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									                aPril 2008
                                                                                                                    3 Overcoming
                                                                                                                      Rule of Law
                                                                                                                    4 Institute
                                                                                                                      Mourns Elspeth
                                                                            Vol. XIV No. 1                          5 Iran: Dialogues
                                                                                                                      of Peace in
United StateS inStitUte of Peace ■ WaShington, d.c. ■
                                                                                                                    6 Snapshots
                                                                                                                    7 A “Postmortem

USIP Expands Education
                                                                                                                      Long Overdue”
                                                                                                                    8 Sudan: “The
                                                                                                                      Sheikh of

and Training Center
                                                                                                                      Creativity” and
                                                                                                                      Other Tales

Major Milestone in Professionalizing Conflict Management

                emand is high for
                   the “test batch”
                    of courses to
                    be offered at
                                                                                                                   Artist’s rendering
                   the Institute’s
                                                                                                                   of USIP’s new
                 new Education
          and Training Center
                                                                                                                   facility, including
(ETC). For a recent offering
                                                                                                                   the buildings for
on conflict management,
                                                                                                                   the Education
participants from Colombia,
                                                                                                                   and Training
Bosnia, and Sudan paid their
own way to Washington, D.C.
Employees of several federal
agencies also attended. “People
flocked here,” said Pamela Aall,
vice president for the ETC’s
domestic programs.                    resolution of conflicts among the        Four new ETC courses al-
   The ETC was established            nations and people of the world.”     ready have been piloted: Conflict
in late 2007 to provide                                                     Prevention; Peacemaking; Post-
more targeted educational             Course Offerings                      Conflict Stability Operations;
opportunities for professionals         Initially, 16 courses will be       and Combating Serious Crimes
from all stakeholder groups           offered through the ETC. They         in Post-Conflict States.
involved in conflict management       will include a mix of theory and         An essential outreach vehicle
and peacebuilding. Its                practice—with a heavy dose of         for these courses will be distance
establishment marked a                applied exercises—including case      learning via the Internet. In time,
watershed in the Institute’s          studies, simulations, and practical   all ETC courses will have an
fulfillment of its mandate from       and small group exercises. In         online component to reach much
Congress to provide “the widest       addition, each course will include    broader domestic and overseas
possible range of education           participants from a range of          audiences. The course in conflict
and training… to promote              intellectual and professional                           See Education and
international peace and the           backgrounds.                                       Training Center, page 2
  2                 Education and                            vary widely in the training
                                                             they provide their personnel.
                                                                                                     eventually house the education
                                                                                                     and professional training center.
                    Training Center                          No single entity offers joint
                                                             training to reach the entire
                                                                                                     These structures are adjacent to the
                                                                                                     Institute’s future headquarters site
                    continued from page 1                    spectrum of practitioners               at 23rd Street and Constitution
                                                             that must collaborate in such           Avenue. USIP is currently working
                                                             missions, including NGOs and            with the Navy on move-in dates.
“Billions of dollars are invested annually to                international organizations (IOs).         A major advantage of these
                                                                Experience also has taught that      buildings is their location, which
sustain our warfare capacity. Why not a significant          in addition to post-conflict work,      is directly across the street from
investment in peacefare? Improving conflict                  the U.S. and the international          the State Department and easily
                                                             community must work more ef-            accessible to the World Bank, the
management skills is a good place to start.”                 fectively to staunch the outbreak       U.S. Agency for International
—Patricia Thomson                                            of armed conflict and engage            Development, the Pentagon, and a
                                                             in effective crisis management          number of NGOs and universities.
                    analysis is already offered in           and peacemaking when violence
                    Arabic and will soon also be             breaks out. Even less training ex-      USIP’s Roots in Education and
                    available in Russian, Chinese,           ists for efforts in these areas.        Professional Training
                    Spanish, and Farsi.                         According to Institute               Since its founding, the Institute
                                                             Executive Vice President                has always had a fundamental
                    Collaboration with Different             Patricia Thomson, “A program                             See Education and
                    Organizations                            was needed in which professionals                  Training Center, page 11
                    Recent experience in Afghanistan         from government, the military,
                    and Iraq has taught the U.S.             NGOs, and IOs, as well as pre-          Core Courses
                    hard lessons about countering            professionals in the academic
                                                                                                     ■ Introduction to Conflict Prevention
                    unconventional security threats,         world, can come together and              Strategies and Operations
                    the challenge of post-conflict           receive training on core conflict
                                                                                                     ■ Introduction to Peacemaking
                    stabilization and reconstruction,        management skills, as well as best        Strategies and Operations
                    barriers to civil-military               practices in conflict prevention,
                                                                                                     ■ Introduction to Post-Conflict
                    cooperation, and the gap between         peacemaking, and state-building.          Strategies and Operations
                    identifying and applying effective       That’s exactly the gap that we’ll be
                                                                                                     ■ Sources of Conflict and Challenges
                    conflict management practices.           filling with the ETC.”                    to Global Security
                      The U.S. military, ten civilian           “There are a lot of agencies         ■ Negotiations, from Checkpoints to
                    agencies, and dozens of non-             that are already interested in the        High Politics
                    governmental organizations               types of courses we’re offering,”       ■ Third-Party Intervention and
                    (NGOs) are devoting staff                Aall added.                               Mediation
                    and resources to post-conflict              USIP has an established educa-       ■ Peacebuilding Organizations and
                    operations. These organizations          tion and training program, and            Institutions
                                                             with the mobilization of the ETC,       ■ Cultural Adaptability in
                                                             it will leverage 20 years of relevant     Peacebuilding Operations
                                                             experience, increase its portfolio of   ■ Management and Leadership in
                                                             existing courses, and expand the          Peacebuilding Operations
                                                             number of students served.              ■ Building Local Capacity: Advising,
                                                                                                       Training, and Mentoring
                                                                          Future Location
                                                                          In December 2007,          Specialized Curricula
                                                                          with the backing           ■ Rule of Law
                                                                                 of Congress,
                                                                                                     ■ Governance
                                                                                    the U.S.
                                                                                   Department        ■ Economies and Peacebuilding

                                                                                   of the Navy       ■ Social Well-Being and Social
                                                                                   agreed to
                                                                                   transfer to       ■ Religious, Ethnic, and Minority
                                                                                   the Institute
The courses offered at the Education and Training Center mirror the Institute’s    two buildings     ■ Building Safe and Secure
mandate to work across all phases of conflict.                                     that will
Overcoming Rule of                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                  while INPROL partners at the
                                                                                  Pearson Peacekeeping Centre in
                                                                                  Ottawa, Canada and the Center of

Law “Ad‑hoc‑cracy”
                                                                                  Excellence for Stability Police Units
                                                                                  in Vicenza, Italy, facilitate the other
                                                                                  two communities. INPROL also
                                                                                  includes a documents repository
USIP’s International Network to Promote the Rule                                  and a jobs board. The staff
of Law (INPROL)                                                                   regularly circulates current issue
                                                                                  alerts to members.
                                                             Some members
                                                                                      INPROL members represent 415
                                                             of USIP’s
                                                                                  organizations from 75 countries.
                                                             INPROL team
                                                                                  Members include judges, prosecu-
                                                             pose in front of
                                                                                  tors, defense attorneys, civilian
                                                             the network’s
                                                                                  police, stability police, corrections
                                                             server at USIP
                                                                                  officials, legal advisers, judicial ad-
                                                             in Washington,
                                                                                  ministrators, and academics. Mem-
                                                             DC: (l to r) Jill
                                                                                  bership is open to those who serve
                                                             Parlett, Scott
                                                                                  the field in a rule of law capacity,
                                                             Worden, Mike
                                                                                  those who have previously served
                                                             Dziedzic, Leigh
                                                                                  in the field, scholars, and others
                                                             Toomey, Teuta
                                                                                  with relevant expertise. Applicants
                                                             Gashi and Josh
                                                                                  must be nominated by an INPROL
                                                                                  member and can apply online.

     n early 2007, Sandra Day           in international development                  Scott Worden, senior rule of law
     O’Connor made the first-ever       law commented that thorough               adviser and INPROL codirector,
     posting on the “General Rule       disclosure of judges’ financial           said, “The great thing about
of Law” forum, the first Web space      conduct is required in his region.        INPROL is that it’s a platform, but
to be launched as part of the           And from Washington, D.C., a              it’s also very flexible. It’s really a tool
Institute’s International Network to    senior fellow at a legal organization     shaped by the members’ need.”
Promote the Rule of Law                 directed fellow INPROL members                              See INPROL, page 10
(INPROL), which has quickly             to a host of links.
become one of the key efforts of
USIP’s Rule of Law Center of            Overview
Innovation. “Judges in transitional     INPROL is distinct among Web-
countries often face immense            based initiatives centered on inter-
political and financial pressure to     national policy. In many instances,
issue corrupt rulings,” she wrote.      Web sites and Web portals serve as         Peace Watch (ISSN 1080-9864) is published five times a year by the
                                                                                   United States Institute of Peace, an independent, nonpartisan national
The former U.S. Supreme Court           virtual reflections of the institutions    institution established and funded by Congress to help prevent, manage,
                                                                                   and resolve international conflicts. The views expressed herein do not
justice and INPROL Advisory             that they represent. In the case of        necessarily reflect views of the Institute or its Board of Directors.
Council member then asked her           INPROL, however, the USIP-                 To receive PeaceWatch, visit our web site (; write to
colleagues in the virtual community     sponsored and hosted Web portal is         the United States Institute of Peace, 1200 17th Street NW, Suite 200,
                                                                                   Washington, DC 20036-3011; call 202-429-3832; or fax
about measures available to             the institution.                           202-429-6063. A complete archive of PeaceWatch is available at
safeguard against bribing judges.          The site features forums where
                                                                                   President: Richard H. Solomon
   The posting elicited a cluster       members may send mission-                  Executive Vice President: Patricia Thomson
of responses from around the            related queries to expert facilitators     Director of Public Affairs and Communications: Ian Larsen
                                                                                   Director of Publications: Valerie Norville
world. A professor of law at            from around the world who then             Writer/Editor: Peter C. Lyon
                                                                                   Production Manager: Marie Marr Jackson
Stockholm University stressed the       develop responses based on input           Production Coordinator: Katharine Moore
need to examine the role of money       from INPROL members and                    Photo Credits: Staff, University of Texas, AP/ Wide World Photos
laundering in this regard. Posting      documentary research. INPROL               Board of Directors
                                                                                   Chairman: J. Robinson West.
from Vietnam, the resident director     forums have been established for           Vice Chairman: María Otero.
                                                                                   Members: Holly J. Burkhalter, Anne H. Cahn, Chester A. Crocker,
of a grassroots legal development       three intersecting communities:            Laurie S. Fulton, Charles Horner, Kathleen Martinez, George E. Moose,
initiative pointed his colleagues       General Rule of Law, Police                Jeremy A. Rabkin, Ron Silver, Judy Van Rest.
                                                                                   Members ex officio:
to a Web-ready document on              Commanders, and Stability Police.          Robert M. Gates, Department of Defense;
global best practices on the subject.   USIP facilitates responses for             Condoleezza Rice, Department of State;
                                                                                   Richard H. Solomon, Institute president (nonvoting);
From Islamabad, a specialist            the General Rule of Law Forum,             Frances C. Wilson, National Defense University.
                           Institute Mourns Elspeth Rostow
                                 he U.S. Institute of Peace    Rostow as “a great scholar and
                                 lost a great friend, strong   leader and in all regards a mag-
                                 supporter, and Board leader   nificent lady.”
                           with the death on December 9,          Ambassador Sam Lewis,
                           2007, of Elspeth Davies Rostow.     president of USIP from 1987 to
                           The former board member was         1993, called Rostow “brilliant,
                           the first woman appointed to the    wise, self-effacing, and delight-
                           Institute’s Board of Directors.     ful to be with. She brought to the
                           She served as a board member        Institute’s Board much needed
                           from 1987 to 1995, as vice chair    qualities during its early years,
                           from 1989 to 1991, and as chair     and to its chairmanship an ex-
                           in 1991 and 1992.                   traordinary ability to harness big
Rostow, center,                                                egos to their task of building this
with board                                                     new, unique institution on a solid,
members                                                        enduring foundation. A fine
Chester Crocker,                                               scholar, outstanding teacher, and
left, and Father                                               dedicated student of America’s
Ted Hesburgh,                                                  political culture, Elspeth made
right, after a                                                 all those around her feel better
                                                               about themselves and their na-        Rostow received the Texas Exes
meeting of the
                             As a board member she was re-     tion. She leaves a very large hole    Distinguished Service Award at a
board in 1991.
                           nowned for her ability to commu-    in the sky.”                          2005 University of Texas football
                           nicate relevant and penetrating        Echoing Lewis’s comments,          game in front of a crowd of
                           analytical comments in remark-      Charles E. Nelson, the                nearly 80,000.
                           ably few words. At the same time,   Institute’s vice president and        (Photo: University of Texas/LBJ School of
                                                                                                     Public Affairs)
                           she demonstrated a special sense    senior counselor, called Rostow
                           of humor and was described by       “a very special friend—one
                           her daughter as “wickedly funny.”   with a tremendous sense of            a National Agenda in the 1980s.
                                                               humor. You never knew when an         In 1983–84, she lectured in 34
                           Colleagues’ Tributes                unexpected punch line was going       countries under the auspices of
                           John Norton Moore, first chair of   to come out.”                         the Fulbright Program and the
                           the Institute’s board, described                                          U.S. Information Agency.
                                                               Career                                   Until her death, Rostow
Rostow remained a vibrant and committed scholar and
                                                               In addition to her service on         served as Stiles Professor Emer-
educator until her passing.
                                                               the USIP board, Rostow had a          ita in American Studies and
(Photo: University of Texas/LBJ School of Public Affairs)
                                                               distinguished career as an inter-     Professor of Government at the
                                                               nationally renowned expert on         LBJ School.
                                                               foreign policy. She was dean of          She served as board chair dur-
                                                               the Lyndon B. Johnson School of       ing a major part of the first Gulf
                                                               Public Affairs at the University      War in 1991. In that role, she
                                                               of Texas from 1977 to 1983. Her       helped lead the way for Congress
                                                               career also included roles as the     to substantially increase the
                                                               first woman faculty member at         Institute’s funding in support of
                                                               MIT; additional teaching at Bar-      a special Middle East initiative.
                                                               nard College, Sarah Lawrence          This was the first of such special
                                                               College, Georgetown Univer-           Institute programs, with subse-
                                                               sity, American University, and        quent efforts in the Balkans, Iraq,
                                                               the University of Cambridge;          and the Philippines.
                                                               and membership on both the               In a 2006 interview, reflecting
                                                               President’s Advisory Commit-          on the end of the Cold War, she
                                                               tee for Trade Negotiations and        said, “The destruction of the Berlin
                                                               the President’s Commission for                             See Rostow, page 10
Dialogues of Peace in Islam
USIP Coordinates American Muslim Scholars’ Visit to Iran

            ohammed Abu-Nimer           their institutions,” Huda said. “I
            highlighted the intricate   found it very interesting in their
            layers of conversation      responses that religious scholars      “[T]he delegation discovered an immense degree
with his Iranian hosts. “They see       were advocates for preserving and
                                                                               of self-criticism and reflection.” —Qamar-ul Huda
the American [side of us],”             securing the human rights of Ira-
explained the USIP Jennings             nian citizens.”                        with ease, were sophisticated and
Randolph fellow, “and they don’t           Huda highlighted a prevailing       intellectually vigorous in their
go beyond that. It takes about 15       sense of national introspection in     respective fields. Law, sociology,
minutes to tell them, ‘We’re not        Iran that runs counter to stereo-      and history students—both un-
only American, but we’re also           types of that country in the U.S.      dergraduate and graduate—shared
Muslim. We’re not only Muslim           “The discussions eclipsed and          their knowledge of Western authors
American, we’re also interested in      possibly countered the negative        and grasp of contemporary thought.
peace and conflict resolution.”         Western media images of mul-              In a meeting with the Islamic
   Abu-Nimer, along with USIP           lahs dictating every thought and       Commission on Human Rights in
Senior Program Officer Qamar-ul         movement of Iranians. Rather, the      Tehran, the group learned about
Huda and a group of American            delegation discovered an immense       its substantial ongoing activities to
Muslim scholars, made a ten-day         degree of self-criticism and reflec-   protect the human rights of Ira-
visit to Iran in late 2007 to explore   tion,” Huda said.                      nians, including children, women,       Grand Ayatollah
concepts of peacebuilding in the           Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana, from       laborers, and citizens.                 Yousef Sanei has
Islamic tradition. This delegation’s    American University, commented            “We learned a great deal from        been a longtime
visit to Iran was organized by          on her experience as the sole          this commission and this unlikely       staunch critic of
USIP’s Center of Innovation in Re-      woman delegate. Recalling that         aspect of civil society in Iran,”       the Iranian
ligion and Peacemaking. The visit       she often covered up fully in public   Huda recalled. “If there’s a fatwa      government.
also tied into the efforts of the       audiences, she told of her surprise    that they feel is against some hu-
Institute’s Iran Working Group.         that quite often she was the most      man rights issues, they have the
   The Americans discovered that        covered, conservative-looking          ability to produce counter fatwas,”
beneath the prevailing frigidity of     woman around in her “long Saudi        Kadayifci-Orellana observed, de-
bilateral relations between the two     outfit.” “It was surprising for me     scribing the commission’s roots in
countries, a wellspring of intel-       to see women very vocal,” she said.    Islamic jurisprudence.
lectual ferment and yearning to         She mentioned the “very interest-         At the Academy of Sciences and
communicate with the West exists        ing dynamic” that a majority of        Humanities in Tehran, the Ameri-
on the part of the Iranian intel-       students were women and em-            cans met the “cream of the crop” of
ligentsia. “We asked about the          phasized her equal treatment as a      Tehran’s intelligentsia, Huda said.     Delegation visit
recipes of peace that exist within      woman throughout the trip.             “We had a lively debate about peace     to the UNESCO
                                                                               and conflict resolution in terms of     Chair office at
                                        Tehran                                 issues of individual rights and how     Shahid Beheshti
                                        The delegation’s initial meeting       governments treat their citizens.”      University,
                                        was a conference at Tehran’s                             See Iran, page 12     Tehran.
                                        Shahid Beheshti University
                                        on “Dialogues of Peace in                                See Iran, page 11
                                        Islam.” The American delegates
                                        presented their work and activities
                                        on conflict resolution and
                                        peacemaking and their roots in the
                                        Islamic tradition.
                                           According to Huda, who has
                                        worked as a professor of compara-
                                        tive religion, the student attend-
Grand Ayatollah Mousavi Ardebili        ees, who spoke Western languages

    Islamabad Conference
    Develops Core Skills
    Among Current and
    Future Women Leaders

    T   hat’s a man’s job!” exclaimed
        the young Pakistani woman’s
    parents when she told them her
    wish to become a civil engineer.
    They wanted her to be a doctor.
       However, she pursued a
    different course of action. Instead
    of enrolling in medical school,       Participants outside of SDPI headquarters in Islamabad.
    which her parents thought she
    had done, the aspiring young          because they often come from            loomed for the participants
    professional passed the requisite     disadvantaged backgrounds.              within greater Pakistani society.
    exams and matriculated in the         Social stigmas have barred them         The women reflected on the
    civil engineering college. She        from equal career opportunities         differences between the open
    received excellent marks first        with men. In Pakistan, literacy         and accepting dynamic of the
    semester. It was only then that       rates among women are less than         workshop where participants
    she told her parents that she         half than those of men.                 respected and supported
    planned to be an engineer—                                                    each other, and the general
    and won their support.                Overall Impressions                     disapproving attitude of
       This is just one story about       Approximately 30 women                  the society toward women
    successful Pakistani women            participated, ranging from their        professionals.
    that emerged in a recent USIP-        early twenties to early sixties,
    facilitated seminar on women’s        from cities across Pakistan. Their      Lasting Impact
    leadership in Islamabad.              careers spanned academia,               This training has the potential to
    The workshop focused on               medicine, NGOs, civil service,          impact participants’ lives in a
    strengthening participants’           media and other fields. All were        number of areas. The participants
    leadership skills such as             leaders in their organizations and      can rely on each other for support
    recognizing different conflict        sought to improve skills to             networks in a traditionally male-
    styles, how gender issues affect      achieve their professional goals        dominated society. The workshop
    negotiation, and how female           more effectively.                       helps them to understand that,
    negotiators can maximize their          Age diversity was a key factor        although they cannot control
    effectiveness in Pakistani society.   among the women. The older              currents in society around them,
    Another major discussion was on       participants, who had pushed            they can control their responses to
    gender and conflict.                  to get ahead in their careers,          criticism. Older women who have
       USIP partnered with Pakistan’s     encouraged the younger ones.            faced challenges in Pakistani
    Sustainable Development Policy        Another common theme of                 society can mentor younger
    Institute (SDPI) to bring about       discussion was the “marriage            participants. Exercises in the
    the event. This was the second        versus education” dilemma,              workshop showed that when
    such training session USIP has        in which young women must               people work collaboratively within
    facilitated with SDPI. Another        postpone marriage in order to           teams, the results are more
    training is planned for May 2008.     pursue an education.                    beneficial than just working on an
       This training and these skills       As comfortable as they were           individual basis.
    are critical for Pakistani women      inside the seminar, obstacles
A “Postmortem Long Overdue”
USIP Author Roy Gutman Reflects on Pre-9/11 U.S. Policy Failures in Afghanistan
                                                                               the Shia minority in the city. Gut-
                                                                               man writes that Niyazi declared, “If
                                                                               you oppose us, think of the dead
                                                                               people in the street that you’ve
                                                                               seen. The same will happen to you.”
                                                                                 “I think the fact that nobody
                                                                               has ever really collected a dossier
                                                                               on Niyazi over ten years later is a
                                                                               real shame,” lamented Gutman.
                                                                               “He really deserves to be the tar-
                                                                               get of capture.”
                                                                                 The story of Niyazi is one of
                                                                               many riveting episodes in Gutman’s
                                                                               new book. In a recent conversation
                                                                               with PeaceWatch, Gutman discussed
                                                                               the book’s origins, challenges in
                                                                               writing it, and the current challeng-
                                                                               ing policy situation the U.S. faces.
Journalist Roy Gutman awaits incoming stories from around the world in his       “I happened to have been
Washington, D.C., office.                                                      fascinated by Afghanistan since
                                                                               the day the Russians invaded,” said

        oy Gutman leaned across         the Hijacking of Afghanistan,          Gutman, who wrote extensively
        his desk and peered over the    which was published by USIP            about the country during the 1980s.
        rims of his glasses to          Press recently.                                       See Gutman, page 14
emphasize his point. “Has                  When the Taliban overran the
anybody else ever written about
Mullah Niyazi? There’s nothing
                                        northern Afghan city of Mazar-
                                        i-Sharif in 1998, Mullah Manon              How We Missed the Story
about the guy!” exclaimed the           Niyazi, the Taliban-appointed                       Osama bin Laden, the Taliban,
vivacious foreign editor for the        governor of the city, presided over                and the Hijacking of Afghanistan
McClatchy newspaper service.            an episode of gruesome barbarism.                           Roy Gutman
   Surrounded with books, journals      Taliban soldiers ferociously at-
such as the Harvard Law Review,         tacked members of non-Pashtun
and special reports on Afghanistan      ethnic groups in the city.
and terrorism, Gutman’s thoughts           “They seized hospitals and shot
were a world away from his              the wounded. They set up road-
Washington, D.C. office. “Mullah        blocks to prevent city dwellers from
Niyazi is one of the most interest-     fleeing and bombed and strafed
ing criminals to escape the atten-      those who escaped. People who
tion of the world that I’ve ever        were trying to bury corpses were
come across. He was a governor.         shot. And that was only the first
He was a killer. He was a Taliban,”     day,” writes Gutman. On the sec-
said Gutman, who wrote about            ond day of Niyazi’s governorship,
Niyazi in How We Missed the Story:      he used radio stations and mosque
Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, and       pulpits to sanction the killing of                        January 2008
                                                                                         352 pp. n 6 x 9 n $26.00 (cloth)
                                                                                            ISBN 978-1-601270-06-1
“I think the fact that nobody has ever really collected a dossier on                   To order, call (800) 868-8064 (U.S. only)
                                                                                                   or (703) 661-1590
Niyazi over ten years later is a real shame. He really deserves to be                       or visit our online bookstore at
the target of capture.” —Roy Gutman
                    “The Sheikh of
                                       And Other Tales from USIP Civic

                          oday is not an electricity day,”
                          the guesthouse guard said to
                          Linda Bishai and Jacki             “In Sudan, access to power now seems to come to those who
                  Wilson. The announcement was a
                  stark reminder to the two Education        wield the weapons, which causes concern to people who crave
                  and Training Center specialists of         real democracy.” —Jacki Wilson
                  the reality of life in the central
                  Sudan city of Dilling. Bicycles and        1986. The few elections the Su-         in implementing the North-South
                  donkey carts outnumber cars in the         danese have experienced resulted        peace accord. This situation also
                  town, which is eleven hours by car         in unstable governments that were       serves as a barrier for future peace
                  or bus from the bustling capital of        soon overcome by military coups.        agreements. “In Sudan, access to
                  Khartoum.                                  Thus, the Sudanese remain largely       power now seems to come to those
                     Although generators were avail-         unfamiliar with constitutional tran-    who wield the weapons, which
                  able, they were used only sporadi-         sitions of power.                       causes concern to people who crave
                  cally in the heat of the afternoon.           The legacy of the North-South        real democracy,” Wilson said.
Noted dramatist
                  “With bright sun outside, we really        conflict in the country, coupled with      Despite such obstacles, USIP has
                  didn’t need lights anyway,” Bishai         the continuing violence in Darfur,      worked in Sudan for four years to
Sharif, the
                  explained.                                 compound the situation. Sudan is        build conflict resolution capacity
“Sheikh of
                     Bishai and Wilson were in the           burdened with more than six mil-        and strengthen civil society initia-
                  Nuba Mountain town as part of              lion internally displaced persons       tives. This most recent initiative fo-
participates in
                  a series of USIP citizenship and           (IDPs), the largest number in any       cused on building civic participation
the civic
                  conflict resolution skills training        single country.                         and social cooperation through a
                  programs throughout the country.              The transition to a democratic,      variety of civic education workshops,
seminar with a
                  Such education is critical in Sudan,       representative government has been      theater sketches, and film screenings
young Sudanese
                  where people have not voted since          bedeviled by lingering complexities     in Dilling, Khartoum, and Nyala (in
                                                                                                     Darfur). A key aspect of the trip was
                                                                                                     assessing citizens’ interest in recon-
                                                                                                     ciliation mechanisms practiced in
                                                                                                     other countries.

                                                                                                     Civic Education Workshops
                                                                                                     In Khartoum, Bishai and
                                                                                                     Wilson facilitated two workshops
                                                                                                     on strengthening citizenship skills
                                                                                                     among civil society and university
                                                                                                     students. The first session brought
                                                                                                     together a diverse audience of teach-
                                                                                                     ers, education administrators, civil
                                                                                                     society activists, and media experts,
                                                                                                     in addition to a brief session with
                                                                                                     primary school children from the
                                                                                                     Sudan Children’s Parliament. Stu-
                                                                                                     dents from area universities took
                                                                                                     part in the second session.
                                                                                                        These workshops generated un-
                                                                                                     intended discussions on a number
                                                                                                     of aspects of the troubled state of
                                                                                                     schools in the country. A particular
Creativity”                                                                                                                    Children’s
Education Project in Sudan                                                                                                     at the civic
                                                                                                                               seminar in
  challenge in this regard is the focus      The exercises included decision
  on Arab-Muslim identity. Stu-              making, problem solving, and ex-
  dents who do not come from this            amination of conflict styles. Overall,
  background are “taught from a cur-         the youth were “very engaged and
  riculum that doesn’t seem to reflect       easy to work with,” recalled Bishai,
  their view of the world or generate        to the point that one student was
  hopes for the future. This has never       so involved in a role-play exercise
  been remedied,” Bishai said.               that his colleagues had to loudly and
     Furthermore, some Khartoum              collectively speak to have their own
  youth participants had classes of 60       voices heard.
  or more students, but were squeezed           In Dilling, Bishai and Wilson                                                  Voter education
  into classrooms containing 15 seats.       facilitated a conflict resolution                                                 play at the civic
  Bishai and Wilson were surprised           workshop for local sheikhs, omdas                                                 education
  to hear that such a situation could        (traditional leaders) and civil society                                           seminar in
  be found in the capital city where         members. Localized conflicts over                                                 Khartoum.
  most of the nation’s resources and         water usage and other resource-
  wealth are concentrated. “Although         based conflicts were the focus of the
  the university infrastructure in           discussion. The 25 participants had
  Khartoum presents challenges, it           traveled to Dilling from surround-
  is world-class compared to what            ing areas to participate in a “road to
  they have in other cities,” Bishai         democracy exercise.” In this exercise,
  remarked.                                  obstacles, wrong turns, and benefits
     One of the key methods in this          to democracy were mapped out in
  training was to ask the students           small working groups and then dis-
  to practice decision making and            cussed. Such challenges were placed
  discuss leadership, both elements          in a Sudanese context, including il-
  of democracy they are eager to             literacy, ethnic intolerance, and mili-
  embrace. After the seminar, partici-       tary dictatorship. The participants
  pants concurred that civic education       charted their course with markers
  should be relevant to daily life and       on large maps. Thorny public policy
  should focus on creating a positive        issues, such as proper allocation of
  link between the government and            resources, were also addressed.
  its citizens.                                 In Nyala, Bishai and Wilson co-
     The second workshop brought             ordinated with the U.N. Mission in        for this group was a simulation of a    The “democracy
  students together to learn conflict        Sudan to offer a workshop for para-       chieftaincy dispute, in which par-      map” exercise in
  resolution and citizenship skills in       legals and legal professionals. The       ticipants took on a variety of roles    Nyala, Darfur.
  preparation for the transition to de-      participants were drawn from the          in the community. The choice was
  mocracy required under the Com-            local legal community and the para-       between an established village elder
  prehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)           legal center working at the Kalma         and a younger candidate. In the
  between the North and the South.           IDP camp. A key exercise                  end, the participants decided to cre-
                                                                                       ate a two-track chieftaincy with the
                                                                                       younger candidate being the execu-
             USIP               Interactive                                            tive and the older candidate serving
                                                                                       as an adviser.
     ■ View these and other photos of Wilson and Bishai’s trip:                           Dr. Abdel Mitaal Girshab,
                                                                                       founder of the Institute for the
     ■ Order “Confronting the Truth:”                        Development of Civil Society, the
                                                                                                        See Sudan, page 13
10   Rostow                               INPROL                                   the lessons that their predecessors
                                                                                   had already learned. A second
     continued from page 4                continued from page 3                    element driving the establishment
     Wall in November 1989 fol-              Mike Dziedzic, senior program         of INPROL was the need to
     lowed by the implosion of the        officer in the Center for Post-          focus competent, trained rule
     Soviet system in August 1991         Conflict Peace and Stability             of law specialists across various
     were momentous events, the           Operations and INPROL codirec-           disciplines, including judges,
     consequences of which were dif-      tor, emphasized that the network         prosecutors, and police, on pressing
     ficult to understand at the time.”   “really does reflect an international    rule of law challenges in post-
        She recalled her anticipation     viewpoint, and not one national or       conflict countries.
     that the Soviet Union might          parochial interest.”                        Furthermore, the inter-
     fall apart. “Thanks to conversa-        Another cornerstone of the site,      national community had no
     tions with [husband and promi-       according to INPROL Rule of              preexisting method to successfully
     nent economist] Walt Rostow          Law Facilitator and Iraq and Af-         capture lessons learned in the
     on the subject,” she said, “I rec-   ghanistan Research Director Leigh        field. “It was totally ad hoc,”
     ognized … the [coming] col-          Toomey, is the ability of members to     Dziedzic explained. “It’s the
     lapse of the Soviet economy and      communicate directly and privately       ‘ad-hoc-racy’ that INPROL is
     the consequential impending          on topics of common interest.            intended to correct.”
     collapse of the Soviet Union.”          Interest in INPROL is growing
        The legacy of the Cold War        rapidly. Membership more than
     again came to light during           doubled from less than 300 at            “It’s the ‘ad-hoc-racy’ that
     Rostow’s tenure on the USIP          INPROL’s launch in March 2007 to
                                                                                   INPROL is intended to correct.”
     Board. In 1995, the Institute        780 in February 2008. The number
     published the Novikov Tele-          of visitors per month jumped from        —Mike Dziedzic
     gram, a 1946 Soviet assessment       457 at the site’s launch to 850 in
     of U.S. foreign policy that was      December. According to Worden,              In 2001, Dziedzic proposed
     considered a seminal document        the group anticipates a member-          establishing a knowledge-sharing
     for the origins of the Cold War.     ship of 2,000 to 3,000 practitioners     network to transfer lessons learned
        In the wake of this develop-      in the future. “We certainly expect      from one rule of law field mission
     ment, under Rostow’s leader-         it to grow quite a bit more than         to the next. USIP staff began by
     ship the Institute convened a        where it currently is,” he said. “This   assisting the U.N.’s Department of
     conference that included Walt        is a fantastic and really unparalleled   Peacekeeping Operations in devel-
     Rostow and prominent histo-          networking opportunity with rule of      oping its own internal network. The
     rian Arthur Schlesinger on the       law specialists,” Toomey observed.       Institute also contacted specialists
     causes of the Cold War outside                                                from the World Bank, the Euro-
     of Moscow. According to Ros-         Origins                                  pean Union, the Organization for
     tow, a key result of the meeting     USIP developed INPROL for                Security and Cooperation in Eu-
     was the opening up of Soviet         two primary reasons. First, in areas     rope, and other organizations with
     archives to foreign scholars.        where international specialists were     similar knowledge bases to gather
        Rostow left an irreplace-         working to establish rule of law pro-    background on how INPROL
     able legacy to the Institute as a    grams, there was a lack of retained      should function.
     pioneer, visionary, and scholar.     institutional knowledge about such
     Her sage guidance and steady         initiatives. Moreover, post-conflict     Successes
     leadership will be missed.           areas such as Afghanistan were be-       One strong example of INPROL’s
                                          set with high rates of turnover from     networking power came when
                                          international staff.                     a legal specialist in Afghanistan
                                             This turnover produced gaps           posted that the country was in
                                          in institutional memory and              the early stages of creating a
                                          knowledge transfer. “Reinventing         national legal training center.
                                          the flat tire” was commonplace           The practitioner wanted to know
                                          since specialists lacked access to       what other programs worldwide

                                          “This is a fantastic and really unparalleled networking opportunity
                                          with rule of law specialists.” —Leigh Toomey
might offer lessons for such an
                                         to specify police powers. The
                                         legal specialist who was deployed
                                                                                 ships with the EU, the Organiza-
                                                                                 tion for Security and Cooperation
   After the initial query, the          to the region solicited help from       in Europe, and the African Union,”
INPROL rule of law facilitator           INPROL. The responses to the            he said. “Those will be our primary
wrote to specialists worldwide           post included recommendations           customers.”
soliciting documents, such as char-      on materials and experiences from
ters and regulations, that had been
used in establishing such a training
                                         Kosovo, East Timor, and neighbor-
                                         ing African countries. The specialist
                                                                                 Education and
center. INPROL members re-
sponded enthusiastically, providing
                                         later met INPROL staff in Af-
                                         ghanistan and said that INPROL
                                                                                 Training Center
                                                                                 continued from page 2
documentation and lessons learned        had provided an essential service in
from their experience working on         assisting him to complete the task      education and training mandate
similar issues.                          and that he hoped to use INPROL         from Congress. In 1994–95, the
   In one response, a senior official    again in confronting challenges in      Institute started its first active
in justice reform at the World Bank      his new post in Afghanistan.            professional training program.
suggested that the experience of a                                               A key initiative at the time was
legal training center in Mongolia        Future Directions                       a capacity-building effort with
could provide useful background          INPROL staff have formed col-           Cambodians, whose country was
information. A key figure at the         laborative relationships with such      emerging from decades of civil
USAID Mission in Kosovo sug-             leading international entities as       strife and training U.S. military
gested that his colleagues in Af-        the Folke Bernadotte Academy of         personnel in peace operations.
ghanistan look into the work of the      Sweden, the International Bar As-          Related efforts designed to
Academy for Judicial and Prosecu-        sociation, the International Correc-    attract students to careers in
torial Training in Macedonia. A          tions and Prisons Association, and      international affairs included the
representative of the legal branch of    the International Legal Assistance      National Peace Essay Contest
the U.N. mission in Liberia pointed      Consortium.                             for high school students, and
out that the country was developing         “The fact that they’ve agreed        programs for high school
a similar legal Training entity.         to work with INPROL is explicit         teachers and university faculty.
   When INPROL team members              recognition of the value of this        In the early 1990s, the Institute
later met the staff in Kabul who         service,” Toomey said. Further          expanded its education and
had submitted the query, they            agreements are currently being ne-      training work to include programs
mentioned how helpful the site           gotiated with other leading organi-     to train practitioners in conflict
had been, particularly in providing      zations in the rule of law area.        management skills.
examples of how other legal train-          Dziedzic also reflected on the          In 1999, USIP President
ing institutes had been established      future of the network. “We an-          Richard Solomon made a request
in a variety of countries at different   ticipate working closely with the       to then Board Chairman Chester
stages of development.                   U.N. Department of Peacekeeping         Crocker to examine how USIP
   Another example of INPROL’s           Operations and the new Assistant        could better position itself in the
success came in early 2007 when          Secretary General for Rule of Law,      larger education and training
the U.N. was helping the govern-         Dmitry Titov, as well as continuing     world. The result was the concept
ment of South Sudan draft a law          to develop our working relation-        for a training center that would
                                                                                 fulfill the vision of a national
                                                                                 academy. Thomson and Aall took
 USIP              Interactive                                                   up the challenge of transforming
   Explore INPROL:                                                concept to reality. Support from
                                                                                 Congress for training civilians
                                                                                 to complement the work of the
                                                                                 military in places like Iraq and
                                                                                 Afghanistan gave momentum
                                                                                 to the effort. “Billions of dollars
                                                                                 are invested annually to sustain
                                                                                 our warfare capacity. Why not
                                                                                 a significant investment in
                                                                                 peacefare? Improving conflict
                                                                                 management skills is a good place
                                                                                 to start,” Thomson said.
12                  Iran
                    continued from page 5                   “They’re really seasoned into those two worlds: the Islamic Shiite
                                                            world and the Western world.” —Mohammed Abu-Nimer

                                                            doctorates from Western universi-       rasani, Mousavi Ardebili, and
                                                            ties and spoke two or three West-       Yousef Sanei, who have held pub-
                                                            ern languages.                          lic office and remain influential
                                                               Abu-Nimer commented on               in Iranian religious and political
                                                            the Iranians’ command of inter-         spheres. The three represented
                                                            religious subjects. “I was amazed       different positions across the po-
                                                            at the level of command these           litical spectrum, from conservative
                                                            scholars had of works from Chris-       to reformist.
                                                            tianity,” he said. “It was clear that      Khorasani spoke to the Ameri-
                                                            they wanted American Muslim             cans about the majestic presence
View of Isfahan     Qom: An Iranian                         scholars to remember the extent         of the divine in all living creatures.
and the             Intellectual Center                     of shared histories that exists         Grand Ayatollah Ardebili, the
                    The delegation next traveled to         between Islam and Christianity.         former head of the Iranian judi-
landscape of
                    Qom, a city known as a center of        They’re really seasoned into those      cial system and founder of Mofid
central Iran.
                    Shiite higher education for both        two worlds: the Islamic Shiite          University in the 1980s, stressed
                    theology and liberal arts.              world and the Western world.”           the importance of not losing focus
                       At the al-Hauza al-Ilmiyya              Mofid University in Qom of-          on establishing peace.
                    (The Seminary of Knowledge),            fers a cosmopolitan “liberal arts          Sanei is a popular scholar, activ-
                    one of the city’s preeminent theo-      education” for Iranians, Huda           ist, jurist, and philosopher known
                    logical institutions, Shia scholars     observed. It is also highly presti-     as a staunch reformist. In his talk
                    presented to the Americans their        gious, as it receives over 25,000       with the delegation, he vocifer-
                    perspective on just-war theory,         applications for less than 1,600        ously stated his opposition to
                    and used textual sources, historical    slots annually.                         suicide bombing, religious extrem-
                    evidence, and religious ethics to          The Mofid University Vice-           ism, terrorism, and fundamentalist
                    stress the importance of engaging       Provost, Dr. Nasser Ghorbannia,         movements. “Those who use reli-
                    with all leaders in order to create a   opened a university symposium           gious texts to defend violence are
                    peaceful world.                         with the delegation stating,            abusers of the faith,” he declared.
                       Huda observed that these             “There are accusations that                These encounters, according to
                    scholars view themselves as sus-        peace, equality, and fairness are       Huda, were in contrast with com-
Delegates at the                                            not compatible with the Islamic         mon notions in the U.S. of aya-
                    taining a rich intellectual tradition
courtyard of the                                            tradition. We must address these        tollahs as “stern, unapproachable
                    that respects others while being
Grand Mosque                                                statements. However, as Muslims,        figures. “They listened to each and
                    open to outside research and de-
of Isfahan.                                                 we need to deal with these is-          every word of our questions, and
                    bate. Many of the theologians
                    had already reached the status          sues seriously and simultaneously       responded very carefully. It wasn’t
                    of ayatollahs, a rank attained          engage in intrafaith dialogue to        a monologue,” he said, “It was a
                    through years of study. They held       find common ground amongst              real dialogue.”
                                                            ourselves. We need to recognize
                                                            human dignity and equality.”
 Interactive                                                   Huda noted that at Mofid Uni-
                                                            versity, students are deeply com-
                                                            mitted to using artistic expression,
 ■ View these and other photos of the Iran trip:                                 including film and poetry, to
 ■ Listen to a USIP event on the delegation in Iran:        counter both “Islamophobia” out-           side of Iran and authoritarianism
 ■ Read Dr. Huda’s complete trip report:                    within their own country. The             city’s long tradition of intellectual
 ■ USIP’s Iran Policy Forum:                                debate supports such vibrancy.                                          In Qom, the delegation also
                                                            held personal meetings with             A mural commemorating the
                                                            Grand Ayatollahs Vahid Kho-             Iran-Iraq war.
Isfahan                                  Khartoum workshops. His dynamic          questionable, and travel by car or
In Isfahan, the delegates pre-           and engaging personality animated        bus was impractical. Permission to
sented at a three-hour panel on          the participants, especially the stu-    travel to various areas was uncer-
peace discourse in Islam. More           dents. “He’s a performer, right to       tain, and red tape further hindered
than 400 students, lawyers, and          the bone. But he also really believes    movement.
community members packed                 in democratic transformation. He            Yet the opportunity to assist
the auditorium. Huda explained           has a hopeful message,” Bishai           the Sudanese with civic participa-
that many expressed their desire         observed.                                tion was uplifting. “They crave
to know more about American                 One of the themes in the play         the knowledge that someone is
culture, Muslims in America,             was about free choice in the upcom-      thinking about them, trying to help
and ways to diffuse the current          ing elections. One sketch featured a     them,” reflected Bishai.
crisis in relations between the two      local mayor threatening to use force        Added Wilson, “Sudanese local
countries. “They told us that such       against a popular and upstanding         civil society members inspire you
a conversation has not existed at        opposing candidate. The actors in        because of their commitment to
university. They loved to hear an        the play decided to vote with their      democracy. They are so anxious to
interdisciplinary approach based         conscience and reject the threats        learn and experience the full spec-
in Islamic tradition.”                   of the entrenched official, which        trum of democracy.”
   Huda and Abu-Nimer headed             resulted in their own candidate             Wilson and Bishai provided
the delegation, sponsored by             winning.                                 some overall perspectives on their
USIP and Salam Institute for                In the discussion after the play,     experience in Sudan. One is the
Peace and Justice, in Washington,        one observer expressed fear that the     unfamiliarity of democracy for most
D.C. The other delegates were            Sudanese cannot really vote their        people. “Democracy is a concept to
Kadayifci-Orellana; Karim                conscience as the reactions of those     them something like feudalism is to
Douglas Crow, a research scholar         in power can bring serious conse-        us,” Bishai said. “They understand
based in Singapore; Abd al-Hayy          quences. “Who will protect us?” the      it intellectually, but they honestly
Michael Weinman, professor of            audience asked Sharif. He replied        don’t know what it feels like.”
psychology and peacemaking at            that you have to do what you be-            Wilson reflected on the dynamic
the University of New Mexico;            lieve in, to have hope for the future.   between citizens and national lead-
and his wife Latifa Weinman,                                                      ers and the maturing of civil society.
researcher and public health             “Confronting the Truth”                  “The key to a democratic society
specialist. Professor Reza Eslami        Screening                                is a two-way relationship between
Somea, UNESCO Chair in                   In Khartoum and Nyala, Wilson            citizens and leaders. If citizens don’t
Human Rights at the Faculty              and Bishai showed the USIP-spon-         understand their role or play their
of Law at Shahid Beheshti                sored film Confronting the Truth,        role actively, the government can
University in Tehran, hosted the         which focuses on truth commissions       operate without the necessary guid-
Americans.                               in four different countries. The         ance from its citizens. The respon-
                                         film provoked differing responses.       sibility of civil society is critical to a

Sudan                                    After the Khartoum screening, the
                                         audience denied that such human
                                                                                  functioning democracy,” she said.

continued from page 9                    rights violations could take place
Institute’s local partner for these      in Sudan. Later, it became clear to      Mohammed Sharif with Bishai (l), Wilson (r), and local
programs, facilitated and served         them that Northern and Southern          Sudanese partner.
as cotrainer in the Khartoum             Sudanese could benefit from some
workshops.                               reconciliation initiatives. In Nyala,
                                         one of the participants started cry-
Theater                                  ing during the film. Viewers also
One of the most effective tools for      requested more information about
working on CPA issues in Sudan           truth commissions generally and
has been a voter education play,         discussed the appropriateness of
which Bishai commissioned. Noted         such a process for Darfur or Sudan.
Sudanese dramatist Mohammed
Sharif, known to his friends as the      Reflections
“sheikh of creativity,” wrote and        Obstacles to travel challenged
acted in the play. Sharif was a criti-   Bishai and Wilson in the country.
cal component in the success of the      The reliability of flight times was
 1              Gutman                                 small wars in which neither party          The Taliban were implacable in
                 continued from page 7                  observes the standard rules of war.        their desire to establish control
                                                           A major component of this re-           over the entire country, but they
                    Throughout his reporting career,    search examined the “war crimes            were incompetent as a fighting
                 Gutman has tried to keep tabs on       nobody had accused anybody of.”            force, relying on untrained con-
                 so-called small wars which often       He discovered that the Taliban             scripts and their conviction of
                 grow into bigger wars or conceal       record from 1997 “got worse and            divine support for their cause. Bin
                 the seeds for humanitarian disaster,   worse and worse. It was never              Laden assisted them enormously
                 ethnic cleansing, and genocide. As     put under the spotlight.” This is a        in this effort by providing trained
                 a journalist, he covered the series    unique aspect of the book. “I think        and motivated fighters who, unlike
                 of small wars that accompanied the     that’s the one element—the con-            the Taliban, were prepared to die.
                 breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.    duct of conflict—that’s missing in            With the al-Qaida assassina-
                    Subsequently, Gutman                most reporters’ war coverage.”             tion of Northern Alliance leader
                 edited the book Crimes of War,            The bigger deficiency Gutman            Ahmad Shah Massoud two days
                 which thoroughly covered the           examined was the lack of general           prior to 9/11, bin Laden did
                 Geneva conventions and similar         reporting about the internal war in        Mullah Omar a great favor. Bin
                 international agreements. Part         Afghanistan, which provided the            Laden had successfully eliminated
                 of this effort was coverage of a       platform for the emergence of al-          a significant political barrier to
                 number of small conflicts.             Qaida as a source of political power       complete political control over
                    However, Afghanistan was not        in the country. “That’s where bin          Afghanistan.
                 included in this book. In 1997,        Laden got his spurs,” Gutman said.            “Bin Laden got the Taliban to
                 regional experts viewed the conflict      The result was the book that            write enormous IOUs to al-Qa-
                 there as a localized one with no       Gutman calls a “postmortem long            ida,” Gutman said. The al-Qaida
                 wider significance. The conflict       overdue” of U.S. policy failures in        leader “got the keys to the front
                 was overlooked in policy circles in    the buildup to 9/11.                       gate. He was taking huge advan-
                 Washington.                               The book’s title originates with        tage of them.” Hence, the demand
                    But 9/11, which had been in-        the work of American journalist            that the Taliban expel bin Laden
                 cubated in Afghanistan, caught         William Shirer, who covered the            from Afghanistan, the cornerstone
                 the media, the U.S. government,        rise of Nazi Germany prior to the          of Washington’s policy aims at the
                 and other specialists off balance.     Second World War. In his book              time, was an objective most un-
                 “The ignorance about what had          The Nightmare Years: 1930-1940,            likely to be fulfilled.
                 proceeded 9/11 was staggering.         which Gutman says should be                   In the assault on Afghanistan
                 I myself was ignorant,” reflected      “required reading” for journalists,        after 9/11, Gutman argued that
                 Gutman. “I took it personally be-      Shirer confesses to missing the “big       the U.S. and Pakistan missed
                 cause I missed an opportunity at       picture” about the rise of the Nazis.      an opportunity to learn about
                 least to look at Afghanistan four         “What I found so fascinating            and exploit the differences be-
                 years earlier.”                        about [Shirer’s book] was that he          tween the Taliban and al-Qaida.
                    “Even the 9/11 Commission,          said that he missed the story.…”           Though they were allies, a chance
                 which did a creditable job in recon-   Gutman reflected. “He went back            was missed to play the two sides
                 structing the warnings before the      through his own things and decided         against each other. All were cast as
                 attacks and the lack of preparedness   ‘I really didn’t do this right. I didn’t   terrorists. As both the Taliban and
                 by many agencies, really didn’t look   ring the alarm bell well enough.’”         al-Qaida fled to the tribal areas of
                 at Afghanistan as a foreign policy                                                Pakistan, the U.S. government de-
                 debacle,” he observed.                 The First Taliban, Al-Qaida, and           manded that the Pakistani armed
                    In 2003 Gutman accepted a Jen-      the “Pakistani Taliban”                    forces use military rather than the
                 nings Randolph senior fellowship       A major facet of Gutman’s work is          classic political means of divide
                 at USIP. While at the Institute, he    exploration of the relationship be-        and rule.
                 focused his research on the study of   tween the Taliban and al-Qaida.               Such policies “have uninten-
                                                                                                   tionally driven the two groups
                                                                                                   into each other’s arms,” Gutman
                                                                                                   observed. They have fused to form
“What I found so fascinating about [Shirer’s book] was that he said that he missed                 the new group of the Pakistani
                                                                                                   Taliban, which did not exist prior
the story…. He went back through his own things and decided, ‘I really didn’t do this
                                                                                                   to 9/11. Today, they are a major
right. I didn’t ring the alarm bell well enough.’”—Roy Gutman                                      threat to Pakistani security.
                                                                               Europe or 9/11 constitute a “shift
                                                                               in tectonic plates” that occurs
“Small wars are not small wars anymore in this era. They’re                    “very, very rarely,” Gutman said.
precursors to much bigger things.” —Roy Gutman                                 He continued to explain that in
                                                                               such a moment, “Very few presi-
Role of U.N., Media, and               administration’s policies, especially   dents in our time have enough
Government                             in the runup to the Iraq war,           interest in and grasp of history
Gutman gives a mixed review of         according to Gutman.                    to realize that this is not simply
the U.N.’s performance in the             During the conversation with         a political plus for them in the
Afghan crisis. To the credit of        PeaceWatch, an emailed story came       short term but it is an existential
the international body, successive     to Gutman from a correspondent          shift of reality.” In the case of Af-
special rapporteurs for human          in Gaza. Gutman declared, “Gaza.        ghanistan, both the Clinton and
rights in Afghanistan undertook        That’s where we [American jour-         first Bush administrations made
some of the only reporting on          nalists] should be. We should be in     too little effort to understand the
the deteriorating human rights         the places where there are vacuums      complexities of the country.
situation in Afghanistan. The          of attention, where there is no            Another lesson from the book
U.N. High Commissioner for             American policy working. And,           is the centrality of U.S. foreign aid
Refugees (UNHCR) raised                of course, we should also be in the     in Afghanistan, which was cut off
the flag concerning the Mazar-         places where American policy is         in 1994. This was a major factor in
i-Sharif massacre in 1998,             working, to see how it’s working,       the rise of the Taliban. “We ceded
interviewed refugees from the          to be the watchdogs.”                   the field to the radicals. I mean
city, and sought heroically to            Gutman also faulted presidential     not providing schoolbooks and
convince reporters to look into the    administrations for the tendency to     food, not supporting these impov-
atrocities.                            blame a subordinate agency when         erished villages and not encourag-
   Yet over the course of his re-      something goes wrong. The CIA           ing and supporting Afghans who
porting, Gutman came across            is a common target in this regard,      could help Afghans help them-
signs that the UNHCR violated          he opined. “You can’t just blame an     selves,” Gutman explained, “We
its own rules and accepted the         intelligence agency. What was           basically created a vacuum, and it
forced repatriation of Afghan ci-      your policy in the region? Did it       got filled. They always do.”
vilians from Iran.                     reflect reality? These are White           A prominent view among some
   Moreover, Gutman faulted the        House decisions.”                       in Congress in the early 1990s
UNHCR for not reaching out                                                     was that the U.S. should do
to stakeholders in Washington          Lessons for U.S. Policy                 “absolutely nothing” with
and other capitals and urge            Gutman was asked whether his            respect to foreign aid. When
them to focus their attention on       book contains a message about           Congress does not provide such
atrocities. “That’s my problem         the potential consequences of a         aid, it is a “symptom of a bigger
with the whole of the coverage,”       U.S. withdrawal from Iraq. He           vacuum—a policy vacuum—
of what was then the world’s worst     explained, “The last thing that         rather than a cause in its own
humanitarian disaster, recounted       this country should want to do          right,” Gutman said.
Gutman in hindsight. “At the time      anywhere is create a vacuum while          “Small wars are not small wars
you had four million refugees,         there’s a war going on.”                anymore in this era. They’re
about two million internally              Indeed, the book contains            precursors to much bigger
displaced. You had other huge          strong implications for                 things,” Gutman said. Often
problems. Almost nothing was           multilateral diplomacy. In the          times, such smaller conflicts
being written about them.”             case of Afghanistan, the U.S.           breed terrorism and war crimes,
   But Gutman faulted the news         deferred to the “Six Plus Two           as happened during the case of
media in its own right for not do-     Group” (a U.N.-organized                Afghanistan. As a result, the
ing the most basic reporting on the    advisory body of Afghanistan’s          significance of these conflicts is
human tragedy—failing, with rare       neighbors, as well as the U.S.          magnified beyond the specific
exceptions, to interview refugees to   and Russia). However, the U.S.          region where they occur.
better document the crisis.            deferred excessively to this group,        When major powers do not
   After 9/11, the lack of             in the absence of formulating           feel that they have a stake in such
knowledge about Afghanistan            effective policy in Afghanistan.        conflicts, according to Gutman,
impeded the media’s ability to            Moments such as the 1989 col-        “that’s exactly where people like
critically report on the Bush          lapse of communism in Eastern           bin Laden see their chance.”
                 T  he following Institute publications
                    are available free of charge. They
                 can be downloaded from our Web site                                                           To order, call (800) 868-8064
                                                                                                               (U.S. only) or (703) 661-1590

                 n	 Embedded Provincial
                    Reconstruction Teams,
                                                                              from usip press
                    by Robert Perito (USIPeace Briefing,
                    March 2008)
                 n	 The Justice Dilemma in Uganda, by
                    Scott Worden (USIPeace Briefing,
                    February 2008)
                                                                                       The Madrassah Challenge
                 n Engaging the Darfur Diaspora for
                                                                                       Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan
                   Peace, by Susan Hayward                                             C. Christine Fair
                   (USIPeace Briefing, February 2008)                                  Fair explores the true significance of the

                 n	 Sudanese Universities as Sites of                                  madrassah and its role in Pakistan’s
                    Social Transformation,                                             educational system. She chronicles the
                    by Linda S. Bishai (Special Report                                 Pakistan government’s efforts to reform the
                    203, February 2008)                                                madrassah system and offers important
                 n	Toward Peace in the Southern                                        policy implications and suggestions for
                   Philippines: A Summary and                                          initiatives that might address some of the
                   Assessment of the USIP Philippine                                   main concerns emanating from ostensible
                   Facilitation Project, 2003-2007,                                    ties between education and security inside
                   by G. Eugene Martin and                                             and outside Pakistan.
                   Astrid S. Tuminez (Special Report              March 2008
                   202, February 2008)                      180 pp. n 6 x 9 n $14.95
                 n	Pakistani Public Opinion on              ISBN 978-1-60127-028-3
                   Democracy, Islamist Militancy, and
                   Relations with the U.S., by
                   C. Christine Fair, Clay Ramsay, and
                   Steve Kull (Working Paper,
                                                                                       Arab-Israeli Peace
                   February 2008)                                                      American Leadership in the Middle East
                 n	 Facing the Abyss: Lebanon’s                                        Daniel C. Kurtzer and Scott B. Lasensky
                    Deadly Political Stalemate, by                                     The authors offer a compelling, interests-based
                    Mona Yacoubian (USIPeace                                           framework for American engagement in the
                    Briefing, February 2008)                                           peace process; provides a critical assessment of
                 n	Religion in World Affairs: Its Role                                 U.S. diplomacy since the end of the Cold War;
                   in Conflict and Peace, by                                           and offers a set of ten core “lessons” to guide
                   David Smock (Special Report 201,                                    the efforts of future American negotiators.
                   February 2008)
                                                                                       “A well-reasoned, realistic study setting out what
                                                                                       works and what does not in this distinctive
                     For more information about these         April 2008 n 210 pp.     diplomatic arena. Today’s leadership (and
                     and other resources, visit the           5 1/4” x 8” n $16.50     tomorrow’s) could usefully build on the lessons
                     Institute’s Web site at   ISBN 978-1-60127-030-6     presented here.” —Foreign Affairs

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