; SEPARATION OF MATTER
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SEPARATION OF MATTER

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 15

  • pg 1
									 SEPARATION OF MATTER
                • Matter is separated into
                  three states: SOLID,
THE ATOMIC - LIQUID, & GAS.
 MOLECULAR
 THEORY OF • Matter can also be broken
  MATTER     down into distinct
                  materials, each category
                  representing a specific type
                  of material. A flow chart
                  will show the linking of
                  these types of materials.
The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
            *definitions*
• Matter : occupies space and has weight.
• Energy : the ability to do work

• Materials: a particular type of matter, generic term.

• Mixture: has variable composition, can be separated by
  physical methods.

• Heterogeneous mixture: has properties which vary from
  region to region, can be separated into a homogeneous
  mixture or a substance.

• Homogeneous mixture: uniform properties throughout,
  also called a solution. Can be separated into
  substances.
The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
    THE MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

                                        MATTER                Separated by physical
       Separated by physical
       methods                                                methods


                    HOMOGENEOUS                        HETEROGENEOUS
                      MIXTURE                             MIXTURE
                       (Solution)
  Separated by physical methods

                         PURE
                       SUBSTANCE


       COMPOUNDS                      ELEMENTS
                       Separated by chemical methods
The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
         A “microscopic” view
   The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
• (Pure) substance: a material which can not be separated
  by physical methods into 2 or more materials which have
  different characteristics.
• Compounds: a material containing two or more elements or
  molecules.
• Molecules: the smallest grouping which a substance can be
  divided into without forming a new substance, a group of 2 or
  more atoms held together by strong forces called "bonds".
• Atoms: the smallest particle of matter which has distinctive
  chemical characteristics, generic term, composed of a nucleus
  surrounded by electrons.
• Elements: a specific substance which can not be decomposed
  into simpler substances by chemical means, an atom with a
  specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
     THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER


                            ATOMS
                        ELEMENTS


                   NUCLEUS               ELECTRONS
                                        (negative particle)
                                                   -


       PROTONS                NEUTRONS
     (positive particles)    (neutral particles)
              +
The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
 • Nucleus: the small positively charged kernel,
   composed of protons and neutrons.

 • Protons: a positively charged particle, has a mass =
   1.67 x 10-27 kg or 1 amu (atomic mass unit) usually
   symbolized as H+ or p+.

 • Neutrons: neutral particles with the same mass as the
   proton, contributes weight but no charge.

 • Electrons: a negatively charged particle, has a mass
   = 9.1 x 10-31 kg (1/1837 amu) usually symbolized as e-.
   The Atomic-Molecular Theory of Matter
• Physical properties: characteristics of a material which
  may be determined without altering the composition of the
  material; bp (boiling point), mp, color, density etc., no
  change in the chemical identity occurs.

• Chemical properties: characteristics of a material which
  involves altering the composition of the material, the ability
  to form new substances by decomposition or reactions
  with other substances. A rearrangement of the atoms.

• Phase: a sample of matter that is uniform throughout,
  both in its chemical composition and its physical state.

• Chemical Bonds: the attractive forces, “ the glue”, strong
  enough to maintain a group of atoms together for an
  indefinite amount of time.
Physical Changes:
The substance or mixture does not alter in atomic
composition. Some Physical Changes are boiling,
evaporation, condensation, freezing, melting,
sublimation, and deposition.
Associated with Physical Changes are Physical
Properties like boiling or freezing point, density,
hardness, and state of matter.
                    H2O (l)  H2O (g)

Chemical Changes:
The substance changes in its atomic composition, the
atoms are rearranged and new substances are formed.
              2 H2O (l)  2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)
•Chemical structure: the position and geometry of the atoms in a molecule.
                       ANALYSIS OF MATTER


                                          MATTER

                                          Is it uniform?
                    YES                                         NO
               HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE                HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE
                                                         blood, soil


                    Can it be separated
                   by physical methods?
 YES                                               NO
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE              PURE SUBSTANCE
 saltwater, rubbing alcohol


                                Can it be decomposed into
                                simpler substances using
                                   chemical methods?

                          YES                              NO
                                COMPOUND          ELEMENT
                                  water            carbon
              PRACTICE PROBLEMS #4
1. Classify the following as an element, compound, or mixture
   (heterogeneous or homogeneous).
                                      E
• _____ air
     HO                                   _____ oxygen
• _____ tin can
    E                                     _____ sugar
                                           C

• _____ Windex
   HO                                      HE
                                          _____ crude oil
• _____ suntan lotion
   HE                                      HO
                                          _____ gummi bear
2. A white solid is dissolved in water.  The resulting colorless, clear liquid
   is boiled in a beaker until dryness. White crystals remain in the beaker.
                                        Homogeneous mixture
   The liquid can be classified as a(n) ______________.

3. Classify the following as physical or chemical changes.
                                               CC
• _____ photosynthesis
    CC                                      _____ baking
• _____ writing with pencil
    PC                                         PC
                                            _____ snowing

								
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