Pediatric Neurology for Pediatric Residents
I Pediatric Inpatient Team
II Pediatric Neurology Elective
III Learning Goals and Objectives
IV Resident Assessment
V Recommended Reading and Resources
I - PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY INPATIENT TEAM
Pediatric Conferences and Didactics
The goals of a pediatric neurology inpatient team include:
1. Improved care and coordination of pediatric neurology patients
2. Increase pediatric neurology knowledge base for pediatric residents
3. Encourage pediatric resident interest in pediatric neurology
4. Support pediatric resident involvement in the care of pediatric neurology
5. Provide a coordinated effort on the behalf of the Pediatric and Neurology
departments in reaching the above stated goals
The Pediatric Inpatient team model will include:
1. Pediatric ward resident (PWR) from the Grey Team
a. One familiar with the patients on the pediatric neurology consult
service. If possible, an upper level resident and intern should attend.
2. Neurology resident rotating on the pediatric neurology
a. Team leader, unless there is a pediatric neurology resident rotating on
3. Medical student (if rotating on the service)
4. Pediatric Neurology resident when on service
5. Pediatric Neurology Attending
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Legarda, 0900- 0900- 0900- 0830- 0900- See See
Santos, 0930 0930 0930 0930 0930 below below
Daily walk rounds will be held from 9 to 9:30am. Prior to that, consult rounds will be
done by the Adult Neurology/Pediatric residents on service from 8:30 to 9am, or as
designated by the pediatric neurology attending. In the event that the pediatric neurology
attending is unable to attend rounds at 9am, the PWR resident will round with the
Pediatric team leader (Adult/Pediatric Neurology resident). In the case that the Pediatric
Neurology attending is not at 9am rounds, he or she will be available by phone during
that time for questions regarding more acute care needs.
On weekends, the attending will see and write progress notes on the child neuro service
patients. He/She will also communicate the "plan" to the covering pediatric resident.
The pediatric resident will be responsible for the progress notes on these days and should
pre-round on child neuro service patients. If the pediatric resident is unable to attend
rounds, then the patient can be staffed by phone. Pre-rounding and notes will still be
Extended Rounds will be held at least every other week. This may include an 830AM
Child Neurology case presentation of a current inpatient.
All team members will meet following Pediatric AM Report, 2PHC.
PEDIATRIC INPATIENT CONFERENCES AND DIDACTICS
Pediatric AM Report will be attended at least every other week by the rotating Pediatric
Neurology Attending. This will be an inpatient case based conference at 830am on
Thursdays. The PWR resident is expected to attend AM report as per Pediatrics.
Pediatric resident will contact pediatric neurology attending for involvement. Scheduled
dates will appear on the Pediatric Neurology monthly calendar.
Pediatric and Neurology Grand Rounds
Pediatric residents and staff will be invited to all Neurology Grand Rounds (Thursday 8-
9am) when the topic is Pediatric Neurology. Similarly, Neurology residents and staff
will be invited to all Pediatric Grand Rounds (Friday 8-9am) when the topic is Pediatric
Combined Pediatric and Neurology Noon Conferences
Pediatric and Neurology resident lectures will be the 3rd Thursday of each month from
12 to 1pm in the DNCR. Topics as per schedule. TBA.
A topic will be discussed weekly during the Thursday extended rounds. This will be
prepared by one of the pediatric neurology inpatient team members. Format is expected
to be informal.
II - PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY ELECTIVE
The goals of a pediatric neurology outpatient elective include:
1. Broaden pediatric neurology knowledge base - inpatient and outpatient
2. Exposure to common outpatient pediatric neurology problems
3. Improve ability to perform a pediatric neurology exam
4. Increase comfort level managing common pediatric neurology complaints
5. Understand which patients require referrals to Pediatric Neurology
Part of the Pediatric Inpatient team
See Inpatient team for details pertaining to rounding and lectures
1. Round with inpatient team
2. Consults when needed
a. Pediatric Resident on elective is the primary contact person for
b. Continue to follow patient on team
c. Progress notes
a. Help improve communication with pediatric inpatient team
b. Facilitates ordering of pediatric EEGs and EMU transfers
Primary focus of this rotation is the outpatient experience
1. Clinic Schedule
a. If not following an inpatient consult, then attend Pediatric Neuro
clinic. If following an inpatient consult, round with team and then
report to clinic.
b. See monthly Pediatric Neurology Calendar for Clinic Schedule
i. Lists attending, location, and times for all Pediatric Neurology
2. Clinic Responsibilities
a. New Patients
i. Perform history and general physical exam
ii. Review prior records and studies
iii. Neurology exam
1. Shadow, then perform with attending, then perform
a. Pre and post-rotation neuro exam check list
iv. Present patient and discuss differential diagnosis, assessment,
1. Include summary statement with pertinent neurological
v. Dictate or type letter to referring physician
1. Route to pediatric neurology attending
b. Established Patients
i. Obtain Interval History
1. verify medications
2. review labs and studies
ii. Exam, presentation, and notes as above for "New Patients"
III - LEARNING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Pediatric Neurology for the Pediatric Residents
Inpatient and Outpatient
A. Perform a neurological history, examination, and developmental evaluation of
children of all ages.
a. View and study this web site on the neurologic examination up to age 2 ½:
b. See the attached “Summary of the Neurologic Exam”
c. See the attached “cheat sheet” of developmental milestones
B. Understand and employ the concept of anatomical localization of neurologic
symptoms and deficits.
a. Differentiate between upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor
neuron (LMN) dysfunction by using the distribution of strength, muscle
bulk, muscle tone, fasciculations, sensory changes, reflex change
i. List components of the motor unit
ii. Differentiate tone from strength
iii. Define spasticity
b. Differentiate between UMN and LMN facial weakness
c. Differentiate sensory disorders secondary from peripheral nervous system
lesions ( radiculopathy, mononeuropathy, brachial plexopathy) versus
from central lesions (recognize cortical sensory loss, spinal sensory level)
d. During the evaluation of the comatose patient, define and localize:
i. Decorticate vs decerebrate posturing
ii. Pupillary abnormalities (e.g. pinpoint, “blown” pupil)
iii. Vestibuloocular reflexes (“Dolls eyes”)
iv. Discuss how these findings help determine structural vs metabolic
cause, bihemispheric vs brainstem lesions
v. Know herniation syndromes
C. Demonstrate knowledge of cardinal manifestations of neurologic disease
a. Many of the below learning objectives are addressed by the “Pedi Neuro
b. Core neurology topics will be discussed in conferences and didactics.
i. Distinguish seizures from non-epileptic events e.g. jitteriness,
breath-holding spells, night terrors, gastroesophageal reflux,
neonatal sleep myoclonus, pseudoseizures
ii. Describe the evaluation and management of new-onset seizure, and
understand epidemiological basis of decision-making (i.e. risk
factors for recurrence)
iii. Plan the initial therapy for status epilepticus
iv. Know the medications that can be administered rectally to treat
v. Know the possible etiologies of status epilepticus: infection, toxin,
electrolyte imbalance, drug withdrawal
vi. Plan the initial therapy for neonatal seizures
vii. Discuss the possible etiologies and evaluation of neonatal seizures
viii. Be aware of common side effects of antiseizure medications,
including Phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, lamotrigine,
ix. Be aware of treatment options for refractory epilepsy
x. Discuss evaluation and management of febrile seizures
xi. Know the risk factors associated with febrile seizures related to
xii. Recognize the epilepsy syndrome of benign rolandic epilepsy
(“benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes”)
xiii. Recognize the epilepsy syndrome of absence epilepsy, its
differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment
xiv. Be able to differentiate absence and complex partial seizures
xv. Recognize the characteristic clinical picture of infantile spasms
xvi. Know the natural history and prognosis of infantile spasms: risk of
developmental delay/regression and later epilepsy
xvii. Recognize the epilepsy syndrome of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
xviii. Recognize Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
i. Know the clinical characteristics of tension-type and migraine
ii. Discuss abortive and prophylactic management of migraine
iii. Know the elements of history that characterize a headache due to
increased intracranial pressure and other signs/symptoms of
iv. Know the signs and symptoms of a headache that indicate a need
for follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging or CT scan
d. Altered Consciousness/Trauma
i. Define lethargy, coma
ii. Diagnose brain death in children and the persistent vegetative state
iii. Recognize clinical characteristics of “non-accidental trauma” or
“shaken baby syndrome” and discuss evaluation and differential
diagnosis (e.g. bleeding diathesis, osteogenesis imperfecta, glutaric
iv. Know the role of pharmacologic therapy in acute spinal cord or
e. Infectious or Post-Infectious Neurologic Disorders
i. Know the presenting signs, symptoms, and differential diagnosis of
ii. Know the complications of Guillain-Barre syndrome
iii. Know the possible presentations (e.g. optic neuritis, transverse
myelitis) and differential diagnosis of ADEM (acute disseminated
iv. Know the presenting signs, symptoms, and differential diagnosis of
cerebellitis (i.e. other causes of acute cerebellar ataxia and vertigo)
v. Discuss the causes and presentation of congenital intrauterine
infections (TORCH), including herpes and its time of presentation
and mode of transmission
vi. Know the 3 most frequent organisms in neonatal meningitis
vii. Know the epidemiology, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of
meningoencephalitis. Recognize the CSF findings in herpes
viii. Recognize the CSF findings in bacterial (including Lyme) and
viral meningitis. Know the complications of bacterial meningitis.
ix. Know that most abscesses contain multiple organisms, including
x. Know that neuroimaging studies should be done before
examination of the CSF in suspected brain abscesses
xi. Know the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of infant
xii. Know the presentation of Sydenham’s chorea, as well as
relationship to diagnosis of rheumatic fever, and treatment
f. Genetic/Metabolic Syndromes
i. Recognize the historical features indicative of a degenerative CNS
ii. Know the typical presentations and diagnosis of Wilson’s disease
and Menkes’ disease
iii. Recognize the potential infectious presentation of galactosemia
iv. Recognize the common presentation of a urea cycle defect
v. Recognize the common presentation and evaluation of a
vi. Recognize the presentation and mode of transmission of
mitochondrial disorders (e.g. Kearns-Sayre, MERRF, MELAS)
vii. Know the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Rett syndrome
g. Movement Disorders
i. Know the definition, types, and evaluation of cerebral palsy
ii. Know the presentation of kernicterus
iii. Differentiate between tics and epileptic seizures; know when to
treat tics; understand the diagnostic criteria for Tourette syndrome
iv. Recognize opsoclonus-myoclonus and discuss possible etiology
h. Neuromuscular Disorders
i. Know the differential diagnosis of weakness and an increased
serum creatine kinase concentration
ii. Know the laboratory studies available to diagnose muscle disease
iii. Know the presentation, diagnosis, and mode of transmission of
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
iv. Know the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of
v. Recognize the presentation and diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy
vi. Recognize the symptoms, signs, and evaluation of myasthenia
i. Identify primitive reflexes and know age of onset and
ii. Understand the definition/purpose of an individualized educational
iii. Know the diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity
iv. Be aware of the current consensus regarding evaluation of global
i. Identify the clinical manifestations and plan the diagnostic
evaluation of spinal dysraphism; know the various types and
ii. Discuss the presentation of Arnold-Chiari Type I and association
iii. Discuss types of cerebral malformations, including cortical
dysplasias (e.g. lissencephaly), Dandy-Walker malformation, and
iv. Know diagnosis and further evaluation of septo-optic dysplasia
v. Know diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome
k. Neurocutaneous Disorders
i. Know the clinical characteristics of tuberous sclerosis
ii. Know the clinical characteristics of neurofibromatosis type I and
potential complications, including neoplasms
iii. Know the clinical characteristics and complications of Sturge-
i. Recognize complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts
ii. Be aware that brain and spinal cord tumors are the 2nd most
common group of neoplasms in children (1st leukemia) and know
the usual location in children (infratentorial)
iii. Identify the clinical features of childhood stroke including
iv. Recognize the signs and symptoms of and plan treatment for Bell
v. Know the clinical difference between papilledema and optic
Goals Based on Core Competency Teaching
I. PATIENT CARE
1. Interview patients more skillfully.
2. Examine patients more skillfully.
3. Improve neurological localization skills.
4. Accurately diagnose pediatric neurological disorders requiring inpatient
5. Effectively manage the patient with acute neurological illness including
appropriate drug therapy and non-pharmacologic treatments.
6. Define and prioritize pediatric patients' neurological and medical problems.
7. Appropriately select and interpret pertinent laboratory and imaging studies.
8. Improve technical skills like performing lumbar puncture
9. Effectively implement long-term medical care of the pediatric neurology patient.
10. Improve clinical ability to anticipate, prevent, and treat neurological
complications of medical and surgical conditions.
11. Improve efficiency of care in the hospital setting.
II. MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE
1. Improve basic neurological knowledge base.
2. Expand clinical knowledge base regarding common pediatric neurologic problems
requiring inpatient admission. This includes but not limited to AIDP, myasthenia
gravis and exacerbation, multiple sclerosis exacerbation, acute seizures and status
epilepticus, status migrainosus, meningitis/encephalitis, and stroke in children.
3. Improve understanding of evaluation and diagnostic testing for common pediatric
4. Expand knowledge of potential interventions to anticipate and prevent future
complications relative to the patient's illness.
5. Assess and critically evaluate current medical information and scientific evidence
relevant to patient illness.
III. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING AND IMPROVEMENT
1. Identify and acknowledge gaps in personal knowledge and skills in the care of
hospitalized patients with pediatric neurological illness.
2. Develop and implement strategies for filling in gaps in knowledge and skills.
IV. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND COMMUNICATION
1. Communicate effectively with patients and families
2. Communicate effectively with physician colleagues at all levels, especially
regarding effective written communications.
3. Communicate effectively with all ancillary care personnel involved in the care of
the patient to ensure comprehensive and timely care.
4. Present patient information concisely and clearly, verbally and in writing.
5. Teach colleagues and medical students effectively.
1. Demonstrate respect, compassion and integrity when dealing with patients and
2. Demonstrate sensitivity and respect for patients' age, culture, race, gender and
3. Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles of providing or withholding care,
patient confidentiality and informed consent, and business practices.
4. Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional duties including
punctuality, reliability, chart maintenance and independent learning and
5. Demonstrate professional respects for superiors, colleagues, students and all
members of the health care team.
VI. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE
1. Understand and utilize the multidisciplinary resources necessary to care optimally
for patients in the outpatient setting.
2. Collaborate with other members of the health care team to assure comprehensive
3. Use evidence-based, cost-conscious strategies in the care of outpatients.
4. Understand the long-term consequence of patient care in relation to the
individual's socioeconomic status.
IV. PEDIATRIC RESIDENT ASSESSMENT
1. Neurology Exam Checklist
a. Pre and Post Rotation Exam Assessment
Notation of pertinent general exam findings ____ ____
E.g. HC, dysmorphic features, anterior fontanelle, flattening of occiput, cardiac
abnormalities, hepatosplenomegaly, cutaneous lesions
Notation of Mental Status ____ ____
E.g. Orientation, alertness, language, detailed MS exam if pertinent
Cranial Nerves ____ ____
II: funduscopic exam, visual fields, visual acuity, blink reflex
III, IV, VI: conjugate movements, strabismus, extraocular movements, ptosis
V: sensation, corneal reflex
VII: facial strength
VIII: hearing, nystagmus
IX/X: palate elevation, gag
XI/XII: sternocleidomastoid strength, tongue
Motor ____ ____
Tone (e.g. traction response, horizontal/vertical suspension, limb tone)
Motor development if pertinent
Gait ____ ____
E.g. weight-bearing, toe, heel, tandem walking, Romberg sign
Coordination ____ ____
E.g. dysmetria on reaching for toys, FNF or HKS, rapid alternating movements
Reflexes ____ ____
I.e. DTRs, primitive reflexes e.g. Moro, Tonic neck, Propping, Parachute
Sensory ____ ____
E.g. cries with, localizes, purposefully withdrawals to stim; spinal level;
Dorsal column modalities (vibration, proprioception), LT, temperature
Exam Observed by Attending _________________________ (signature)
Suggestions/Areas to Focus On ___________________________________
2. Core Competency Teaching and Evaluation for Pediatric Resident rotating
on Pediatric Neurology Inpatient Team or Pediatric Neurology Elective
Competency Educational Activity Evaluation/Assessment/Feedback
1. Patient Care Clinical teaching rounds Neurological Exam Checklist
Outpatient Clinic Monthly rotation evaluations
Multi-disciplinary rounds Verbal feedback
Conferences and Didactics
Subspecialty AM Report
2. Medical Knowledge Clinical teaching rounds Monthly rotation evaluations
Outpatient clinic Verbal feedback
3. Practice-Based Clinical teaching rounds Monthly rotation evaluations
Learning and Outpatient clinic Verbal Feedback
Development Case-related conferences: Written feedback for presentation
4. Interpersonal and Clinical teaching rounds Monthly rotation evaluations
Communication Skills Outpatient clinic Verbal feedback
Interactions with students,
residents, and ancillary staff
Effectiveness of charting and
5. Professionalism Clinical teaching rounds Monthly rotation evaluations
Outpatient clinic Verbal feedback
Interactions with patients,
families, students, residents,
faculty, and ancillary staff
Timely completion of medical
Attendance for rounds, AM
6. Systems-based Clinical teaching rounds Monthly rotation evaluations
Practice Outpatient clinic Verbal feedback
Multi-disciplinary rounds and
V - RECOMMENDED READING AND RESOURCES
1) Obtain a copy of Clinical Pediatric Neurology, Fenichel. Topics to review prior
to inpatient or outpatient rotation:
a. Neurologic abnormalities of the newborn
b. Ataxia of childhood
c. Movement disorders
2) Basic articles, “cheat-sheets” and summary tables, as well as several classic
3) Excellent websites include:
a. www.neuro.wustl.edu/neuromuscular (specifics of essentially all
b. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim (search for neurogenetic disorders based on
signs or symptoms)
c. www.genetests.org (listings of genetic testing and facilities that perform
them for neurogenetic disorders, also links to reviews of those disorders)
(videos of a pediatric neurologist examining children up to age 2 ½)
4) Pre and post rotation - pediatric neuro exam
5) Textbook References:
Fenichel, Gerald. Clinical pediatric neurology A signs and symptoms approach.
Swaiman, Kenneth. Pediatric neurology Principles and practice.
Zitelli, Basia. Atlas of Pediatric Diagnosis (Neurology Chapter).
6) Contact Numbers:
Cesar C. Santos, MD
Chief, Division of Pediatric Neurology
CONTENTS OF LEARNING MATERIALS
1) “SUMMARY of the Neurologic Exam”
2) SUMMARY of how to differentiate upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron
3) Cheat-sheet of developmental milestones
4) Summary of Seizure Types and Medications
5) Status Epilepticus Algorithm
a. Friedman MJ. Seizures in Children. Pediatr Clin N Am 2006, 53:257-77.
b. Olson, D. Paroxysmal Events. Differentiating Epileptic Seizures from
Nonepileptic Spells. Consultant for Pediatricians 2008; 461-69.
c. Zupanc ML. Neonatal seizures. Pediatr Clin N Am 2004; 51:961-978.
d. Breningstall GN. Breath-holding spells. Pediatr Neurol 1996;14:91-97.
e. Hirtz D et al. Practice parameter: Evaluating a first nonfebrile seizure in
children. Neurol 2000;55:616-623.
f. Hirtz D et al. Practice parameter: Treatment of the child with a first
unprovoked seizure. Neurol 2003;60:166-175.
g. Tables and summaries: Antiseizure medications by seizure type, AEDs
dosing and side effects, Diastat dosing
h. Algorithm - Status Epilepticus
i. Jarrar RG and Buchhalter JR. Therapeutics in pediatric epilepsy, part 1:
the new antiepileptic drugs and the ketogenic diet. Mayo Clin Proc
j. Buchhalter JR and Jarrar RG. Therapeutics in ped epilepsy, part 2:
epilepsy surgery and vagus nerve stimulation. Mayo Clin Proc
k. Hirtz DG. Febrile seizures. Pediatr Rev 1997;18:5-8.
l. Practice Parameter: the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a first
simple febrile seizure. Pediatr 1996;97:769-772.
m. Baumann RJ and Duffner PK. Treatment of children with simple febrile
seizures: the AAP practice parameter. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23:11-17.
n. Summary of status epilepticus treatment protocol
o. Holmes GL and Riviello JJ. Midazolam and Pentobarital for Refractory
Status Epilepticus. Pediatr Neurol 1999;20:259-264.
p. Riveiello, J et al. Practice Parameter: Diagnostic assessment of a child
with status epilepticus. Neurology 2006; 67: 1542-1550.
q. Hrachovy, R Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy with Hypsarrhythmia
(Infantile Spasms/West Syndrome). J Clin Neurophys 2003; 20(6):408-
7) Headache, Alteration of Consciousness
a. Hershey, A, et al. Headaches. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007; 19: 663-669.
b. Lewis, DW, et al. Practice parameter: Evaluation of children and
adolescents with recurrent headaches. Neurol 2002; 59: 490-498.
c. Lewis, DW, et al. Practice parameter: Pharmacological treatment of
migraine headache in children and adolescents. Neurol 2004; 63:2215-
d. Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports. Neurol
e. Chapter on Coma and its causes.
f. Schneider S and Ashwal S. Determination of brain death in infants and
children. Swaiman K ed, Pediatric neurology Principles and practice.
8) Infectious or Post-Infectious Neurologic Disorders
a. Evans OB and Vedanarayanan V. Guillain-Barre syndrome. Pediatr Rev
b. Jones CT. Childhood autoimmune neurologic diseases of the central
nervous system. Neurol Clin 2003;4:
c. Chapter on Ataxia
d. Wubbel L and McCracken GH. Management of bacterial meningitis:1998.
Pediatr Rev 1998;19:78-84.
e. Bonthius DJ and Karacay B. Meningitis and encephalitis in children: an
update. Neurol Clin 2002;20:
f. Fenichel GM. Assessment: neurologic risk of immunization: report of the
therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American
Academy of Neurology. Neurol 1999;52:1546-1552.
9) Genetic and Metabolic Syndromes
a. Dagli, A, Zori, R, Heese, B. Testing Strategy for Inborn Errors of
Metabolism in the Neonate. Neoreviews 2008; 9(7):e291-298.
b. Chapter on Psychomotor Retardation and Regression.
10) Movement Disorders
a. Wolf, D, Singer H. Pediatric movement disorders: an update. Curr Opin
b. Dooley, J. Tic Disorders in Childhood. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006; 13:
11) Neuromuscular Disorders
a. Bodensteiner, J. The Evaluation of the Hypotonic Infant. Semin Pediatr
Neurol 2008; 15:10-20..
b. Chapters of Floppy Infant Syndrome causes and Flaccid Limb Weakness
c. Algorithm for Hypotonia and Weakness
d. Table Etiology of Infantile Hypotonia.
a. Shevell M et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of child with global
developmental delay. Neurol 2003;60:367-380.
b. Palmer FB and Capute AJ . Pediatr Rev 1994;15:473-479.
c. Taft LT. Cerebral palsy. Pediatr Rev 1995;16:411-418
d. Summary, Practice parameter: Diagnostic Assessment of a Child with
e. Johnson C, Myers, S. Identification and Evaluation of Children with
Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics 2007; 120(5): 1183-1215.
a. Chapter on Disorders of Cranial Volume and Shape.
14) Neurocutaneous Disorders
a. Dahan, D, Fenichel, G, El-Said, R. Neurocutaneous Syndromes. Adolesc
Med 2002;13(3): 495-509.
a. Rivkin MJ and Volpe JJ. Strokes in children. Pediatr Rev 1996;17:265-
b. Table. Suggested diagnostic laboratory evaluation in children who have
arterial ischemic stroke.
c. Seidman, C, Kirkham, F, Pavlakis, S. Pediatric Stroke. Curr Opin Pediatr
2007, 19: 657-662.
16) Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
a. Roland, E and Hill, A. Clinical Aspects of Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic
Brain Injury. Semin Pediatr Neur 1995: 2(1); 57-71.
b. Abend, N and Licht, D. Predicting outcome in children with hypoxic
ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008: 9(1); 32-39.
17) Brain Tumors
a. Partap, S and Fisher, P. Updated on new treatments in childhood brain
tumors. Curr Opin Pediatr 2007: 19: 670-674.
b. Pollack IF. Brain tumors in children. New Eng J Med 1994;331:1500-
Note: Books are available in my office and can be signed out at anytime. Please
remember to complete the sign out card at the back of each book and leave it on my desk.