrimp farming has affected
the long-term sustainability of the resource base, and created social tension between resource-
rich and resource-poor households. Opportunities exist for developing a more harmonious and
sustainable rice-aquaculture system that would optimize the productivity of fresh and brackish
waters in coastal areas. There is also a need to develop sustainability indicators to monitor
ecosystem health and thereby minimize the adverse environmental effects that may be associated
with rice intensification. IRRI will work with NARES and other CGIAR centers at the systems level

IRRI                                         MTP 2010-12                                             12
to match shorter-duration rice varieties with suitable varieties of nonrice crops and aquaculture
species, and to develop optimal resource management practices for improving system productivity
and farmers’ livelihoods while sustaining the natural resource base for future generations.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4B: Sustaining and managing aquatic ecosystems for food and livelihoods; 4C:
Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low-
and high-potential areas; 5C: Improving rural institutions and their governance; 5D: Improving
research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Impact Pathways

The intermediate outputs of the program are standard phenotyping capacity for crop improvement
research on drought and submergence tolerance, the genetic basis of traits (QTLs) from
genotypes tolerant of abiotic stresses, markers for introgressing the traits into widely grown
improved varieties, and improved knowledge of the physiology of stress tolerance. Breeders in
NARES will use these outputs to develop improved varieties. Elite lines with high yields, resistance
to key pests, superior grain quality, and tolerance of abiotic stresses developed under NARES-IRRI
breeding networks and shuttle breeding programs will be shared among NARES through INGER to
evaluate their suitability under specific agroecological conditions. NARES will use the knowledge
and elite lines in their crop improvement programs and will eventually release superior germplasm
as varieties to farmers through national extension systems. IRRI and NARES will jointly use the
CURE platform to validate and adapt new technologies and improved crop and resource
management practices with community-based farmer participatory experiments that recognize the
central role of women to optimize the yield of improved varieties and fast-track technology
dissemination. Geographic information systems (GIS) and systems modeling will be used to map
areas suitable for extension of the improved technologies. Impact assessment activities will be
undertaken to assess constraints to the adoption of technologies by the intended users, and the
economic, social, and environmental impact of the diffusion of technologies (link with Program 7).

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Superior drought-tolerant and aerobic rice germplasm and management
options developed for water-short rainfed environments by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Superior germplasm and management options to overcome submergence
stress developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Superior germplasm with tolerance of salinity and other soil problems,
together with suitable management options, developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Superior germplasm and improved management options for uplands
developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 5: Resource management options and strategies for intensification and
diversification of rainfed systems developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods


IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                            13
In most cases, research activities will be conducted on a specific problem that affects several
countries. Applied and adaptive research will be conducted at key sites that represent specific
subecosystems for several countries and working groups will be organized for collaborative
research between IRRI and participating NARES. Annual review and planning meetings will be held
to plan research activities, review work progress, and learn from each other’s experience in
conducting research and share research outputs. Research on a single country will be undertaken
only if the product or knowledge has generic value that can benefit several countries facing the
same problem.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

Program 1 has a large range of partners in the NARES, universities, and ARIs, as well as other CG
centers and Challenge Programs.

The main vehicle for research partnership under this program is the Consortium for Unfavorable
Rice Environments (CURE), a NARES-constituted network established in mid-2002 to tackle high-
priority problems facing resource-poor farmers in monsoon Asia. CURE is governed by a steering
committee (SC), composed of key NARES representatives from seven countries and the IRRI
deputy director general for research. The SC provides overall guidance to the research agenda of
the consortium; approves funding proposals, budgetary allocations, and work plans; and
facilitates all research activities and dissemination of research outputs within participating
countries. The consortium coordinating unit (CCU), which serves as the secretariat of CURE,
facilitates the initiation and establishment of the working groups (WGs), which are
interdisciplinary teams of researchers from NARES and IRRI and may also include other
international agricultural research centers (IARCs), ARIs, and NGOs. In consultation with the SC,
the CCU coordinates fund raising, provides administrative support, and facilitates communication
among the WGs. Working groups hold at least one review and planning workshop each year. They
also report on their progress at the annual CURE steering committee meeting when the next
year’s work plans are put on the table for approval. The participatory mode with which the
working groups operate ensures that NARES and other in-country partners have ownership of all
project outcomes and the ability to deploy them beyond the project period.




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Logical Framework

                              Outputs                        Intended Users           Outcome                       Impact

Output 1                      Superior drought-              NARES scientists and     NARES scientists through      There will be a reduction of
                              tolerant and aerobic rice      farmers in rainfed and   mechanisms such as CURE       risk of crop loss due to
                              germplasm and                  water-limited            will adapt and validate       drought, a 20% increase in
                              management options             environments             improved germplasm and        rice production and water
                              developed for water-                                    management practices          productivity, and 30%
                              short rainfed                                           suitable for the local        increase in incomes from
                              environments by 2012.                                   nvironments with farmer       rice farming in water scarce
                                                                                      participatory research.       areas in Eastern India,
                                                                                      Improved germplasm and        Nepal, Bangladesh,
                                                                                      NRM packages adopted by       Pakistan, Thailand, and the
                                                                                      25% of the farmers in pilot   Philippines.
                                                                                      projects in drought-prone
                                                                                      areas.

Target 2009: Materials        Transgenic rice plants using
                              DREB constructs screened
                              under drought in controlled
                              environment.

Target 2009: Materials        Aerobic rice varieties with
                              pest and disease resistance,
                              and grain quality traits for
                              India, Bangladesh, Nepal,
                              and Pakistan.

Target 2009: Capacity         Trained NARES scientists in
                              the various drought
                              research disciplines.

Target 2009: Materials        Two populations of Oryza
                              glaberrima introgression
                              lines phenotyped for
                              drought resistance under
                              lowland and upland
                              conditions.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Two major fine-mapped
knowledge                     QTLs and markers for
                              breeding varieties with


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                               15
                              Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              improved drought tolerance
                              and aerobic adaptation.

Target 2010: Practices        A decision support system
                              for direct seeding and
                              improved weed
                              management in Bangladesh
                              and eastern India.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   QTLs for low chalkiness
knowledge                     fine-mapped and
                              affiliated SNP markers
                              screened in breeding
                              varieties.

Target 2010: Materials        NILs with putative major
                              yield QTL physiologically
                              characterized
                              for reproductive stage and
                              vegetative stage processes
                              under drought.

Target 2010: Materials        Top elite lines for drought
                              responses from multi-
                              location trials on station
                              and with NARES in India.

Target 2010: Materials        Elite hybrids that outyield
                              the current IRRI tolerant
                              check, PSBRC 80, by at
                              least 1 t/ha under moderate
                              lowland drought stress.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Analysis of the effects of
knowledge                     drought on grain quality in
                              advanced breeding lines.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Large-scale PVS multi-
knowledge                     location trials of drought
                              tolerance breeding products
                              conducted with men and
                              women, and analyzed.

Target 2010: Materials        New sets of drought


IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                      16
                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              tolerance donors screened
                              on-station and in multi-
                              location sites in South Asia
                              and Eastern Africa
                              (Tanzania and
                              Mozambique).

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Germplasm collection
knowledge                     phenotyped for
                              physiological and structural
                              traits related to
                              performance under drought
                              stress.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Knowledge of adoption
knowledge                     patterns and constraints to
                              adoption of improved
                              technologies in drought
                              prone areas.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   A model for the relationship
knowledge                     between panicle blast and
                              leaf blast.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   A model for the effect of
knowledge                     host plant resistance on
                              brown spot epidemics.

Target 2011: Practices        Marker-assisted breeding
                              system for major drought
                              tolerance QTLs.

Target 2011: Materials        Five new drought tolerant
                              varieties released in south
                              Asia (India, Nepal,
                              Bangladesh).

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Lead events of DREB
knowledge                     transformants tested for
                              drought resistance under
                              confined field conditions.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Subsets of the Oryza SNP2
knowledge                     germplasm evaluated in


IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                      17
                              Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              multilocation trials for
                              abiotic stress tolerance
                              traits with NARES
                              partners.

Target 2011: Materials        QTLs for low endosperm
                              chalkiness validated in new
                              populations segregating for
                              chalkiness.

Target 2011: Practices        Screening systems for Pup1
                              developed and functional.

Target 2011: Materials        Promising drought-tolerant
                              breeding lines identified
                              from testing at key sites
                              and entered into national
                              varietal testing programs.

Target 2011: Practices        An improved germplasm
                              testing system combining
                              PVS and agronomic
                              evaluation developed and
                              tested.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Assessment of the impact
knowledge                     of drought tolerant
                              technologies on farmers’
                              income and income stability
                              in three key locations in
                              South Asia.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Fine-mapped QTL
knowledge                     associated with brown spot
                              resistance and markers for
                              introgression into mega-
                              varieties.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Effects of water shortages
knowledge                     on sheath blight epidemics
                              determined.




IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                      18
                         Outputs                        Intended Users        Outcome                       Impact

Output 2                 Superior germplasm and         NARES rice research   NARES in Eastern India        Yield of monsoon season
                         management options to          programs Extension    (Eastern Uttar Pradesh,       rice will increase by 20%,
                         overcome submergence           agencies Farmersd     North Bihar, West Bengal,     the cost of rice production
                         stress developed by            environments          Orissa and Assam),            will be reduced by 20%
                         2012.                                                Banladesh, Myanmar and        (from avoidance of
                                                                              Cambodia validate elite       replanting and yield losses
                                                                              lines and associated crop     from submergence), and
                                                                              and resource management       temporal fluctuations in
                                                                              options to develop locally-   yield will be reduced by
                                                                              suitable                      25%. Adoption of the new
                                                                              submergencetolerant and       varietymanagement
                                                                              high yielding varieties for   package will lead to a 20%
                                                                              the monsoon season crop       increase in crop productivity
                                                                              for release to extension      across 5 million ha of
                                                                              workers and ultimately        submergence-prone areas
                                                                              farmers.                      of South and Southeast
                                                                                                            Asia, resulting in reduced
                                                                                                            poverty among rice
                                                                                                            producers and consumers in
                                                                                                            that region.

Target 2009: Practices   MAS system to incorporate
                         QTLs for tolerance to
                         flooding during germination
                         into mega-varieties.

Target 2009: Practices   Marker-assisted breeding
                         system to combine Sub1
                         with tolerance to flooding
                         during germination.

Target 2009: Materials   Breeding lines combining
                         tolerance to flooding during
                         germination and vegetative
                         growth

Target 2009: Materials   Five breeding lines
                         combining submergence
                         tolerance (with the Sub1
                         gene) and adaptation to
                         stagnant flooding for
                         NARES.



IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                             19
                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Impact of submergence
knowledge                     tolerance technologies on
                              productivity assessed
                              at seven target sites.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Understanding of the spatial
knowledge                     and temporal distribution of
                              flooding in rice in
                              Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos,
                              Philippines, Thailand, and
                              Vietnam.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Advanced knowledge of the
knowledge                     physiological basis of
                              tolerance to water
                              stagnation.

Target 2009: Materials        At least 3 new Sub1 lines
                              developed for South East
                              Asia regions through NARES
                              collaboration.

Target 2010: Practices        Validated packages of
                              management strategies for
                              the new tolerant varieties
                              for higher and stable yield
                              through participatory
                              approaches.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Fine map for at least one
knowledge                     QTL for tolerance to
                              flooding during germination
                              completed and candidate
                              genes identified.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Knowledge of adoption
knowledge                     patterns and constraints to
                              adoption of improved
                              technologies in
                              submergence prone areas
                              by men and women.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Knowledge of the extent of
knowledge                     production losses and


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                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              farmers’ coping
                              mechanisms in
                              submergence prone areas
                              in key sites in South and
                              Southeast Asia.

Target 2011: Materials        Breeding lines combining
                              tolerance to submergence
                              followed by long-term
                              stagnant flooding identified
                              and disseminated to NARES
                              for validation.

Target 2011: Materials        Five varieties with Sub1
                              submergence tolerance
                              released in NARES and
                              entered into large-scale
                              seed production.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   QTLs/genes from FR13A
knowledge                     responsible for stronger
                              submergence tolerance and
                              quick recovery identified.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Physiological bases of
knowledge                     tolerance to stagnant
                              flooding and rapid
                              regeneration ability
                              understood.

Target 2011: Materials        Mapping populations
                              developed and QTLs
                              associated with tolerance of
                              stagnant flooding
                              identified.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Assessment of the impact
knowledge                     of submergence tolerant
                              technologies on farmers’
                              incomes, income stability,
                              and social (gender)
                              concerns in three locations
                              in South Asia.



IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                      21
                         Outputs                        Intended Users         Outcome                       Impact



Output 3                  Superior germplasm            NARES and farmers in   NARES in salt-affected and    Adoption of the superior
                         with tolerance of salinity     problem soil areas.    problem soil areas in South   germplasm across 2 million
                         and other soil problems,                              and Southeast Asia validate   ha of salt-affected and
                         together with suitable                                and adapt superior            other problem soils in India,
                         management options,                                   germplasm and suitable        Bangladesh, Myanmar,
                         developed by 2012.                                    CNRM options for release to   Philippines, Cambodia,
                                                                               farmers.                      Indonesia and Vietnam. In
                                                                                                             salt-affected areas, the
                                                                                                             average rice yield will
                                                                                                             increase from 1.5 t/ha in
                                                                                                             2005 to 3.0 t/ha in areas
                                                                                                             where new varieties were
                                                                                                             adopted. In other problem
                                                                                                             soil areas, rice production
                                                                                                             will increase by 30% where
                                                                                                             new varieties were adopted.
                                                                                                             Overall, increased rice
                                                                                                             production will result in
                                                                                                             reduced poverty and
                                                                                                             improve the livelihoods of
                                                                                                             poor rice producers and
                                                                                                             consumers in target areas.

Target 2009: Materials   At least one fine-mapped
                         QTL associated with salinity
                         tolerance (other than
                         Saltol ) and markers for
                         introgression with Saltol
                         into mega-varieties.

Target 2009: Practices   Phenotyping techniques
                         standardized for screening
                         for Zn deficiency and Fe
                         toxicity and knowledge of
                         physiological bases of
                         tolerance.

Target 2009: Materials   Fifteen improved multiple
                         abiotic stress tolerant
                         breeding lines, hybrids, and
                         alien introgression lines


IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                              22
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              with improved grain quality
                              for India, Bangladesh,
                              Vietnam, Myanmar and
                              Indonesia.

Target 2009: Materials        Validated decision support
                              tools and training materials
                              for four improved crop
                              management technologies
                              at three sites.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Increased understanding
knowledge                     about the constraints to
                              adoption of salt-tolerant
                              varieties and management
                              practices and their
                              economic and social
                              Iincluding gender) impact.

Target 2009: Materials        IR64 lines with significantly
                              improved salinity tolerance
                              by pyramiding QTLs from
                              two donors.

Target 2009: Materials        Phenotyping and MAB
                              system for Pup1
                              developed.

Target 2009: Materials        Pup1 indica varieties
                              available.

Target 2010: Materials        An additional validated QTL
                              for phosphorus deficiency
                              tolerance.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Evaluation of two validated
knowledge                     improved elite lines or
                              mega-varieties with Saltol
                              introgressed at IRRI.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Ex-ante assessment of the
knowledge                     CNRM technologies for
                              salinity and associated
                              stresses at three NARES


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                      23
                              Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              sites

Target 2010: Materials        Twenty five new improved
                              multiple abiotic stress
                              tolerant breeding lines,
                              hybrids, and alien
                              introgression lines with
                              improved grain quality for
                              India,
                              Bangladesh, Vietnam,
                              Myanmar, and Indonesia.

Target 2010: Materials        At least one fine-mapped
                              QTL and closely linked
                              markers associated with Fe
                              toxicity available for
                              introgression into widely
                              adopted varieties.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Knowledge of the closely
knowledge                     linked markers for QTLs for
                              salinity tolerance at the
                              reproductive stage.

Target 2010: Materials        Breeding lines combining
                              tolerance to salinity and
                              Sub1.

Target 2010: Materials        At least one widely adopted
                              variety with Pup1 developed
                              for phosphorous uptake.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Beneficial effect of Pup1
knowledge                     and P-fertilizer on drought
                              quantified.

Target 2011: Materials        Five mega-varieties with
                              Saltol introgression
                              evaluated through PVS with
                              men and women farmers in
                              India, Philippines, and
                              Bangladesh.

Target 2011: Materials        Two breeding lines


IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                      24
                              Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                      Impact

                              combining tolerance of
                              submergence and salinity
                              evaluated in coastal
                              Bangladesh and India.

Target 2011: Materials        MAB system developed and
                              used to combine QTLs
                              associated with tolerance of
                              salinity at seedling and
                              reproductive stages.

Target 2011: Practices        MAB employed by NARES in
                              India, Vietnam, and
                              Bangladesh to transfer
                              major QTLs into locally
                              adapted varieties.

Target 2011: Materials        Thirty improved multiple
                              abiotic stress
                              (salinity/sodicity, Zn
                              deficiency and Fe toxicity)
                              tolerant breeding lines with
                              improved grain quality
                              tested by at least 5 NARES
                              partners.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Assessment of the impact
knowledge                     of saline tolerant
                              technologies on farmers’
                              incomes including social
                              (gender) and income
                              stability in three key
                              locations in South Asia.



Output 4                      Superior germplasm and         NARES scientists and        NARES evaluate improved      Rice yields in uplands are
                              improved management            research leaders National   germplasm for inclusion in   increased by at least 30%.
                              options for uplands            and international           their breeding programs.     Improved management of
                              developed by 2012.             development agencies        NARES make improved          rice landscapes reduces
                                                                                         technologies available to    land degradation in sloping
                                                                                         farmers who adopt these      uplands Farmers’ incomes
                                                                                         across at least 20% of the   increase by at least 20%
                                                                                         upland areas.                due to incorporation of

IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                 25
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                                                                                           remunerative cash crops in
                                                                                           ricebased systems.
                                                                                           Furthermore, policy makers
                                                                                           and development agencies
                                                                                           will have better information
                                                                                           and knowledge of the food
                                                                                           security problems of ethnic
                                                                                           minorities in the uplands.

Target 2009: Materials        Improved glutinous upland
                              rice germplasm for Laos.

Target 2009: Materials        Upland rice germplasm
                              combining improved yield
                              potential with drought
                              tolerance for Laos and
                              Vietnam.

Target 2009: Practices        Community seed bank for
                              seed and food security
                              formalized in Indonesia.

Target 2010: Materials        Improved upland
                              rice germplasm with high
                              yield potential, drought
                              tolerance, and weed
                              competitiveness for
                              NARES.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Strategies for rice-legume
knowledge                     cropping systems from
                              farmer-participatory
                              research for pest
                              management evaluated in
                              the Philippines

Target 2011: Practices        Validated crop mixtures,
                              management options, and
                              rotations to improve the
                              productivity and
                              sustainability of upland rice
                              systems, through
                              participatory approaches
                              with men and women

IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                       26
                              Outputs                        Intended Users             Outcome                         Impact

                              farmers.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Strategies for scaling-up of
knowledge                     technology options to
                              improve the productivity
                              and sustainability of upland
                              rice systems.

Target 2011: Materials        Fine-mapped QTL
                              associated with brown spot
                              resistance and markers for
                              introgression into mega-
                              varities.



Output 5                      Resource management            Scientists NARES natural   NARES use sustainability        Cropping intensity increases
                              options and strategies         resource managers NARES    indicators to monitor           by 50% in areas
                              for intensification and        researchers Extension      ecosystem health in rainfed     characterized by short and
                              diversification of rainfed     workers Development        environments. NARES             erratic monsoons. Land and
                              systems developed by           agencies Farmers’          researchers test and refine     water productivity is
                              2012.                          organizations              landscape management and        increased by 50% across 2
                                                                                        cropping systems strategies     million ha of salt affected
                                                                                        and develop technology          coastal areas in Vietnam
                                                                                        advisory notes and              and Bangladesh.
                                                                                        extension materials. NARES
                                                                                        use this information to train
                                                                                        extension workers and
                                                                                        development agencies on
                                                                                        improved farming systems
                                                                                        and ecosystem
                                                                                        management. Farmers
                                                                                        adopt new land
                                                                                        management and cropping
                                                                                        systems strategies across 5
                                                                                        million ha.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Knowledge on constraints
knowledge                     to adoption of improved
                              germplasm and resource
                              management options for
                              double cropping of rice in
                              the coastal area of


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                   27
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              Bangladesh.

Target 2009: Practices        Decision support tools to
                              facilitate technology
                              development and uptake for
                              rice-wheat, rice-aquaculture
                              and rice-legume systems.

Target 2009: Practices        Effective options for
                              germplasm (rice and non-
                              rice) and cropping
                              sequences in saline/alkaline
                              areas of India, Bangladesh,
                              and Vietnam.

Target 2009: Practices        Crop and NRM strategies for
                              intensified, drought-prone,
                              rice-based systems from
                              three research sites in
                              Eastern India and the
                              Greater Mekong region.

Target 2009: Practices        Characterization methods
                              for rice pests and diseases
                              in favorable and
                              unfavorable rainfed
                              ecosystems developed and
                              tested.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Assessment of productivity,
knowledge                     environmental and socio-
                              economic (including
                              gender) impact of
                              integrated crop
                              management using actual
                              survey and simulation
                              models in rice-wheat
                              systems of Nepal and
                              Eastern India.

Target 2010: Practices        A validated methodology to
                              integrate research results
                              and farmer’s experience for
                              site-specific intensification

IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                      28
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              of rainfed lowland rice in
                              Cambodia, northeast
                              Thailand, and the
                              Philippines.

Target 2010: Practices        Germplasm and
                              management options for
                              double cropping in flood-
                              prone areas of Indonesia,
                              Cambodia, and Myanmar.

Target 2010: Practices        Validated methodology for
                              monitoring pest regulatory
                              ecosystem services in
                              selected rainfed sites in the
                              Philippines.

Target 2010: Practices        Validated effective and
                              more profitable cropping
                              patterns in flood-prone
                              areas of West Bengal, India
                              and Rangpur, Bangladesh.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Analysis of environmental
knowledge                     sustainability of rice
                              production in three
                              countries in the Greater
                              Mekong Subregion.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Database on environmental
knowledge                     sustainability for two
                              representative rainfed
                              sites.

Target 2011: Practices        Improved CNRM options for
                              intensified rainfed lowlands
                              of the Philippines developed
                              and available.

Target 2011: Practices        Germplasm and
                              management options for
                              double cropping in flood-
                              prone areas of Indonesia,
                              Cambodia, and Myanmar.


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                      29
                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

Target 2011: Other kinds of   [production
knowledge                     situation]x[injury profiles]
                              relationships established
                              and priorities for future
                              research (host plant
                              resistance and crop
                              management) determined.




IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                      30
IRRI-2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based systems:
rice and the environment

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale
Asian urban centers have the majority of the world’s urban poor and within the next 25 years
nearly 55% of the population of Asia will be located in these areas. The urban poor require food at
affordable prices and this must come from increased productivity in intensive rice systems, which
now account for over 70% of total rice production. Rice-growing areas are among the world’s
most enduring, environmentally sound, and productive agroecosystems, and increased rice
production in recent decades has had a significant impact on poverty reduction. Rice ecosystems
provide basic commodities and regulatory services, including nutrient and water cycling, and
biological control. Poor people depend on these ―ecosystem services‖ to provide their needs as
they are often without infrastructure to obtain clean water, food, and fuel. Environmental
sustainability and ecosystem services are threatened, however, by the loss of biodiversity, climate
change, and inappropriate management systems often caused by land, water, or labor shortages.

In some areas of Asia, a rice crop is being replaced by another crop such as maize in response to
limitations in irrigation water and high demand for the crop. Crop diversification and intensification
may jeopardize sustainability due to deterioration in soil health and pest buildup, and crop
management approaches will be required to avert this. IRRI and CIMMYT will work together in an
Alliance project for Intensive Production Systems in Asia to understand the effects of
diversification on the ecosystem and the environment and to develop sustainable management
practices for evolving production systems. The misuse of agricultural chemicals can interfere with
the regulating services of the ecosystem, such as biological control and air and water quality, yet
farm-level practices can optimize their use in order to maintain yields while minimizing
environmental impact.

Increasing water scarcity threatens agriculture and livelihoods, and this will be pronounced in
many areas. In many areas in South Asia, heavy pumping of groundwater is lowering water tables.
In many monsoon areas, such as in the delta areas of South and Southeast Asia, competition is
heavy for water, particularly in the dry season. Water supplies are further threatened by
contamination from industrial and urban sources. Agriculture may also contribute in the form of
agricultural chemicals, nitrates, and salt in the subsoil, which may affect human health and also
threaten aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services. Water is a key entry point for integrated
management solutions addressed in this program, both at the field level (see Output 2) or
landscape level (Output 3).

Labor availability is a major driver of change in many of the rice production systems in Asia and is
leading to changes such as in the shift from transplanting to direct seeding. In the Indo-Gangetic
Plains, for example, the desire to reduce costs has motivated the development of ―conservation
agriculture‖ to reduce the tillage required for crop establishment and conserve the resource base.
The changing production environment has significant implications for resource management and
productivity, and appropriate land management is required to ensure the sustainability of rice
ecosystems. Cropping practices, rotations, fertilizer management, pesticide use, tillage, fallow and
field margin management, and flooding regimes may all play important roles in conserving
biodiversity, and indigenous knowledge of landscape management is a key resource. Biodiversity
plays a vital role in maintaining the resilience of agroecosystems to drought, pest outbreaks, and
floods, and in the provision of ecosystem services. Rice germplasm and species diversity are
essential for sustaining effective host-plant resistance and minimizing the risk of widespread and
severe pest outbreaks.


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            31
Global climate change is one of humankind’s most important challenges. There is a growing
consensus that Earth’s temperature is increasing, largely as a result of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In temperate areas, rice production may benefit from rising
temperatures. However, the majority of the world’s rice areas crop production will suffer as a
consequence of climate change unless measures for improved crop adaptation to rising
temperature, submergence, salinization, or drought are taken. Likewise, new options for
mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in intensifying and diversifying rice systems need to be
developed and disseminated to rice farmers.

IRRI will meet the above challenges by exploiting genetic resources with conventional and
biotechnological approaches to produce highly productive and well-adapted varieties. Molecular
breeding will be used to incorporate yield-enhancing genes from exotic and wild species into
improved cultivars and parents for superior hybrids. Germplasm generated will be combined with
crop and land management alternatives to optimize resource use, maintain the natural resource
base, and together with postharvest options, improve productivity. Ecological approaches at the
field and landscape level will be used to gain a better understanding of the role of biodiversity and
to maximize the effectiveness of cultural control options for pests. To mitigate the threats to
productivity posed by intensification, diversification, water shortages, and climate change will
require innovative approaches to develop resource management and germplasm options. Options
will be developed and deployed through a range of partnerships. Improved germplasm will be
made available through INGER and technology options will be extended and adaptive research
undertaken with NARES through two consortia, the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC)
and the Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC), and also through the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance (ICA). To
address the challenge of water shortages, close links will be fostered with the Challenge Program
on Water and Food. To meet the threats posed by climate change, IRRI will lead the consortium
Rice and Climate Change.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Enhancement of rice germplasm to tolerate stresses and increase productivity in intensive rice-
based systems (Output 1) is closely aligned with System Priority 2A and in particular specific goal
1 by enhancing the capacity of genetic improvement programs through use of approaches to link
the characterization and use of germplasm, and specific goal 2 with the identification and
development of pro-poor traits to raise the productivity of water, labor and land. Resource
management and germplasm options to address the threats sustainability due to intensification
and a decline freshwater resources (Output 2) address System Priorities 4C (specific goals 1, 2,
and 3), and 4D (specific goals 4, 5, 6, and 7). Landscape approaches will be applied to achieve
Output 3 by identifying improved land use practices and the development of options to increase
the productivity of irrigation water, improve soil health, and reduce vulnerability through
integrated pest management are essential elements of System Priorities 4A (specific goals 1,2, 4,
and 5) and 4D (specific goals 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8). To meet the challenges of climate change,
Output 4 will address System Priority 2A (specific goal 2) and 2B through the development of
germplasm with tolerance to abiotic stresses and options to improve sustainability under 4D
(specific goals 4, 5, and 8). Partnerships with national institutions (Output 5) will aim at
enhancing the impact of agricultural research and are congruent with System Priorities 4C
(specific goal 1), 4D (specific goal 8), 5A (specific goal 1), 5C (specific goal 2) and 5D.

Project Outputs

The program has five outputs. Output 1 will generate germplasm that will improve productivity
and be less affected by biotic and abiotic constraints. Outputs 2 and 3 will focus on alleviating
constraints, including water availability and quality, contamination by heavy metals, deteriorating
soil quality, and increased pest buildup, and will identify options to improve sustainability through
studies at the field to landscape level. Output 4 will develop germplasm and management options

IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             32
to improve rice adaptation to climate change and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from rice
systems, and Output 5 will develop and strengthen NARES consortia to facilitate the development
of appropriate technologies and facilitate greater impact.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Improved rice germplasm and management practices to enhance yield
potential and achieve sustainable productivity developed by 2012.

Description: An improved understanding of the genetic basis and physiological mechanisms of
yield potential, pest resistance, and grain quality will allow the development of elite inbred and
hybrid germplasm with higher yield potential, multiple resistance to insects and diseases, and
superior grain quality. Management and ecological approaches to crop performance will identify
yield gaps and pathways to reduce crop losses. Integrated germplasm and pre- and postharvest
management options will enable yield gaps to be closed, productivity increased, production costs
minimized, and farmers’ profitability increased.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety; 2D: Genetically enhancing selected high-value species;

Output 2: Integrated resource management options and germplasm to address threats
to sustainability related to trends of increasing intensification and diversification and
decreasing freshwater resources developed by 2012.

Description: Greater understanding and knowledge of the impact of intensification and
diversification, and associated management practices, will be developed through partnerships and
through collaborative arrangements such as the ICA and RWC. In particular, the second-
generation problems associated with salinity, soil health, water quality, and pest/weed buildup
with emerging crop management and land-use patterns will be elucidated, and integrated options
developed to mitigate these. Natural resource management options and germplasm will be
developed to combat water scarcity, including innovative management practices such as alternate
wetting-and-drying and aerobic rice, to use low quality water (affected by salt and chemicals),
and to minimize uptake of toxic metals (including arsenic, cadmium, and others) into rice plants.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4C: Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable
agro-ecological intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and
technology policies and institutions;

Output 3: Integrated management options for improved environmental sustainability in
rice-based landscapes developed by 2014.

Description: The ecological components of ecosystem resilience will be determined and practices
and policy options identified to enhance biodiversity and improve sustainability. The role of rice
paddies in the hydrological cycle will be elucidated since the relationship between paddies and
maintenance of ecosystem services—though critical—is poorly understood. Greater knowledge will
be developed of the material flows (water, pollutants, and air pollution—burning) that occur in
intensive rice systems and spatial interactions between rice and the surrounding environment.
Integrated resource management options will be developed in order to improve sustainability and
optimize productivity and ecosystem services at the subbasin level.


IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                             33
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4C: Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological
intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and
institutions; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and
vulnerability;

Output 4: Options to adapt rice systems to climate change, particularly higher
temperatures and raised sea levels, and to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
developed by 2014.

Description: The nature and extent of climate change and the threats posed to the major rice
production areas will be determined through climate and crop modeling, undertaken in
partnership with existing research groups and by using established databases. Germplasm will be
adapted to the predicted climates, with tolerance of heat and salinity for the coastal areas, and
crop management options will be developed to address the changed environment and crop-pest
relationships. Crop management options will also be generated to minimize GHG emissions and
the contribution of rice production to climate change.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 4A: Promoting integrated land,
water and forest management at landscape level; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological
intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and
institutions; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and
vulnerability;

Output 5: Strategies for uptake and impact of research results in place by 2010.

Description: While each of the outputs under Program 2 will aim at uptake and impact at the
NARES level, Output 5 will have specific research activities directed at facilitating the delivery,
promotion, and uptake of technologies and knowledge. These activities will be conducted within
the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) that has activities in 10 countries in Asia, the Rice-
Wheat Consortium (RWC) that has activities in four countries in South Asia, and the
Environmental Radio programs to raise awareness of Southeast Asian farmers of environmental
issues associated with farming practices. IRRI and NARES partners will collaborate with expanded
activities for validation, integration, and scaling out of the principles, approaches, and
technologies developed for intensive rice-based farming systems. IRRI social and natural resource
scientists will provide a scientific platform for developing and assessing pathways of adoption.
Collaborative research will examine how farmers respond to different pathways of information
transfer and to policy changes, and scaling out of the technologies will be led by the NARES of the
respective countries. A common focus will be on the delivery and measurement of the impact of
new technologies and crop management options on smallholder farmers and consumers, many of
whom are urban poor and landless in rural areas of the participating Asian developing countries.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4C: Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable
agro-ecological intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and
technology policies and institutions; 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce
rural poverty and vulnerability;

Impact Pathways

Integrating the development of more productive germplasm with improved landuse practices and
management will provide the greatest opportunities to develop options suitable for adoption by
NARES researchers, development workers, and ultimately farmers. The main outputs available to
NARES will be knowledge of desirable germplasm traits and understanding of the factors

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                            34
influencing the sustainability of the natural resource base, and improved germplasm as developed
lines and parent materials, appropriate management options for ricebased systems, and policy
options. Outputs will be developed with national institutions through consortia and other
partnerships and activities will comprise the identification of constraints and development of
management options and germplasm, through to validation in farmers’ fields. Consortia in
particular will provide broad access to improved germplasm and management options, and
facilitate greater impact within rural communities. Evaluation and adaptation of options will also
occur independently of either the consortia or IRRI as part of NARES initiatives. Outputs are
expected to be used by breeders, researchers, development workers, and policymakers in natural
resource management and it is envisaged that these will improve the effectiveness of NARES and
ARI partners through increased availability of development alternatives and strengthened capacity.
Partnerships with NGOs and the private sector will be encouraged where appropriate.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Improved rice germplasm and management practices to enhance yield
potential and achieve sustainable productivity developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Integrated resource management options and germplasm to address threats
to sustainability related to trends of increasing intensification and diversification and
decreasing freshwater resources developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Integrated management options for improved environmental sustainability in
rice-based landscapes developed by 2014.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Options to adapt rice systems to climate change, particularly higher
temperatures and raised sea levels, and to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
developed by 2014.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 5: Strategies for uptake and impact of research results in place by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

This program will meet the needs for germplasm and options to improve the productivity, and
provide a platform and knowledge base to improve sustainability, of intensive rice-based systems
in the long term. In achieving this, the program will generate new knowledge and broad
understanding that will be made available in the form of IPGs. Research will use advances in rice
breeding and greater understanding of the factors affecting the sustainability of rice systems to
develop higher-yielding cultivars and hybrids and suitable management options and strategies.
Through the consortia, research activities will draw on multiple sites to derive broad
understanding and knowledge to support extrapolation and wider application of the output targets.
An example of this is the four working groups of the IRRC. Each has activities across a range of
countries and aims to develop options and understanding of component technologies. Where it is
appropriate, through the consortia and other partnerships, Program 2 will participate in policy
dialogues and roles of advocacy in order to contribute to IPGs.




IRRI                                      MTP 2010-12                                          35
Elaboration of Partners Roles

For Output 1, the major partners in germplasm development will be NARES, NGOs, and the
private sector, and their roles are evaluation, identification, and use of breeding materials/elite
lines with high yield potential, improved grain quality, enhanced micronutrient content, multiple
resistance to diseases and insects, and cold tolerance. With partners in China and Korea, studies
will be conducted on stem borer ecology, the population genetics of brown planthopper, and gene
flow. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and other genomics tools in germplasm improvement will
be applied in collaboration with ARIs and NARES. A wide range of NARES partners will collaborate
on the integration of canopy characteristics with germplasm and management, strategies to
optimize macro- and micronutrient applications, crop establishment, and pre- and postharvest
management practices and crop diversification for increased productivity, reduced crop losses,
and sustained production.

Through Output 2, research activities involving constraint identification, evaluation of technology,
and policy options will be largely undertaken with NARES partners, either through bilateral
partnerships or through the IRRC, RWC, and ICA. Activities on soil fertility and related
management will be undertaken in collaboration with the Southeast Asia Program of PPI/PPIC and
IPI, which will provide support and linkage to related activities in Asia. In the case of water use
and availability, activities will be undertaken with the Challenge Program on Water and Food
(CPWF) and the Comprehensive Assessment (CA), which will in turn provide linkages to other
international centers such as IMWI and ICARDA, universities in Germany and the Netherlands, and
multilateral organizations, including FAO.

Partnerships are yet to be fully developed for Output 3, but, in addition to others, these may
include NARES partners in Vietnam, China, and the Philippines that will collaborate on issues
related to biodiversity, and in Malaysia on water quality and the movement of pesticides. Greater
understanding of the hydrological cycle will derive from partnerships involving the CPWF, CSIRO,
and Charles Sturt University in Australia and these will be linked to NARES activities.

Partners for collaborative activities in Output 4 will include universities and research centers in
Germany, Italy, UK, USA, Australia, Japan, China, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Iran, Indonesia, and
the Philippines. Collaborative arrangements will be established with NARES partners and with the
RWC and ICA in order to create study sites and for data collection, identify management
alternatives, undertake adaptive research, and evaluate technology and policy options.

The IRRC, RWC, and ICA will provide important, but not exclusive, pathways for the scaling-out of
research findings, technologies, and policy options in Output 5. These consortia and bilateral
partnerships, such as the Environmental Radio in Vietnam, will link with NARES institutions in
India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines,
Indonesia, Malaysia, and Laos, NGOs, and private industry in order to scale out and achieve
impact. The nature of partnerships will depend greatly on the capacities and organization of the
NARES and also how research organizations are related to extension and development services.
Within some NARES, the partnerships listed above and established in the research and evaluation
phase would be appropriate for scaling out, while, in others, additional partnerships will be sought.




IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                            36
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                       Intended Users                Outcome                         Impact

Output 1                 Improved rice                 Researchers and breeders      NARES in 8 countries and        The gap between farm-level
                         germplasm and                 at IRRI and in NARES NGOs     other intended users use        yield and the potential of
                         management practices to       Extension agencies Private    the improved germplasm          improved varieties will be
                         enhance yield potential       sector and farmers in south   and management practices        reduced by 25% in selected
                         and achieve sustainable       and south-east Asia, and      in research, breeding           regions and over 10 million
                         productivity developed        East and southern Africa      and/or extension programs.      ha, and technology options
                         by 2012.                      ARIs.                         Germplasm will be made          will lead to a reduction in
                                                                                     widely available through        the unit cost of production
                                                                                     INGER. Consortia (IRRC,         by 20% over a similar area.
                                                                                     RWC, ICA) will play an          In areas where commonly
                                                                                     important role in               used varieties were yielding
                                                                                     disseminating and               below 5 t ha-1 in 2004, by
                                                                                     facilitating the uptake by      2009 yields will be
                                                                                     farmers It is expected that     increased by 15%.
                                                                                     technologies will be
                                                                                     transferred to NARES
                                                                                     institutions that serve one
                                                                                     third of the annual irrigated
                                                                                     rice area in Asia (c. 25
                                                                                     million ha).

Target 2009: Materials   Superior IRRI bred lines
                         and five hybrids developed
                         at IRRI or NARES using
                         IRRI hybrid rice parents.

Target 2009: Materials   IR64 NILs for yield related
                         traits.

Target 2009: Practices   High throughput protocols
                         for grain quality and
                         nutritional traits.

Target 2009: Practices   Validated postharvest
                         management options for
                         Indonesia and strengthened
                         market information sources
                         in Cambodia, Lao and
                         Vietnam.


IRRI                                                         MTP 2010-12                                                                      37
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

Target 2009: Materials        Identified major QTLs for
                              cold tolerance at vegetative
                              and booting stages

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Understanding of
knowledge                     physiological selection
                              criteria for new plant type
                              concepts with increased
                              yield potential

Target 2009: Materials        Validated markers linked to
                              resistance genes for BPH
                              (Bph118) and blast (Pi40)
                              under field evaluation in hot
                              spot locations

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Potential plant traits for
knowledge                     high yield and Best Rice
                              Management Practices for
                              China, and South and
                              Southeast Asia.

Target 2010: Materials        Tagged genes/QTLs for iron
                              and zinc contents in the rice
                              grain.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   BPH-vectored rice grassy
knowledge                     stunt and rice ragged stunt
                              viruses in Vietnam
                              characterized

Target 2010: Materials        Assessed and improved
                              novel high-throughput
                              screening protocols for BPH
                              and SHB resistance.

Target 2010: Policy           Framework for a new
strategies                    breeding program for
                              direct-seeded rice under
                              resource-conserving tillage
                              in intensive cereal cropping
                              systems in S Asia.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Developed breeding lines


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                      38
                         Outputs                          Intended Users                Outcome                         Impact

knowledge                with pyramided genes for
                         durable blast resistance

Target 2010: Materials   Validated QTLs/markers
                         linked to cold tolerance and
                         identified cold tolerant lines
                         for tropics and temperate
                         regions.

Target 2011: Materials   Validated pyramided lines
                         for BB resistance against
                         new races and developed
                         promising breeding lines

Target 2011: Materials   Validated pyramided lines
                         for BPH and WBPH
                         resistance

Target 2011: Materials   Developed superior
                         breeding lines for BPH,
                         blast and BB resistance and
                         cold tolerance

Target 2011: Materials   Elite varieties and their plan
                         traits for increasing grain
                         yield of wet season
                         identified

Target 2011: Practices   Improved screening
                         methods for host plant
                         resistance to sheath blight
                         and BPH



Output 2                 Integrated resource              Researchers, and extension    Modified agricultural           Sustainability, and
                         management options               staff of NARES Farmers in     practices validated and         improved or maintained
                         and germplasm to                 South and Southeast Asia,     promoted by NARES and           productivity of the rice
                         address threats to               China, and also in east and   adopted by farmers to           production systems will
                         sustainability related to        southern Africa ARIs NGO      improve the sustainability      enable incomes to be
                         trends of increasing             Policy makers.                and maintain or improve         diversified, and income and
                         intensification and                                            yields despite                  nutrition improved for
                         diversification and                                            intensification,                millions families in south
                         decreasing freshwater                                          diversification and declining   Asia, SE Asia and China.


IRRI                                                            MTP 2010-12                                                                      39
                         Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome                         Impact

                         resources developed by                             water availability.             Reducing the uptake of
                         2012.                                              Specifically, knowledge and     toxic metals will ease this
                                                                            practices will be adopted       threat to human health in
                                                                            within partner NARES and        south Asia.
                                                                            consortia and these will be
                                                                            applicable to areas
                                                                            exceeding 5 million ha in
                                                                            South Asia, SE Asia and
                                                                            China. Furthermore, options
                                                                            to reduce the effects of
                                                                            salinity on productivity will
                                                                            be adopted by farmers in
                                                                            India and Bangladesh on
                                                                            upwards of 1 million ha,
                                                                            and those to reduce the risk
                                                                            of uptake of toxic metals in
                                                                            rice adopted over 0.75
                                                                            million ha in south Asia and
                                                                            those to respond to water
                                                                            scarcity in northern China,
                                                                            Philippines, India, and
                                                                            Myanmar on around 1
                                                                            million ha.

Target 2009: Practices   Options for fertilizer, crop,
                         and soil management in
                         rice-maize systems (IRRI-
                         CIMMYT alliance).

Target 2009: Practices   Recommended technologies
                         for minimum-till and direct
                         seeded rice production
                         systems and policy options
                         for South Asia.

Target 2009: Practices   Prototype integrated crop
                         management systems and
                         germplasm for water scarce
                         conditions in the
                         Philippines, India, China,
                         and Myanmar.

Target 2009: Practices   Understanding of fertilizer


IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                 40
                              Outputs                          Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              management options for Zn
                              enrichment in rice grain and
                              agronomic sufficiency

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Understanding of adoption
knowledge                     and impact of water saving
                              technologies in China.

Target 2010: Practices        Characterized target
                              domain and quantified
                              benefits of no-till rice-wheat
                              system in terms of soil
                              quality, nutrient use
                              efficiency, and water-use
                              efficiency.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Target traits of rice adapted
knowledge                     to reduced water input and
                              soil moisture levels.

Target 2010: Practices        Decision tools for direct-
                              seeded rice in Asia.

Target 2010: Practices        Prototype local solutions for
                              best management practices
                              in rice-maize systems in
                              Bangladesh .

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Experimental platforms for
knowledge                     optimizing future rice-based
                              cropping systems in S
                              Asia.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Understanding of plant
knowledge                     traits and selection criteria
                              for adaptation to
                              conservation agriculture
                              systems

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Indicators for changes in
knowledge                     soil properties due to
                              continuous rice-wheat and
                              rice-maize cultivation



IRRI                                                                MTP 2010-12                      41
                              Outputs                        Intended Users                 Outcome                       Impact

Target 2011: Practices        Validated fertilizer
                              management options for Zn
                              enrichment in rice grain and
                              agronomic sufficiency

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Rice pest profiles and risk
knowledge                     zones quantified and
                              mapped in the Philippines
                              and selected areas of South
                              Asia

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Understanding of disease
knowledge                     epidemics on different plant
                              organs

Target 2011: Practices        Improved knowledge of the
                              long-term changes in rice
                              farming system in the
                              Philippines and India



Output 3                      Integrated management          Researchers at IRRI, in        Scientists of NARES and       Improved environmental
                              options for improved           NARES in south and south-      other institutions will use   sustainability and quality
                              environmental                  east Asia, China and in east   the new knowledge on          while increasing
                              sustainability in rice-        and southern Africa ARIs       ecosystem resilience,         productivity of the rice
                              based landscapes               Policy makers                  material flows and the        systems for farming
                              developed by 2014.                                            hydrological cycles to        families in Asia.
                                                                                            develop improved
                                                                                            technologies and policy
                                                                                            options.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Conceptual framework to
knowledge                     analyze hydrological
                              ecosystem services of
                              paddies.

Target 2009: Capacity         NARES trained in
                              applications of ecosystem
                              management concepts


Target 2010: Practices        Sustainable ecologically-
                              based pest management


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                         42
                              Outputs                        Intended Users                Outcome                        Impact

                              approaches, including
                              ecological engineering, for
                              rice based systems.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Assessment of the role of
knowledge                     surrounding habitats in pest
                              management (insects,
                              diseases, rodents and
                              weeds)

Target 2011: Policy           Model and partnerships for
strategies                    studying ecosystem
                              services in rice
                              landscapes.

Target 2011: Practices        Landscape and farm
                              management options
                              evaluated using farmer
                              participatory methods.



Output 4                      Options to adapt rice          Researchers and extension     NARES and ARIs use the         The widespread adoption of
                              systems to climate             staff and farmers worldwide   knowledge of the likely        germplasm and
                              change, particularly           ARIs Policy makers            effects of climate change to   management options to
                              higher temperatures and                                      develop and adapt              address climate change will
                              raised sea levels, and to                                    strategies, germplasm, and     help assure future harvests
                              minimize greenhouse                                          crop management options        and well-being of rice
                              gas (GHG) emissions                                          that cope with climate         farmers and consumers
                              developed by 2014.                                           change and address             worldwide.
                                                                                           challenges to food

Target 2009: Policy           Improved prediction of the
strategies                    impact of climate on rice
                              production in key areas and
                              identification of major
                              coping strategies

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Mechanisms for germplasm
knowledge                     tolerance to high
                              temperature and other
                              abiotic stresses under
                              future climates identified.



IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                     43
                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

Target 2009: Practices        Management and policy
                              options to reduce GHG
                              emissions in water scarce
                              rice production systems,
                              including the rice-wheat
                              system.

Target 2010: Materials        Physiological mechanisms
                              and genetics for
                              tolerance/avoidance of high
                              temperatures elucidated
                              and disseminated for
                              testing of advanced
                              germplasm/breeding lines
                              in target areas (NARES).

Target 2010: Practices        Management and policy
                              options to reduce GHG
                              emissions in water scarce
                              rice production systems.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Mapped hot spots of
knowledge                     anticipated effects of
                              climate change
                              (temperature rise, sea level
                              rise, flooding risk) in rice
                              production areas in Asia.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Improved understanding of
knowledge                     crop and pest responses to
                              future climates

Target 2011: Materials        Promising breeding lines
                              with tolerance/avoidance of
                              high temperatures
                              identified

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Physiological understanding
knowledge                     of the effect of warm night
                              temperature on rice
                              production and concepts for
                              management strategies to
                              cope with elevated CO2 and
                              temperature.

IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                      44
                              Outputs                      Intended Users               Outcome                        Impact

Target 2011: Practices        Assessment of soils, and
                              water and nutrient
                              management on GHG
                              emissions and formulated
                              options to increase carbon
                              sequestration

Target 2011: Practices        Modeling framework for
                              assessing effects of
                              intensification and
                              diversification on C and N
                              budgets (incl. GHG
                              emissions) in rice-
                              dominated landscapes



Output 5                      Strategies for uptake        NARES and NGOs in south      NARES partners and other       The livelihoods of millions of
                              and impact of research       and south-east Asia, China   institutions will use these    rice farming families in
                              results in place by 2010.    Farmers Policy makers        strategies to deliver          South Asia, SE Asia and
                                                           ARIs                         improved technologies.         China will be enhanced
                                                                                        Governments adopt policy       because of greater and
                                                                                        options to facilitate the      faster uptake of appropriate
                                                                                        efficient delivery of          technologies to improve the
                                                                                        improved technologies and      sustainability of rice-based
                                                                                        management strategies for      cropping systems.
                                                                                        intensive rice-based
                                                                                        farming systems. Effective
                                                                                        delivery of research results
                                                                                        to farmers in 4 countries
                                                                                        leads to uptake of
                                                                                        technologies and integrated
                                                                                        management strategies.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Improved knowledge on
knowledge                     impacts of integrated
                              technologies and
                              management strategies at
                              farmer and government
                              levels in Indonesia,
                              Philippines, and Vietnam.

Target 2009: Practices        Best management practices


IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                                                                      45
                          Outputs                      Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                          for intensive rice-based
                          farming systems compiled,
                          documented and
                          disseminated to NARES
                          partners

Target 2009: Practices    Site-specific nutrient
                          management principles
                          disseminated nationwide in
                          Indonesia and the
                          Philippines

Target 2010: Unassigned   Strengthened delivery
                          channels for postharvest
                          management options and
                          market information in
                          Vietnam. Cambodia, and
                          the Philippines.

Target 2010: Capacity     Effective stakeholder
                          networks established in at
                          least four countries and
                          maintained with good
                          communication between
                          actors

Target 2010: Capacity     Professional training
                          programs for public and
                          private sector extension

Target 2011: Practices    Effective strategies for
                          broad scale adoption of
                          crop management and
                          postharvest technologies
                          implemented in at least
                          three countries

Target 2011: Practices    Best management practices
                          for intensive rice-maize
                          systems evaluated and
                          disseminated in three
                          countries

Target 2011: Practices    Improved understanding of


IRRI                                                        MTP 2010-12                      46
       Outputs                     Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

       pest management
       strategies and zoning for
       IPM




IRRI                                    MTP 2010-12                      47
IRRI-3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an
affordable urban staple

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale

Sub-Saharan Africa is now one of the world’s major ―poverty islands‖. There are about 130 million
people in East and southern Africa (ESA) alone who live in extreme poverty and more than 85% of
these depend on agriculture. A large number of these people are rice consumers and many are
small rice producers. A significant investment in agriculture is critical to eradicate hunger and
poverty in ESA. Rural poverty in the ESA region could be significantly reduced if the efficiency of
local rice production were improved in the key rice growing areas of Burundi, Kenya, Mozambique,
Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.

 The demand for rice is increasing at more than 6% per annum from urban consumers of ESA who
prefer imported rice from Asia because it is cheaper and better quality. This shift in consumer
preference has been driven by rapid urbanization, women’s growing participation in the formal
labor force, and population growth resulting in a shift away from cassava, sorghum, millet, and
maize. With the dramatic increase in the price of rice in early 2008 it is even more important for
African farmers to boost their productivity. Presently more than 700,000 tons of rice is imported
into the ESA region annually and this costs more than US$450 million in foreign exchange. There
are more than half a million very poor rice farmers in these countries that could reduce their
poverty by growing and selling rice to local urban markets and thereby replacing imported rice.

There is substantial potential for increasing crop yields. Although rice production has grown at
over 2.5% per annum since 1990, this is mostly due to expansion of the rice growing area. Rice
yields have remained low and stagnant at 1-2 t ha-1 due to unfavorable rice environments and
poor management. The lessons learned from research in Asia have significant relevance to food
security, poverty and health.

Initial investigations suggest that constraints to production include the limited range of available
rice varieties, the lack of inputs such as reliable water, affordable fertilizer and labor, as well as
high post-production losses, poor transport systems and an inability to effectively access markets.
While options to overcome many of these constraints already exist, an integrated, research-
based approach is required to improve the quality and quantity of rice and to link farmers to local
and regional markets.

Current rice yields in the ESA region are generally low and investigations suggest there is
considerable scope for the utilization of science to produce rapid improvement in productivity. The
considerable research knowledge and expertise of IRRI can form a sound basis for a targeted,
systematic research agenda that will meet the needs of the ESA countries. The research agenda
will be developed in close cooperation with national programs and ARIs to capitalize upon both the
existing knowledge within the countries and the available international expertise.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

The implementation of a regional genetic improvement program that increases the yield of rice as
a staple, improves its tolerance to biotic stresses and enhances the nutritional quality aligns very
closely with System Priorities 2A, 2B, and 2C. Developing partnerships with national institutes and
governments which aim to help make domestic markets work for the poor and improve research

IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             48
and development options to reduce rural poverty are also consistent with System Priorities 5B and
5D.

Project Outputs

The ESA program will draw on the considerable research that has been conducted by IRRI across
Asia. The results of genetic resource development and farming systems research in Asia will be
carefully evaluated for integration into the African environment. This program for Eastern and
southern Africa will concentrate on four priority outputs.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Research priorities and policy options formulated by 2010 through
characterization of the rice production environment and markets with regard to
productivity potential and environmental stress and their interface with poverty, and
implemented by 2011.

Description: An assessment of the rice production environment will gather socioeconomic,
production and market information to enable a better understanding of rice production with regard
to the whole farm enterprise and food security. Changes in resource availability, evidence of
threats to sustainability (including farmer practices and habits) will also be researched. Although a
market exists for imported rice in the ESA countries, the market and demand for domestic rice is
not yet developed. This initiative will make conscious efforts to develop and promote markets for
domestic rice.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5B: Making international and domestic markets work for the poor;

Output 2: Elite lines including O. glaberrima derivatives with stress tolerant genes
validated by 2012.

Description: It is necessary to assess the currently-used germplasm and test new cultivars with
improved resistance to pests and diseases that also have desirable quality traits. The rice varieties
being grown in the rainfed areas of ESA are susceptible to indigenous pests and diseases such as
Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, African Gall Midge, Blast, and Striga.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

Output 3: Sustainable production and post harvest rice-based technologies for both
seed and grain farms validated by 2011.

Description: These technologies will be aimed at solving problems of water management, nutrition
and pest management, and labor shortages, as well as the post harvest problems in harvesting,
drying, storage and milling facilities.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural
poverty and vulnerability;


IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                             49
Output 4: Capacity of key rice scientists, technicians, and extension staff to conduct
research, and to validate and disseminate technologies strengthened by 2010.

Description: Well-trained staff is needed to ensure relevant research is implemented, that systems
are sustainable and that technologies are communicated effectively to farmers.

 Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural
poverty and vulnerability;

Impact Pathways

This program will target rice farmers in Burundi, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and
Uganda. These farmers will be encouraged and helped to grow new high-yielding varieties that
have good grain quality, using optimal production practices. Along with production changes,
farmers will also be able to access improved post production management and to benefit from
market knowledge and linkages

A second target group are local scientists, technicians and extension staff (including those from
the private sector) who will be part of a broad-based training program. Development of local
capacity in rice growing and post harvest operations will increase the sustainability of an efficient
rice growing sector in the target areas.

Local applicability must be the fundamental criterion in choosing technologies. An understanding
of existing farming systems and markets will guide research and determine technologies best
suited for adoption and sustainability. Institutional change can only be catalyzed through the
participation of the major stakeholders in any project design and implementation. Participation of
the national agricultural departments, universities and extensions services is critical to achieve
impact.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Research priorities and policy options formulated by 2010 through
characterization of the rice production environment and markets with regard to
productivity potential and environmental stress and their interface with poverty, and
implemented by 2011.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Elite lines including O. glaberrima derivatives with stress tolerant genes
validated by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Sustainable production and post harvest rice-based technologies for both
seed and grain farms validated by 2011.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Capacity of key rice scientists, technicians, and extension staff to conduct
research, and to validate and disseminate technologies strengthened by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             50
International Public Goods

The goals of this research for development program are:

      to improve the efficiency of rice production and post harvest operations in key rice-growing
       areas in the target ESA countries by 30% within 15 years; and
      to strengthen the capacity of local rice scientists, technicians, and extension staff in
       germplasm selection and adaptation, farm-level production, post harvest methods and
       marketing.

Therefore, the knowledge and products, such as germplasm and equipment, are the principal
international public goods. The approach to be deployed in the program will help produce an
overview of the African rice industry and the impact that can be generalized across a range of
conditions. In addition, the research for development strategies utilized in the program are
expected to have wider application across other regions in Africa.

The first major challenge is to make available high-yielding rice varieties with acceptable grain
quality and resistance to major diseases and insects, and tolerance of abiotic stresses. There is a
need to breed and disseminate improved rice germplasm adapted to local conditions. NERICA lines
(derived from crosses between African Oryza glaberrima and Asian O. sativa) and lowland sativa
rice varieties that are tolerant of major pests are now showing promise in some countries.
However, selecting rice varieties with grain quality acceptable to local consumers is critical to
move farmers from subsistence to commercial rice farming.

Increasing rice yields and improving post-harvest management are critical to producing quality
rice at competitive prices. While many of the technologies for production and post production have
been developed and validated in a wide range of Asian countries, selecting the appropriate
technologies, validating in local environments and then disseminating to farmers, will be the
second major challenge.

Another critical challenge is the lack of trained rice scientists and technicians who are able to
develop germplasm and validate farming technologies. Therefore a program of locally adapted
capacity building is also urgently needed.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

The East and southern Africa Program will work with local collaborators including the NARES, ARIs,
NGOs, universities and the private sector:

      The East and Central African Rice Research Network (ECARRN), University of Burundi and
       the Burundi Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
       (KARI), Instituto de Investigação Agrícola de Moçambique (IIAM) Ministry of Agriculture,
       Mozambique, Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) Rwanda ,Tanzanian
       Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Cooperatives (MAFC), Uganda Ministry of Agriculture,
       Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) and IRRI will develop research priorities and
       formulate policy options by 2009 through characterization of the rice production
       environment and markets with regard to productivity potential and environmental stress,
       and their interface with poverty in the four target countries.
      IRRI will collaborate with the Africa Rice Center (WARDA) KARI and IIAM to develop elite
       lines with stress tolerant genes and the program will utilize the existing skills and
       experience both from the African and Asian experiences.


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             51
      IRRI will collaborate with Sasakawa Global 2000 Mozambique (SG2000), MAFC, MAAIF,
       KARI, and other private sector to enhance sustainable production and post harvest rice-
       based technologies by validating and delivering new technologies to farmers. The new
       technologies will draw upon the extensive work done in Asia by IRRI, its consortia and its
       partner NARES. IRRI will collaborate with SG2000, ECARRN, Japanese International
       Cooperative Agency (JICA) and local universities such as Sokoine University of Agriculture,
       Mozambique and international universities to enhance the capacity of key rice scientists,
       technicians and extension staff drawing upon the facilities and expertise of other CG
       Centers as appropriate.




IRRI                                      MTP 2010-12                                           52
Logical Framework

                              Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                      Impact

Output 1                      Research priorities and        IRRI ARIs NARES including   A network of key policy      The increased productivity
                              policy options                 private sector              makers and researchers use   of sustainable rice-based
                              formulated by 2010                                         a validated and approved     systems in ESA derives
                              through characterization                                   regional rice research and   from the targeted and
                              of the rice production                                     development plan.            efficient regional rice
                              environment and                                                                         research and development
                              markets with regard to                                                                  program.
                              productivity potential
                              and environmental
                              stress and their interface
                              with poverty, and
                              implemented by 2011.

Target 2009: Capacity         A network of key policy
                              makers and researchers in
                              the six target countries.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Understanding of the rice
knowledge                     environment in the six
                              target countries for
                              research, production, and
                              marketing.

Target 2009: Capacity         Analysis of the capacity of
                              regional scientists and
                              extension officers to
                              conduct research and
                              extension in the six target
                              countries.

Target 2010: Capacity         ESA regional plan for
                              research on rice production
                              systems, development
                              initiatives, and capacity
                              building.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Implemented regional plan
knowledge                     for research on rice
                              production systems,
                              development initiatives, and
                              capacity building.


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                 53
                              Outputs                       Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact



Output 2                      Elite lines including O.      IRRI WARDA ARIs NARES       NARES develop and use          New varieties increase
                              glaberrima derivatives                                    elite varietal lines           profits for farmers and
                              with stress tolerant                                      appropriate to ESA rice        availability of higher quality
                              genes validated by 2012.                                  environments in their          rice for consumers.
                                                                                        research and breeding
                                                                                        programs.

Target 2009: Practices        A network of rice breeders
                              from key institutes across
                              the six target countries.

Target 2009: Practices        A coordinated breeding
                              program across at least
                              three ESA target
                              countries.

Target 2010: Practices        A coordinated breeding and
                              seed multiplication program
                              across six ESA target
                              countries.

Target 2011: Practices        A coordinated breeding and
                              seed multiplication program
                              across six ESA target
                              countries.



Output 3                      Sustainable production        Farmers Post harvest        NARES and other users          Improved quality and
                              and post harvest rice-        commercial sector NARES     promote efficient production   quantity of rice produced
                              based technologies for        researchers and extension   and postproduction             and stored by farmers and
                              both seed and grain           agents, NGOs                technologies for ESA.          the commercial sector
                              farms validated by 2011.                                                                 increases their profits and
                                                                                                                       enhances the availability of
                                                                                                                       higher quality rice for
                                                                                                                       consumers.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Understanding of existing
knowledge                     crop production and post-
                              harvest management
                              systems and opportunities
                              for change in the remaining


IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                                     54
                              Outputs                       Intended Users          Outcome                        Impact

                              countries of the region.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Strategies to improve
knowledge                     relevant crop production,
                              machinery manufacturing
                              and post-harvest
                              management systems.

Target 2011: Practices        Implemented strategies to
                              improve crop production,
                              machinery manufacturing
                              and post-harvest
                              management systems.



Output 4                      Capacity of key rice          CG Centers ARIs NARES   Scientists and extension       The products of rice
                              scientists, technicians,                              officers use their improved    research in ESA are
                              and extension staff to                                skills in research, breeding   delivered to farmers more
                              conduct research, and to                              and extension activities.      efficiently and effectively.
                              validate and disseminate
                              technologies
                              strengthened by 2010.

Target 2009: Capacity         Enhanced capacity of
                              scientists from ESA through
                              targeted in-country and
                              regional training courses
                              and international training
                              opportunities.

Target 2010: Capacity         Enhanced capacity of
                              scientists from ESA through
                              targeted in-country and
                              regional training courses
                              and international training
                              opportunities.

Target 2010: Capacity         Post graduate training
                              program for ESA
                              scientists.

Target 2011: Capacity         Enhanced capacity of
                              scientists from ESA through


IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                                                                  55
                        Outputs                      Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                        targeted in-country and
                        regional training courses
                        and international training
                        opportunities

Target 2011: Capacity   Post graduate training
                        program for ESA
                        scientists.

Target 2011: Capacity   An expanded cadre of rice
                        scientists in ESA.




IRRI                                                      MTP 2010-12                      56
IRRI-4: Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences
of poverty

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale

IRRI Program 4, Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences of poverty, is both an
outcome of the development of Goal 3 in IRRI’s new Strategic Plan and also a mechanism to bring
together the multiple rice biofortification projects (including the HarvestPlus Challenge Program)
and other, health-related efforts that already investigate germplasm, farm practices, and policy
options.

Underpinning maximum success in meeting many of the Millennium Development Goals is the
need to solve the widespread problems of health and nutrition that debilitate people and hinder
economic growth. There are 1.2 billion people in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa who live in extreme
poverty. Many of these do not have access to a diverse diet that provides the requisite suite of
minerals and vitamins for healthy growth and development. Poor nutrition is manifested in
invisible nutritional deficiencies (hidden hunger) and in malnutrition (visible hunger). The
accumulation of noxious compounds in the rice grain during cultivation and storage can lead to
serious health concerns for rice consumers. In addition, poor health in the context of rice
cultivation may be related to chronic and infectious diseases from water and from vectors such as
rodents and mosquitoes, as well as illness resulting from improper use of chemicals.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

The screening activities for novel traits, i.e. novel in the sense that these have not been
heretofore explored in rice germplasm, in Output 1, and to a lesser extent in Outputs 3 and 4, are
aligned with Priority 1A (specific goal 3 and also to specific goal 4). Screening for high iron and
zinc levels in the polished grain is focusing on the sub-core collection and on complementary
collections in partner countries. These activities are also aligned with Priority 2A (specific goal 1)
by directly screening germplasm for much needed traits.

Outputs 1 and 2 will also develop pro-poor traits in crops (Priority 2A, special goal 2) in that
micronutrient deficiency is a persistent and pervasive problem for poor rice consumers.

Outputs 1 and 2 address System Priority 2C (specific goals 1 and 2), and deal directly with the
development of biofortified crops and the validation of this approach to enhance the diets of
disadvantaged populations in developing countries, respectively. The successful deployment of
such improved crops is anticipated to require the appropriate communication activities also and to
forge novel partnerships for deployment (Priority 5C, specific goal 2)

Specific reference is also made in Priority 2C to aflatoxin (mycotoxin) contamination of food, as
result of microbial contamination and growth, and in the context of factors that further limit
potential use (and value) of staples by the poor. Output 4 seeks to address the problem cadmium
and other undesired components of rice are consistent with this. A related connection can be
made through Priority 5B that requires participation in research and communication to enable
poor producers to supply markets effectively and to comply with current and emerging food safety
requirements, especially as related to mycotoxin contamination.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             57
Project Outputs

This program has four outputs.

   1. Nutritionally-enhanced rice germplasm developed by 2009.
   2. Strategies for the development, promotion and delivery of biofortified rice, including
      transgenic rice by 2010 for India and the Philippines, and then for Bangladesh, China, and
      Vietnam.
   3. Increased understanding of the roles of macromolecules in rice grains for caloric efficiency
      by 2010.
   4. Strategies to reduce contamination of rice grains and to improve practices that decrease
      risks to human health developed by 2012.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Nutritionally-enhanced rice germplasm developed by 2009

Description: Outputs 1 and 2 bring together the ongoing and planned efforts on the development
and deployment of rice germplasm with increased content and/or bioavailabaility of pro-vitamin A,
iron, zinc, and Vitamin E, and with improved protein quality (higher lysine content). These outputs
build on existing commitments of the Institute under HarvestPlus, the Golden Rice Network, and
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenge #9 project (through the University of
Freiburg). Output 1 will also move IRRI to undertake the evaluation of the needs and development
of solutions to additional micronutrient deficiencies (e.g. vitamin B1).

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2C: Enhancing
nutritional quality and safety;

Output 2: Strategies for the development, promotion and delivery of biofortified rice,
including transgenic rice, by 2010 for India and the Philippines, and then for
Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam.

Description: Outputs 1 and 2 bring together the ongoing and planned efforts on the development
and deployment of rice germplasm with increased content and/or bioavailabaility of pro-vitamin A,
iron, zinc, and Vitamin E, and with improved protein quality (higher lysine content). These outputs
build on existing commitments of the Institute under HarvestPlus, the Golden Rice Network, and
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenge #9 project (through the University of
Freiburg). Output 1 will also move IRRI to undertake the evaluation of the needs and development
of solutions to additional micronutrient deficiencies (e.g. vitamin B1).

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 5D: Improving research and development
options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Output 3: Increased understanding of the roles of macromolecules in rice grains for
caloric efficiency by 2010.

Description: This represents an opportunity for IRRI to explore additional benefits from its grain
quality research and to define a research agenda that will guide any expansion its work on the

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                               58
understanding of digestibility and food (caloric) value of different rice varieties. This output could
lead to improved varieties with greater digestibility and with greater storability of cooked rice. The
increased understanding will also include the value of these traits to partners and will thereby also
define the partners.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;

Output 4: Strategies to reduce contamination of rice grains and to improve practices
that decrease risks to human health developed by 2012

Description: The IRRI Strategic Plan Goal 3 also anticipates new or expanded research that serves
to understand better the sources of contamination of rice grain that pose a risk to human health
and to the development of germplasm or cultivation practices that reduce the accumulation of
such toxic contaminants in the grain. IRRI will address the consequences of rice cultivation and
handling and of the poor quality of soil and irrigation water in a number of environments. The
health of rice consumers is threatened when the rice they eat is contaminated.

Currently, the two most important types of contamination are toxins, such as arsenic and
cadmium, and microbial toxins such as mycotoxins. Arsenic accumulates in the maternal tissue of
the rice, like bran, when contaminated water is used to irrigate plants, but the amount that
accumulates in milled rice is likely to be smaller. The risks to consumers’ health occur from
consumption of (i) unpolished or undermilled rice from plants irrigated with arsenic-containing
water, and (ii) rice cooked in arsenic-containing water. Mycotoxins, which are introduced by
contaminating pathogens, can occur in the grain if the crop is incorrectly handled during grain-
filling, harvest or storage. Mycotoxin contamination can be decreased by changing post-harvest
handling and processing practices. The sources of contamination of rice with arsenicals, cadmium,
and other toxic metals and metalloids will need to be understood - severity and health
consequences - and both germplasm and crop management options developed. This work builds
on ongoing work in Bangladesh and India on addressing the severe arsenic contamination issues
associated with tube-wells and contaminated farm land. The accumulation of mycotoxins in the
rice grain may be an emerging issue both directly for rice consumers but also for its implications
for the restriction of trade. A greater understanding of the prevalence and implications of this
problem needs to be gained and germplasm and management options prioritized. Awareness by
NARES and the relevance of the problem to national policy will be important components in the
prioritization of the activities for this output. This expanded interest builds on the post-harvest
storage research of the Institute.

Building on a long-standing commitment of the Institute to improve the rice farm environment by
addressing over-usage of pesticides in rice farming, IRRI will also seek to understand and reduce
the incidences of on-farm occupational and accidental poisonings due to pesticides. With a
concern to the appropriate use of pesticides in rice cultivation, and building on existing work on
helping farmers understand when pesticides are needed, IRRI will need to understand the
implications of on-farm pesticide handling and storage and develop protocols to minimize
occupational and accidental poisoning. Similarly, policies may be developed and communicated for
the safer use of farm machinery and equipment.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and
institutions;




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            59
Impact Pathways

The initial target populations for impact are women and young children in the major poverty areas
of Asia, but also soon after in Africa. For Golden Rice output targets, the partners in India are
coordinated through the Golden Rice Network Coordinator-India of the Department of
Biotechnology of the Government of India. For the Philippines, the partners include PhilRice and
will also include the leading nutrition institutions in the country, including the University of the
Philippines-Los Baños, and the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. For Bangladesh and Vietnam,
the lead partners are the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute and the Cuu Long Delta Rice
Research Institute, respectively, and the national nutrition and other partners that they will
nominate.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Nutritionally-enhanced rice germplasm developed by 2009
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Strategies for the development, promotion and delivery of biofortified rice,
including transgenic rice, by 2010 for India and the Philippines, and then for
Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Increased understanding of the roles of macromolecules in rice grains for
caloric efficiency by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Strategies to reduce contamination of rice grains and to improve practices
that decrease risks to human health developed by 2012
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

Certain products of the research for development activities of IRRI’s Program 4, especially
publications and other communications, can be provided as international public goods. However,
in other aspects of developing its products and services, IRRI is guided by its obligations and
opportunities under bi- and multilateral agreements that largely govern its use of germplasm, for
example. In addition, especially in the area of transgenics, IRRI is the recipient of advanced
technologies provided under specific Material Transfer Agreements. In all of these transactions,
IRRI strives to ensure that it receives materials and technologies under terms that permit it to
share the subsequent products of its research as broadly as possible.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

For many of the Outputs in Program 4, the delivery chain includes the NARES partners for the co-
development and expansion of germplasm and agricultural practices. However, the Institute must
greatly expand its interactions with the public health sector in developing countries, both for
policy and for deployment effectiveness. This process has already begun in the Golden Rice
Network for India and the Philippines and these will serve as models for other products. The
existing structures in the Golden Rice Network and in HarvestPlus have already brought together
many of the relevant national and regional institutions for impact. In addition, the role of the
private sector (seed and food processing) must be further explored to maximize the
complementary values for biofortification and other food-based approaches to reducing the burden
of micronutrient deficiencies, and especially for the roles of the food sector in adopting and


IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                          60
promoting consumption of the new materials. Certainly for Golden Rice and a number of the other
biofortified products, a transgenic approach is the only viable option. The adoption of transgenic
rice is so far untested, and it is a challenge that must be met. IRRI’s capacity and track record in
social sciences and its participation in a number of ongoing international consortia and initiatives
suggests that IRRI is well-placed as an organization to assist in the assembly of the consortia to
support the widespread adoption of nutritionally enhanced and of transgenic rice.

The increased understanding that will be gained in Output 3 and the strategies developed in
Output 4 will also include the value of these traits to partners and will thereby also define the
partners and their roles.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             61
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                           Intended Users                Outcome                         Impact

Output 1                 Nutritionally-enhanced            IRRI researchers and          The intended users will         Rice consumers will benefit
                         rice germplasm                    breeders NARES scientists     exploit the germplasm lines     from the increased
                         developed by 2009                 Private sector (subject to    in their research and           availability of rice with a
                                                           licenses) Public health       breeding programs. Public       better nutritional content.
                                                           sector Farmers                and private seed companies
                                                                                         will deliver seed to farmers.
                                                                                         NARES and the public
                                                                                         health and food sectors will
                                                                                         promote nutritionally-
                                                                                         enhanced grain to
                                                                                         consumers.

Target 2009: Materials   Understanding of the
                         bioavailability of zinc in high
                         zinc rice.

Target 2010: Materials   Biosafety Risk Assessment
                         data for Golden Rice at an
                         advanced stage.

Target 2011: Materials   Multi-location tests of high-
                         zinc rice by the Bangladesh
                         Varietal Release
                         Committee



Output 2                 Strategies for the                Public health policy makers   The strategies are used to      The consumption of
                         development, promotion            NARES scientists NGOs         Integrate biofortified rice     biofortified rice will reduce
                         and delivery of                                                 into the complementary,         morbidity and mortality,
                         biofortified rice,                                              food-based intervention         especially in women and
                         including transgenic rice,                                      approaches that address         children, caused by those
                         by 2010 for India and                                           nutritional deficiencies.       diseases exacerbated by
                         the Philippines, and then                                       These strategies will lead to   micronutrient deficiencies.
                         for Bangladesh, China,                                          Increased awareness of the      Furthermore, there will be a
                         and Vietnam.                                                    benefits of transgenic,         decreased prevalence of
                                                                                         biofortified rice.              mineral and vitamin
                                                                                                                         deficiencies in poor rice-
                                                                                                                         consuming women and


IRRI                                                             MTP 2010-12                                                                       62
                              Outputs                        Intended Users                  Outcome                       Impact

                                                                                                                           children (under 5).

Target 2009: Policy           Nutrition policy-based
strategies                    deployment plan and seed
                              production for Golden Rice
                              in the Philippines.

Target 2010: Policy           Nutrition policy and
strategies                    intervention entities
                              engaged in the deployment
                              of Golden Rice for the
                              Philippines.

Target 2011: Policy           Strategic communication
strategies                    plan to support deployment
                              of high-zinc rice in
                              Bangladesh



Output 3                      Increased understanding        IRRI breeders and               This knowledge is used to     Rice with a better starch
                              of the roles of                researchers NARES               identify and breed rice       profile contributes to the
                              macromolecules in rice         scientists                      germplasm with a better       health of undernourished
                              grains for caloric                                             starch profile.               people by delivering more
                              efficiency by 2010.                                                                          calories per meal.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Analysis of the link between
knowledge                     starch structure and
                              product concept.



Output 4                      Strategies to reduce           IRRI breeders and               Researchers and breeders      Reduction in occupational
                              contamination of rice          researchers NARES               will exploit the germplasm    and accidental health
                              grains and to improve          scientists Public and private   lines Public and private      consequences of rice
                              practices that decrease        industry researchers            seed companies will deliver   cultivation and
                              risks to human health          Agricultural and public         seed to farmers NARES and     consumption.
                              developed by 2012              health policy makers            policy makers will promote
                                                             Farmers                         improved agricultural
                                                                                             practices

Target 2009: Policy           Management options,
strategies                    technologies and strategies
                              for minimized mycotoxin


IRRI                                                                MTP 2010-12                                                                        63
                        Outputs                     Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                        contamination.

Target 2010: Capacity   Increased capacity of
                        NARES in target areas for
                        adoption and extension of
                        strategies for reducing
                        mycotoxins and heavy
                        metals and other
                        contaminants.




IRRI                                                     MTP 2010-12                      64
IRRI-5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs
of future generations for rice genetic resources

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale
Genetic diversity is the foundation of the genetic improvement of crops. Knowledge of multiple
facets of rice genetic diversity—from molecule to phenotype—is essential for effective
conservation and use, for both current and future needs. Among all crop species, rice is
exceptionally well endowed with genetic resources and advanced genetic tools that make it a
model genetic system. The international rice genome sequencing efforts have generated complete
genome information for indica and japonica rice varieties. This, together with expanding genomic
information in other plant species, presents a new paradigm to understand, explore, and use rice
genetic resources.

IRRI is the custodian of the world’s largest ex situ collection of rice germplasm, covering
traditional and improved varieties as well as wild relatives. Shared use of the germplasm
collection has served rice breeding and research activities well. Yet, only a small fraction of the
rice genetic resources has been used in breeding. The International Network for Genetic
Evaluation of Rice (INGER) has facilitated the exchange and utilization of both IRRI and NARES in
over 80 countries during the last three decades. Sustained access, exchange and utilization of
advanced breeding materials are essential even as we expect a greater demand for specific
genetic resources to address production and environmental problems in the future. This will
translate into a greater demand for the genetic knowledge and tools that are needed to identify
and use resources that meet specific needs.

Genetic knowledge can now be integrated across species through comparative genomics analysis,
leading to accelerated discovery of gene functions. Furthermore, genome-wide analysis has the
potential of revealing new insights about genetic pathways, and creating new opportunities to
meet both anticipated and unforeseen challenges. Abundant and accessible genetic diversity,
either natural or induced, is a requisite for understanding biological processes. On the other hand,
uncharacterized genetic diversity will remain unused. Thus, conservation, generation, and
characterization of genetic diversity and discovery of gene functions are interdependent activities
that need to be integrated to achieve desired outcomes.

This program has three components:

      Genetic diversity characterization and creation, and gene function assignment.
      Germplasm conservation and documentation.
      Enabling access to and use of genetic diversity and associated tools.

The program houses activities of an exploratory nature in the genetic components of the Frontier
Projects. We are implementing this program through extensive collaboration with NARES and ARIs
in consortia and networks, including novel partnerships with the private/non-government sectors.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

The conservation and characterization of rice germplasm to meet the needs of future generations
align exactly with System Priority 1A. In Program 5, Outputs 1, 4, and 5 (explained below) are
particularly fitting to the five specific goals in 1A. These Outputs embody development of a public
genetic platform and methodologies for better understanding of conserved germplasm, leading to
enhanced use and dissemination. Through Output 5, we advocate network mechanisms to

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                            65
evaluate and disseminate germplasm and new plant breeding tools. The discovery of gene
function component of Program 5 fits well with System Priorities 2A (enhancing yield), 2B (abiotic
stresses), and 2C (nutritional quality). Under Outputs 1, 2, and 3, we will generate the genetic
knowledge to address a variety of agronomic traits. In the medium term, we emphasize yield
stability, tolerance of stresses, and nutritional quality, that are essential elements for rice
production in the intensive and marginal rice production systems (Programs 1 and 2). In the
longer term, Program 5 seeks to position itself to apply the best mix of scientific advances in the
identification of new traits and genes (e.g., enhancing nitrogen fixing capability, ―C4 ness‖) with
potentially high-pay off for achieving sustainable rice production.

Project Outputs

The program has five outputs. Outputs 1 to 3 concern the generation of data and resources for
gene discovery, hence providing a public research platform for exploring germplasm and
extracting useful genes for traits of interest in the near and long term. Output 4 addresses
expanding conservation and enhancing efficiency in handling conserved germplasm. Output 5
deals with the dissemination of genetic/genomic resources and tools and enhancing capacity of
NARES. It is anticipated that the information products of the Program 5 outputs will be captured
and analyzed in Program 6, Information and communication: convening a global rice research
community.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Genetic diversity platform for gene function identification in domestic and
wild rice gene pool established by 2011.

Description: This output will be achieved by applying genome-wide characterization of selected
germplasm to associate molecular variation and phenotypes. Emphasis will be on the use of SNP
and phenotypic data for association genetics. We will develop and implement forward and reverse
genetic systems, which include high-throughput gene validation, phenotypic screens, and the
identification of functional alleles in mutants and germplasm pools. We will strive to adopt high-
throughput methodologies that are cost-effective and broadly accessible. The knowledge of
genetic and phenotypic diversity will contribute to gene function discovery through partnership
with the International Rice Functional Genomics Consortium.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses;

Output 2: Specialized genetic stocks for trait dissection produced by 2011.

Description: A prerequisite for assigning functions to genes is an array of customized genetic
stocks that enable co-segregation analysis between genetic and phenotypic variation. IRRI has
already produced a large collection of chemical- and irradiation-induced mutants and a variety of
mapping populations from which traits of interest can be associated with small chromosomal
segments. This output will concentrate on the generation of diversity panels that include mutants
of specific genotypic backgrounds, recombinant inbred lines (RIL), chromosomal segment
substitution lines (CSSL), and near-isogenic lines (NIL). Some of the specialized stocks are
already in place or to be consolidated, whereas new ones will be produced within five years. The
production of these genetic stocks will be scalable and responsive to needs to enable gene
function validation.

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                             66
Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

Output 3: Genetic pathways for selected traits determined using genome-wide and
comparative biology approaches with priorities on stress tolerance, nutrition and grain
quality, and yield by 2015.

Description: Understanding the genetic regulation of a specific trait provides the knowledge for
precise genetic manipulation. Building upon IRRI’s previous work and its capacity, the primary
focus will be on pathways controlling biotic and abiotic tolerance, nutrition and quality, and yield
potential, to provide a pipeline of genetic information for applications in germplasm improvement
activities in other programs. Customized genetic stocks produced in Output 2 and by the global
research community will be used to dissect pathways and validate gene function. Genome-wide
experimental approaches will be used to reveal the genetic regulation and interactions of these
pathways. In relation to Programs 1, 2, and 4—which have specific breeding targets—this output
will concentrate on gene discovery and functional assessment of candidate genes in major QTLs.
These activities can be directly applicable to specific environments or transcend environmental
and ecosystem divisions. Detailed information on the functional roles of contributing loci will help
to select the best possible alleles for gene pyramiding in breeding programs.

Output 3 will contribute to the genetic components of the Frontier Projects on Drought Tolerant
Rice and C4 Rice and the ongoing work on biological nitrogen fixation. Cross-species comparative
analyses will be used to identify genetic loci with a significant contribution to target traits.
Comparative genomic analysis with C4 plants (maize, sorghum) will be particularly important in
the exploration of C4-like traits for frontier projects. Because of the exploratory nature of certain
activities, the output targets are formulated based on the probability of success for individual
traits over a 5- and 10-year horizon. In the near term (3 years), we expect concrete results from
understanding the basis of broad-spectrum disease resistance and tolerance of abiotic stresses
such as salinity and problem soils. Based on the progress in drought research, we expect to
identify key genetic factors conditioning drought tolerance within 5 years. For the Frontier Projects
such as C4 rice and biological nitrogen fixation, long-term (10 years) strategic exploration will be
necessary.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety; 6A: New research;

Output 4: Ex situ conservation of rice germplasm expanded and enhanced through
better understanding of the genetic diversity within and between collections in a global
network by 2011 to contribute to long-term conservation efforts, harmonized with
genebanks in other CGIAR institutes through the SGRP.

Description: This output will be achieved by devising a rationalized system for the conservation of
rice genetic resources in collections worldwide through a global network. Global conservation
capacity will be improved by implementing a system for managing genetic overlaps among rice
genebanks. We will work with genebanks worldwide to improve the economic efficiency and
effectiveness of conservation. The expanded capacity will enable conservation of a wider range of
genetic stocks, including breeding lines, mutants, mapping populations, and transgenic rice. We
will also work with other genebanks in the CGIAR through the SGRP to develop and implement the
highest standards of germplasm conservation and use, data management, and adherence to
international policies. Secondly, a prerequisite to increasing the genetic diversity of conserved
germplasm is an improved understanding of the diversity of Oryza, and a revised taxonomy and
phylogeny and domestication history. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis will be conducted to


IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            67
determine the genetic relationship of the rice germplasm and its wild relatives. We will aim for a
fully documented database of the genetic diversity of existing collections in the International Rice
Genebank at IRRI.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance
to selected abiotic stresses;

Output 5: Long-term broadened access to genetic/genomic resources and associated
tools, particularly for NARES.

Description: Sustained access to genetic resources and continuing upgrading of skills and capacity
are essential for NARES to benefit from the new germplasm and tools developed. This output
emphasizes broadening access by NARES partners to genomic resources and associated tools
developed at IRRI as well as at partner institutions. Through collaborative research, we will serve
to link ARIs, other CG Centers, and NARES in the dissemination of new resources and tools. We
will achieve this through a network mechanism that provides training and shuttle research
opportunities. Because the capacity for uptake is different for different NARES, the time line for
this output will vary among partners. With many INGER countries being parties to the
International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the network
will position itself to become the model multilateral system of breeding resources access, sharing,
and utilization as envisioned under the ITPGRFA. Advanced breeding materials from IRRI
programs, other CG Centers, and from NARES shall be assembled into ecosystem- and stress-
based nurseries and disseminated multilaterally through INGER. The network will also support
capacity building activities of partners in rice breeding and genetics.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 2A: Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food
staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality
and safety;

Impact Pathways

Bringing together germplasm conservation, diversity analysis, gene discovery, and dissemination
of advanced genetic/breeding resources under a single program presents a unique opportunity to
maximize the utility of conserved and customized germplasm. The main outputs of this program
will be a comprehensive, well-documented germplasm and breeding resource base, a public
research platform to enable gene identification, and genetic knowledge for priority traits.

Through the continuum of conservation-discovery-dissemination, we form the foundation for
translating genetic diversity and genomic sciences into practical applications. Broadened access to
genetic resources and genomic tools by breeders, researchers, and plant biologists is expected to
improve the efficiency of rice breeding and gene discovery activities by NARES and ARI partners.
The identification of genes controlling specific traits and dissemination of such knowledge and
tools will enable precision breeding and accelerate the achievement of breeding targets. An
essential condition to achieving program impact is an open environment in germplasm exchange
and sharing. Another critical factor is the mobilization of the global research community to
decipher functions of agriculturally important genes in rice through a consortium approach.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Genetic diversity platform for gene function identification in domestic and
wild rice gene pool established by 2011.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.


IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                             68
Output 2: Specialized genetic stocks for trait dissection produced by 2011.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Genetic pathways for selected traits determined using genome-wide and
comparative biology approaches with priorities on stress tolerance, nutrition and grain
quality, and yield by 2015.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Ex situ conservation of rice germplasm expanded and enhanced through
better understanding of the genetic diversity within and between collections in a global
network by 2011 to contribute to long-term conservation efforts, harmonized with
genebanks in other CGIAR institutes through the SGRP.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 5: Long-term broadened access to genetic/genomic resources and associated
tools, particularly for NARES.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

This program is designed to address the needs for gene function identification in current
germplasm improvement and to provide a platform and knowledge base by which genetic
diversity can be effectively conserved, accessed, and used for the long term. Building upon the
investments and achievements made in the upgrading of the International Rice Genebank,
germplasm characterization, functional genomics, and bioinformatics, IRRI is poised to play an
important role at the interface of gene function discovery, applications of genetic knowledge, and
conservation and sharing of genetic resources.

Understanding all rice gene functions is clearly an enormous task beyond the capacity of individual
institutions, but it is of long-term importance, and a task in which IRRI will strategically engage
based on its comparative advantages. We will contribute to the determination of the basic
functions of all rice genes and the diversity of rice through a worldwide consortium of public- and
private-sector organizations. The immediate demands are exemplified by the need to apply
genomic analysis, in this and other IRRI programs, toward (i) developing stress tolerance, (ii)
enhancing the nutritional value of germplasm, and (iii) enhancing the market value of rice through
predictable quality. Future needs are addressed by preparing a robust genetic platform of
gene/allele identification resting upon a comprehensive collection of rice germplasm and
specialized genetic stocks.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

In building a public genetic research platform for rice, this program needs extensive partnerships
with ARIs to tap into the upstream science while at the same time enhancing the capacity of
NARES through adapting and disseminating new tools. IRRI forms a close alliance with universities
and research institutions with excellence in genomic research and applies the tools and findings to
address agronomic problems that are relevant to NARES. Key partnerships are embodied in the
International Rice Functional Genomics Consortium that involves a ―federally‖ coordinated network
of collaborators from institutions and laboratories worldwide. IRRI’s role is to continue to sustain
this collaborative network by mobilizing complementary genetic resources and expertise to
examine relevant problems. This approach is exemplified by collaboration supported by the USAID
Linkage Program and competitive grant programs in the U.S., where in-depth studies in stress
physiology (e.g., submergence) are conducted and new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping) are
developed using IRRI’s advanced genetic stocks. Genome-wide genotyping may be used to

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                           69
characterize NARES breeding materials in INGER, leading to a global rice variety molecular
database. Aside from characterizing diversity, this could lead to higher levels of exchanges and
more efficient utilization of advanced rice genetic resources. We will also seek new methodologies
to help IRRI to accelerate the development of efficient systems for gene function verification (e.g.,
improved RNAi technologies from various research laboratories in Japan and the U.S., and the
newly developed artificial micro-RNA gene-silencing technique at the Max Planck Institute in
Germany).

In the production of specialized genetic stocks and their phenotypic evaluation, collaboration
includes many NARES partners with a wealth of knowledge on useful traits and germplasm and
providing appropriate agronomic environments for phenotyping. For example, the China National
Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center will provide parents of super high-yielding hybrids
to produce the mapping populations for the investigation of heterosis and genotype ×
environment interactions. In turn, the genetic materials produced at IRRI can be distributed to a
wide range of users for phenotyping and gene identification.

Partnership with the Generation Challenge Program is particularly important to Program 5 given
the shared objective of building an efficient gene discovery platform. Rice as a genetic model has
much to offer to the GCP whereas the comparative biology agenda and triangular partnerships
among ARIs, NARES, and CGIAR centers advanced by the GCP have enabled IRRI to expand its
partnership with institutions working on plant systems other than rice. In launching the Frontier
Projects on C4 rice and drought, we expect more intensified collaboration involving world
authorities on plant biochemistry and physiology across plant models. These types of collaboration
will be central to the delivery of a public research platform (Outputs 1 and 2) and generating new
knowledge on genetic pathways and functions (Output 3).

For germplasm conservation (Output 4), a global network of genebanks and curators will be
created under the auspices of the Global Crop Diversity Trust and will be the means to ensure
coordinated conservation of rice genetic resources across the world without undue duplication.
Projects funded by the World Bank, such as the Genebank Upgrading Project and the recently
initiated system-wide Global Public Goods II project, lay the groundwork for better coordination of
efforts across not only CG partners but also the NARES and ARIs that hold rice genetic resources.
Within the System-wide Genetic Resources Program (SGRP), particular emphasis is given to
collaboration with the Africa Rice Center (WARDA) and CIAT, to establish new approaches to
jointly improve the efficiency of maintaining and delivering appropriate germplasm in Africa, Latin
America, and Asia.

For the dissemination of genomic resources and tools, our primary partners are NARES that are
instrumental in testing and applying research products for germplasm enhancement. The Asian
Rice Biotechnology Network involves both ARIs and NARES in training and assisting NARES
partners in adopting new tools in their research and breeding programs. Our NARES partners also
contribute to the collection and characterization of local germplasm for the development of useful
genetic stocks. INGER, a long standing partnership amongst IARCs and NARES, will help deliver
germplasm as well as generate multilocation data on performance of advanced breeding materials
under various environments/stresses. It will also serve to identify and train the next generation of
rice breeders from the public, private, and NGO sectors.




IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                            70
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                         Impact

Output 1                 Genetic diversity               IRRI NARES ARI scientists   The genetic diversity           Efficient use of functional
                         platform for gene               Germplasm curators          platform will be used: • as     diversity in germplasm will
                         function identification in                                  a new paradigm in the use       accelerate the production of
                         domestic and wild rice                                      of germplasm in NARES’          adaptive rice germplasm.
                         gene pool established by                                    breeding programs; • to
                         2011.                                                       facilitate better
                                                                                     understanding of rice allelic
                                                                                     diversity for improved
                                                                                     utilization of rice
                                                                                     germplasm; • to expand
                                                                                     opportunities to identify
                                                                                     useful genetic diversity in
                                                                                     germplasm collections
                                                                                     through the use of enabling
                                                                                     genetic techniques and SNP
                                                                                     data; and • to broaden
                                                                                     access to favorable alleles
                                                                                     associated with traits
                                                                                     available for breeding.

Target 2009: Materials   100 germplasm lines with
                         contrasting phenotypes and
                         detailed phenotyping on
                         drought and disease
                         responses.

Target 2009: Materials   Confirmed allelic series
                         (average 5 per locus) in 50
                         candidate genes that confer
                         improved tolerance to
                         abiotic or biotic stresses
                         (drought, salinity, cold, and
                         diseases)

Target 2010: Practices   Association of SNPs with
                         grain quality traits (e.g.
                         chalkiness).

Target 2010: Practices   A phenotyping platform for


IRRI                                                           MTP 2010-12                                                                    71
                              Outputs                        Intended Users         Outcome                       Impact

                              precise root growth
                              kinematics and gene
                              expression under drought
                              stress.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Dataset on the physiological
knowledge                     response of 1000
                              accessions to reproductive
                              stage drought stress across
                              multi-environments
                              available for allele mining.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   100 chromosomal regions
knowledge                     with candidate genes and
                              phenotype association in
                              OryzaSNP germplasm.

Target 2011: Materials        Germplasm collection
                              phenotyped for drought
                              avoidance root traits for
                              allele mining.

Target 2011: Materials        Association genetics
                              platform based on SNP
                              haplotypes and phenotype
                              data of 1000 lines
                              established



Output 2                      Specialized genetic            Researchers Breeders   Research community uses       Discovery of genes and
                              stocks for trait                                      the well-characterized        gene combinations enables
                              dissection produced by                                genetic stocks for gene       development of adaptive
                              2011.                                                 function identification ARI   germplasm.
                                                                                    and NARES collaboration is
                                                                                    promoted because of the
                                                                                    availability of stocks.

Target 2009: Materials        At least 10 RIL or BIL
                              populations initiated using
                              crosses between donor and
                              mega-variety recipients,
                              providing segregating
                              materials to validate


IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                           72
                         Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                         association genetic
                         studies.

Target 2010: Materials   NILs with narrow
                         chromosomal segments (at
                         0.5 Mb resolution)
                         conferring tolerance to
                         drought and salinity in
                         mega-variety
                         backgrounds.

Target 2010: Materials   Evaluated progeny of O.
                         sativa x O. glaberrima for
                         drought tolerance traits

Target 2011: Materials   Set of biotic stress
                         tolerance NILs against
                         blast, tungro, bacterial
                         blight, and brown
                         planthopper.

Target 2011: Materials   Two sets (one indica, one
                         japonica) of MAGIC
                         (Multiparent Advanced
                         Generation Intercross)
                         populations developed with
                         at least 2000 selfed lines
                         derived from 8 diverse
                         founder lines from each
                         varietal group.

Target 2011: Materials   Mutations associated with
                         loss- or gain-of-salinity
                         tolerance in two genotypes
                         (IR64 and FL478) identified
                         and characterized.

Target 2011: Materials   NILs developed for the Zn
                         deficiency tolerance and Fe
                         toxicity tolerance.




IRRI                                                        MTP 2010-12                      73
                              Outputs                        Intended Users             Outcome                        Impact

Output 3                      Genetic pathways for           Researchers and breeders   Users of this knowledge will   Acceleration of gene
                              selected traits                at IRRI, ARIs and NARES    contribute to the              discovery on a genome-
                              determined using                                          International Rice             wide scale will improve
                              genome-wide and                                           Functional Genomics            sustainability in intensive-
                              comparative biology                                       Consortium objective of        production areas and
                              approaches with                                           understanding genes            increase productivity in
                              priorities on stress                                      controlling target traits,     marginal areas.
                              tolerance, nutrition and                                  enabling development of
                              grain quality, and yield                                  markers for breeding and
                              by 2015.                                                  leading to production of
                                                                                        pre-breeding lines.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Candidate genes and
knowledge                     mechanisms conferring
                              salinity tolerance through
                              the use of a set of NILs and
                              loss- and gain-of-function
                              mutants

Target 2009: Materials        A recessive gene conferring
                              resistance to tungro virus
                              (RTSV) isolated from the
                              resistance donor variety
                              Utri Merah.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Aposporous initials in rice
knowledge                     ovule (important for
                              apomixis) produced by
                              silencing MSP1 gene.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Known genetic control of
knowledge                     metabolites for fragrance
                              and one vitamin in rice
                              grains.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Quantified C4-like
knowledge                     components, including
                              anatomical and biochemical
                              features important for C4
                              metabolism, in wild rice
                              species.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Validated functions and
knowledge                     roles of Saltol candidate

IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                                                                    74
                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              genes in tolerance
                              mechanism against
                              salinity.

Target 2010: Materials        Fine mapping of conferring
                              tolerance to flooding during
                              germination.

Target 2010: Materials        Known QTLs that associate
                              with chalk in a set of
                              introgression lines.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Pathway and gene identified
knowledge                     for additional fragrance
                              gene.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Validated function of alleles
knowledge                     and genes affecting
                              amylose content for
                              nutrition and quality

Target 2010: Materials        Candidate genes identified
                              for gelatinisation
                              temperature and gel
                              consistency.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Candidate genes for
knowledge                     tolerance of phosphorus
                              deficiency present in the
                              Pup1 major QTL validated

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Candidate gene(s) for the
knowledge                     blast resistance gene Pi40
                              identified and evaluated in
                              advanced breeding lines

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Candidate genes(s) for
knowledge                     brown planthopper
                              resistance locus Bph18
                              identified and evaluated in
                              advanced breeding lines

Target 2011: Materials        Candidate genes at two
                              additional QTL regions


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                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              associated with salinity
                              tolerance based on
                              evidence of mapping and
                              gene expression.

Target 2011: Materials        Candidate genes (~10) for
                              drought tolerance from
                              gene expression and
                              mapping studies.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Characterized physiological
knowledge                     effects of alleles conferring
                              improved drought
                              tolerance.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Pathways and candidate
knowledge                     genes associated with
                              tolerance to salinity during
                              reproductive stage
                              identified.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Effects of three drought
knowledge                     candidate genes via
                              transformation and genetic
                              analysis.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Validated functions of
knowledge                     candidate genes underlying
                              the major QTL conferring
                              tolerance to flooding during
                              germination.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Loci associated with
knowledge                     tolerance to rice tungro
                              bacilliform virus in cultivar
                              Utri Merah determined.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Candidate genes associated
knowledge                     with cold tolerance during
                              vegetative and reproductive
                              stages identified

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Known allelic combinations
knowledge                     for gelatinisation


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                              Outputs                       Intended Users         Outcome                      Impact

                              temperature, chalk, and
                              super aromatic rice

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Function of Pup1 major
knowledge                     tolerance gene(s)
                              understood

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Physiological and molecular
knowledge                     basis of heat induced
                              spikelet sterility
                              characterized



Output 4                      Ex situ conservation of       Researchers Breeders   Increased awareness of       Permanent genetic
                              rice germplasm                Genebank curators      NARES partners and policy    resources are available for
                              expanded and enhanced                                makers concerning the        meeting current and future
                              through better                                       importance of germplasm      needs in rice improvement,
                              understanding of the                                 resources and the need for   and increased ability to
                              genetic diversity within                             their preservation;          develop rice germplasm
                              and between collections                              Increased use of             adaptive to unforeseen
                              in a global network by                               germplasm collections due    challenges.
                              2011 to contribute to                                to expanded conservation
                              long-term conservation                               and improved
                              efforts, harmonized with                             management.
                              genebanks in other
                              CGIAR institutes through
                              the SGRP.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Phylogeny of the AA
knowledge                     genome species and their
                              domestication history.

Target 2009: Practices        Enhanced procedures to
                              ensure long-term
                              conservation and
                              maintenance of the genetic
                              integrity of accessions.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Reduced gaps in wild
knowledge                     species accessions across
                              global germplasm
                              collections through
                              collecting missions with


IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                            77
                              Outputs                         Intended Users               Outcome                       Impact

                              partners.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Knowledge of the level of
knowledge                     historical and genetic
                              duplication accessions
                              across centers through the
                              analysis of passport,
                              genetic, molecular,
                              morphological, agronomic,
                              and geographic/spatial
                              data.

Target 2011: Practices        Algorithm established to
                              integrate GIS and genotypic
                              data for selecting
                              germplasm for targeted
                              phenotyping

Target 2011: Practices        Coordinated conservation of
                              rice genetic resources
                              through global network.



Output 5                      Long-term broadened             NARES partners in Asia and   NARES researchers and         Human resources developed
                              access to                       Africa Small and Medium      extension agents equipped     with proficiency in applying
                              genetic/genomic                 Enterprises (SMEs)           with better options for the   genomic knowledge and
                              resources and associated                                     development and delivery      tools.
                              tools, particularly for                                      of new varieties.
                              NARES.                                                       Gene/marker selection
                                                                                           technology implemented by
                                                                                           NARES; integrated into
                                                                                           NARES breeding programs.

Target 2009: Materials        1200 advanced breeding
                              lines from IRRI, ARIs, CG
                              Centers, and NARES
                              exchanged and
                              disseminated in 30 rice
                              growing countries.

Target 2009: Capacity         25 researchers/breeders
                              trained in an annual
                              international training course


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                         Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                         on rice breeding/genetics.

Target 2009: Materials   DNA-fingerprints of 200
                         released varieties for
                         NARES.

Target 2010: Capacity    Colorimetric and
                         fluorescence-based allele
                         detection techniques
                         developed and transferred
                         to NARES and SMEs.

Target 2010: Materials   1200 advanced breeding
                         lines from IRRI, ARIs, CG
                         Centers, and NARES
                         exchanged and
                         disseminated in 35 major
                         rice growing countries.

Target 2010: Capacity    20 researchers/breeders
                         trained in an annual
                         international training course
                         on rice breeding

Target 2010: Capacity    14 types of international
                         nurseries composed and
                         evaluated for yield, biotic
                         and abiotic stresses, and
                         grain quality in 30
                         countries.

Target 2010: Materials   30 elite, multiple-stress
                         tolerant lines shared with
                         Asian and African NARES.

Target 2011: Capacity     1400 advanced breeding
                         lines from IRRI, ARIs, CG
                         Centers, and NARES
                         exchanged and evaluated
                         for yield, biotic and abiotic
                         stresses, and grain quality
                         in 40 major rice growing
                         countries through 14 types
                         of international nurseries.


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                              Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

Target 2011: Materials        50 elite, varieties with
                              pyramided stress tolerant
                              genes shared with and
                              evaluated in Asian and
                              African NARES.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Association analysis of DNA
knowledge                     fingerprints of INGER
                              entries and derived
                              phenotypic data

Target 2011: Capacity         25 researchers/breeders
                              trained in an annual
                              international training course
                              on rice breeding.

Target 2011: Materials        10 advanced breeding lines
                              with Saltol and Sub1 QTL
                              together to confer tolerance
                              to submergence with saline
                              water in the coastal areas.




IRRI                                                               MTP 2010-12                      80
IRRI-6: Information and communications: convening a global
rice research community

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale
The rapid development and global spread of modern information and communication technology
allow and oblige IRRI and the CGIAR to change the way we conduct research and development
with our clients and stakeholders. Information and tools vital to research and development must
be shared equitably as global public goods. Communities with common interests in research or
development should be able to converse, share knowledge, and collaborate.

This program builds on many global investments in information and technology within and outside
the CGIAR to enable IRRI research programs to provide equitable access to information and
knowledge on rice and to help develop the next generation of rice scientists. This first phase of
bringing information and communication disciplines into the mainstream agenda of agricultural
research for development is expected to continue beyond 2010 as knowledge intensive
methodologies and community interactions have more impact and role in research for
development.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

Through its focus on the capture, analysis, integration, and publication of scientific information for
crop genetic resources and genomics and breeding for higher-yielding, stress-tolerant, and more
nutritious rice Program 6, Output 1 contributes to priorities 1A (specific goal 5), 2A specific goal
1), 2B, 2C (specific goal 1), and 2D (specific goal 1).In addition, rice science information in Output
1 relating to agronomics contributes to Priority 4A and 4C. Program 6, Output 2 - Cereals
Knowledge Bank - significantly contributes to priorities 4A (specific goal 2), 4D (specific goals 5
and 7), 5A (specific goals 3 and 5), and 5D (specific goal 1) through its contribution to knowledge
management of up to date information for extension and farmers. The focus on developing a
World Rice Community Network Presence, Program 6, Output 3 will not only enhance equitable
global access to rice scientific and extension knowledge and development of community
partnerships and a problem-solving framework for the same system priorities but also contribute
significantly to 5A (specific goals 1, 3, and 5), and 5C (specific goal 2), by facilitating global
discussions on science and technology policies, improving rural access to market information, and
providing an enhanced framework to communicate strategies for improving farmers’
livelihoods. Output 4, with its emphasis on building capacity in informatics and communication
for rice science contributes as a support function across the spectrum of priorities. In particular,
software engineering for the International Crop Information System (ICIS; www.icis.cgiar.org)
contributes to 1A (specific goal 5), 2A specific goal 1), 2B, 2C (specific goal 1), and 2D (specific
goal 1). Output 4 emphasis on developing and deploying knowledge based methodologies for
research and development to 5A (specific goals 1 and 5).

Project Outputs

Each output requires components of strategic research, methodology development, production of
technology, and training or capacity development. All four outputs will also contribute toward the
evolution of a state-of-the-art ―institutional repository‖ of IRRI knowledge products that will serve
the IRRI mission of long-term stewardship of rice information for the global community.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            81
Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
Output 3 has been revised from an emphasis on a singular CGxchange style"Portal", to an
emphasis on "Network" integration of online resources. Wording is adjusted throughout, to reflect
this change in perspective.

Output 1: The rice component of the Crop Science Information Resource (an initiative
of the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance)—which is a global community-curated repository and
network of public crop science information resources, established by 2010.

Description: The Crop Science Information Resource will be a product of CRIL and will exploit
emerging public bioinformatics standards for semantic encoding and Internet technology to
consolidate IRRI and external online information resources into a comprehensive online
―encyclopedia‖ for crop scientific research, starting with rice. This output also reflects an
increasing focus on the curation and publication of comparative information linkages across crops
within the scope of CRIL.

Current research on conservation and use of rice genetic resources, global (INGER) germplasm
evaluation, crop improvement, and sustainable natural resource management is hampered by a
lack of integrated scientific data on genetics, phenotype, adaptation, and responsiveness of rice
germplasm in specified (geo-referenced) environments. This output will continue the integration of
and enhancement of access to IRRI’s information on rice germplasm, expand coverage of
information on rice genetic resources to collection, (INGER) evaluation and crop improvement
programs of NARES partners, integrate crop-based information with genomics data being collected
by the International Rice Functional Genomics Consortium (IRFGC) and with geospatial
information being published through the Consortium for Spatial Information, and link this
information with pertinent biological data in complementary international public repositories.

Given the increased prevalence of digital libraries and open-access publication, a key component
of the Crop Science Information Resource will be the evolution of the IRRI Library into a
comprehensive online digital repository of rice literature and IRRI-archived project outputs,
including novel multimedia documents, richly cross-linked to other scientific data within the
resource. This latter activity will include the development of additional procedures and protocols
for quality assurance and management of primary research data at IRRI, ensuring the availability
of such data for future secondary use.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
1B: Promoting conservation and characterization of underutilized plant genetic resources; 2A:
Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to
selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 2D: Genetically enhancing
selected high-value species; 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4C: Improving water productivity;

Output 2: The Cereals Knowledge Bank, an online resource of knowledge on cereal
production for rice, maize, and wheat, containing rice information from IRRI’s Rice
Knowledge Bank (RKB), by 2010.

Description: The Cereals Knowledge Bank (CKB) will be a product of the Cereals Knowledge Bank
and Capacity Building IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance project. It will effectively disseminate knowledge of
new cultivars and technologies for sustainable natural resource management and provide
opportunities for diversification. The CKB will disseminate technical knowledge to a vast and
distributed population of extension workers and farmers. The new communication technologies to

IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                          82
be used in the CKB will alleviate a constraint that has previously slowed and limited the impact of
research for development.

This output represents an expansion of the successful model of translating research results into
accessible technology provided by IRRI’s Rice Knowledge Bank. CIMMYT will expand this coverage
of knowledge, applications, and training resources to maize and wheat and will feed back new
ideas and technologies to the rice knowledge component. A network of NARES partners, convened
around the technology and the core content, will expand and diversify the resource by adding
local knowledge and translating relevant information into local languages. IRRI’s Rice Knowledge
Bank is already doing this and will benefit only from economies of scale by considering multiple
crops.

Content and delivery of CKB information will be revised in light of external evaluation and
enhanced through the inclusion of new content forms, including simulations such as the operation
of a rice mill showing input/output relationships and expert systems capturing scientific advice
given to farmers on crop system management and postharvest processes.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological intensification in low- and high-
potential areas; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5D: Improving
research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Output 3: The World Rice Community Network Presence — using Internet technology
for access to information and for interaction on rice by supporting self-organizing
communities and multilateral communication—operational by 2010.

Description: We will take advantage of new technology to establish an environment where
individuals within the rice world can access rice research information and form communities
around issues of common interest.

This activity will greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of collaboration, both within the
rice community and across other crops, by moving beyond the current ―broadcast‖ approach of
conventional Web site design to a rich environment for multilateral interactions among members
of the world rice community. The network presence will be tailored towards specific information
needs and preferences of different audiences by using existing, social networking and
dissemination platforms, where feasible in collaboration with partners from the IT industry. We
will implement a ―Community Relationships Management‖ facility to assist individual visitors in
getting in touch with one another and to help IRRI track the dissemination of its knowledge
products to the world community.

We intend to create innovative web applications such as a Google Earth style of access to geo-
referenced crop information and a ―virtual rice plant‖ for browsing the biology of rice. Links to
search engine providers will be enhanced to facilitate queries for crop research and extension
information. Such queries will require innovative indexing of rice content and community
collaboration on standards, such as a global multilingual rice thesaurus of crop ontology, in
partnership with FAO and others.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5C:
Improving rural institutions and their governance;

Output 4: Phase I of the Informatics and Communication Service for Crop Science—
which is a public research, development, and dissemination service for informatics and
communication technology targeting agricultural scientific research completed by 2010.



IRRI                                         MTP 2010-12                                             83
Description: The Informatics and Communication Service for Crop Science will deploy informatics
and communication applications to research programs and partnerships spanning IRRI and
CIMMYT and ensure their effective use through training and consultancy. The service will host
research and development for databases and software useful for scientific data management
systems (including genebank, plant-breeding, agronomic, socioeconomic, and GIS data) and
decision-support tools for crop research and plant breeding.

Communication and collaboration tools such as AccessGrid Technology and collaboration platforms
for software and document development will also be deployed for use by IRRI and its partners, as
will innovative informatics and communication technologies, such as the capture of conference
presentations as digital (multimedia, Internet-integrated) proceedings.

The service will also provide a venue for general research, development, and training in
agricultural informatics and biometrics, including technical issues relating to other outputs of this
program. Research will also be conducted concerning the application of conventional (e.g., radio
and television) and emerging (e.g., wireless mobile networks) informatics and communication
technology for the dissemination of agricultural knowledge to farmers.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 1A: Promoting conservation and characterization of staple crops;
1B: Promoting conservation and characterization of underutilized plant genetic resources; 2A:
Maintaining and enhancing yields and yield potential of food staples; 2B: Improving tolerance to
selected abiotic stresses; 2C: Enhancing nutritional quality and safety; 5A: Improving science and
technology policies and institutions;

Impact Pathways

This program formally attempts to consolidate all IRRI research and development on information
and communication technology for rice science and extension under a single coordinated activity.
It focuses on the integration of crop science and extension knowledge using modern informatics
tools (Outputs 1 and 2) to harness the full power of Internet networking technology (Output 3). It
also emphasizes capacity building by placing informatics and communication tools directly in the
hands of crop scientists, extension agents, and farmers (Output 4) to deliver impact through two
major pathways.

The first pathway will use Internet dissemination via a World Rice Community Network Presence
(Output 3) of restructured and cross-linked information for crop science (Output 1) and extension
(Output 2), as well as pertinent informatics tools for science and extension (Output 4). The
second pathway will catalyze direct engagement of pertinent science and extension communities
using the power of current communications technologies, both new (Web presence,
videoconferencing, cell phone) and traditional (radio and television).

These two channels will provide complementary modes of informatics and communication support
to enhance the capacity of the other IRRI programs to deliver sustainable productivity increases
that will improve livelihoods and increase the food security of the poor in target regions, while
maintaining the resource base. By promoting equitable access to research and extension
information and technology by all IRRI stakeholders, this program will also generally enhance the
problem-solving capacity of the global community of NARES and ARI crop scientists, extension
agents, policymakers, and farmers.

Possible constraints to the impact of Program 6 is the intense nature of information and
communication technology. IRRI has limited staffing and investment resources to apply toward
information integration. Information is often voluminous and poorly characterized with associated
documentation (meta-data) either due to lack of standards or poor application of such standards
due to resource constraints or inadequate tools.

IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                             84
Concurrently, ICT technology evolves very rapidly. In many key areas essential to IRRI’s research,
scientific data and information expands exponentially, and the number and resourcing of research
teams curating such data and information is large, with many competitive pressures. Prioritization
is difficult.

The challenge for achieving impact in Program 6 is to achieve a suitable balance between the
exercising of competitive advantages of IRRI and its staff, against the realities of the technology
and key partnerships required to be successful in delivery of the program’s outputs.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: The rice component of the Crop Science Information Resource (an initiative
of the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance)—which is a global community-curated repository and
network of public crop science information resources, established by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: The Cereals Knowledge Bank, an online resource of knowledge on cereal
production for rice, maize, and wheat, containing rice information from IRRI’s Rice
Knowledge Bank (RKB), by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: The World Rice Community Network Presence — using Internet technology
for access to information and for interaction on rice by supporting self-organizing
communities and multilateral communication—operational by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Phase I of the Informatics and Communication Service for Crop Science—
which is a public research, development, and dissemination service for informatics and
communication technology targeting agricultural scientific research completed by 2010.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

The outputs of this program will be four globally accessible public goods:

1.     A Crop Science Information Resource.
2.     A Cereals Knowledge Bank (CKB).
3.     A World Rice Community Network Presence.
4.     An Informatics and Communication Service for Crop Science and Extension.

 Output 1 continues and extends the work reported in the MTP2006-2008 under Program 1,
Project 1, Output 3 – International Rice Information System (IRIS) while also consolidating
various science information management activities in the Institute which were previously
dispersed across several projects.

Output 2 continues and extends the work of the former Program 4, Project 11, Output 1 – Rice
Knowledge Bank.

Output 3 was previously only represented as a support service function in the Communications
and Publications Services (CPS) organizational unit of IRRI. Elevation of web publication to a
formal MTP program output reflects the dynamic and rapidly evolving potential of the internet.




IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                                85
Output 4 is similarly represented in support services of the biometrics and bioinformatics unit of
IRRI, recently renamed the Crop Research Informatics Laboratory (CRIL) under the IRRI-CIMMYT
Alliance. Elevation of this service function to an MTP output also highlights the growing role of ICT
research and development in the future impact and delivery pathways of the Institute. Output 4
also oversees software engineering activities for crop information management (the International
Crop Information System, ICIS; www.icis.cgiar.org); software engineering activities of the
Generation Challenge Programme and molecular breeding tool development.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

To achieve its vision of serving as a hub for crop science and extension information, global
community development, and capacity building, Program 6 will rely heavily on extensive global
partnerships with other CG centers, NARES, ARIs, and private industry. CIMMYT is a key IRRI
partner through the IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance projects for the Crop Research Informatics Laboratory
(CRIL) and Cereals Knowledge Bank and Capacity Building. Although this partnership will focus on
comparisons and integration of information for rice, maize, and wheat, it is expected to form the
foundation for wider crop collaboration with other IARC and ARI partners.

Program 6 participation in the Generation Challenge Program (GCP) is particularly significant given
the shared objective of efforts to identify, develop, and adopt suitable data standards and to
develop an information system and network for crop genetic resources characterization,
comparative genomics, and crop improvement. Thus, GCP technology and partnerships will
contribute significantly to Outputs 1 and 4.

Serving IRRI’s Program 5 on Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs of future
generations for rice genetic resources, Program 6 will collaborate with global partners within the
IRFGC, the International Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER), and the Global Crop
Diversity Trust to develop a framework to capture, store, index, analyze, and publish genetic and
phenotypic research data. In particular, internal capacity in bioinformatics will continue to be
complemented within currently funded projects, by expertise of ARIs from Japan (NIAS,
Oryzabase at NIG), the United States (NCGR, Gramene at Cornell, and CSHL), and Europe
(CIRAD), among others.

Outputs 2 and 4 will build strong partnerships with Asian NARES, in particular with respect to the
development of multilingual, in-country installations of the CKB. In this respect, NARES, such as
the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) that already have demonstrated technical
leadership in the application of ICT for agricultural extension will be directly engaged as research
for development collaborators.




IRRI                                        MTP 2010-12                                            86
Logical Framework

                         Outputs                       Intended Users                 Outcome                         Impact

Output 1                 The rice component of         Rice scientists and policy     Within the rice science         Accelerated development of
                         the Crop Science              makers at IARCs, NARES         community, a majority of        more focused rice research
                         Information Resource          and ARIs, and in the private   researchers use the crop        leads to sustainable
                         (an initiative of the IRRI-   sector                         science information             productivity increases that
                         CIMMYT Alliance)—which                                       resource as a primary           improved livelihoods and
                         is a global community-                                       source for publicly             increased food security of
                         curated repository and                                       available, current and easily   the poor in target regions,
                         network of public crop                                       accessible crop research        while maintaining the
                         science information                                          information, which enables      resource base
                         resources, established by                                    them to accelerate and
                         2010.                                                        focus crop research for
                                                                                      development.

Target 2009: Practices   IRRI web portal for rice
                         germplasm research
                         spanning rice germplasm
                         genetic resources, genomics
                         and crop
                         improvement communities.

Target 2010: Materials   A global crop registry for
                         rice genetic resources
                         conservation and
                         evaluation.

Target 2011: Materials   IRRI germplasm research
                         web portal cross-linked to
                         comparative biology
                         information.



Output 2                 The Cereals Knowledge         National extension services;   The Cereals Knowledge           Expanded dissemination
                         Bank, an online resource      National scientists; NGOs;     Bank is the preferred           and accelerated adoption of
                         of knowledge on cereal        Agricultural colleges;         source up-todate                new productive and
                         production for rice,          Development agencies;          information on new              sustainable farming
                         maize, and wheat,             Farmers                        technologies and best           practices results in
                         containing rice                                              practices used by extension     increased total returns to
                         information from IRRI’s                                      workers and other farmer        rice research and its impact


IRRI                                                         MTP 2010-12                                                                       87
                         Outputs                         Intended Users     Outcome                       Impact

                         Rice Knowledge Bank                                intermediaries, farmers for   on poverty.
                         (RKB), by 2010.                                    more rapid dissemination
                                                                            and uptake of appropriate
                                                                            crop technologies.

Target 2009: Practices   A locally designed RKB/CKB
                         country site is controlled by
                         a national committee in the
                         Philippines, Cambodia,
                         Vietnam, and Nepal.

Target 2009: Materials   The Cereals Knowledge
                         Bank accessible in multiple
                         media formats in multiple
                         local national languages,
                         through a variety of portals
                         and other access points
                         internationally.

Target 2009: Materials   Simulation and expert
                         system modules with
                         developed exemplars within
                         the Cereals Knowledge
                         Bank .

Target 2009: Materials   The use of video and
                         ―Entertainment education‖
                         television series exemplar
                         products for educating
                         farmers about crop
                         management ―best
                         practices‖ in one additional
                         South or Southeast Asian
                         country.

Target 2009: Materials   Multiple metaphors for
                         access to knowledge
                         operating within IRRI RKB
                         (seed to market, growth
                         stages and rice doctor)

Target 2009: Practices   Cereal systems section of
                         CKB reflects best practices
                         for rice wheat and rice

IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                               88
                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              maize systems

Target 2010: Materials        French RKB established for
                              West Africa through WARDA
                              and CIRAD.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   A completed extensive
knowledge                     evaluation of the use of the
                              RKB and its impact.

Target 2010: Practices        Documentation of the
                              pathways mechanism for
                              RKB through Asian network
                              countries and promotion of
                              best practices.

Target 2010: Practices        Management and best
                              practices model for
                              RKB/CKB within two African
                              partner countries in close
                              partnership with WARDA
                              and CIMMYT.

Target 2010: Materials        Portuguese RKB/CKB for
                              Mozambique

Target 2010: Materials        E-learning courses for rice
                              post-harvest, rice
                              production, rice seed
                              production and rice water
                              management and extension
                              curriculum available within
                              IRRI RKB/CKB

Target 2011: Capacity         A fully functioning
                              consortium of partner
                              countries (Asia and Africa)
                              for RKB/CKB

Target 2011: Materials        Each section of the IRRI
                              RKB has e-learning courses
                              available




IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                      89
                         Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact

Output 3                 The World Rice                 Researchers; Policy         Actively used to access rice   This innovative approach to
                         Community Network              makers; Development         research information by        knowledge sharing and
                         Presence — using               specialists; Extension      communities globally that      problem solving accelerates
                         Internet technology for        workers; Rice farmers;      interact, debate, and          the development and
                         access to information          Processors and consumers.   collaborate on rice research   uptake of the results of rice
                         and for interaction on                                     for development and            research for development.
                         rice by supporting self-                                   extension
                         organizing communities
                         and multilateral
                         communication—
                         operational by 2010.

Target 2009: Practices   Next generation of the
                         IRRI.ORG Institutional Web
                         Presence.

Target 2011: Practices   Documented experiment
                         with lessons learned in
                         telecentres (managed
                         through local organizations)
                         for agriculture information
                         for one country (e.g.
                         Philippines, Bangladesh or
                         India)



Output 4                 Phase I of the                 Crop scientists             The intended users have        Increased application of
                         Informatics and                                            increased capacity to          appropriate informatics and
                         Communication Service                                      benefit from appropriate       communication tools leads
                         for Crop Science—which                                     informatics and                to more equitable access,
                         is a public research,                                      communication technology.      rapid development,
                         development, and                                                                          dissemination and adoption
                         dissemination service for                                                                 of rice science information
                         informatics and                                                                           and technology.
                         communication
                         technology targeting
                         agricultural scientific
                         research completed by
                         2010.

Target 2009: Materials   Molecular breeding and
                         decision-making informatics


IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                    90
                         Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                         tools for crop research.

Target 2009: Practices   A strategy and systems for
                         institutional data
                         management practices for
                         the IRRI’s research
                         programs.

Target 2010: Materials   Multimedia user training
                         materials for IRRI-
                         developed crop research
                         informatics tools and
                         methodologies available to
                         crop researchers.

Target 2011: Materials   Visual breeding support
                         tools available to crop
                         researchers for use with
                         integrated phenotype,
                         genotype, and pedigree
                         data.

Target 2011: Materials   Multimedia training course
                         and online support materials
                         available to crop
                         researchers for research
                         data and information
                         management capacity
                         building.




IRRI                                                         MTP 2010-12                      91
IRRI-7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice
research

Project Overview and Rationale

Rationale
The impact of rice research on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability depends on
conducive policies and appropriate technologies that address farmers’ livelihood needs. To
effectively set research priorities, it is therefore necessary to understand the broad trends in
socioeconomic and policy environments that affect the economics of rice production. This involves
analyses of trends in rice production and consumption at the national/subnational levels, and
shifts in comparative advantages in rice production relative to other crops across
regions/ecosystems.

Strategic assessments for agriculture and economic growth in rice-producing regions, the
dynamics of rural livelihoods, the nature and determinants of poverty, as well as commodity and
market trends in increasingly globalized markets are critically important for determining
investment priorities for rural development. Planning and prioritizing rice research also requires a
deeper understanding of people’s access to and use of natural resources and other forms of
capital—physical, financial, human, and social—and their interactions with government agencies,
NGOs, and other institutions that influence their livelihood strategies. It is critically important to
understand the changes in farmer practices that are currently taking place and drivers of such
changes, including farmers’ knowledge and their perceptions, their criteria for technology choices,
and how components of livelihood systems and rice technologies interact. Such an understanding
provides the scientific basis for technology design, targeting, and delivery.

Impact assessments are critically important for providing evidence of impact of past research (ex
post) and for identifying future investment opportunities that are likely to lead to large impacts
(ex ante). Such assessments are being increasingly sought both for ensuring accountability and
for raising the efficiency of research investments, especially in the current context of tighter
resource availability.

The main objective of this program is to provide sound advice to policymakers, research
managers, and donors regarding the design of agricultural interventions through policy analyses,
livelihood studies, and impact assessments focused on rice-based systems of Asia. Through close
partnership with NARES, the program will also contribute to building their capacity for broader
socioeconomic and policy analyses of the agricultural sector.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

This program falls under System Priority 5 (Improving policies and facilitating institutional
innovation to support sustainable reduction of poverty and hunger). The policy support work will
fall under 5A. Analyses of comparative advantages, trade, and domestic marketing will fall under
5B. The livelihood analysis and development of strategies for increasing the overall impact of
research for development fall under 5D.

Project Outputs

The program has five outputs.




IRRI                                                           MTP 2010-12
Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
None

Output 1: Sub-national and farm level databases relevant to rice policy and impact
assessment for major rice-growing countries prepared by 2012.

Description: Analysis of trends in rice production and opportunities for new technologies for
poverty alleviation requires detailed data at national, subnational and farm (household) levels.
Such data facilitate detailed analysis of the economics of rice production, farmers’ livelihood
strategies, technology adoption patterns, and technology impacts. The required aggregate and
farm-level data need to be generated to support these research activities of IRRI. These
databases that require considerable efforts to collect, compile, and validate are international
public goods that are used by NARES, policymakers, research scholars, and managers of
development projects to meet their own needs. Our work on compiling and analyzing sub-national
level rice data can help describe and understand spatial and temporal shifts in rice production and
productivity. Similarly, such data are crucial for understanding the spatial distribution of poverty
and potentials of various interventions for poverty reduction. The World Rice Database, which is
compiled, updated, and published regularly by IRRI, is an important single source of information
used widely by NARES and others. Similarly, the databases generated by IRRI through farm
surveys in different rice ecosystems and countries are being used by research scholars and others
throughout the region. While there are alternative suppliers of national-level data, disaggregated
data at the subnational and farm levels are not generally available from other sources. IRRI
continues to update and provide such data as a public good.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5D:
Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Output 2: Comprehensive knowledge of long-term dynamics of poverty and rural
livelihood systems with focus on interactions among technology, infrastructure, and
institutions in major rice-growing countries of Asia developed by 2012.

Description: Technology needs of farmers and the potential impact of technologies on poverty
reduction depend on farmers’ livelihood strategies. Poor farmers are mostly engaged in a number
of livelihood activities that include crop production, livestock rearing, and wage employment,
which may be on the farm or outside the farm. Livelihood strategies differ among farmers
depending on their farm size, family labor resources, human capital, financial capital, and access
to markets, information and technologies. They also differ by gender. Livelihood strategies are not
static but dynamic and evolve according to changes in the broader economic, institutional, and
social contexts of farming. It is the interaction among these various drivers of changes in the
livelihood of farmers that determines the suitability of various interventions (technology and policy)
in generating the desired impact. Similarly, long-term observation and analyses of changes in
institutions and social contexts of rice farming are needed as such changes are generally gradual
and slow. A good understanding of farmers’ livelihood strategies and how various factors such as
policy, infrastructure, and institutions influence changes in livelihood strategies is essential for
underpinning technology development.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5D:
Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;




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Output 3: Policy reform options based on analyses of long-term changes in comparative
advantages in rice production in major rice-growing countries of Asia developed by
2012.

Description: The overall productivity, profitability, and sustainability of rice production depend not
only on technology but also on policy factors. In addition to the broader macroeconomic and rural
development policies, those related to output pricing and marketing, input pricing, and subsidies
directly impact on the profitability and sustainability of rice farming. Some policies can also create
a conflict between profitability and sustainability. For example, input subsidies such as for
groundwater use, while being profitable to farmers, can result in rapid depletion of groundwater
due to excessive use and make the system unsustainable. Advice based on sound analysis of the
consequences of various policies is an important step in effecting policy reforms. Similarly,
reforms in marketing setup and policies may relax the major constraints to the adoption and
diffusion of potentially profitable technologies. Comparative advantages associated with the
production of rice across countries and rice ecosystems are likely to change as economies grow,
new opportunities of trading open up, and relative input costs change over-time. Formulation of
policy reform options to address these broader issues related to the rice economy is hence
essential to promote long-term economic viability and sustainability of rice production.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5B:
Making international and domestic markets work for the poor;

Output 4: Knowledge of potential and realized impacts of rice and policyoriented
research on poverty reduction and sustainable management of natural resources
generated by 2012.

Description: In an era of declining public funding of agricultural research for development, it is
important that IRRI and NARES partners have a clear understanding of, and be able to
demonstrate, the realized and potential contribution of their research outputs to the Institute’s
goals and CGIAR priorities. This knowledge, based on a body of credible evidence, can be used to
help IRRI and NARES learn through critical self-analysis to improve project design and
implementation, to support improved decision-making and management of research funds at the
institutional, program, and project level, and to underpin continued funding.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5A: Improving science and technology policies and institutions; 5B:
Making international and domestic markets work for the poor; 5D: Improving research and
development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Output 5: Strategies, policies and principles for pro-poor dissemination of improved
technologies developed by 2012.

Description: To achieve impact, scaling up initiatives will require innovative strategies for
dissemination of improved pro-poor technologies. Recent work on the dissemination of improved
crop and resource management technologies has shown that institutional, technological, policy,
social and cultural factors facilitate or impede the technology diffusion process and the extent that
it is pro-poor and responsive to gender issues. Improved knowledge of these factors is needed in
the design and implementation of strategies for scaling up. Adequate knowledge of farmer
decision-making processes in resource management will shed light on how innovation occurs and
what support measures are needed to stimulate local innovation process. Scaling up initiatives
require strategies that are responsive to changing political economy, that foster stronger
partnerships with national systems, private industry, civil society organizations, and that are
based on deeper understanding of the household and community responses to new opportunities.
There is a need to understand the interaction among a range of actors and rural institutions for
ensuring broad impact on the poor. Broader principles derived from a synthesis of experiences on


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how institutional change can be pro-poor and gender equitable are needed to guide the
formulation of strategies for facilitating faster and wider dissemination of innovations.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5B: Making international and domestic markets work for the poor;
5D: Improving research and development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Impact Pathways

The impact pathway of this program includes researchers, research managers, development
workers, and policymakers as the main users of the knowledge and information generated.
Outputs from impact assessment (both ex ante and ex post) contribute to the process of improved
prioritization of research and, through this mechanism, increase the likelihood of selecting
projects and activities with high impact potentials. Similarly, policy advice generated is expected
to contribute to policy reforms needed for speeding up the process of impact generation and
increasing the overall range of impact on the ultimate beneficiaries. In addition, the information
generated from broader analyses of farmer livelihood strategies is expected to generate impact by
contributing to improved design of rural development strategies. The major factor that may
condition the impact of this program is the extent to which the policy advice developed and
research priorities identified are taken up for implementation by policymakers and research
managers.

Impact Pathways by Output

Output 1: Sub-national and farm level databases relevant to rice policy and impact
assessment for major rice-growing countries prepared by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Comprehensive knowledge of long-term dynamics of poverty and rural
livelihood systems with focus on interactions among technology, infrastructure, and
institutions in major rice-growing countries of Asia developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Policy reform options based on analyses of long-term changes in comparative
advantages in rice production in major rice-growing countries of Asia developed by
2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 4: Knowledge of potential and realized impacts of rice and policyoriented
research on poverty reduction and sustainable management of natural resources
generated by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 5: Strategies, policies and principles for pro-poor dissemination of improved
technologies developed by 2012.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

Information and knowledge are the international public goods arising from this program. The
framework of cross-site comparative analysis to be deployed in the program will help produce a
global view of the drivers of change and their impacts that can be generalized across a range of
conditions. In addition, methodological frameworks and strategies developed in the program are
expected to have wider application for policy research and impact analysis.


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Elaboration of Partners Roles

NARES, sister CG centers, and advanced research institutes (ARIs) all have key collaborative roles
in the program. NARES, which include both research organizations and universities, will be the
major collaborators involved in designing and implementing the research programs that address
specific problems relevant to them. This will involve, among others, collection and analysis of
detailed national/subnational and farm-level data. Key complementary inputs will be sought from
sister CG centers (e.g., with IFPRI on policy analyses) and with ARIs (for example, Yale University,
CIRAD, and University of Lund). Such complementary inputs include key concepts and models
that, with suitable modifications and adaptation, can be applied to meet the program objectives.




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Logical Framework

                              Outputs                      Intended Users             Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                      Sub-national and farm        IRRI NARES Research        Data are used by               An increased understanding
                              level databases relevant     scholars Policy makers     researchers, policymakers      of long-term trends in, and
                              to rice policy and impact    Students of agricultural   and development agencies       spatial patterns of, rice
                              assessment for major         development Staff of       to generate improved           production, based on
                              rice-growing countries       agricultural development   knowledge of the trends in     credible socio-economic
                              prepared by 2012.            projects.by 2012.          rice economy and policies,     data, will lead to more
                                                                                      extrapolation domains of       informed decision making
                                                                                      improved rice technologies,    and improved resource
                                                                                      and drivers of change in       allocation and prioritization
                                                                                      agriculture and rural          of rice research. Ultimately
                                                                                      development. Knowledge of      improved funding decisions
                                                                                      trends in rice and             will increase the likelihood
                                                                                      agricultural economy and       of agricultural and rural
                                                                                      drivers of change advanced     development in the rice
                                                                                      through discussions in         growing areas of Asia.
                                                                                      international fora, and used
                                                                                      in IRRI-NARES bi-lateral
                                                                                      research planning
                                                                                      meetings.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Database containing
knowledge                     information collected from
                              farm surveys in
                              Philippines.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Updated subnational data
knowledge                     base on rice area and
                              production for major rice
                              growing countries of Asia
                              and Africa.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Database containing
knowledge                     information collected form
                              farm-level surveys in
                              Bangladesh and eastern
                              India

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Subnational time series
knowledge                     data on rice area,


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                              Outputs                        Intended Users             Outcome                          Impact

                              production and yield in
                              major rice growing
                              countries of Asia.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Integrated farm-level
knowledge                     survey database from major
                              countries in Asia that is
                              publicly accessible.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Updated and refined
knowledge                     subnational data through
                              the use of surveys and
                              remote sensing on rice
                              area, production and yield
                              in major rice growing
                              countries of Asia.



Output 2                      Comprehensive                  Policy makers IRRI NARES   Policy makers and research       An increased understanding
                              knowledge of long-term                                    managers use the                 of livelihood strategies will
                              dynamics of poverty and                                   information to improve           help the intended users
                              rural livelihood systems                                  research prioritization, rural   develop and implement
                              with focus on                                             investment portfolios and        research projects and
                              interactions among                                        policies.                        agricultural policies that will
                              technology,                                                                                increase the likelihood of
                              infrastructure, and                                                                        the research outputs
                              institutions in major                                                                      making a contribution to
                              rice-growing countries of                                                                  the desired development
                              Asia developed by 2012.                                                                    goals.

Target 2009: Policy           Options to improve the
strategies                    management of irrigation
                              through improved
                              knowledge of the role of
                              institutions, policies and
                              social capital in irrigation
                              systems management.

Target 2009: Policy           Analysis of the trends in
strategies                    labor use, the extent of
                              mechanization and evolving
                              organization of rice farming
                              in areas of India undergoing

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                      Outputs                        Intended Users             Outcome                          Impact

                      farm labor shortages.

Target 2010: Policy   Policy options to improve
strategies            farming efficiency through
                      improved knowledge of
                      long-term dynamics of rice
                      production systems in
                      India.

Target 2011: Policy   Analysis of the efficiency
strategies            and poverty impact of land
                      rental markets and farm
                      consolidation in Philippines
                      and India.



Output 3              Policy reform options          Policy makers IRRI NARES   Policy makers use the            Improvements in the policy
                      based on analyses of           research managers          information to guide policy      environment, particularly in
                      long-term changes in                                      for increasing the economic      the areas of trade, rural
                      comparative advantages                                    efficiency of rice production.   development and natural
                      in rice production in                                     Research managers use the        resources policy, will
                      major rice-growing                                        information for research         increase the likelihood that
                      countries of Asia                                         prioritization.                  gains from research are not
                      developed by 2012.                                                                         only realized but are of
                                                                                                                 greatest benefit to the
                                                                                                                 targeted groups, namely
                                                                                                                 poor rice farmers and
                                                                                                                 consumers.

Target 2009: Policy   Policy options to reduce the
strategies            trading margin and the
                      instability in domestic rice
                      prices in Philippines and
                      Thailand

Target 2009: Policy   Improved understanding of
strategies            rice policies and policy
                      research priorities in major
                      rice growing countries of
                      Asia.

Target 2010: Policy   Improved knowledge of the
strategies            impact of domestic and


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                      Outputs                         Intended Users      Outcome                         Impact

                      trade policy change on
                      future food security.

Target 2010: Policy   Improved knowledge of the
strategies            role of input and output
                      marketing systems as
                      barriers to technology
                      adoption.

Target 2011: Policy   Long-term analysis of
strategies            demand and supply of rice
                      in the context of global
                      scenario on cereal
                      production, increasing
                      diversification of diets, and
                      production of biofuels.

Target 2011: Policy   Scenario analysis of the
strategies            likely changes in the
                      comparative advantage of
                      rice production across rice
                      ecosystems in the context
                      of global climate change.

Target 2011: Policy   A synthesis of policy
strategies            options for improving water
                      use efficiency in China,
                      India and Philippines.



Output 4              Knowledge of potential          IRRI NARES Donors   IRRI and NARES use this         More informed investment
                      and realized impacts of                             knowledge for research          decision-making and
                      rice and policyoriented                             prioritization and to support   improved project design
                      research on poverty                                 more effective project          and implementation
                      reduction and                                       development and                 increases the likelihood that
                      sustainable management                              implementation. Donors use      research outputs reach the
                      of natural resources                                this information in deciding    intended target groups and
                      generated by 2012.                                  which projects to fund.         have a significant payoff. As
                                                                                                          a result, the livelihoods of
                                                                                                          target groups are improved
                                                                                                          through sustainable
                                                                                                          increases in productivity.



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                              Outputs                        Intended Users        Outcome                       Impact

Target 2009: Capacity         Enhanced capacity of
                              NARES scientists for
                              conducting impact
                              assessments in Southeast
                              Asia.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Enhanced conceptual and
knowledge                     operational framework for
                              assessing the impact of rice
                              research on sustainable
                              management of natural
                              resources.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Assessment of the impact
knowledge                     of investments in capacity
                              building.

Target 2011: Policy           Understanding of returns to
strategies                    investment in capacity
                              building for varietal
                              improvement. Deferred
                              from 2010 - delays in staff
                              recruitment.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Knowledge of returns to
knowledge                     research on natural
                              resource management in
                              rice systems of Asia.



Output 5                      Strategies, policies and       NARES and community   Based on the knowledge        Pathways to adoption of
                              principles for pro-poor        organizations         generated, current            rice-based technologies are
                              dissemination of                                     approaches to technology      more accessible to poor
                              improved technologies                                dissemination are refined     farmers resulting in faster
                              developed by 2012.                                   by national extension         dissemination thus
                                                                                   systems and                   increasing the total returns
                                                                                   community/farmer              to rice research and its
                                                                                   organizations to facilitate   impact on poverty.
                                                                                   rapid technology diffusion.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Knowledge of facilitating
knowledge                     factors of community-level
                              decision making and action


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                              Outputs                        Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

                              to support and implement
                              improved crop and resource
                              management practices in
                              Indonesia, Myanmar and
                              Philippines.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Improved knowledge of
knowledge                     factors
                              facilitating/constraining
                              policy support to scale up
                              adoption of resource
                              management technologies
                              in Vietnam.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Documented evidence of
knowledge                     impact of value-based
                              research (pro-poor, gender
                              equitable, multistakeholder)
                              across international,
                              governmental and civil
                              society institutions in
                              Bangladesh.

Target 2011: Capacity         NARES scientists from five
                              countries (Bangladesh,
                              India, Indonesia,
                              Mozambique and Vietnam)
                              have capacity to undertake
                              gender-sensitive pro-poor
                              participatory approaches to
                              scaling up and scaling out
                              technology. Deferred from
                              2010.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Broader principles on how
knowledge                     research for development
                              can be pro-poor, gender
                              equitable, and multi-
                              stakeholder based on a
                              synthesis of experiences in
                              India and Bangladesh.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   The model of entertainment


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                      Outputs                       Intended Users     Outcome   Impact

knowledge             education for IPM in three
                      countries in SE Asia.

Target 2011: Policy   Strategies for development
strategies            of sustainable seed systems
                      based on experiences from
                      Bangladesh, India and
                      Tanzania.

Target 2011: Policy   Strategies for a business
strategies            model for rice post-harvest
                      development based on
                      experiences from
                      Cambodia, Indonesia and
                      Vietnam.




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IRRI-Eco-regional Program: Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) for
the Indo-Gangetic Plains

Project Overview and Rationale

In South Asia, the Rice-Wheat Consortium (RWC) countries—Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and
Pakistan—have devoted to agriculture nearly half of their total land area of 402 million hectares to
feed and provide livelihoods for 1.8 billion people. Rice and wheat, the staple food crops for these
people, are of great significance for food security in the region as these crops contribute more
than 80% of the total cereal production in these countries. The intensively cultivated irrigated
rice-wheat system is fundamental to employment, income, and livelihoods for hundreds of millions
of rural and urban poor of this region. In the last few decades, high growth rates for food grain
production (wheat 3.0%, rice 2.3%) in Consortium countries have kept pace with population
growth. But evidence is now appearing that rice-wheat system productivity is plateauing because
of a fatigued natural resource base. Thus, the region’s food security is continuously threatened
and the emerging challenges of post–Green Revolution (GR) agriculture pose additional hurdles.
In addition, in many of the eastern areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), which are located in
unfavorable rice ecologies, gains from GR technologies seem to have not affected the lives of
millions.

The system suffers from the unsustainable exploitation of water and soils, inefficient use of
chemical inputs, and emerging or worsening disease and pest problems. Labor availability is a
major driver of change in many of the rice production systems in Asia and is leading to changes
such as shifting from transplanting to direct seeding. In the Indo-Gangetic Plains, the desire to
reduce costs has motivated the development of ―conservation agriculture‖ to reduce the tillage
required for crop establishment and conserve the resource base. The changing production
environment has significant implications for resource management and productivity, and
appropriate land management is required to ensure the sustainability of rice ecosystems. Farmers
tend to be more market-oriented and driven by the need to sustain local rural communities and
neighboring urban areas. Regional demand for cereals is projected to rise dramatically, and should
be met largely through increased yields, freeing land and other resources for diversification into
high-value cropping/enterprises. Market forces plus policies will drive the pace and form of
sustainable diversification for enhanced income and employment generation in rural South Asia.

The Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains includes the national agricultural
research systems of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan; several international centers of the
CGIAR (CIMMYT, IRRI, ICRISAT, CIP, IWMI, ILRI), and the World Vegetable Center - AVRDC; and
various advanced research institutes (Cornell University, IAC Wageningen, IACR Rothamsted,
CABI-UK, CSIRO, ACIAR, and the IAEA). The Consortium was established in 1994 as an Eco-
regional Initiative of the CGIAR; in 1998, CIMMYT was assigned convening and leadership
responsibilities. In 2008, IRRI assumed convening and leadership responsibilities from CIMMYT.
The main goal of the RWC is to strengthen existing linkages and partnerships with national
research programs, other international centers, advanced institutes, and the private sector
working in the region to develop and deploy more efficient, productive, and sustainable
technologies for the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. As quality
land and water resources are being diverted to other sectors of national economies, the
Consortium tests and promotes alternative practices for sustaining productivity growth through a
farmer participatory research approach. Work of the RWC depends on many local partners—
including local government agencies, NGOs, and the private sector, particularly input suppliers
and agricultural equipment manufacturers.



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The RWC receives funding from the World Bank at approximately US$270,000 per year, which
complements contributions by participating CGIAR centers as well as a number of research grants
from USAID, ACIAR, ADB, and other donors.

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities

The first two outputs (1. Development of technologies and policies to improve water productivity,
soil health, and diversity of the rice-wheat system and 2. Acceleration of the adoption of resource-
conserving technologies [RCTs]) are closely aligned with System Priority 4 and 5. These outputs
have major research focus in System Priority 4C, 4D, and 5C and contributory research focus in
System Priority 4A, 5A, and 5D. In 4C, the outputs will address specific goal 1 and all specific
goals except 2 in 4D. Output 3 (Management of the RWC by strengthening the capacity of
partners to conduct research for sustainable intensification and diversification of rice-wheat
systems and make information on RCTs available to users) is directly aligned with System Priority
5C, in particular, specific goals 1 and 2. In addition, the inputs for (a) System Priority 2 (A to C)
and System Priority 4 (C) come from IRRI’s Program 2 Output 1 and CIMMYT’s MTP project 10,
and (b) System Priority 5A and 5D come from CIMMYT’s MTP projects 10 and 11.

Project Outputs

This ecoregional program has three outputs.

Outputs Description

Changes from Previous MTP
Revised the 2009 - 2010 Output Targets.

Output 1: Develop technologies and policies to improve water productivity, soil health
and enhanced diversity of the rice-wheat systems.

Description:

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4C: Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological
intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and
institutions; 5C: Improving rural institutions and their governance; 5D: Improving research and
development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;

Output 2: Accelerate adoption of resource-conserving technologies (RCTs). All
stakeholders involved in accelerating the pace of development and adoption of RCTs
using farmer participatory approaches in the IGP.

Description:

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 4A: Promoting integrated land, water and forest management at
landscape level; 4C: Improving water productivity; 4D: Promoting sustainable agro-ecological
intensification in low- and high-potential areas; 5A: Improving science and technology policies and
institutions; 5C: Improving rural institutions and their governance; 5D: Improving research and
development options to reduce rural poverty and vulnerability;




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Output 3: Prudent management of the RWC by strengthening the capacity of partners
to conduct research for sustainable intensification and diversification of rice-wheat
systems and make information on RCTs available to users.

Description:

Alignment to CGIAR Priorities : 5C: Improving rural institutions and their governance;

Impact Pathways

The RWC has applied a new model for farm technology development and dissemination in South
Asia, encouraging farmers, researchers, and extension agents to work as teams. Farmers actively
participate in testing, refining, and promoting promising innovations. They are encouraged and
backstopped by researchers, who often go straight to farmers’ fields with promising innovations,
rather than spending years in testing and refinement on research stations. As part of this, RWC
researchers and extension agents work with multiple actors—including farm implement
manufacturers, input suppliers, and others—along complex innovation pathways. This has been
crucial, for example, in the expansion of zero-tillage and raised-bed cropping in wheat, both of
which require a specialized sowing implement. The RWC facilitation unit has provided stability,
continuity, effective coordination, and a nonpartisan stance. Among other things, this has fostered
the cross-fertilization of knowledge and practices across borders, even in times of regional or local
conflict. Laser-leveling of fields—essential for efficient water use in irrigated areas—was first
tested and applied in Pakistan, but has since spread to neighboring countries through the
Consortium. Traveling seminars, in which researchers and farmers from India and Pakistan visit
each other’s farm plots and experiment stations, have fostered the sharing of knowledge and
helped ignite enthusiasm about new practices. The RWC plays a pivotal and innovative role as a
true facilitator, information provider, technology clearinghouse, and capacity builder.

The RWC works in a farmers’ participatory research approach and it has been successful in
promoting resource conserving technologies or RCTs such as zero-tillage in wheat. In a typical
scenario, RWC partners enter a new village, where a poor small-farm family, growing only a rice-
wheat rotation, is introduced to zero-tillage wheat after rice, using a seeder lent by the RWC.
Relatives and neighbors scoff at the practice and the displeasing appearance of the field during
the early establishment stage. But the harvest is equal to or better than that from traditionally
cultivated wheat, and farmers save on seed, labor, diesel, farm equipment, and irrigation water—
all of which represents a significant economic gain. The practice allows earlier sowing of wheat, so
farmers can introduce a subsequent mungbean or other crop, or grow green manures to enrich
the soil. Other farmers begin adopting the practice and fight over use of the seeder or seek ways
to purchase their own seeder, fueling the local farm machinery industry. Early purchasers contract
their services out to neighbors who do not have the zero-tillage seeder, thereby earning extra
income. Zero-tillage tends to be adopted first by the better endowed farmers, but rental services
have made the technology relatively scale-neutral and divisible. The RWC has a diverse basket of
options—including animal-drawn and light-duty modular power tillers, or manual surface-seeding
practices—which put zero-tillage within reach of the region’s most disadvantaged farmers, and
Consortium researchers work with farmers to adapt practices or devise new ones that fit particular
circumstances.

In addition, through a participatory varietal selection program supported by the RWC, farmers in
the village gain access to the latest high-yielding wheat varieties. Added income from all of the
above can be used by farm families to further diversify, sink a well, conduct home improvement,
purchase needed equipment, or underwrite a child’s education. An ambitious farmer in the village
may launch a seed production and marketing business or other enterprise. Throughout this
process, RWC partners provide advice and research backstopping, as well as linking farmers with
input suppliers, machine shops, market representatives, local administrators, other researchers,
IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                           106
or knowledgeable farmers from other villages. The RWC will arrange for farmers from other
villages to visit, talk to peers, and observe progress themselves.

Impact Pathways by Output


Output 1: Develop technologies and policies to improve water productivity, soil health
and enhanced diversity of the rice-wheat systems.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 2: Accelerate adoption of resource-conserving technologies (RCTs). All
stakeholders involved in accelerating the pace of development and adoption of RCTs
using farmer participatory approaches in the IGP.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

Output 3: Prudent management of the RWC by strengthening the capacity of partners
to conduct research for sustainable intensification and diversification of rice-wheat
systems and make information on RCTs available to users.
See generic statement on Impact Pathways.

International Public Goods

This system-wide eco-regional program brings together NARES, international agricultural research
centers, and several advanced research institutes, and strives to form a network between national
and international agricultural research institutions to address problems limiting the enhancement
of productivity of rice and wheat in a sustainable manner. This rotation covers 13.5 million ha in
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan and is fundamental to employment, income, and food
security for hundreds of millions of rural poor. The Consortium addresses problems that cut across
national and regional boundaries. The program will strengthen existing linkages and partnerships
in the region to develop and deploy more efficient, productive, and sustainable technologies for
the diverse rice-wheat production systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. These technologies include
conservation agriculture practices for both rice and wheat crops appropriate for small- and
medium-scale farmers, which address concerns such as yield plateaus, water and labor shortages
and declining water tables, resource fatigue, farmers’ profit, turnaround time for planting of winter
crops after rice, climate change, and pollution. Consortium activities will draw on multiple sites
throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plains to derive a broad understanding and knowledge to support
extrapolation and wider application of the output targets. The RWC ―basket‖ of crop management
options exhibits divisibility in application and utility for farmers.

Elaboration of Partners Roles

The RWC will work with more than 80 partners in research and development activities to achieve
the outputs. These partners involve NARES, including government agencies dealing with policy
and extension, NGOs, IARCs, ARIs, UN agencies, and the private sector. The amount of
involvement will vary from comprehensive ongoing work with core members (NARES of
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan; IRRI and CIMMYT) to a short-term project-specific
relationship. The RWC will have a Regional Steering Committee (RSC), the pinnacle management
group for endorsing the research themes and approving work plans and budgets developed by the
Regional Technical Coordination Committee (RTCC).




IRRI                                       MTP 2010-12                                           107
Logical Framework

                              Outputs                       Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact

Output 1                      Develop technologies
                              and policies to improve
                              water productivity, soil
                              health and enhanced
                              diversity of the rice-
                              wheat systems.

Target 2009: Practices        Refined technology for no     Farmers in South Asia,      Farmers adopt new              Improved soil health.
                              till rice-wheat with loose    private sector companies,   machines for seeding into
                              residue.                      NARES, CGIAR, other         loose residues.                Reduction in residue
                                                            research centers.                                          burning and emission of
                                                                                        Nutrient and water-use         GHG.
                                                                                        efficiency improved.
                                                                                                                       Savings in labour, water
                                                                                                                       and energy.

Target 2009: Practices        Diversified rice-wheat        Farmers in South Asia,      Farmers adopt new              Improved soil health.
                              system that includes cover    private sector companies,   machines for seeding into
                              crops and intercrops.         NARES, CGIAR, other         loose residues.                Reduction in residue
                                                            research centers.                                          burning and emission of
                                                                                        Nutrient and water-use         GHG.
                                                                                        efficiency improved.
                                                                                                                       Savings in labour, water
                                                                                        Diversified rice-wheat         and energy.
                                                                                        system in the IGP.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Validated methodology for     Farmers in South Asia,      Climatic data for selected     Scientists adopt the
knowledge                     downscaling the global        private sector companies,   IGP sites available.           methodology for
                              climatic data to IGP.         NARES, CGIAR, other                                        downscaling in other areas
                                                            research centers.                                          for wider applications.

Target 2010: Practices        Optimized nitrogen x          Farmers in South Asia,      Conservation agriculture       Farmers shift to double
                              residue x irrigation x weed   private sector companies,   driven resource                zero- till systems on a
                              management.                   NARES, CGIAR, other         management practice            sizeable area in rice-wheat
                                                            research centers.           established.                   cropping systems.

                                                                                        Impact of continuous no-till   Future direction of research

IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                                     108
                              Outputs                         Intended Users              Outcome                        Impact

                                                                                          practice on rice-wheat         on RCTs identified.
                                                                                          system assessed.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Monitored medium to long-       Farmers in South Asia,      Conservation agriculture       Farmers shift to double
knowledge                     term effects of continuous      private sector companies,   driven resource                zero- till systems on a
                              no or reduced tillage on        NARES, CGIAR, other         management practice            sizeable area in rice-wheat
                              crop and soil health.           research centers.           established.                   cropping systems.

                                                                                          Impact of continuous no-till   Future direction of research
                                                                                          practice on rice-wheat         on RCTs identified.
                                                                                          system assessed.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Assessment of the               Farmers in South Asia,      Area under DSR and RCTs        Policies for promoting RCTs
knowledge                     socioeconomic and               private sector, NARES,      expands.                       developed and
                              environmental impact of         other research centers.                                    recommended.
                              RCTs.

Target 2011: Practices        Comprehensive package for       Farmers in South Asia,      Area under DSR and RCTs        Policies for promoting RCTs
                              DSR and other RCTs for          private sector, NARES,      expands.                       developed and
                              wider dissemination.            other research centers.                                    recommended.

Target 2011: Other kinds of   Calibrated methodology for      Farmers in South Asia,      Improved climate change        Scientists adopt refined
knowledge                     IGP impact analysis of          private sector, NARES,      database and simulation        methodologies for
                              climate change using            other research centers.     model available for better     downscaling the climate
                              simulation models, remote                                   planning and developing the    data.
                              sensing and GIS.                                            risk mitigation strategies.
                                                                                                                         Risk of climate change on
                                                                                                                         crop productivity
                                                                                                                         identified.



Output 2                      Accelerate adoption of
                              resource-conserving
                              technologies (RCTs). All
                              stakeholders involved in
                              accelerating the pace of
                              development and
                              adoption of RCTs using
                              farmer participatory
                              approaches in the IGP.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Farmers’ participatory trials   Farmers in South Asia,      Rental services of new         Policy makers sensitized

IRRI                                                                MTP 2010-12                                                                     109
                         Outputs                        Intended Users              Outcome                         Impact

knowledge                on integrated crop             private sector companies,   customized machines for         about the benefits of RCTs.
                         management (ICM)               NARES, CGIAR, other         RCTs become increasingly
                         involving relevant RCTs in     research centers.           popular in the IGP.             Enhanced adoption of RCTS
                         the IGP, and dissemination                                                                 leading to improved
                         through information and                                    Better understanding of         livelihood, better
                         communication technology                                   links between agriculture       environment and higher
                         (ICT).                                                     practices and sustainability.   income.

                                                                                    RCTs expand in the IGP and      Lower cost of production,
                                                                                    central India.                  higher income and
                                                                                                                    employment.

Target 2010: Practices   Fine-tuned RCTs for risk-      Farmers in South Asia,      Suitable RCTs are promoted      Stable farm production and
                         prone areas (flood or          private sector companies,   to risk prone and climate       higher income in risk prone
                         drought) of the IGP and        NARES, CGIAR, other         change hotspot areas.           and adverse climatic
                         central India for scaling up   research centers.                                           conditions.
                         to other risk-prone areas.

Target 2010: Practices   Adapted agronomic and          Farmers in South Asia,      Suitable RCTs are promoted      Stable farm production and
                         crop management practices      private sector companies,   to risk prone and climate       higher income in risk prone
                         to address climate change.     NARES, CGIAR, other         change hotspot areas.           and adverse climatic
                                                        research centers.                                           conditions.

Target 2011: Practices   RCTs promoted for risk and     Farmers in South Asia,      Reduced risk and more           Stable farm production and
                         climate change prone areas     private sector companies,   adaptation to climate           higher income in risk prone
                         using ICT.                     NARES, CGIAR, other         change due to enhanced          and adverse climatic
                                                        research centers.           adoption of RCTs.               conditions.

                                                                                    Expansion of double zero-
                                                                                    tillage area.



Output 3                 Prudent management of
                         the RWC by
                         strengthening the
                         capacity of partners to
                         conduct research for
                         sustainable
                         intensification and
                         diversification of rice-
                         wheat systems and make

IRRI                                                          MTP 2010-12                                                                   110
                              Outputs                       Intended Users             Outcome                        Impact

                              information on RCTs
                              available to users.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Geo-referenced database       NARES, CGIAR scientists    Knowledge shared among         Line departments in NARES
knowledge                     for bio-physical and socio    and policy                 stakeholders and               base their local
                              economic indicators in the    makers/planners.           information disseminated       developmental plans on the
                              IGP for NARES and other                                  through publications,          new RCTs and begin to use
                              collaborators.                                           training materials, website,   techniques for enhancing
                                                                                       radio, TV and press.           productivity in risk-prone
                                                                                                                      areas.
                                                                                       RCT farmers and
                                                                                       manufacturers directory
                                                                                       created on the web for on-
                                                                                       line surveys, interviews for
                                                                                       impact assessment.

Target 2009: Other kinds of   Knowledge on technology       NARES, CGIAR scientists    Knowledge shared among         Line departments in NARES
knowledge                     and markets.                  and policy                 stakeholders and               base their local
                                                            makers/planners.           information disseminated       developmental plans on the
                                                                                       through publications,          new RCTs and begin to use
                                                                                       training materials, website,   techniques for enhancing
                                                                                       radio, TV and press.           productivity in risk-prone
                                                                                                                      areas.
                                                                                       RCT farmers and
                                                                                       manufacturers directory
                                                                                       created on the web for on-
                                                                                       line surveys, interviews for
                                                                                       impact assessment.

Target 2010: Capacity         Strengthened linkages         NARES, CGIAR scientists,   Knowledge on new RCTs          Research and extension
                              among farmers, NARES,         policy makers/planners,    disseminated and farmers’      staff use up-to-date
                              international institutes,     farmers.                   feedback captured using        technology and local
                              NGOs and private partners.                               modern ICT.                    departments base their
                                                                                                                      development plans on the
                                                                                                                      new RCTs and begin to use
                                                                                                                      techniques for enhancing
                                                                                                                      productivity.

Target 2010: Other kinds of   Enhanced web-based            NARES, CGIAR scientists,   Knowledge on new RCTs          Research and extension
knowledge                     knowledge sharing portal to   policy makers/planners,    disseminated and farmers’      staff use up-to-date
                              identify and control          farmers.                   feedback captured using        technology and local
                              problems (e.g., weeds).                                  modern ICT.                    departments base their

IRRI                                                              MTP 2010-12                                                                  111
                        Outputs                     Intended Users             Outcome                       Impact

                                                                                                             development plans on the
                                                                                                             new RCTs and begin to use
                                                                                                             techniques for enhancing
                                                                                                             productivity.

Target 2011: Capacity   ICT-based knowledge         NARES, CGIAR scientists,   Knowledge on new RCTs         NARES staff use up-to-date
                        sharing with NARES, NGOs,   policy makers/planners,    disseminated and farmers’     technology and farmers
                        private partners and        farmers.                   feedback captured using       adopt the new RCTs and
                        farmers.                                               modern ICT.                   begin to use techniques for
                                                                                                             enhancing productivity in
                                                                                                             risk-prone areas.

Target 2011: Capacity   Certified Crop Advisor      NARES, CGIAR scientists,   Standardized certified crop   More efficient
                        Program.                    policy makers/planners,    advisor program.              extension/delivery
                                                    farmers.                                                 mechanism in place.




IRRI                                                      MTP 2010-12                                                                112
Annexes
Implementation of EPMR/CPER Recommendations

Although responses to EPMR7 report have already been presented to the Science Council,
the implementation plan will be formulated and published in October 2009 after its approval by
the IRRI Board of Trustees, once the final EPMR7 report has been received, including the Science
Council commentary and report of ExCo in June 2009.




IRRI                                      MTP 2010-12                                         113
Financing Plan

                                           IRRI-Table 1: Allocation of Project Costs by Priority Area and Priorities, 2010
                                                                                                                in $millions



                                                               Priority Area 1           Priority Area 2                   Priority Area 4                   Priority Area 5           Non-Priority
                                                                                                                                                                                          Area

                         Project                                 1A      1B      2A        2B      2C      2D      4A        4B      4C      4D      5A        5B      5C      5D      New    Stand- Total
                                                                                                                                                                                     Research alone
                                                                                                                                                                                      Areas Trainin
                                                                                                                                                                                                g
 Program 1: Raising productivity in rainfed                     0.730            3.655     4.386                   0.731     0.731   1.462   1.462                     0.731   0.731                 14.619
 environments: attacking the roots of poverty

 Program 2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-                           5.659     1.132   1.132           2.264             3.396   5.660   1.132             1.132   1.132                  22.639
 based systems:
 rice and the environment

 Program 3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural                             2.138     0.712   0.712                                                       1.424           2.132                   7.118
 incomes and an affordable urban staple

 Program 4: Rice and human health:                              0.298            0.299             1.789                                             0.298                     0.298                   2.982
 overcoming the consequences of
 poverty
 Program 5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery:               1.893            1.514     1.515   1.515                                                                                1.136          7.573
 meeting the needs of the future generations for
 rice genetic resources
 Program 6: Information and communication:                      0.129   0.129    0.128     0.129   0.129   0.065   0.065             0.065   0.129   0.065     0.065           0.129            0.065 1.292
 convening a global rice research community

 Program 7: Rice policy support and impact                                                                                                           0.585     0.488           0.877                   1.950
 assessment for rice research

                                                       Total    3.050   0.129 13.393       7.874   5.277   0.065   3.060     0.731   4.923   7.251   2.080     1.977   1.863   5.299    1.136   0.065 58.173




IRRI                                                                                                    MTP 2010-12                                                                                            114
                                                IRRI-Table 2: Allocation of Project Costs to CGIAR Priorities, 2008-2012
                                                                                               in $millions

Projects
                                                                                                       Actual         Estimated   Proposal    Plan 1     Plan 2
    Priorities
                                                                                                        2008            2009        2010       2011       2012

Program 1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking the roots of poverty

    1A                                                                                                        0.709       0.801       0.730      0.744      0.760

    2A                                                                                                        3.541       4.000       3.655      3.728      3.803

    2B                                                                                                        4.249       4.800       4.386      4.474      4.563

    4A                                                                                                        0.708       0.800       0.731      0.746      0.761

    4B                                                                                                        0.708       0.800       0.731      0.746      0.761

    4C                                                                                                        1.416       1.600       1.462      1.491      1.520

    4D                                                                                                        1.416       1.600       1.462      1.491      1.520

    5C                                                                                                        0.708       0.800       0.731      0.746      0.761

    5D                                                                                                        0.708       0.800       0.731      0.746      0.761

                                                                                    Total Project         14.163         16.001      14.619     14.912     15.210

Program 2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based systems: rice and the environment

    2A                                                                                                        2.813       5.617       5.659      5.771      5.887

    2B                                                                                                        0.562       1.123       1.132      1.155      1.178

    2C                                                                                                        0.562       1.123       1.132      1.155      1.178

    4A                                                                                                        1.125       2.246       2.264      2.309      2.355

    4C                                                                                                        1.687       3.369       3.396      3.464      3.533

    4D                                                                                                        2.811       5.616       5.660      5.773      5.888

    5A                                                                                                        0.562       1.123       1.132      1.155      1.178

    5C                                                                                                        0.562       1.123       1.132      1.155      1.178

    5D                                                                                                        0.562       1.123       1.132      1.155      1.178

                                                                                    Total Project         11.246         22.463      22.639     23.092     23.553

Program 3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an affordable urban staple

    2A                                                                                                        0.965       1.298       2.138      2.179      2.221

    2B                                                                                                        0.322       0.433       0.712      0.726      0.741

    2C                                                                                                        0.322       0.433       0.712      0.726      0.741
Projects
                                                                                                   Actual     Estimated   Proposal    Plan 1     Plan 2
    Priorities
                                                                                                    2008        2009        2010       2011       2012

    5B                                                                                                0.643       0.866       1.424      1.452      1.481

    5D                                                                                                0.965       1.298       2.132      2.178      2.222

                                                                                  Total Project       3.217       4.328       7.118      7.261      7.406

Program 4: Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences of poverty

    1A                                                                                                0.262       0.385       0.298      0.304      0.310

    2A                                                                                                0.263       0.383       0.299      0.305      0.311

    2C                                                                                                1.574       2.308       1.789      1.825      1.862

    5A                                                                                                0.262       0.385       0.298      0.304      0.310

    5D                                                                                                0.262       0.385       0.298      0.304      0.310

                                                                                  Total Project       2.623       3.846       2.982      3.042      3.103
Program 5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs of the future generations for
rice genetic resources
    1A                                                                                                1.226       2.285       1.893      1.931      1.970

    2A                                                                                                0.981       1.830       1.514      1.545      1.575

    2B                                                                                                0.981       1.828       1.515      1.545      1.576

    2C                                                                                                0.981       1.828       1.515      1.545      1.576

    New Research Areas                                                                                0.736       1.371       1.136      1.159      1.182

                                                                                  Total Project       4.905       9.142       7.573      7.725      7.879

Program 6: Information and communication: convening a global rice research community

    1A                                                                                                0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    1B                                                                                                0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    2A                                                                                                0.210       0.159       0.128      0.129      0.138

    2B                                                                                                0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    2C                                                                                                0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    2D                                                                                                0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067

    4A                                                                                                0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067

    4C                                                                                                0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067

    4D                                                                                                0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    5A                                                                                                0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067

    5B                                                                                                0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067
Projects
                                                                                         Actual     Estimated   Proposal    Plan 1     Plan 2
    Priorities
                                                                                          2008        2009        2010       2011       2012

    5D                                                                                      0.209       0.156       0.129      0.132      0.134

    Stand-alone Training                                                                    0.104       0.078       0.065      0.066      0.067

                                                                         Total Project      2.088       1.563       1.292      1.317      1.344

Program 7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice research

    5A                                                                                      0.585       0.805       0.585      0.596      0.608

    5B                                                                                      0.486       0.670       0.488      0.496      0.507

    5D                                                                                      0.877       1.207       0.877      0.895      0.913

                                                                         Total Project      1.948       2.682       1.950      1.987      2.028

                                                                                Total      40.190      60.025      58.173     59.336     60.523
                                                        IRRI-Table 3: Summary of Project Costs, 2008-2012
                                                                                 in $millions



                                                                                          Actual    Estimated    Proposal    Plan 1     Plan 2
                                       Project
                                                                                          2008        2009         2010      2011       2012

Program 1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking the roots of poverty
                                                                                           14.163       16.001      14.619     14.912     15.210

Program 2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based systems: rice and the
                                                                                           11.246       22.463      22.639     23.092     23.553
environment
Program 3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an affordable urban
                                                                                            3.217        4.328       7.118      7.261      7.406
staple
Program 4: Rice and human health: overcoming the consequences of poverty                    2.623        3.846       2.982      3.042      3.103

Program 5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the needs of the future
                                                                                            4.905        9.142       7.573      7.725      7.879
generations for rice genetic resources
Program 6: Information and communication: convening a global rice research
                                                                                            2.088        1.563       1.292      1.317      1.344
community
Program 7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice research                      1.948        2.682       1.950      1.987      2.028
                                                                                 Total     40.190       60.025      58.173     59.336     60.523
                                    IRRI-Table 4: Summary of Priority Costs, 2008-2012
                                                      in $millions


                       Priorities                   Actual           Estimated      Proposal       Plan 1           Plan 2
                                                    2008               2009           2010         2011             2012
1A                                                           2.406          3.627          3.050            3.111            3.174
1B                                                           0.209          0.156          0.129            0.132            0.134
2A                                                           8.773         13.287         13.393        13.657           13.935
2B                                                           6.323          8.340          7.874            8.032            8.192
2C                                                           3.648          5.848          5.277            5.383            5.491
2D                                                           0.104          0.078          0.065            0.066            0.067
4A                                                           1.937          3.124          3.060            3.121            3.183
4B                                                           0.708          0.800          0.731            0.746            0.761
4C                                                           3.207          5.047          4.923            5.021            5.120
4D                                                           4.436          7.372          7.251            7.396            7.542
5A                                                           1.513          2.391          2.080            2.121            2.163
5B                                                           1.233          1.614          1.977            2.014            2.055
5C                                                           1.270          1.923          1.863            1.901            1.939
5D                                                           3.583          4.969          5.299            5.410            5.518
Stand-alone Training                                         0.104          0.078          0.065            0.066            0.067
New Research Areas                                           0.736          1.371          1.136            1.159            1.182
                                            Total        40.190            60.025         58.173        59.336           60.523
             IRRI-Table 5: Investments by Undertaking, Activity and Sector, 2008-2012
                                                             in $millions

                                                              Actual        Estimated     Proposal     Plan 1      Plan 2
                                                               2008           2009          2010        2011        2012

Increasing Productivity                                          23.521          35.428       34.631      35.323      36.030

  Germplasm Enhancement & Breeding                               17.093          26.099       25.172      25.675      26.189

  Production Systems Development & Management                     6.428           9.329        9.459       9.648       9.841

    Cropping systems                                              6.428           9.329        9.459       9.648       9.841

    Livestock systems                                             0.000           0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

    Tree systems                                                  0.000           0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

    Fish systems                                                  0.000           0.000        0.000       0.000       0.000

Protecting the Environment                                        5.797           9.486        9.244       9.429       9.618

Saving Biodiversity                                               1.085           1.906        1.579       1.611       1.643

Improving Policies                                                1.603           2.189        1.636       1.668       1.702

Strengthening NARS                                                8.184          11.016       11.083      11.305      11.530

  Training and Professional Development                           2.565           3.058        3.152       3.215       3.279

  Documentation, Publications, Info. Dissemination                2.202           3.419        3.480       3.550       3.621

  Organization & Management Couselling                            0.104           0.078        0.065       0.066       0.067

  Networks                                                        3.313           4.461        4.386       4.474       4.563

                                                     Total       40.190          60.025       58.173      59.336      60.523
                                                   IRRI-Table 6: Project Investments by Developing Region, 2008-2012
                                                                                           in $millions

                                                                                            Actual        Estimated     Proposal     Plan 1       Plan 2
                             Project                                      Region
                                                                                             2008           2009          2010        2011         2012
Program 1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments: attacking                              13.455         15.201       13.888       14.166       14.450
                                                                   Asia
the roots of poverty
                                                                  SSA                            0.708          0.800        0.731        0.746        0.760

                                                                           Total Project        14.163         16.001       14.619       14.912       15.210
Program 2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based                                      10.683         21.340       21.507       21.937       22.376
                                                                  Asia
systems: rice and the environment
                                                                  SSA                            0.563          1.123        1.132        1.155        1.177

                                                                           Total Project        11.246         22.463       22.639       23.092       23.553
Program 3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes and an                               3.217          4.328        7.118        7.261        7.406
                                                                   SSA
affordable urban staple

                                                                           Total Project         3.217          4.328        7.118        7.261        7.406
Program 4: Rice and human health: overcoming the                                                 2.491          3.654        2.833        2.890        2.947
                                                                  Asia
consequences of poverty
                                                                  SSA                            0.132          0.192        0.149        0.152        0.156

                                                                           Total Project         2.623          3.846        2.982        3.042        3.103
Program 5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting the                                     3.924          7.313        6.059        6.180        6.304
                                                                  Asia
needs of the future generations for rice genetic resources
                                                                  CWANA                          0.245          0.457        0.379        0.386        0.394

                                                                  LAC                            0.490          0.914        0.757        0.772        0.788

                                                                  SSA                            0.246          0.458        0.378        0.387        0.393

                                                                           Total Project         4.905          9.142        7.573        7.725        7.879
Program 6: Information and communication: convening a global                                     1.775          1.329        1.098        1.120        1.142
                                                                  Asia
rice research community
                                                                  CWANA                          0.104          0.078        0.065        0.066        0.067

                                                                  LAC                            0.104          0.078        0.065        0.066        0.067

                                                                  SSA                            0.105          0.078        0.064        0.065        0.068

                                                                           Total Project         2.088          1.563        1.292        1.317        1.344
Program 7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for rice                                    1.754          2.414        1.754        1.789        1.825
                                                                  Asia
research
                                                                  SSA                            0.194          0.268        0.196        0.198        0.203

                                                                           Total Project         1.948          2.682        1.950        1.987        2.028

                                                                                   Total        40.190         60.025       58.173       59.336       60.523
                 IRRI-Table 7: Summary of Investments by Developing Region, 2008-2012
                                                    in $millions

                                  Actual             Estimated       Proposal       Plan 1            Plan 2
        Region
                                   2008                2009            2010          2011              2012

SSA                                         5.165            7.247          9.768             9.964            10.163

Asia                                       34.082           51.251         47.139            48.082            49.044

LAC                                         0.594            0.992          0.822             0.838             0.855

CWANA                                       0.349            0.535          0.444             0.452             0.461

                         Total         40.190               60.025         58.173        59.336            60.523
                                        IRRI-Table 8: Expenditure by Object, 2008-2012
                                                              in $millions


                                             Actual           Estimated       Proposal       Plan 1           Plan 2
        Object of Expenditure
                                              2008              2009            2010          2011             2012


Personnel                                         17.459             23.793         24.123        24.605           25.098

Supplies and services                             12.074             15.443         15.966        16.285           16.611

Collaboration/ Partnerships                           4.689          12.222         12.347        12.594           12.846

Operational Travel                                    3.443           3.525          2.756            2.811            2.867

Depreciation                                          2.525           5.042          2.981            3.041            3.101

                                Total             40.190             60.025         58.173        59.336           60.523
                              IRRI-Table 9: Member and Non-Member Unrestricted Grants, 2008-2010
                                                   in $millions NC = National Currency
                                                                  Actual 2008     Actual 2008     Estimated      Estimated     Proposal       Proposal 2010
             Member                                Type NC
                                                                     (US$)            (NC)             2009           2009         2010            (NC)
                                                                                                       (US$)          (NC)         (US$)
  Unrestricted Grants

    Member

         Australia                                           A$           0.661           0.750          0.726         0.750          0.589           0.750

         Bangladesh                                       US$             0.100           0.100          0.100         0.100          0.100           0.100

         Canada                                              C$           1.332           1.565          1.405         1.565          1.405           1.565

         China                                            US$             0.140           0.140          0.140         0.140          0.140           0.140

         France                                           Euro            0.102           0.075          0.105         0.075          0.105           0.075

         Germany                                          Euro            0.537           0.369          0.515         0.369          0.515           0.369

         India                                            US$             0.150           0.150          0.150         0.150          0.150           0.150

         Japan                                            Yen             1.152        104.760           1.081       104.760          1.082        104.760

         Korea, Republic of                               US$             0.150           0.150          0.120         0.120          0.120           0.120

         Norway                                           NKR             0.382           2.000          0.295         2.000          0.311           2.000

         Philippines                                      PHP             0.101           4.531          0.095         4.531          0.095           4.531

         Sweden                                           SKR             0.516           3.700          0.482         3.700          0.482           3.700

         Switzerland                                      SFR             0.583           0.600          0.554         0.600          0.554           0.600

         Thailand                                         US$             0.040           0.040          0.040         0.040          0.040           0.040

         Turkey                                           US$             0.000           0.000          0.010         0.010          0.010           0.010

         United Kingdom                                   GBP             2.070           1.175          1.967         1.234          1.967           1.234

         United States                                    US$             3.000           3.000          3.000         3.000          3.000           3.000

         World Bank                                       US$             1.640           1.640          1.640         1.640          1.640           1.640

                                                      Subtotal           12.656                         12.425                       12.305

Non-member

         Vietnam                                          US$             0.015           0.015          0.015         0.015          0.015           0.015

                                                     Subtotal             0.015                          0.015                        0.015

                                            Total Unrestricted           12.671                         12.440                       12.320
                            IRRI-Table 9a: Member and Non-Member Unrestricted and Restricted Grants, 2008-2010

                                                                in $millions
                                                                                            Actual       Estimated     Proposal
                                    Member / Non-Member
                                                                                             2008          2009          2010


Unrestricted Grants

  Member

       Australia                                                                                 0.661         0.726        0.589

       Bangladesh                                                                                0.100         0.100        0.100

       Canada                                                                                    1.332         1.405        1.405

       China                                                                                     0.140         0.140        0.140

       France                                                                                    0.102         0.105        0.105

       Germany                                                                                   0.537         0.515        0.515

       India                                                                                     0.150         0.150        0.150

       Japan                                                                                     1.152         1.081        1.082

       Korea, Republic of                                                                        0.150         0.120        0.120

       Norway                                                                                    0.382         0.295        0.311

       Philippines                                                                               0.101         0.095        0.095

       Sweden                                                                                    0.516         0.482        0.482

       Switzerland                                                                               0.583         0.554        0.554

       Thailand                                                                                  0.040         0.040        0.040

       Turkey                                                                                    0.000         0.010        0.010

       United Kingdom                                                                            2.070         1.967        1.967

       United States                                                                             3.000         3.000        3.000

       World Bank                                                                                1.640         1.640        1.640

                                                                                Subtotal       12.656         12.425       12.305

  Non-member

       Vietnam                                                                                   0.015         0.015        0.015

                                                                                Subtotal         0.015         0.015        0.015

                                                                       Total Unrestricted      12.671         12.440       12.320

Restricted Grants
                                                                             Actual       Estimated     Proposal
                                            Member / Non-Member
                                                                              2008          2009          2010

Member

    ADB                                                                           0.994         1.607        0.917

    Australia                                                                     0.689         0.709        0.569

    Bangladesh                                                                    0.035         0.021        0.025

    Belgium                                                                       0.021         0.013        0.000

    Canada                                                                        0.065         0.000        0.000

    China                                                                         0.030         1.718        1.616

    European Commission                                                           1.752         1.861        1.616

    FAO                                                                           0.051         0.040        0.000

    France                                                                        0.251         0.364        0.258

    Germany                                                                       0.549         0.770        1.165

    IFAD                                                                          1.368         1.254        1.442

    India                                                                         0.501         0.536        0.326

    Iran                                                                          0.165         0.122        0.040

    Japan                                                                         3.560         5.793        8.477

    Korea, Republic of                                                            0.675         0.873        0.689

    Malaysia                                                                      0.019         0.040        0.000

    Philippines                                                                   0.077         0.273        0.000

    Portugal                                                                      0.058         0.291        0.200

    Rockefeller Foundation                                                        0.118         0.846        1.000

    Switzerland                                                                   0.753         1.168        1.040

    United Kingdom                                                                0.001         0.226        0.094

    United States                                                                 1.968         2.761        1.955

    World Bank                                                                    0.195         0.302        0.270

                                                                  Subtotal      13.895         21.588       21.699

Non-member

    5 Prime                                                                       0.484         0.000        0.000

    Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg                                         0.483         0.510        0.502

    Aquifer Ltd                                                                   0.030         0.000        0.000

    Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation                                             5.705        17.130       17.799
                                                                                        Actual       Estimated      Proposal
                                     Member / Non-Member
                                                                                         2008          2009           2010

Bioversity International                                                                     0.191         0.572         0.000

Cornell University                                                                           0.027         0.209         0.202

CSU                                                                                          0.000         0.118         0.109

Generation/CP                                                                                1.494         1.974         1.236

Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT)                                                           0.328         0.311         0.300

HarvestPlus/CP                                                                               0.382         0.434         0.490

Hybrid Rice Development Consortium (HRDC)                                                    0.318         0.399         0.280

ICRISAT                                                                                      0.000         0.310         0.462

IFA/IPI/PPI-PPIC                                                                             0.121         0.134         0.154

Nunza B.V.                                                                                   0.029         0.011         0.005

Others                                                                                       0.191         0.282         0.127

Pioneer                                                                                      0.000         0.366         0.263

Water & Food/CP                                                                              0.919         0.467         0.000

World Vision                                                                                 0.000         0.138         0.070

                                                                           Subtotal         10.702        23.365        21.999

                                                                    Total Restricted        24.597        44.953        43.698

                                                                       Total Grants         37.268        57.393        56.018




                                                                                        Actual       Estimated      Proposal
                              Summary and Statement of Activities
                                                                                         2008          2009           2010

                                                                        Total Grants        37.268        57.393         56.018

                                                                      Center Income         -0.714         1.100          1.100

                                                                           Revenue          36.554        58.493         57.118

                                                                    Total Investment        40.190        60.025         58.173

                                                                    Surplus (Deficit)       -3.636         -1.532        -1.055
                                      IRRI-Table 10: Allocation of Member, Non-Member Grants and Other Sources to Projects, 2008-2010
                                                                                              in $millions


                          Project                                                                                                          Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                            Member
                                                                                                                                            2008        2009        2010

Program 1: Raising productivity in rainfed environments:
                                                             Member                           ADB                                             0.243       0.349       0.000
attacking the roots of poverty
                                                                                              Bangladesh                                      0.035       0.005       0.000

                                                                                              China                                           0.020       0.029       0.016

                                                                                              European Commission                             0.698       1.016       1.016

                                                                                              France                                          0.111       0.100       0.100

                                                                                              Germany                                         0.499       0.568       0.482

                                                                                              IFAD                                            0.306       0.291       0.390

                                                                                              Iran                                            0.165       0.122       0.040

                                                                                              Japan                                           2.473       2.495       1.525

                                                                                              Korea, Republic of                              0.011       0.032       0.006

                                                                                              Philippines                                     0.046       0.039       0.000

                                                                                              Rockefeller Foundation                          0.109       0.036       0.000

                                                                                              Switzerland                                     0.000       0.140       0.111

                                                                                              United States                                   0.012       0.000       0.000

                                                             Non Member                       5 Prime                                         0.107       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation               4.112       5.680       6.807

                                                                                              Generation/CP                                   0.531       1.195       0.757

                                                                                              IFA/IPI/PPI-PPIC                                0.000       0.000       0.034

                                                                                              Others                                          0.013       0.049       0.000

                                                                                              Water & Food/CP                                 0.585       0.382       0.000

                                                             Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     4.087       3.473       3.335

                                                                                                                           Project Total     14.163      16.001      14.619
Program 2: Sustaining productivity in intensive rice-based
                                                             Member                           ADB                                             0.502       1.258       0.917
systems: rice and the environment
                                                                                              Australia                                       0.480       0.643       0.507

                                                                                              China                                           0.000       1.650       1.570

                                                                                              European Commission                             0.650       0.002       0.600
                          Project                                                                                                           Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                             Member
                                                                                                                                             2008        2009        2010


                                                                                               FAO                                             0.051       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               France                                          0.118       0.158       0.136

                                                                                               Germany                                         0.042       0.155       0.683

                                                                                               IFAD                                            0.001       0.234       0.302

                                                                                               India                                           0.101       0.236       0.026

                                                                                               Japan                                           0.582       1.419       1.969

                                                                                               Korea, Republic of                              0.485       0.543       0.423

                                                                                               Malaysia                                        0.019       0.040       0.000

                                                                                               Philippines                                     0.004       0.100       0.000

                                                                                               Switzerland                                     0.753       1.028       0.929

                                                                                               United Kingdom                                  0.001       0.042       0.011

                                                                                               United States                                   0.688       1.550       1.955

                                                                                               World Bank                                      0.195       0.302       0.270

                                                              Non Member                       5 Prime                                         0.176       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation               0.166       6.469       6.253

                                                                                               Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT)              0.019       0.011       0.000
                                                                                               Hybrid Rice Development Consortium
                                                                                                                                               0.318       0.399       0.280
                                                                                               (HRDC)
                                                                                               IFA/IPI/PPI-PPIC                                0.121       0.134       0.120

                                                                                               Others                                          0.042       0.016       0.087

                                                                                               Pioneer                                         0.000       0.366       0.263

                                                                                               Water & Food/CP                                 0.334       0.085       0.000

                                                                                               World Vision                                    0.000       0.138       0.070

                                                              Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     5.398       5.485       5.268

                                                                                                                            Project Total     11.246      22.463      22.639
Program 3: East and southern Africa: rice for rural incomes
                                                              Member                           Canada                                          0.065       0.000       0.000
and an affordable urban staple
                                                                                               European Commission                             0.056       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               IFAD                                            0.698       0.375       0.541

                                                                                               India                                           0.000       0.000       0.000

                                                                                               Japan                                           0.090       1.491       4.609
                         Project                                                                                                            Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                            Member
                                                                                                                                             2008        2009        2010


                                                                                              Korea, Republic of                               0.002       0.002       0.002

                                                                                              Portugal                                         0.058       0.291       0.200

                                                                                              Rockefeller Foundation                           0.009       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              United States                                    0.230       0.250       0.000

                                                             Non Member                       5 Prime                                          0.028       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Aquifer Ltd                                      0.030       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation                0.818       1.164       1.051

                                                                                              Others                                           0.000       0.010       0.000

                                                             Unrestricted + Other sources                                                      1.133       0.745       0.715

                                                                                                                            Project Total      3.217       4.328       7.118
Program 4: Rice and human health: overcoming the
                                                            Member                            China                                            0.000       0.002       0.005
consequences of poverty
                                                                                              India                                            0.200       0.150       0.150

                                                                                              Japan                                            0.025       0.023       0.024

                                                                                              Korea, Republic of                               0.016       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Rockefeller Foundation                           0.000       0.810       1.000

                                                                                              United States                                    0.963       0.961       0.000

                                                            Non Member                        5 Prime                                          0.013       0.000       0.000

                                                                                              Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg            0.483       0.510       0.502

                                                                                              HarvestPlus/CP                                   0.334       0.434       0.490

                                                                                              Others                                           0.000       0.153       0.040

                                                            Unrestricted + Other sources                                                       0.589       0.803       0.771

                                                                                                                            Project Total      2.623       3.846       2.982
Program 5: Rice genetic diversity and discovery: meeting
                                                               Member                         Australia                                        0.150       0.000       0.000
the needs of the future generations for rice genetic resources
                                                                                              China                                            0.010       0.011       0.015

                                                                                              European Commission                              0.058       0.106       0.000

                                                                                              FAO                                              0.000       0.040       0.000

                                                                                              France                                           0.000       0.084       0.000

                                                                                              Germany                                          0.008       0.047       0.000

                                                                                              India                                            0.200       0.150       0.150
                         Project                                                                                                         Actual     Estimated   Proposal
                                                                                          Member
                                                                                                                                          2008        2009        2010


                                                                                            Japan                                           0.333       0.313       0.313

                                                                                            Korea, Republic of                              0.143       0.278       0.240

                                                                                            United Kingdom                                  0.000       0.184       0.083

                                                                                            United States                                   0.075       0.000       0.000

                                                           Non Member                       5 Prime                                         0.072       0.000       0.000

                                                                                            Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation               0.609       3.817       3.623

                                                                                            Bioversity International                        0.191       0.572       0.000

                                                                                            Cornell University                              0.027       0.209       0.202

                                                                                            CSU                                             0.000       0.118       0.109

                                                                                            Generation/CP                                   0.741       0.405       0.160

                                                                                            Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT)              0.309       0.300       0.300

                                                                                            Others                                          0.013       0.031       0.000

                                                           Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     1.966       2.477       2.378

                                                                                                                         Project Total      4.905       9.142       7.573
Program 6: Information and communication: convening a
                                                           Member                           ADB                                             0.249       0.000       0.000
global rice research community
                                                                                            Australia                                       0.029       0.011       0.000

                                                                                            Bangladesh                                      0.000       0.016       0.025

                                                                                            Belgium                                         0.021       0.013       0.000

                                                                                            China                                           0.000       0.024       0.005

                                                                                            Japan                                           0.039       0.036       0.037

                                                                                            Korea, Republic of                              0.018       0.018       0.018

                                                                                            Philippines                                     0.027       0.134       0.000

                                                           Non Member                       5 Prime                                         0.043       0.000       0.000

                                                                                            Generation/CP                                   0.222       0.374       0.319

                                                                                            Nunza B.V.                                      0.029       0.011       0.005

                                                                                            Others                                          0.112       0.007       0.000

                                                           Unrestricted + Other sources                                                     1.299       0.919       0.883

                                                                                                                         Project Total      2.088       1.563       1.292
Program 7: Rice policy support and impact assessment for
                                                           Member                           Australia                                       0.030       0.055       0.062
rice research
Project                                                                                  Actual     Estimated    Proposal
                                         Member
                                                                                          2008        2009         2010


                                           China                                            0.000        0.002       0.005

                                           European Commission                              0.290        0.737       0.000

                                           France                                           0.022        0.022       0.022

                                           IFAD                                             0.363        0.354       0.209

                                           Japan                                            0.018        0.016       0.000

          Non Member                       5 Prime                                          0.045        0.000       0.000

                                           Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation                0.000        0.000       0.065

                                           HarvestPlus/CP                                   0.048        0.000       0.000

                                           ICRISAT                                          0.000        0.310       0.462

                                           Others                                           0.011        0.016       0.000

          Unrestricted + Other sources                                                      1.121        1.170       1.125

                                                                         Project Total      1.948        2.682       1.950

                                                                      Total Restricted     24.597      44.953       43.698

                                                    Total Unrestricted + Other sources     15.593      15.072       14.475

                                                                                 Total     40.190      60.025       58.173
      IRRI-Table 11: Internationally and Nationally Recruited Staff, 2008-2012

                                     in $millions

                     Actual         Estimated          Proposal          Plan 1          Plan 2
                      2008            2009               2010             2011            2012

NRS                           829               1048               981             981             981

IRS                           107               135                135             135             135

            Total             936           1183                  1116            1116            1116
                                       IRRI-Table 12: Currency Structure of Expenditure, 2008-2010
                                                              in millions of units and percent

                                    Actual                                Estimated                             Proposal
                                     2008                                   2009                                  2010

      Currency           Amount     $ Value     % Share       Amount       $ Value     % Share       Amount     $ Value     % Share

Others                      0.804       0.804             2       1.200        1.200             2      1.163       1.163             2

PHP                       688.141      15.499         39        708.785       14.766         25       722.961      15.062         26

USD                        23.887      23.887         59         44.059       44.059         73        41.948      41.948         72

                 Total                 40.190      100 %                      60.025      100 %                    58.173      100 %
                          IRRI - Table 13: Statement of Financial Position (SFP), 2008-2010
                                                                    in $millions


                  Assets, Liabilities and Net Assets                               2008            2009            2010

Current Assets
    Cash and Cash Equivalents                                                             28.524          18.968    13.789

    Investments                                                                            2.790           2.164     2.000

    Accounts Receivable

    - Donor                                                                                5.613           5.200     5.000

    - Employees                                                                            0.213           0.150     0.150

    - Other CGIAR Centers                                                                  0.000           0.000     0.000

    - Others                                                                               0.873           0.909     0.809

    Inventories                                                                            0.543           0.472     0.372

    Pre-paid Expenses                                                                      0.089           0.252     0.202

                                                 Total Current Assets                     38.645          28.115    22.322
Non-Current Assets
    Net Property, Plan and Equipment                                                      10.577          10.777    10.977

    Investments                                                                           22.246          21.412    21.212

    Other Assets                                                                           0.000           0.000     0.000

                                            Total Non-Current Assets                      32.823          32.189    32.189

                                                          Total Assets                    71.468          60.304    54.511
Current Liabilities
    Overdraft/Short Term Borrowings                                                        0.000           0.000     0.000

    Accounts Payable

    - Donor                                                                               23.602          16.532    12.208

    - Employees                                                                            0.000           0.000     0.000

    - Other CGIAR Centers                                                                  0.000           0.000     0.000

    - Others                                                                               1.546           0.500     0.400

    Accruals and Provisions                                                                8.939           7.422     7.108

                                               Total Current Liabilities                  34.087          24.454    19.716
Non-Current Liabilities
    Accounts Payable

    - Employees                                                                            0.000           0.000     0.000

    - Deferred Grant Revenue                                                               0.000           0.000     0.000

    - Others                                                                               0.000           0.000     0.000

                                          Total Non-Current Liabilities                    0.000           0.000     0.000

                                                       Total Liabilities                  34.087          24.454    19.716
Net Assets
    Unrestricted

    - Fixed Assets                                                                        10.577          10.777    10.977

    - Unrestricted Net Assets Excluding Fixed Assets                                      26.804          25.073    23.818

                                        Total Unrestricted Net Assets                     37.381          35.850    34.795
Restricted                                       0.000    0.000    0.000

                           Total Net Assets     37.381   35.850   34.795

             Total Liabilities and Net Assets   71.468   60.304   54.511
                        IRRI-Table 14: Statement of Activities (SOA), 2008-2010
                                                   in $millions

                                                                                        Restricted                    Total
                                                                    Unrestricted
                                                                                   Temporary   Challenge     2008     2009      2010
                                                                                               Programs
Revenue and Gains            Grant Revenue                              12.671       21.801          2.796   37.268   57.393    56.018
                             Other revenue and gains                     -0.714       0.000          0.000   -0.714    1.100     1.100
                                Total revenue and gains                 11.957       21.801          2.796   36.554   58.493    57.118
Expenses and Losses          Program related expenses                   11.479       21.480          2.796   35.755   57.035    55.098
                             Management and general expenses              6.896       0.321          0.000    7.217    7.434     7.657
                             Other losses expenses                        0.000       0.000          0.000    0.000    0.000     0.000
                                Sub Total expenses and losses           18.375       21.801          2.796   42.972   64.469    62.755
                             Indirect cost recovery                      -2.782       0.000          0.000   -2.782    -4.444   -4.582
                                Total expenses and losses               15.593       21.801          2.796   40.190   60.025    58.173
                                Net Operating Surplus / (Deficit)        -3.636      -0.000          0.000   -3.636    -1.532   -1.055
                             Extraordinary Items                          0.000       0.000          0.000    0.000    0.000     0.000
                                NET SURPLUS / (DEFICIT)                  -3.636      -0.000          0.000   -3.636    -1.532   -1.055
Object of Expenditure        Personnel                                    9.354       7.350          0.755   17.459   23.793    24.123
                             Supplies and services                        3.053       7.998          1.023   12.074   15.443    15.966
                             Collaboration/ Partnerships                  0.014       4.035          0.640    4.689   12.222    12.347
                             Operational Travel                           1.021       2.069          0.353    3.443    3.525     2.756
                             Depreciation                                 2.151       0.349          0.025    2.525    5.042     2.981
                                                           Total        15.593       21.801          2.796   40.190   60.025    58.173

								
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