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									          Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and
            Waste Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
    Reference Code: GBINE0049ICR                                                                          Publication Date: January 2011

                                    The global nuclear power industry has grown significantly in recent years. Reducing carbon
                                    emissions and the increasing need for cleaner fuels are the prime reasons for this growth. The
                                    nuclear regulations in each country adhere to the various protocols and agreements set up by the
                                    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and play an important role in the formulation of the
                                    nuclear energy policy. They also help in deciding the facilities for nuclear installations, maintenance
                                    and operations, sustaining international co-operation with different countries and managing the
                                    radioactive wastes.
                                    Carbon Emission Reduction Protocol to Play an Important Role in Nuclear Policies
                                    Formulation
                                    The need to reduce carbon emissions, as stipulated by the recent energy conventions and
                                    protocols, has forced many countries to opt for cleaner technology for power generation. Nuclear
                                    energy is one of the beneficiaries of the Kyoto protocol. The pressing need to reduce carbon
                                    emissions has forced countries to strengthen their nuclear programs and formulate policies which
                                    favor the development of nuclear power.
                                    Improved Nuclear Waste Disposal Policy Instrumental in Revitalizing the Nuclear Industry
                                    The nuclear industry suffered from the infamous Chernobyl and Three Mile Incidents, and was
                                    considered unsafe after them. Also the radioactive waste of nuclear fuel was considered as
                                    hazardous. However,the improved measures in disposing of nuclear fuel waste through direct
                                    disposal and nuclear fuel reprocessing have helped nuclear energy to regain support. The careful
                                    handling of nuclear waste and the strict regulations for managing the radioactive waste have
                                    helped nuclear power to be considered as a safe and clean power.
                                    Most countries either use large repository or reprocessing of the fuel to dispose of the nuclear
                                    waste. The following table shows the list of countries and their differing ways for disposing of
                                    radioactive waste.

                                     Nuclear Waste Policies in Different Countries
                                     Country                                 Nuclear Waste Policy
                                     Belgium                                 Reprocessing
                                     Canada                                  Direct disposal
                                     China                                   Reprocessing
                                     Finland                                 Direct disposal
                                     France                                  Reprocessing
                                     Germany                                 Reprocessing
                                     India                                   Reprocessing
                                     Japan                                   Reprocessing
                                     Russia                                  Reprocessing
                                     South Korea                             Direct disposal
                                     Spain                                   Direct disposal
                                     Sweden                                  Direct disposal
                                     Switzerland                             Reprocessing
                                     UK                                      Reprocessing
                                     US                                      Direct disposal
                                     Source: GBI Research , WNA




Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and Waste                                                 GBINE0049ICR /Published JAN 2011
Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
                                                                                                                                       Page 1
                                                                        © GBI Research. This is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied
                                    Nuclear Non- Proliferation Makes Way for Peaceful and Non-Power Applications
Nuclear Energy is used in
non-power applications              In its early years, nuclear energy was considered dangerous due to the havoc it created in World
such as transport,                  War II. After the world war, the nuclear energy was seen as a source to generate power, but the
medicines and space                 nuclear accidents aggravated the danger associated with the nuclear power. The use of nuclear
exploration                         energy for military purposes challenged the advantages associated with it. Nuclear non proliferation
                                    by almost all countries has helped in using nuclear energy in a better and peaceful way.
                                    Nuclear energy is used in transport applications, in medicines and in industries as radioisotopes, in
                                    space exploration programs, in nuclear desalination, in nuclear heat process and in other research
                                    programs.
                                    Nuclear Agencies and Associations Subservient in Promoting Global Nuclear Energy
                                    The formation of various nuclear agencies and associations has made sure that peaceful use of
                                    nuclear energy is promoted as far as possible. Nuclear treaties have also played an important role
                                    in advancing nuclear energy in all parts of the world. Most of the countries in the world now belong
                                    to either one of the organizations or one of the nuclear treaties. The following table shows the list of
                                    the various nuclear organizations and nuclear treaties with the number of member countries.

                                     Nuclear Treaties /Organization and their members
                                     Organization/ Treaty                                                       Number of Member countries
                                     International Atomic Energy Agency                                                                     151
                                     Nuclear Suppliers Group                                                                                 46
                                     Nuclear Energy Agency                                                                                   28
                                     European Atomic Energy Community                                                                        27
                                     Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty                                                                       189
                                     Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty                                                                          153
                                     Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreement                                                            140
                                     Source: GBI Research




Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and Waste                                                   GBINE0049ICR /Published JAN 2011
Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
                                                                                                                                         Page 2
                                                                          © GBI Research. This is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied
                                    1 Table of Contents
                                    1 Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................ 3
                                      1.1    List of Tables..................................................................................................................... 7
                                      1.2    List of Figures ................................................................................................................... 8
                                    2 Global Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks ...................................................................................... 9
                                      2.1    Report Guidance ............................................................................................................... 9
                                    3 Global Nuclear Power Industry .................................................................................................. 10
                                      3.1    Global Nuclear Power, Overview .................................................................................... 10
                                      3.2    Global Nuclear Power, Major Agencies and Associations .............................................. 12
                                         3.2.1    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) ............................................................ 12
                                         3.2.2    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) .............................................................................. 12
                                         3.2.3    Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) ................................................................................ 13
                                         3.2.4    European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) ................................................ 13
                                         3.2.5    World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) ................................................... 13
                                      3.3    Global Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols ..................................................... 14
                                         3.3.1    Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) ................................................................... 14
                                         3.3.2    Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) .............................................................. 14
                                         3.3.3    Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) ................................................................ 14
                                         3.3.4    Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreement ......................................................... 14
                                      3.4    Global Nuclear Power, Parametric Comparison, By Country .......................................... 14
                                    4 Asia-Pacific Nuclear Policies and Regulations .......................................................................... 17
                                      4.1    Asia-Pacific Nuclear Power, Overview ............................................................................ 17
                                      4.2    Asia-Pacific Nuclear Power, Major Governing Councils and Associations ...................... 18
                                         4.2.1    Forum for Nuclear Corporation in Asia (FNCA) ....................................................... 18
                                         4.2.2    Council for Security Co-operation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) ..................................... 18
                                         4.2.3    Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC) ................................................................................. 18
                                      4.3    Asia-Pacific Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols ............................................. 19
                                      4.4    Armenia Nuclear Power Market ...................................................................................... 19
                                         4.4.1    Armenia, Nuclear Power Overview .......................................................................... 19
                                         4.4.2    Armenia, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................ 20
                                         4.4.3    Armenia, Nuclear Energy Policy .............................................................................. 21
                                         4.4.4    Armenia, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations...................................................... 22
                                         4.4.5    Armenia, Major Nuclear Affiliations .......................................................................... 22
                                      4.5    China Nuclear Power Market .......................................................................................... 23
                                         4.5.1    China, Nuclear Power Overview .............................................................................. 23
                                         4.5.2    China, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................... 24
                                         4.5.3    China, Nuclear Energy Policy .................................................................................. 25
                                         4.5.4    China, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ......................................................... 25
                                         4.5.5    China, Major Nuclear Affiliations.............................................................................. 26
                                      4.6    India Nuclear Power Market ............................................................................................ 26
                                         4.6.1    India, Nuclear Power Overview ............................................................................... 26
                                         4.6.2    India, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ..................................................................... 27
                                         4.6.3    India, Nuclear Energy Policy.................................................................................... 29
                                         4.6.4    India, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ........................................................... 29
                                         4.6.5    India, Major Nuclear Affiliations ............................................................................... 29
                                      4.7    Japan Nuclear Power Market .......................................................................................... 30
                                         4.7.1    Japan, Nuclear Power Overview ............................................................................. 30
                                         4.7.2    Japan, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................... 31
                                         4.7.3    Japan, Nuclear Energy Policy.................................................................................. 32
                                         4.7.4    Japan, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ......................................................... 32
                                         4.7.5    Japan, Major Nuclear Affiliations ............................................................................. 33
                                      4.8    Pakistan Nuclear Power Market ...................................................................................... 34
                                         4.8.1    Pakistan, Nuclear Power Overview ......................................................................... 34
                                         4.8.2    Pakistan, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ............................................................... 35


Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and Waste                                                                        GBINE0049ICR /Published JAN 2011
Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
                                                                                                                                                                        Page 3
                                                                                     © GBI Research. This is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied
                                         4.8.3    Pakistan, Nuclear Energy Policy.............................................................................. 36
                                         4.8.4    Pakistan, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ..................................................... 36
                                         4.8.5    Pakistan, Major Nuclear Affiliations ......................................................................... 37
                                      4.9    South Korea Nuclear Power Market ................................................................................ 37
                                         4.9.1    South Korea, Nuclear Power Overview ................................................................... 37
                                         4.9.2    South Korea, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ......................................................... 38
                                         4.9.3    South Korea, Nuclear Energy Policy ....................................................................... 39
                                         4.9.4    South Korea, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ............................................... 39
                                         4.9.5    South Korea, Major Nuclear Affiliations ................................................................... 39
                                      4.10 Taiwan Nuclear Power Market ........................................................................................ 40
                                         4.10.1 Taiwan, Nuclear Power Overview............................................................................ 40
                                         4.10.2 Taiwan, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................. 41
                                         4.10.3 Taiwan, Nuclear Energy Policy ................................................................................ 42
                                         4.10.4 Taiwan, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ....................................................... 42
                                         4.10.5 Taiwan, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................... 43
                                    5 Europe Nuclear Policies and Regulations ................................................................................. 44
                                      5.1    Europe Nuclear Power, Overview ................................................................................... 44
                                      5.2    Europe Nuclear Power, Major Agencies and Associations ............................................. 45
                                         5.2.1    EURATOM Supply Agency (ESA) ........................................................................... 45
                                         5.2.2    World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI) ............................................................... 45
                                         5.2.3    International Nuclear Safety Centre (INSC) ............................................................. 45
                                      5.3    Europe Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols .................................................... 45
                                      5.4    Belgium Nuclear Power Market....................................................................................... 46
                                         5.4.1    Belgium, Nuclear Power Overview .......................................................................... 46
                                         5.4.2    Belgium, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................ 47
                                         5.4.3    Belgium, Nuclear Energy Policy .............................................................................. 48
                                         5.4.4    Belgium, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ...................................................... 48
                                         5.4.5    Belgium, Major Nuclear Affiliations .......................................................................... 49
                                      5.5    Bulgaria Nuclear Power Market ...................................................................................... 49
                                         5.5.1    Bulgaria, Nuclear Power Overview .......................................................................... 49
                                         5.5.2    Bulgaria, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................ 50
                                         5.5.3    Bulgaria, Nuclear Energy Policy .............................................................................. 51
                                         5.5.4    Bulgaria, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ...................................................... 51
                                         5.5.5    Bulgaria, Major Nuclear Affiliations .......................................................................... 52
                                      5.6    Czech Republic Nuclear Power Market .......................................................................... 52
                                         5.6.1    Czech Republic, Nuclear Power Overview .............................................................. 52
                                         5.6.2    Czech Republic, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................... 53
                                         5.6.3    Czech Republic, Nuclear Energy Policy .................................................................. 54
                                         5.6.4    Czech Republic, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .......................................... 54
                                         5.6.5    Czech Republic, Major Nuclear Affiliations .............................................................. 55
                                      5.7    Finland Nuclear Power Market ........................................................................................ 56
                                         5.7.1    Finland, Nuclear Power Overview ........................................................................... 56
                                         5.7.2    Finland, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................. 57
                                         5.7.3    Finland, Nuclear Energy Policy................................................................................ 58
                                         5.7.4    Finland, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ....................................................... 58
                                         5.7.5    Finland, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................... 58
                                      5.8    France Nuclear Power Market ........................................................................................ 59
                                         5.8.1    France, Nuclear Power Overview ............................................................................ 59
                                         5.8.2    France, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................. 60
                                         5.8.3    France, Nuclear Energy Policy ................................................................................ 60
                                         5.8.4    France, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ........................................................ 61
                                         5.8.5    France, Major Nuclear Affiliations ............................................................................ 61
                                      5.9    Germany Nuclear Power Market ..................................................................................... 62
                                         5.9.1    Germany, Nuclear Power Overview ........................................................................ 62
                                         5.9.2    Germany, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .............................................................. 63

Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and Waste                                                                GBINE0049ICR /Published JAN 2011
Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
                                                                                                                                                            Page 4
                                                                                 © GBI Research. This is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied
                                         5.9.3    Germany, Nuclear Energy Policy............................................................................. 64
                                         5.9.4    Germany, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .................................................... 64
                                         5.9.5    Germany, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................ 64
                                      5.10 Russia Nuclear Power Market......................................................................................... 65
                                         5.10.1 Russia, Nuclear Power Overview ............................................................................ 65
                                         5.10.2 Russia, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................. 66
                                         5.10.3 Russia, Nuclear Energy Policy ................................................................................ 66
                                         5.10.4 Russia, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ........................................................ 66
                                         5.10.5 Russia, Major Nuclear Affiliations ............................................................................ 67
                                      5.11 Spain Nuclear Power Market .......................................................................................... 68
                                         5.11.1 Spain, Nuclear Power Overview .............................................................................. 68
                                         5.11.2 Spain, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................... 69
                                         5.11.3 Spain, Nuclear Energy Policy .................................................................................. 70
                                         5.11.4 Spain, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .......................................................... 70
                                         5.11.5 Spain, Major Nuclear Affiliations .............................................................................. 70
                                      5.12 Sweden Nuclear Power Market....................................................................................... 71
                                         5.12.1 Sweden, Nuclear Power Overview .......................................................................... 71
                                         5.12.2 Sweden, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................ 72
                                         5.12.3 Sweden, Nuclear Energy Policy .............................................................................. 72
                                         5.12.4 Sweden, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ...................................................... 73
                                         5.12.5 Sweden, Major Nuclear Affiliations .......................................................................... 73
                                      5.13 Ukraine Nuclear Power Market ....................................................................................... 74
                                         5.13.1 Ukraine, Nuclear Power Overview ........................................................................... 74
                                         5.13.2 Ukraine, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ................................................................. 75
                                         5.13.3 Ukraine, Nuclear Energy Policy ............................................................................... 75
                                         5.13.4 Ukraine, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations....................................................... 76
                                         5.13.5 Ukraine, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................... 76
                                      5.14 UK Nuclear Power Market............................................................................................... 77
                                         5.14.1 UK, Nuclear Power Overview .................................................................................. 77
                                         5.14.2 UK, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ........................................................................ 78
                                         5.14.3 UK, Nuclear Energy Policy ...................................................................................... 78
                                         5.14.4 UK, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .............................................................. 79
                                         5.14.5 UK, Major Nuclear Affiliations .................................................................................. 79
                                    6 Middle East and Africa Nuclear Policies and Regulations ......................................................... 80
                                      6.1    Middle East and Africa Nuclear Power, Overview ........................................................... 80
                                      6.2    Middle East and Africa Nuclear Power, Major Agencies and Associations ..................... 81
                                      6.3    Middle East and Africa Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols ............................ 81
                                      6.4    Iran Nuclear Power Market ............................................................................................. 81
                                         6.4.1    Iran, Nuclear Power Overview ................................................................................. 81
                                         6.4.2    Iran, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ....................................................................... 81
                                         6.4.3    Iran, Nuclear Energy Policy ..................................................................................... 82
                                         6.4.4    Iran, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ............................................................. 83
                                         6.4.5    Iran, Major Nuclear Affiliations ................................................................................. 83
                                      6.5    South Africa Nuclear Power Market ................................................................................ 84
                                         6.5.1    South Africa, Nuclear Power Overview .................................................................... 84
                                         6.5.2    South Africa, Nuclear Regulatory Framework.......................................................... 85
                                         6.5.3    South Africa, Nuclear Energy Policy ........................................................................ 85
                                         6.5.4    South Africa, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ............................................... 86
                                         6.5.5    South Africa, Major Nuclear Affiliations ................................................................... 86
                                    7 South and Central America Nuclear Policies and Regulations .................................................. 87
                                      7.1    South and Central America Nuclear Power, Overview .................................................... 87
                                      7.2    South and Central America Nuclear Power, Major Agencies and Associations .............. 88
                                         7.2.1    Ibero-American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Regulatory Agencies
                                                  (FORO) .................................................................................................................... 88



Nuclear Regulatory Frameworks - Fuel Processing and Waste                                                                       GBINE0049ICR /Published JAN 2011
Disposal Policies Critical for Industry Growth
                                                                                                                                                                      Page 5
                                                                                     © GBI Research. This is a licensed product and is not to be photocopied
                                            7.2.2 South American Congress of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)
                                                  ................................................................................................................................ 88
                                      7.3    South and Central America Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols ..................... 88
                                      7.4    Argentina Nuclear Power Market .................................................................................... 89
                                         7.4.1    Argentina, Nuclear Power Overview ........................................................................ 89
                                         7.4.2    Argentina, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .............................................................. 90
                                         7.4.3    Argentina, Nuclear Energy Policy ............................................................................ 90
                                         7.4.4    Argentina, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations.................................................... 91
                                         7.4.5    Argentina, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................ 91
                                      7.5    Brazil Nuclear Power Market........................................................................................... 92
                                         7.5.1    Brazil, Nuclear Power Overview .............................................................................. 92
                                         7.5.2    Brazil, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................... 93
                                         7.5.3    Brazil, Nuclear Energy Policy .................................................................................. 93
                                         7.5.4    Brazil, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .......................................................... 94
                                         7.5.5    Brazil, Major Nuclear Affiliations .............................................................................. 94
                                      7.6    Mexico Nuclear Power Market ........................................................................................ 95
                                         7.6.1    Mexico, Nuclear Power Overview ............................................................................ 95
                                         7.6.2    Mexico, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .................................................................. 96
                                         7.6.3    Mexico, Nuclear Energy Policy ................................................................................ 97
                                         7.6.4    Mexico, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations........................................................ 97
                                         7.6.5    Mexico, Major Nuclear Affiliations ............................................................................ 97
                                    8 North America Nuclear Policies and Regulations ...................................................................... 98
                                      8.1    North America Nuclear Power, Overview ........................................................................ 98
                                      8.2    North America Nuclear Power, Major Agencies and Associations .................................. 99
                                      8.3    North America Nuclear Power, Major Treaties and Protocols ......................................... 99
                                      8.4    Canada Nuclear Power Market ....................................................................................... 99
                                         8.4.1    Canada, Nuclear Power Overview ........................................................................... 99
                                         8.4.2    Canada, Nuclear Regulatory Framework .............................................................. 100
                                         8.4.3    Canada, Nuclear Energy Policy ............................................................................. 101
                                         8.4.4    Canada, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations .................................................... 102
                                         8.4.5    Canada, Major Nuclear Affiliations ........................................................................ 102
                                      8.5    US Nuclear Power Market............................................................................................. 103
                                         8.5.1    US, Nuclear Power Overview ................................................................................ 103
                                         8.5.2    US, Nuclear Regulatory Framework ...................................................................... 104
                                         8.5.3    US, Nuclear Energy Policy .................................................................................... 105
                                         8.5.4    US, Key Nuclear Policies and Regulations ............................................................ 105
                                         8.5.5    US, Major Nuclear Affiliations ................................................................................ 105
                                    9 Appendix ................................................................................................................................. 106
                                      9.1    Methodology ................................................................................................................. 106
                                         9.1.1    Coverage .............................................................................................
								
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