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Library Automation Challenges for the Next Generation

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					           Library Automation Challenges
           for the Next Generation


                            Marshall Breeding
                            Director for Innovative Technologies and Research
                            Vanderbilt University
                            http://staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/breeding
Tuesday 26 August 2008      http://www.librarytechnology.org/
Tias building, room TZ 9)
Abstract
   As libraries shift toward collections of ever higher proportions of digital content,
    automation systems must likewise take a new form. This lecture will review the current
    state of library automation systems and the business climate among the companies that
    provide them.
   Recent rounds of industry consolidation resulted in an uncomfortable narrowing of
    products from the traditional automation vendors. A harsh business climate contributed
    to the rise of the open source movement which has introduced a new dynamic in the
    marketplace. Open source library automation has now entered the mainstream, with
    support options available from a new breed of companies. Traditional automation
    vendors face new competition. Libraries themselves have also become involved through
    initiatives to produce open source products, contributing new alternatives to the mix.
   A new generation of library interfaces has begun to emerge that promise to put a
    modern face on the library’s collections and services on the Web. Libraries also demand
    better tools for managing electronic resources behind-the-scenes, fueling demand for
    electronic management systems. In broader terms, the molds of the library automation
    systems in place today were cast decades ago.
   The presentation will explore the characteristics that a generation of library automation
    systems built anew for today’s libraries moving forward would embrace.
Part I.
Broad Industry and
Product Trends
               Upheavals
                    Industry Consolidation
                    Abrupt transitions for major library
                     automation products
                    Increased industry control by external
                     financial investors
                    Demise of the traditional OPAC
                    Frustration with ILS products and vendors
                    Open Source alternatives hit the
                     mainstream

Breeding, Marshall: Perceptions 2007 an international survey of library automation.
http://www.librarytechnology.org/perceptions2007.pl January 2008.
LJ Automation System
Marketplace
   Annual Industry report published in Library
    Journal
   2008:   Opportunity out of turmoil
   2007:   An industry redefined
   2006:   Reshuffling the deck
   2005:   Gradual evolution
   2004:   Migration down, innovation up
   2003:   The competition heats up
   2002:   Capturing the migrating customer
             ILS Industry in Transition

                 Consolidation through mergers and
                  acquisitions have resulted in a fewer
                  number of players; larger companies
                 Uncomfortable level of product
                  narrowing
                 Increased ownership by external
                  interests
                 Yet: Some companies and products
Breeding, Marshall “Automation system marketplace 2008: Opportunity Out of Turmoil”

                  continue on solid ground
Library Journal. April 1, 2008.
Library Automation M&A
History
Product and Technology
Trends
   Innovation below expectations
   Conventional ILS less tenable
   Proliferation of products related to e-
    content management
   New genre of discovery-layer
    interfaces
Web 2.0 / Collaborative
Computing
   Currently implemented ad hoc
   Many libraries putting up blogs, wikis, and
    fostering engagement in social networking
    sites
   Proliferation of silos with no integration or
    interoperability with larger library Web
    presence
   Next Gen: Build social and collaborative
    features into core automation components
Part II. A Mandate for
Openness
Opportunities for
Openness
   Open Source
    – Alternative to traditionally licensed software
   Open Systems
    – Software that doesn’t hold data hostage
   Open Content
    –   Open access platforms for scholarly content
    –   Institutional Repositories
    –   Bibliographic Services (OpenLibrary)
    –   Open content communities for tags, cover art,
        reviews (LibraryThing)
Open Source Alternatives

   Explosive interest in Open Source
    driven by disillusionment with current
    vendors and near-evangelical
    promotion of this software licensing
    model
   Beginning to emerge as a practical
    option
   TOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still
    roughly equal to proprietary
A result of industry
turmoil
   Disruptions and business decisions to
    narrow options have fueled the open
    source movement
   Benefit to libraries in having additional
    options
   Traditionally licensed and open source
    ILS alternatives will coexist in the ILS
    arena
Open Source ILS enters the
mainstream
   Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS
    shifting into one where open source
    alternatives fall in the mainstream
   Off-the-shelf, commercially supported
    product available
   Still a minority player, but gaining
    ground
Open Source ILS options

   Koha
    – Commercial support from LibLime
   Evergreen
    – Commercial support from Equinox
      Software
   OPALS
    – Commercial support from Media Flex
   NewGenLib
    – Open Source ILS for the developing world
        Business case for Open
        Source ILS
           Comparative total cost of ownership
           Evaluate features and functionality
           Evaluate technology platform and
            conceptual models
           Are they next-generation systems or
            open source version of legacy models?

“Making a Business Case for Open Source ILS.” Marshall Breeding,
Computers in Libraries March 2008
http://www.librarytechnology.org/ltg-displaytext.pl?RC=13134
Software Development
Models
   How do companies approach software
    development:
    – Ongoing maintenance work on existing
      products (enhancement requests, bug
      fixes)
    – R&D toward future products (capital
      investment)
    – Sponsored Development: contracted
      custom development paid for by
      individual sites, code shared with current
Observations on Open
Source ILS
   Current Open Source ILS products similar in modular
    organization and functionality to existing systems. Evolving to
    achieve the same level of features and capacity present in
    established commercial systems.
   Initial wave of Open Source ILS commitments happened in
    the public library arena. Recent activity among academic
    libraries:
     – WALDO Consortium (Voyager > Koha)
     – University of Prince Edward Island (Unicorn > Evergreen)
   Do the current open source ILS products provide a new model
    of automation, or an open source version of what we already
    have?
   JISC – SCONUL study did not show strong interest in open
    source ILS in the UK.
Impact of Open Source
ILS
   Library automation industry cannot be
    complacent
   Some libraries moving from
    traditionally licensed products to open
    source products with commercial
    support plans
   Disruption of ILS industry
    – new pressures on incumbent vendors to
      deliver more innovation and to satisfy
More Open Systems

   Pressure for traditionally licensed
    products to become more open
   APIs (Application Programming
    Interfaces) let libraries access and
    manipulate their data outside of
    delivered software
   A comprehensive set of APIs
    potentially give libraries more flexibility
    and control in accessing data and
A Continuum of
Openness
            Closed Systems

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer   No
                                                              access:    programmable
                                                                         Access to the
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                system.
  modules:
                                                                         Captive to the
                                                                         user
Data Stores:
                                                                         Interfaces
                                                                         supplied by the
                                                                         developer

  Staff Interfaces:
            Standard RDBM Systems

  End User                                                               Database
  Interfaces:                                                            administrators
                                                                         can access data
                                                            Programmer
                                                                         stores involved
                                                              access:
                                                                         with the system:

  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                Read-only?
  modules:                                                               Read/write?

Data Stores:                                                             Developer
                                                                         shares database
                                                                         schema


  Staff Interfaces:
            Open Source Model

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:

                                                                         All aspects of
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                the system
  modules:                                                               available to
                                                                         inspection and
Data Stores:                                                             modification.




  Staff Interfaces:
            Open API Model

  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:    Core
                                                                         application
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                closed.
  modules:
                                                                         Third party
                             Published APIs                              developers
Data Stores:
                                                                         code against
                                                                         the published
                                                                         APIs or
                                                                         RDBMS tables.
  Staff Interfaces:
            Open Source / Open API
            Model
  End User
  Interfaces:

                                                            Programmer
                                                              access:    Core
                                                                         application
  Functional          Cataloging Circulation Acquisitions                closed.
  modules:
                                                                         Third party
                             Published APIs                              developers
Data Stores:
                                                                         code against
                                                                         the published
                                                                         APIs or
                                                                         RDBMS tables.
  Staff Interfaces:
Depth of Openness

   Evaluate level of access to a products data
    stores and functional elements:
    – Open source vs Traditional licenses
   Some traditional vendors have well
    established API implementations
    – SirsiDynix Unicorn (API available to authorized
      customer sites that take training program)
    – Ex Libris: consistent deployment of APIs in major
      products, recent strategic initiative: “Open
      Platform Program”
    – Innovative Interfaces: Patron API
Universal open APIs?
   Some progress on API to support discovery layer interfaces,
    but no comprehensive framework yet.
   Many industry protocols work like APIs:
     – Z39.50, SRU/W, NCIP, OAI-PMH, OpenURL, etd
   It would be ideal if there were an open set of APIs that were
    implemented by all automation system products.
     – Third party components and add-ons would then work across all
       products.
   DLF ILS-Discovery Interface protocol. Targets interoperability
    between ILS and new genre of interfaces
            AKA: Berkeley Accords
Opportunity out of the
Upheavals
   More options
    – Commercial + Open Source
   More vendors
    – New open source support companies provide
      new competition
   More library involvement
    – Libraries re-energized to make significant
      contributions to the body of library automation
      software
   Traditionally licensed and open source
    automation systems will co-exist. We have
    an interest in the success of both
    alternatives.
Part III. Moving toward
new generation of
library automation
             Rethinking the ILS
                Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid
                 libraries
                Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid
                 libraries
                Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core
                 ILS with additional modules to handle electronic
                 content
                New discovery layer interfaces replacing or
                 supplementing ILS OPACS
                Working toward a new model of library automation
                   – Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA
                     applications
                   – Comprehensive Resource Management
“It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007
ILS: a legacy concept?
   ILS = Integrated Library System
    (Cataloging + Circulation + OPAC + Serials +
      Acquisitions)
   Focused on print and physical inventory
   Electronic content at the Journal Title or
    collection level
   Emerged in the 1960’s – 1970’s
   Functionality has evolved and expanded,
    but basic concepts and modules remain
    intact
   Note: Some companies work toward evolving the
    ILS to competently handle both print and digital
    content (e.g. Innovative Interfaces)
ILS: ever diminishing role

   Many libraries putting much less emphasis
    on ILS
   Just an inventory system for physical
    materials
   Investments in electronic content increasing
   Management of e-content handled outside
    of the ILS
   Yet: libraries need comprehensive business
    automation more than ever. Mandate for
    more efficient operations. Do more with
Dis-integration of Library
Automation Functionality
   ILS -- Print and Physical inventory
   OpenURL Link resolver
   Federated Search
   Electronic Resource Management
    Module
   Discovery layer interface
Is non-integrated
automation sustainable?
   Major burden on library personnel
   Serial procurement / installation /
    configuration / maintenance cycles take
    many years to result in a comprehensive
    environment
   Inefficient data models
   Disjointed interfaces for library users
   Very long cycle to gain comprehensive
    automation
New genre of discovery
layer interfaces
   Traditional ILS OPAC inadequate for
    today’s Web-savvy library users
   Scope too narrow
   Complex, non-intuitive interface
   Yet: Necessary for some types of
    research
   Working toward a single point of entry
    for all the content and services offered
    by the library
Common Next-Gen
Interface features
   Decoupled interface
   Advanced search engines
   Relevancy ranked results
   Faceted Navigation
   Graphically enriched displays
   Real-time interaction with ILS
   Advanced user services and
    information delivery features
Current Products
   Aquabrowser (Medialab, Bowker / Serials Solutions)
   Primo (Ex Libris)
   Encore (Innovative Interfaces)
   WorldCat Local (OCLC)
   BiblioCommons
   Visualizer (VTLS)
   eXtensive Catalog (University of Rochester)
   VUFind (open source / Villanova University)
   Scriblio (open source)

http://www.librarytechnology.org/discovery.pl
      Deep search
   Entering post-metadata search era
   Increasing opportunities to search the full contents
     – Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open Content
       Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search, etc.
     – High-quality metadata will improve search precision
   Commercial search providers already offer “search inside
    the book”
   No comprehensive full text search for books quite yet
   Beginning to appear in library search environments
     – U of Mich (http://mblog.lib.umich.edu/blt/archives/2008/05/search_full-tex.html )
   Deep search highly improved by high-quality metadata

See: Systems Librarian, May 2008 “Beyond the current generation of next-generation
   interfaces: deeper search”
Architecture and
Standards
   Need to have an standard approach for
    connecting new generation interfaces with
    ILS and other repositories
   Proprietary and ad hoc methods currently
    prevail
   Digital Library Federation
    – ILS-Discovery Interface Group
    http://www.librarytechnology.org/blog.pl?ThreadID=43

   Initial foray into a broader set of protocols
    that open up other aspects of the ILS
Moving toward a new
Generation of Library
Automation
   Are Legacy ILS concepts sustainable?
   New automation environment based
    on current library realities and modern
    technology platforms
   Equal footing for digital and print
   Service oriented architecture
Breaking down the
modules
   Traditional ILS
    – Cataloging
    – Circulation
    – Online Catalog
    – Acquisitions
    – Serials control
    – Reporting
   Modern approach: SOA
           Service Oriented
           Architecture




http://www.sun.com/products/soa/benefits.jsp
           Legacy ILS + e-content
           modules
  End User
  Interfaces:



                                 Circulation   Acquisitions

  Functional                                                             Electronic
  modules:      Federated                                     OpenURL    Resource
                 Search                                        Linking     Mgmt
                                 Cataloging     Serials                   System

Data Stores:



                  Staff Interfaces:
SOA model for business
automation
   Underlying data repositories
    – Local or Global
   Reusable business services
   Composite business applications
           SOA for library workflow
           processes

                                       Composite
                                       Applications




                                Reusable
         Granular               Business
         tasks:                 Services




Data Stores:
Comprehensive Resource
Management
   Broad conceptual approach that proposes a
    library automation environment that spans
    all types of content that comprise library
    collections.
   Traditional ILS vendors: Under development
    but no public announcements
   Open Source projects in early phases
   Projection: 2-3 years until we begin see
    library automation systems that follow this
    approach. 5-7 years for wider adoption.
        Open Library
        Environment (OLE)
        project
           Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
             – Research in Information Technology program
             – Solicited proposal / Lead institution
           Duke University selected to lead project
           Core Participants: Kansas University, Lehigh University,
            National Library of Australia, Library and Archives Canada,
            University of Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding
           Advisory Participants: University of Chicago, Wittier College,
            University of Maryland, ORBIS Cascade Alliance, Rutgers
            University
           Status: Proposal complete, pending formal approval from the
            Andrew W. Mellon Foundation



http://oleproject.org
Preparing for next
generation library
automation
   Reassess workflows
   Separate streams for print and digital?
   Integrated processing of print and
    digital?
   Opportunities to take advantage of
    SOA-based composite business
    applications
   Assemble a more ideal set of tools for
    managing serials and periodicals
Practical implications
   Determine the level of openness your library
    requires
   Off-the-shelf, traditionally licensed systems
    preferred in many libraries
   Identify issues:
    – Vendor vulnerability
    – Flexibility to reprogram
    – Special reporting needs
   Cost of operation
   Software-as-a-service
   Research and Development toward next-
    generation automation systems
Questions and
Discussion

				
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