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Science Lesson Plans By Serena Sock # 3254670 Ron Belczewski ED 5860 November 11, 2009 Lesson # 1 Subject: Science Grade Level: Four Outcomes: Atlantic Canada Science Curriculum: Grade 4 GCO: Pg. 66 Students will be expected to describe and illustrate how the human ear is designed to detect vibrations. For students - when these experiments are done, you will be able to describe and show how our ears are made to hear vibrations. Objectives: Students will understand sound frequency, pitch, and conduction using the string telephone, tuning fork and musical glasses experiments. Materials: 4 tuning forks rubber mallet 10 paper cups flip chart 8 soda pop bottles 4 beakers 8 drinking glasses dowel rod journals various noise makers water 4 ping pong balls string pencils Teaching Process: Hook: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3jlYzjLwgY and discuss various ways that noise can be made. Hand out different noise makers and students will play with them. Activity: After watching the video and making noise with the noise makers, students will do 3 experiments: a string telephone, tuning fork experiment, and musical glasses. Instruction: 1st activity: In groups of 2, students will make a string telephone. Step 1. Take 2 paper cups and poke a hole on the bottom of the cup by using a sharp pencil to make a hole large enough for a string to go through. Step 2. Cut a piece of string 2 – 3 feet long and pass through each hole in the cups and tie the ends inside the cup. Step 3. Students will then stretch out the string tight between them and take turns talking quietly into the cup while the other student listens on the other end. Step 4. Have students pinch the string a different places while talking or tightening and loosening the string. Discuss what happens. 2nd activity: In groups of 4 or 5, students will do a tuning fork activity. Step1. Tuning forks are delicate so have students strike it on a rubber sole and hold it on the handle. Using the string telephones, place a vibrating tuning fork on the string of the telephone. Step 2. With a rubber mallet, students will strike a tuning fork and hold the vibrating end to their ear and exchange tuning forks until each student has tried each of the 4 tuning forks. Step 3. Have students touch the handle of a vibrating tuning fork to the top of an empty desk or table, or to a ping pong ball suspended from a string or touching it to a beaker of water – for this activity, students will observe what happens to the water and to the pitch and duration of sound. Discuss what happens. 3rd activity: The teacher will demonstrate this activity. With water, fill 8 drinking glasses and 8 soda pop bottles (make sure glasses are the same size and the bottles are the same size) – fill all the containers with different amounts of water. Now, with a wooden dowel or pencil, strike each glass gently, adjust the amounts of water in each glass to produce a musical note. For the bottles, blow air across the top of each bottle. Discuss what happens to each activity. Vocabulary: frequency pitch tuning fork vibrating duration Closure: Discussions on observations and findings will be brainstormed and written on the flip chart. Assessment: - Students will write their findings on the different experiments in their journals. - Students will explain findings by drawing pictures. Differentiation: Make a model that demonstrates how the ear works. For students who need extra help to understand how the ear works. Have a teacher assistant take these students and have them try this following experiment: Have a model of an ear handy for comparison. Stretch plastic wrap over one end of a tube and secure with a rubber band. Roll another sheet of paper to make a cone and insert the smaller end into the other end of the tube. Stand an index card in a vertical way, (secure with modeling clay) very near the end of the tube with the plastic wrap. Shine the flashlight on the plastic wrap so that the light is reflected onto the card. Then shout or sing loudly into the cone. End result: the reflected light should flicker. The cone represents the outer ear (pinnea), the tube is the ear canal and the wrap represents the ear drum (tympanic membrane). When sounds are captured by the outer ear and travel down the ear canal, the eardrum vibrates. Cross Curricular Activity: Music The whole class will make a song about “sounds”. This will be done by putting children in groups of 3 or 4, then each group will make up a verse and write it down on a piece of chart paper. When each group has made up a verse, the teacher will put the verses up on the wall. The students and teacher can decide which glass they will strike to make the song. Pictures of the glasses will be posted so the children can follow along at the same time. Ex. The beat can be like this; ¾ full glass, ¾ full glass, ½ full glass or 1/8 full glass. ½ full glass, ½ full glass, ¾ full glass, and so on. Each group will have the same sets of musical glasses. Have all children participate by having each student responsible for their assigned glass. Practice the song a couple of times then sing and play it on the musical glasses. Resources: Atlantic Canada Science Curriculum: Grade 4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3jlYzjLwgY Lesson extensions: - Students can try using different textures of string to compare the sounds. - Students can use different kinds of objects, such as; rice, sand, kernel corn, etc. to see how the objects move when touched with the tuning fork vibrations. Lesson # 2 Subject: Science Grade Level: 1 Outcomes: You and Your World K - 2 GCO: Pg. 33 K 2.1 - Students will be expected to describe the importance of personal hygiene and practise it in order to reduce the spread of germs and diseases; and K 2.2 - identify and explain types of activities that support a healthy lifestyle. For students – by the end of this lesson, you will be able to describe how important it is to keep yourself clean and you will learn how to clean your hands so you do not spread germs to others. You will also know and explain what activities you have to do to stay healthy. Objectives: Students will understand how important it is to keep their hands clean and they will see how germs stay on their hands and how easily they can pass them to another person. Materials: Glo Germ UV light (borrow one from Health Center – if they do not want to lend, ask them if someone can come to do the experiment) Glo Germ lotion (also from Health Center) sink with hot and cold running water liquid soap paper towels hand sanitizer Teaching Process Hook: http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.straightgoods.com/images/HandGerms.jpg&i mgrefurl=http://www.straightgoods.com/item03.shtml&usg=__PVDLxQ0w3B1kDH0LPbPjMZG Jvks=&h=300&w=232&sz=25&hl=en&start=18&tbnid=GNkadg2Dtui4xM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=90 &prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgerms%2Bunder%2Bmicroscope%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Discuss germs and how easily they can be transferred. Activity: After showing and discussing the information from the upper link, conduct the Glo Germ activity and Hand-washing. Instruction: Step 1. Pour a small amount of Glo germ lotion on each of the student’s hands and have them rub the lotion all over their hands. Step 2. Explain to the students how the lotion is just like germs on their hands even though they cannot see them. Step 3. Turn off the lights and turn on the Glo germ UV light and have the children put their hands under the UV light. They will see the glow on their hands. Step 4. Explain to the children that the glow shows where the germs are in their hands. Step 5. Show the children the proper way of washing their hands and then have them put their hands under the UV light again. Step 6. Once the children have all put their hands under the light, discuss what parts of their hands they did not clean well enough, such as; under the nails, thumb, and between the fingers. Explain that the lotion can be washed off with proper hand-washing, just like the germs can be washed off. Vocabulary: UV means ultra violet germ sanitizer disinfect contaminate prevention Closure: The teacher will have a question and answer period about the activity. Assessment: Students will draw/illustrate their observations/findings in their journals. Differentiation: Have a teacher assistant/parent volunteers to help with the washing of the hands. Cross Curricular Activity: Phys. Ed. Materials needed: 2 balloons, circles from hole-puncher Activity Time: 5 minutes Concepts Taught: health Prepare the balloons by placing a handful of paper hole-puncher circles inside of 2 balloons. Do not blow up the 1st balloon and blow up the 2nd balloon and tie it shut. - Explain to the children the importance of covering their mouth when they sneeze. - Explain how germs can be spread when they allow the germs to come out of their mouth. - Explain how when we use a tissue to cover our mouth the germs are caught in the tissue. Then demonstrate by taking the first balloon and blowing it up and pretend to sneeze. Let the air out from the balloon into the tissue. Show the children how the pretend germs, (paper circles) go into the tissue. Now take the second balloon and as you pretend to sneeze pop the balloon with a pencil. The germs will fly everywhere. The students will love this activity and will probably want to do it themselves – let them have their own balloons. IMPORTANT! Make sure you pick up all pieces of the balloons. Resources: You and Your World K – 2 http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.straightgoods.com/images/HandGerms.jpg&i mgrefurl=http://www.straightgoods.com/item03.shtml&usg=__PVDLxQ0w3B1kDH0LPbPjMZG Jvks=&h=300&w=232&sz=25&hl=en&start=18&tbnid=GNkadg2Dtui4xM:&tbnh=116&tbnw=90 &prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgerms%2Bunder%2Bmicroscope%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Lesson extensions: - Divide students into 3 groups; put Glo germ lotion on all of their hands. Have 1 group wash their hands with water only, the 2nd group will wash their hands with soap and water, and the 3rd group will rub their hands with hand sanitizer. Then have them put their hands under the UV light and discuss which hand washing ways was better. - Divide students into 3 groups; have 1st group wash their hands for 10 seconds, then rinse; 2nd group will wash their hands for 20 seconds, then rinse, and the 3rd group will wash their hands for 30 seconds, then rinse. Have children put their hands under the UV light, discuss and compare the differences in how much cleaner their hands get when they wash for a longer time. - Put Glo germ lotion on one of the students and have him/her shake the hands of 5 of his classmates. Then have the students put their hand under the light and discuss how easily a germ can be passed from one person to the next.
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