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					             Cloning



• Greek klon = twig (cuttings from one
  original plant)
• Cell cultures: cell multiplication by
  cell division (mitosis)
• Identical twins -- e.g.
            Star Wars
Episode II: The Attack of the Clones
  Star Wars
Episode II: The
 Attack of the
   Clowns
Master Chief

Genetically
engineered
soldier in
Halo 3
            Toy Story
          Alien #1: A stranger.
       Ailen #2: From the outside.
        All: Oooooooooooooooh.
Alien: I have been chosen. Farewell, my
      friends. I go to a better place.
      All: [pointing up] The Claw!
   Alien #1: The Claw is our master.
Ailen #2: It decides who will go and who
                 will stay.
Total Recall (1990)
                • In an era when it has become
                  scientifically feasible to implant
                  false memories directly into a
                  person's mind, wipe out a previous
                  identity, and create a fictitious
                  personae so real that the subject
                  believes it to be genuine, how does
                  one know what is and what isn't
                  authentic? This is the question that
                  Douglas Quaid (Arnold
                  Schwarzenegger), and, to a lesser
                  extent, the audience, must ponder.
                  How much of his life is real? How
                  many of his memories actually
                  happened and which ones have
                  been manufactured?
                             The 6th Day
From http://www.genomicseducation.ca/genomicsInEveryday/popmedia/hollywood_clones.asp


                             • In The 6th Day, clones are used to replace
                               the deceased. Memory implants insure the
                               clone has no recollection of dying; and
                               life, as far as he is concerned, continues
                               as usual. Trouble begins when Arnold‟s
                               character‟s clone appears while Arnold‟s
                               character is still alive. Life continuing as
                               usual becomes unusual at best.

                             • The movie helps us speculate about the
                               social and psychological influences likely
                               to act in a hypothetical, real-life clone‟s
                               life: that is, if he knew and everybody
                               else knew he was indeed a clone.

                             • For example, as he grows up, what rights
                               would be guaranteed to him?
                             The 6th Day
From http://www.genomicseducation.ca/genomicsInEveryday/popmedia/hollywood_clones.asp
                        Questions Raised by Movie:

                        • What psychological issues could develop
                          between the clone and the person he was
                          cloned from; namely you?
                        • Might the clone feel, for example, he was a
                          pet or a potential harvest of spare parts?
                        • How would you feel about your clone?
                        • Would you love him, or would you feel
                          creepy every time you saw him?
                        • How might the clone‟s sense of self and his
                          right to self determination be warped by
                          society‟s attitudes toward him and his own
                          developing sense of personal worth?
                        • Would he, and others of his kind, be
                          marginalized?
                        • Would the clone have Human Rights?
                       Godsend
• In Godsend, a couple lose their beloved
  eight year old son. While overcome by
  grief, they are approached by a doctor
  who offers to clone him. They agree.
  For a while, everything seems fine; and
  in the grateful father‟s words, the
  cloned boy is “so much the same”, but
  still his own person entirely. But as the
  clone approaches the age when the
  original son died, he starts to have
  nightmares, behavioral problems and
  near-fatal accidents. In the end, the
  new son isn‟t exactly a true clone
  because new bits of (predictably evil)
  DNA were coupled with his. Cloning
  spliced to transgenics helped spawn a
  monstrous plot.
     In a far-distant future, the
story‟s protagonist, Jake Sully, a
former U.S. Marine who was
wounded and paralyzed from the
waist down in combat on Earth.
Jake is selected to participate in
the Avatar program, which will
enable him to walk. Since
humans are unable to breathe the
air on Pandora, they have created
genetically-bred human-Na‟vi
hybrids known as Avatars. On
Pandora, through his Avatar
body, Jake will be able to walk
again.
What happens if we really start doing things like this?
Therapeutic
 Cloning
  Theory
       Two Types of Cloning and
        Important Terminology
1. Reproductive -- bringing a ‘clone’ to full term for the
   purpose of reproducing a good ‘specimen’ or for body
   parts, breeding, etc. Obviously, the vast majority of
   people are against this.
2. Therapeutic Cloning -- conceiving a clone (human life)
   for the purpose of destroying it -- in particular, to draw
   out of stem cells at the beginning stage of life.


   Totipotent – Capable of giving origin to all the cell
   types in the organism, person, e.g., fertilized egg
   developing into a whole organism
         Reproductive Cloning
• Replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a
  nucleus of another cell from the body.
• Creates an embryo.
• The embryo is then implanted in the uterus of
  a female.
• Its purpose is to create and bring to birth a
  being genetically identical to the donor of the
  cells.
            Therapeutic cloning?
• Replacing the nucleus of an
  egg cell with a nucleus of
  another cell from the body.
• It creates an embryo
• The embryo is then destroyed
  to harvest stem cells
                      Raëlians
• Raëlians are UFO-cult
  members who follow
  Claude Vorilhon, a
  Frenchman and former
  motor sport journalist and
  race-car driver who calls
  himself Raël.
• Raël claims that on
  December 13, 1973, he
  saw a UFO "7 meters in
  diameter made of a very
  shiny silver metal and
  moving in a total silence."
               The Messenger
• Raël says a radiant
  being emerged and
  entrusted him with a
  message revealing the
  true origin of mankind.
• They told him that
  henceforth he would be
  known as Raël, which
  means "messenger."
             Cloning & Immortality
• Raël believes that
  cloning is the way to
  immortality.
• Raël: our alien creators
  want us to be beautiful
  and enjoy a sensuous
  life, free from the
  restrictions of traditional
  Judeo-Christian morality
Should the Raelians be allowed to
      clone human beings?
• Moral question:
   – Is it ethical to clone a
     human?


• Public policy question:
   – Should the law allow
     the cloning of humans?
“All the Reasons to Clone Human Beings” by Simon Smith
How would you respond to each of these?

•Medical breakthroughs - Human cloning technology is expected to result
in several miraculous medical breakthroughs. We may be able to cure
cancer if cloning leads to a better understanding of cell
differentiation. Theories exist about how cloning may lead to a cure for heart
attacks, a revolution in cosmetic surgery, organs for organ transplantation,
and predictions abound about how cloning technology will save thousands of
lives.

•Medical tragedies - Many people have suffered accidental medical
tragedies during their lifetimes. Read about a girl who needs a kidney, a
burn victim, a girl born with cosmetic deformities, a man who needs
a liver, a woman who is infertile because of cancer, and a father who
lost his only son. All these people favor cloning and want the science to
proceed.

•To cure infertility - The current options for infertile couples are painful,
expensive, and heart-breaking. Cloning has the potential to change the
world for infertile couples almost overnight.
•To fund research - A boy graduates from high school at age 18. He goes
to a pool party to celebrate. He confuses the deep end and shallow end and
dives head first into the pool, breaking his neck and becoming a
quadriplegic. He suffers chronic unbearable pain. At age 21 he inherits a 10
million dollar trust fund. He never marries or has children. At age 40 after
hearing about Dolly being a clone, he changes his will and has his DNA
stored for future human cloning. His future mother will be awarded one
million dollars to have him and raise him. His DNA clone will inherit a trust
fund. He dies feeling that although he was robbed of normal life, his
twin/clone will lead a better life.

•Bad parents - Did your parents destroy your life? Were they alcoholic,
child-beating molesters? Did you never have a chance? Interestingly,
human cloning allows you the opportunity to participate in choosing the
parents for your clone.

•A Child's right to be better than its parents - It's been suggested that
parents have a duty to see that their children have better lives than they
do. This may mean making our children live longer, helping them to be
resistant to cancer, heart disease, any familial diseases, and all the other
problems that can be cured using what we learn from human cloning
technology.
•Economics - Countries that fail to research human cloning will suffer
economically. (China is aggressively pursuing cloning -- not mentioned in
his article).

•Homosexual couples - From one of our readers: "gay couples go through
so much...not to mention all the controversy...when they decide that they
are ready for a baby. People question their right to bring a child that
technically isn't related to them into a lifestyle that falls below societies
views of normal.....human cloning could allow two gay men to take 23
chromosomes from each male and put them into a single egg to truly have a
baby of their own. Also two gay women could use this technology to conceive
a child of their own using their individual 23 chromosomes.” (theory)

•Randy Wicker, Homosexual activist writes: "The right to single parenthood
is much larger than simply a gay rights issue. It is a universal human rights
issue. Cloning breaks heterosexuality's traditional monopoly on reproduction.
It empowers every human being with a reproductive capacity....Cloning
redefines the entire concept of family.”
•To be a better parent - Human cloning can improve the parent-child
relationship. Raising a clone would be like having a child with an instruction
manual. You would have a head start on the needs and talents of your
child. We would have a head start on understanding the genetic component
of a cloned child.


•You want your clone to lead the life that was meant to be yours -
The Human Cloning Foundation has been surprised by the number of people
that write to say that they would like to have a clone so that it may lead the
life that was meant to be theirs. Some see this life as a sacrifice so that the
life of their clone may be enriched.

•To have a better sense of identity - If we had some information about
ourselves, perhaps we could sooner or better discovery who we are. A clone
would have access to a tremendous amount of information about his or her
parent that could greatly help in understanding one's psyche and physical
attributes. All of this information could provide a better sense of identity.
•To make a future couple financially secure - With human cloning you
could give a couple in the future both a child from your DNA and the financial
assets from your lifetime to start out financially secure instead of struggling
as most couples do now.

•Because you believe in freedom - Freedom sometimes means having
tolerance for others and their beliefs. In America, some people believe gun
control and some don't. Some people believe in one religion and others in
another. In a free society we know that we must tolerate some views that
we don't agree with so that we all may be free. For this reason human
cloning should be allowed.
     15 Arguments Against Cloning
1. Against the dignity of the human person
2. Removes the loving and unitive act of sexuality out of
   the procreative act.
3. It is unethical for us to design children -- God is the
   creator of life ultimately; in Scripture, it is God who
   does the „knitting‟ in the womb (Ps. 139)
4. It is egotistical and narcissistic for someone to clone
   him/herself.
5. Cloning someone to harvest his/her organs is unethical
   (sick and twisted) – using them as a means to our end.
6. It is unethical to clone a life in order to end a life.
7. A clone is not a potential or possible life -- but is a life
   that simply has the potential to grow.
     Arguments against Cloning
8. Even if we were to clone someone, that person would be
    different in essential ways from the original copied
    individual.
9. Cloning is analogous to slavery -- treating a class of
    human beings as a lower caste/class in order to use them
    for our benefit.
10. We should not do everything we can do (genocide,
    torture, etc.).
11. We do not have a „right to clone‟ anymore than we have
    a „right‟ to commit incest, yelling „fire!‟ in a crowded
    movie theater or anything else that is illegal.
     Arguments Against Cloning

12.The more we view and treat children as
   „products‟, the more they will feel that way (vs.
   gifts).
13.Theoretically, cloning makes male sexuality
   unnecessary and even obsolete -- again, not part
   of the natural order.
     Arguments Against Cloning
14. Prevalent Notion: “Market Rules!” or, “Let
    the Market Rule!” In other words, where there
    is demand, let there be supply. Economics
    can not outweigh the question of the dignity
    of the human person.
15. Behind cloning is a desire to have a life devoid
    of all suffering. Clone advocates talk about
    cloning in order to get it right the second time
    around.
                 • The position of the Catholic
                   Church.
   Church           – The Magesterium: Every
                      possible act of cloning humans
  Teaching            is intrinsically evil.
                    – Cardinal William Keeler
                        • "Cloning is wrong because
                          they have human dignity,
A light in the            and deserve to come into
                          the world in ways that
  darkness                respect this dignity."
                        • "Each child has a right to
                          be conceived and born as
                          the fruit of a loving union
                          between husband and wife,
                          to be loved and accepted as
                          a new and distinct
                          individual.”
"The transmission of human
life is entrusted by nature to
a personal and conscious act
and as such is subject to the
all-holy laws of God:
immutable and inviolable
laws which must be
recognized and observed.
        Finally, a child has the
right to be born. Each of us
has the responsibility of
guarding these rights for the
defenseless child. Never
must we slip into thinking
that anyone has the right to a
child at any cost, or that a
child is like a piece of
property to be had ("Donum
Vitae," II,8).
                                       Church Teaching
• — Procedures designed to
  influence the genetic inheritance
  of a child, which are not
                                        A Light in the
  therapeutic, are morally wrong.
  To try to correct a genetic             Darkness
  disorder, such as cystic fibrosis,
  is morally permissible, whereas
  to manipulate the genetic
  structure to produce human
  beings selected by sex or some
  other quality is wrong. Attempts
  to produce a "breed" of humans
  through cloning, twin fission, or
  parthenogenesis outside the
  context of marriage or
  parenthood is immoral. These
  manipulations violate the
  personal dignity of the human
  being and attack his integrity and
  identity. (Donum Vitae, I,6.)
                                • — Any medical research
                                  or observation which
                                  jeopardizes the health or
• — Any production of
                                  life of the unborn child is
  human beings for the sake
                                  morally wrong.
  of experimentation,
  research, or the harvesting           (Donum Vitae, I,5.)
  of organs is morally
  wrong. Such actions
  reduce a human being to
  simply disposable
  biological material.
       (Donum Vitae, I,5.)

				
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