Incidence and epidemiology of Mesothelioma Before 1960, the existence of mesothelioma as a distinct pathological entity was still debated. Nowadays, about 70-80 % of case of mesothelioma are associated with documented asbestos exposure and there are report that cases due to exposure in buildings with asbestos insulation seem to be extremely rare, so mesothelioma or malignant mesothelioma now are well recognized as being associated with asbestos exposure. There are many information about the incidence of mesothelioma which are conflicts. The variation of the data still depend on the chance to expose asbestos in that population Some data suggest that about 3000-4000 new cases of mesothelioma are seen annually in the United States and the annual incidences increase by 3 fold for males and 1.5 fold for females compared with unexposed population. Some data suggest that the incidence of malignant mesothelioma shows marked variations from one country to another. Example, the incidence of mesothelioma in Australia is 30 case per million while the incidence of mesothelioma in Cyprus is 9 case per million. In many countries, the incidence data are not available so to estimate the incidence the researchers use the mortality rate instead. In some data, the incidence is estimated from the experiences of researchers and physicians who operate that research. But in the information that match together, the incidence of mesothelioma is geographical different according to the regional difference of industrial activity and the type of asbestos that use in that activity or production. Malignant mesothelioma is seen more commonly in male than in female. Furthermore, the incidence increase with age and the mean of age at clinical presentation is greater than 60 years because mesothelioma has long latency period to develop disease and clinical presentation. The risk of mesothelioma is greater in people who work in the mine, ship yards or associated with those places. However, mesothelioma has been reported as a consequence of household exposure among family members of asbestos workers ship yards workers and in young adults as a consequence of household or neighborhood exposure. The number of asbestos-exposed people rose throughout most of the 20th century as a result of increased mining and the use of asbestos. Despite a large number of exposed people, Mesothelioma is a cancer that is still fairly rare compared to other cancer.