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					                                       Survey of Technologies

1 Development Environment

1.1 Windows 95/Windows 98:

This system is developed on Microsoft Windows 95/98 Operating system. Because of the
popularity Windows 95/98 enjoys, it is a suitable choice for the operating system. Windows
95/98 is a highly user Operation system and the main advantage of this popular GUI Os is the
huge application base over it. A lot of Front end tools are available in the market for Windows
95/98.The developer finds it little difficult in selecting tools, which works under this operating
system. Moreover the users are very much familiar with its interfaces that they feel comfortable
to work with it. This also reduces the amount of training for the users. These were few reasons as
for which Windows 95/98 were selected as the platform for the application.

1.2 Windows 2000:

With Windows 2000 professional, you have faster access to information, and you are able to
achieve tasks more quickly and easily. The Active Desktop allows you to customize your
workspace and the address bar helps you to connect to the Internet from any window. The most
common computer –management tasks are automated and streamed with Windows 2000
professional. Increased support for new-generation hardware and multimedia technologies.

2.1 Java features:

There are several features in the java that makes it highly used in Internet based applications.
These include security features, the core API and open standards and memory management.

2.2 Simplicity:

              Java was designed to make it much easier bug free code.
              Java was designed to create applications form in electronic networks, so it has
               built-in support for efficient communication and distribution.
              Java complier creates machine independent byte code files that require JVM for
               run time playback.
              Java gives two flavours of programs Applets, which are designed for run time
               distribution over the Internet as apart of an HTML web page and applications,
               which are stand-alone programs that are executed like conventional programs.
            Java supports dynamic memory allocation with automatic garbage collection.

2.3 Object Oriented:

              Generation of simplest, easier to read programs.
              More efficient reuse of code.
              Faster time to Market.
            More robust, error free code.

2.4 Platform Independence and Code Security

Java is designed to support applications that will be deployed in heterogeneous networked
environment .In such enviromments, applications must be capable of executing on a variety of
hardware architectures. Within this variety of hardware platforms applications must executes on
variety of Operating systems and interoperate with multiple programming language interfaces.
To accommodate the diversity of Operating environments the Java Complier generates Byte
codes an architecture neutral intermediate format designed to transport code efficiently to
multiple hardware and software.

Platforms the interpreted nature of Java solves both the binary distribution problem and the
version problem. The same Java language byte codes will run on any platform.

Code security is an in built feature of JVM.Java applets can be executed in an environment that
prohibits from introducing viruses, deleting or modifying files or otherwise destroying datas
crashing the host computer.

2.5 Robust:

Its origin as a language for consumer electronic means that Java has been designed for write
highly reliable or robust software Java certainly does not eliminate the need for software quality
assurance. It’s still possible to write unreliable software. However Java does eliminate certain
type of programming errors, which makes it considerably easier to write reliable software. Java
is strongly typed language, which allows for extensive compile time checking for potential type
mismatch problem.

2.6 Portable:

Being architecture neutral is one big part of being portable. But Java goes even furthur, by
making sure that there are no ―implementation dependent‖ aspects of the language specification.
For example Java explicitly specifies the size of the primitive class types as well as its arithmetic

2.7 Multithreading:

Java is inherently multithreaded .A single Java program can have many different threads
executing together independently. There Java applets on the same page can run together with
each getting equal time for the CPU with very little extra effort on the part of the programmer.

2.2.8 Dynamic:

Java does not have an explicit link phase. Java source code is divided in to Java files roughly one
per each class in your program. The complier complies these into .Classes files containing byte
code. Each Java file generally produces exactly one class file.

2.2.9   Frames:
Frame encapsulates as a ‖window‖ it is subclass of window and has a title bar, borders and
resizing corners. Create a frame object from within an applet; it will contain a warning message,
such as warning. Applet Window, to the user that an applet window has been created.

Introduction to Java Swings

Swing is one of the major improvements in the JDK between versions 1.1 and 2.1 it is also one
of the key API (Application Program Interface) of the Java Foundation Classes (JFC). JFC are a
suit of libraries designed to assist programmers in creating enterprise applications with java
developing of GUI for applets and applications makes the swing so important. The number and
Quality of the GUI controls provided by Swing is more than any other GUI toolkit.

Swing is a major component of the JFC.Swing provides a large number of useful GUI controls
that originated with Netscape’s Internet foundations Classes (JFC). Swing components are
entirely written in java and therefore are platform independent. The term Lightweight is used to
describe such elements.

Swing features:

3.1 Pluggable Look and Feel:
Swing can allow the user to switch look and feel at runtime without having to close the current

3.2 Lightweight Components:

Components are not dependent on native peers to render themselves. They use simplified
graphics primitives tom point themselves as the screen and can even allow portions to be

We can create wide variety of new components such as tables trees sliders progress bars text


         We can use the Swing components to build our enterprise applications.
         We can create our own swing components or we can extend those that already exist.
         We can override or create a new look and feel for more of the swing components.

JDBC(Java Data Base connectivity)

JDBC is a java API for executing SQL statements .It consists of a set of classes and interfaces
written in the Java programming language. JDBC provides a standard API tool for database
developers. Using JDBS it is easy to send SQL statements to virtually any relational database.
With the JDBC API,it isn’t necessary to write one program to access Sybase database another
program to access on Oracle database, another program to access an Informix database and so

In JDBC one can write a single program using the JDBC API and the program will be able to
send SOL statement to the appropriate database. With an application written in Java language,
one also doesn’t have to worry about writing different application to run on different platforms.
The combinations of java and JDBC lets a programmer write it once and run it anywhere. Also
JDBC have the mechanism of talking to a variety of different databases. Jdbc makes
disseminating information easy and economical.

                  JDBC                             Tomcat Server


                  Servlets,Jsp                     Server Script


Servlets are program that run on a Web Server and build Web pages dynamically. A Servlet can
be though of as a server side applet. Servlets are loaded and executed by a Web Server in the
same manner as the applets are loaded and executed by a Web browser. A servlet accesses
requests from the client, performs some task, and returns results.

Basic steps of using servlets

          The client makes a request
          The web server forwards the request to the servlet after receiving it from the client
          Some kind of process is done by the servlet after receiving the request.
          A response is returned back to the web server from the servlet.
          The web server will forwards the response to the client.

We have to install JavaSoft's Java Servlet Development Kit (JSDK) before creating any servlet.
This kit includes the Java.Servlet and Sun.servlet packages, sample servlets for Windows 95 and
NT, and ServletRunner to test servlets.

       We have to set the environment variable CLASSPATH, to the required location so that
your servlets can find the servlet packages. The following environment variable need to be set
for Windows systems, with the JSDK installed in the C:\jsdk;

Advantages of JAVASERVLETS:

      Can embedded in the HTML pages and support networking.
      Security concept is better when compared to JAVA.

JavaServer Pages - An Overview

       The JavaServer Pages 1.2 specification provides web developers with a framework to
build applications containing dynamic web content such as HTML, DHTML, XHTML and
XML. A JSP page is a text based document containing static HTML and dynamic actions which
describe how to process a response to the client in a more powerful and flexible manner. Most of
a JSP file is plain HTML but it also has, interspersed with it, special JSP tags.

There are many JSP tags such as:

      JSP directive denoted by <%@,
       scriplets indicated by <% ... %> tags and
      Directive includes the contents of the file sample.html in the response at that point.
To process a JSP file, we need a JSP engine that can be connected with a web server or can be
accommodated inside a web server. Firstly when a web browser seeks a JSP file through an URL
from the web server, the web server recognizes the .jsp file extension in the URL requested by
the browser and understands that the requested resource is a JavaServer Page. Then the web
server passes the request to the JSP engine. The JSP page is then translated into a Java class,
which is then compiled into a servlet.

This translation and compilation phase occurs only when the JSP file is requested for the first
time, or if it undergoes any changes to the extent of getting retranslated and recompiled. For each
additional request of the JSP page thereafter, the request directly goes to the servlet byte code,
which is already in memory. Thus when a request comes for a servlet, an init () method is called
when the Servlet is first loaded into the virtual machine, to perform any global initialization that
every request of the servlet will need. Then the individual requests are sent to a service ()
method, where the response is put together. The servlet creates a new thread to run service ()
method for each request. The request from the browser is converted into a Java object of type
HttpServletRequest, which is passed to the Servlet along with an HttpServletResponse object
that is used to send the response back to the browser. The servlet code performs the operations
specified by the JSP elements in the .jsp file.

Benefits of JSP

       One of the main reasons why the JavaServer Pages technology has evolved into what it is
today and it is still evolving is the overwhelming technical need to simplify application design by
separating dynamic content from static template display data. Another benefit of utilizing JSP is
that it allows to more cleanly separate the roles of web application/HTML designer from a
software developer. The JSP technology is blessed with a number of exciting benefits, which are
chronicled as follows:

1. The JSP technology is platform independent, in its dynamic web pages, its web servers, and its
underlying server components. That is, JSP pages perform perfectly without any hassle on any
platform, run on any web server, and web-enabled application server. The JSP pages can be
accessed from any web server.
2. The JSP technology emphasizes the use of reusable components. These components can be
combined or manipulated towards developing more purposeful components and page design.
This definitely reduces development time apart from the At development time, JSPs are very
different from Servlets, however, they are precompiled into Servlets at run time and executed by
a JSP engine which is installed on a Web-enabled application server such as BEA WebLogic and
IBM WebSphere.


Eclipse is a multi-language software development platform comprising an IDE and a plug-in
system to extend it. It is written primarily in Java and is used to develop applications in this
language and, by means of the various plug-INS, in other languages as well—C, C++, COBOL,
Python, Perl, PHP and more.

The initial codebase originated from VisualAge. In its default form it is meant for Java
developers, consisting of the Java Development Tools (JDT). Users can extend its capabilities by
installing plug-ins written for the Eclipse software framework, such as development toolkits for
other programming languages, and can write and contribute their own plug-in modules.
Language packs provide translations into over a dozen natural languages.

MyEclipse is built upon the Eclipse platform, and integrates both proprietary and open source
solutions into the development environment. MyEclipse has two primary versions a professional
and a standard edition.

The standard edition adds database tools, a visual web designer, persistence tools, Spring tools,
Struts and JSF tooling, and a number of other features to the basic Eclipse Java Developer


Dreamweaver allows users to preview websites in locally-installed web browsers. It also has site
management tools, such as FTP/SFTP and WebDAV file transfer and synchronization features,
the ability to find and replace lines of text or code by search terms and regular expressions across
the entire site, and a templating feature that allows single-source update of shared code and
layout across entire sites without server-side includes or scripting.

The behaviors panel also enables use of basic JavaScript without any coding knowledge, and
integration with Adobe's Spry AJAX framework offers easy access to dynamically-generated
content and interfaces.

Dreamweaver supports syntax highlighting for the following languages out of the box:

      ActionScript
      Active Server Pages (ASP).
      ASP.NET
      C#
      HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
      Java
      JavaScript
      JavaServer Pages (JSP)
      PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)
      Visual Basic (VB)
      Wireless Markup Language (WML)
      EDML
      Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)


The MySQL database has become the world's most popular open source database because of its
consistent fast performance, high reliability and ease of use. It's used on every continent by
individual Web developers as well as many of the world's largest and fastest-growing
organizations to save time and money powering their high-volume Web sites, business-critical
systems and packaged software.

Not only is MySQL the world's most popular open source database, it's also become the database
of choice for a new generation of applications built on the LAMP stack (Linux, Apache,
MySQL, PHP / Perl / Python.) MySQL runs on more than 20 platforms including Linux,
Windows, OS/X, HP-UX, AIX, Netware, giving you the kind of flexibility that puts in control.


    Scalability and Flexibility
    High Performance
    High Availability
    Robust Transactional Support
    Web and Data Warehouse Strengths
    Strong Data Protection
    Comprehensive Application Development
    Management Ease
    Open Source Freedom and 24 x 7 Support
    Lowest Total Cost of Ownership


Hardware requirement

Processor Type               :      Pentium -IV

Speed                        :      2.4 GHZ

Ram                          :      256 MB RAM

Hard disk                    :      20 GB HD

Software requirement

Operating System             :      Linux / Win2000 / XP
Programming Package   :   Java / J2ee

Database              :   My SQL

Tools (Front end)     :   My Eclipse3.2

Web Tools             :   HTML, JavaScript, DreamWeaver,Servlets

SDK                   :   Jdk1.5.0

Back End              :   MYSQL 5.0

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