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					The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors




T
         he Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors was          professional development. The Institute has taken
         founded in April 1984 and had 85 founder         on an important and responsive consultative role
         members. The Institute was statutorily           in government policy making particularly on issues
         incorporated by vir tue of the Hong              affecting land, property, construction.
         Kong Institute of Surveyors Ordinance in
January 1990 (Cap. 1148). In July 1991, there was         The title “Surveyor” embraces a number of disciplines
also passed the Surveyors Registration Ordinance          involved with land and its development with
( Cap. 417) to set up a Registration Board to             land and buildings, covering an extremely wide
administer the registration of surveyors.                 scope. Some surveyors work in private practices
                                                          and others may work for a landowner, developer,
The number of corporate members has grown to              building contractor or government departments
4,420 as at December 2007; Members and Fellows            and related bodies. A land surveyor measures and
– distinguished by the initials MHKIS and FHKIS.          records the shape and position of the land, define
In 2007, the Institute has admitted 61 Technical          the boundary and set out the legal boundaries of
Associates – distinguished by the initials TAHKIS.        the sites. A general practice surveyor advises on
Apart from this, the total number of training grade       the best use of the land, assesses the feasibility
members at the end of 2007 was 2,626.                     and viability of the proposed development project
                                                          as well as the valuation, marketing, sale, leasing
                                                                                                                                             
To qualify as a corporate member of the Institute,        and management of completed developments.
surveyors must possess a recognized academic              A planning and development surveyor further




                                                                                                                               The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
degree or similar qualif ication, followed by a           advises on the possible change of zoning, the likely
minimum of two years supervised professional              environmental impacts and make suggestion on
experience within strict guidelines, followed by an       preliminary development contents. A quantity
Assessment of Professional Competence (APC).              surveyor is concerned with the building contractual
                                                          arrangements and cost control will evaluate the
To qualify as a technical grade member of the             likely cost of the development project and advises
Institute, sur veyors must possess a cognate              on the most suitable kind of contract for the
sub-degree or diploma or vocational qualification         project. A building surveyor is involved in the
or equivalent as may be approved by the General           construction and maintenance of the building.
Council together with a minimum of two years of           A property and facility management surveyor
technical training of an approved nature mainly           provides a comprehensive range of service in real
in Hong Kong, followed by an Assessment of                estate management.
Technical Competence (ATC).
                                                          The Institute has established and continues
As a reputable and responsible professional body          to e xpand it s presence in the international
of surveyors, the Institute has always maintained         scene through reciprocit y relationships with
vigorous assessment s tandards for entr y to              other national sur veying bodies and through
the profession and has also maintained high               m e m b e r s h i p i n r e l e v a nt w o r l d b o d i e s a n d
professional and ethical standards of member              international organisations in order to maintain
surveyors, through the various codes of professional      its professional edge at international level. The
practices, the code of ethics, and continuing             Institute is one of the three founding members,




                                                The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
    apart from the Singapore Institute of Surveyors                       • Singapore Institute of Surveyors and Valuers
    and the Institution of Surveyors, Malaysia, of the                      (SISV)
    Surveyors’ Alliance Asia which was inaugurated in                     • The Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors
    November 2004. The Institute has reciprocal                             (AIQS)
    agreements with:                                                      • New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors
                                                                            Incorporated (NZIQS)
    • The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors                        • China Institute of Real Estate Appraisers (CIREA)
      (RICS)                                                              • China Engineering Cost Association (CECA)
    • Australian Property Institute (API)                                 • China Association of Engineering Consultants
    • New Zealand Property Institute (NZPI)                                 (CAEC)





    香港測量師學會


    香     港 測 量 師 學 會 於 1984年 4月 正 式 成
          立,創會會員人數為85名。其後,
          1990年香港立法局通過了《香港測量
          師學會條例》,翌 年 立 法 局 再 通 過
    《測量師註冊條例》成立測量師註冊管理局。
                                                                          Competence簡稱APC)作為最後評核。學會會員必
                                                                          須嚴格遵守由學會制定的專業操守規則。

                                                                          香港測量師學會的「技術協佐會員」必須完成修讀
                                                                          由香港測量師學會認可的副學士測量專業學位課
                                                                          程。同時必須已取得不少於兩年的在職專業工作
    截至2007年12月,香港測量師學會的正式會員總                                              實習。實習期滿,考生可以向學會報考「技術評核
    數為4,420名分別為「資深專業會員」(Fellow採用                                          試」(Assessment of Technical Competence簡稱ATC)
    FHKIS名銜)及「專業會員」(Member採用MHKIS名                                        作為最後評核。學會會員必須嚴格遵守由學會制定
    銜);2007年香港測量師學會接納了61位「技術協                                             的專業操守規則。
    佐會員」(Technical Associates採用TAHKIS名銜);除
    這以外,2007年年底的「培訓級會員」人數一共是                                              香港測量師學會主要工作是維護測量專業服務的標
    2,626 位。                                                              準,包括制訂專業守則、釐訂加入專業測量師行列
                                                                          的要求,並鼓勵會員透過持續專業進修以增進專業
    香港測量師學會的「專業會員」必須完成修讀由                                                 技能。本會在政府制訂政策方面一直擔當重要的諮
    香港測量師學會認可的大學測量專業學位課程。                                                 詢角色,香港測量師學會曾向政府提供的意見包括
    其後,必須在專業測量師指導下進行不少於兩年                                                 樓宇僭建問題、樓宇安全運動、物業管理問題、城
    的在職專業工作實習。實習期滿,考生可以向學                                                 市規劃及發展策略、建築質素和房屋問題,並曾就
    會報考「專業評核試」(Assessment of Professional                                 樓宇面積的量度標準發出指引。




    The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
服務於公營部門的測量師參與制訂發展策略及政           會員之一,其他兩個創會會員是新加坡測量師及估
策,從而達到政府的規劃政策目標。服務於私營機          價師學會和馬來西亞測量師學會。香港測量師學會
構的測量師一般向客戶提供相關專業諮詢服務。測          目前和下列海外學會有協議,互相接納對方會員資
量專業內容非常廣泛,服務範圍包括:「土地測量          格:
師」積極參與各類發展項目,包括劃定地界、利用
測量結果繪製地圖等;致力使無數人跡罕至及未開          • 英國皇家特許測量師學會(RICS)
發的地區發展成為繁盛的工商業城鎮,因此與人類          • 澳大利亞房地產學會(API)
的文明發展有著莫大的關係。「產業測量師」憑著          • 新西蘭房地產學會(NZPI)
專業技能及知識,對如何發展、使用及管理物業的          • 新加坡測量師及估價師學會(SISV)
細節瞭若指掌,能為客戶提供具實效的意見;其工          • 澳大利亞工料測量師學會 (AIQS)
作涉及產業的規劃、發展、用途、管理以至土地及          • 新西蘭工料測量師學會 (NZIQS)
樓宇估價,為客戶代理以私人協商、招標或拍賣方          • 中國房地產估價師學會(CIREA)
式租售物業,並處理物業投資的財務及經濟事務。          • 中國建設工程造價管理協會(CECA)
「規劃及發展測量師」提供一系列有關城市規劃和          • 中國建設監理協會(CAEC)
物業發展的專業服務;除了作出物業發展可行性研
究以外,他們更擅長於演繹土地契約條款,能提出
如何符合土地契約條款或對條款作出修訂的建議;
同時能替土地擁有者向地政署提出修訂地契交回、
重批的申請、商討土地條款以至完成地契土地契約                                                                                           
簽署的整套的服務。「工料測量師」在房屋建造、




                                                                                                   The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
土木工程、城市發展、以至礦務及等各類工程上提
供初步成本諮詢成本計劃、招標檔的製訂及相議承
包價、建築合約的製訂和管理、工程費的開支預算
及成本控制、工程策劃及管理、仲裁建築合約糾紛
和建築工程保險損失估值等等。「建築測量師」是
勘測建築物的專才,服務範圍包括:就法律訂明的
限制條件提供技術顧問服務、在發展項目中代表項
目注資人負責發展顧問及工程項目監理工作、在發
展階段負責項目管理、而在現有建築物勘測私人及
公共樓房安全檢驗、維修管理。「物業設施管理測
量師」主要提供廣泛物業及設施管理。在用家要求
日高的社會裏,高質素的專業管理服務,實為維持
及提高物業價值的不可或缺元素。物業及設施管測
量師能為客戶管理各類物業,代與租戶商討租金修
訂、租約續期及物業轉租事務,並就物業翻修及重
建等事宜提供意見。

香港測量師學會不斷加強與世界各國有關測量專業
團體緊密聯繫並且達成互認協定,目的在於增進
本地測量專業人員在國際市場的競爭力,並且是
2004年11月成立的「亞洲測量師聯盟」三個創會




                      The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
                                     THE HONG KONG INSTITUTE OF SURVEYORS
                                                       Route to Membership

             Alternative Routes to            Principal Route to                     Principal Route to            Alternative Routes to
            Technical Membership            Technical Membership                  Professional Membership        Professional Membership



                                                                                             Fellows
                                                                                              FHKIS




                                                                                      Prescribed Professional
                                                                                           Achievement
                                                                                        in minimum 7 years




                                                                                                                    Professional Members of
                                                                                           Members                Recognized Surveying Bodies
                                                                                            MHKIS                  +1 year local esperience


                                                                             +5
                                                                            years
                Technical Members of                                       practice         Assessment of
             Recognized Surveying Bodies     Technical Associates                     Professional Competence
               +1 year local experience            TAHKIS                                in minimum 2 years




                                                   Assessment of                         Probationers                    Graduates of
                                              Technical Competence                   (undergoing suitable       Approved Non-cognate Degree
                                                in minimum 2 years                    professional training)       +5 years surveying practice




              Graduates of Approved
             Non-cognate Sub-degree
             + 5 years technical practice      Technical Trainees                           Graduates of
                                              (undergoing suitable                    Approved Congnate Degree
                                                technical training)
               Holders of Approved
              Vocational qualification
             +7 years technical practice

                                                    Graduates of
                                            Approved Congnate Sub-degree




                                                                      Students
                                                    (undergoing suitable academic training)


             Alternative Routes to            Principal Route to                     Principal Route to            Alternative Routes to
            Technical Membership            Technical Membership                  Professional Membership        Professional Membership


        For indication only. For details, please refer to the Constitution and Bye-Laws of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors.




    The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
Building Surveying Division




The Building Surveyor                                     inception, completion to operation. They are
                                                          available to provide tailor-made services for Clients



A
         Building Surveyor is as the name implies,        engaging in property development.
         a ‘Sur veyor of Buildings’. A Building
         Surveyor’s core expertise is as described        Site Acquisition Stage
         below.
                                                          The Building Surveyor acts as Project Consultant in
Survey of New Buildings                                   advising on the development potential regarding
                                                          technical and legal implications as follows:
• Building control in Buildings Department, HKSAR         • Restric tions imp osed under the Buildings
  Government;                                                Ordinance, lease conditions and Town Planning
• Technical advice on legal restrictions – Buildings         Ordinance and also on potential construction
  Ordinance, Town Planning and Land Leases;                  difficulties;
• Development consultanc y and project                    • Financial and time considerations affected by
  monitoring; and                                            the construction aspects; and
• Projec t management during development                  • Preparation, f inaliz ation and execution of
  stage.                                                     Joint Venture Agreements and Public Private
                                                             Partnership.
                                                                                                                                           
Survey of Existing Buildings
                                                          Development Stage (including Construction Stage)




                                                                                                                             The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
• Building maintenance management (both in the
  private and public sectors);                            The Building Surveyor acts as Project Manager (or
• Diagnosis of building defec ts as ‘Building             Project Consultant) to monitor the development
  Doctor’;                                                and construction process so that the buildings are
• Building and fire safety inspections;                   constructed principally on time, within budget and
• Alterations & Additions, refurbishment and              with the desired quality. The major functions of the
  renovation;                                             Project Manager are:
• Conservation, restoration and rehabilitation of         • Preparation of feasibility studies and Client brief;
  historic heritage;                                      • Preparation of budgets and master programme;
• Licence application;                                    • Appointment of the design team, sub-consultants,
• Fire insurance valuation;                                 main contractor, sub-contractors and suppliers;
• Facilities and property management;                     • Management of the design process and selection
• Building surveys prior to purchase, during hand           of materials;
  over or arising from building disputes;                 • Coordination of Government approvals;
• Expert witness, mediation and arbitration;              • Contract administration and coordinating the
• Advise on occupational requirements, spatial              approval of shop drawings, samples, variations
  planning and management; and                              and claims;
• Management of fitting-out works.                        • Project monitoring – time, cost and quality
                                                            controls; and
Building Surveyors in private practices are involved      • Undertaking financial control – cash flow, interim
in all stages of the development process from               payments and final account procedures.




                                                The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
    Pre-Completion Stage                                                  •   Licensing Authority, Home Affairs Department;
                                                                          •   Hospital Authority;
    • Advising on capital costs, running costs and                        •   Urban Renewal Authority;
      replacement costs for fire insurance purposes;                      •   Hong Kong Housing Society;
    • Advising on maintenance strategy and preparation                    •   Mass Transit Railway Corporation;
      of operation and maintenance manuals, as-built                      •   Academic institutions and others.
      drawings and specialists handbooks; and
    • Coordinating and approving (on behalf of Clients)                   Private Practices and NGOs
      of Alterations and Additions works to building
      and building services proposed by tenants and                       • Private and listed property developers;
      occupiers.                                                          • Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, English School
                                                                            Foundation, Salvation Army; and
    After Completion                                                      • Local and major international proper t y
                                                                            consultants offering comprehensive Building
    Building Sur veyors play a major role in the                            Surveying Services.
    management and maintenance of properties after
    their completion.                                                     Expertise of Building Surveyors
    • Advising on construction and legal constraints
      prior to letting and coordinating the fitting out                   Exper tise possessed by professional Building
      works;                                                              Surveyors can be summarized and grouped in the
    • Advising on licensing requirements for licensed                     following nine core areas of services undertaken on
      premises (e.g. restaurants, hotels, child care                      behalf of Clients:
      centres, kindergarten, home for the elderly, etc.)                  • Project Planning and Design;
      and coordination of the fitting out works;                          • Project Management and Monitoring;
    • Advising on maintenance strategy, planning and                      • Pr o j e c t Su p e r v is i o n ( i n cl u d i n g a c t i n g as
      implementation of maintenance programmes,                              Technically Competent Persons required by
      from day-to-day to long term;                                          Buildings Department);
    • Condition surveys of existing buildings and                         • Project Revitalization (Alterations and Additions,
      preparation of schedule of dilapidation. Advising                      Conservation, Improvement, Refurbishment and
      on diagnosis of building defects, remedial works                       Renovation);
      and costs; Advising on effects and remedial                         • Building Maintenance Management;
      actions including litigation and compensation;                      • Building Surveys and Fire Insurance Valuations;
   • Alterations, additions and improvements to                          • Building and Fire Safety Inspections and Works
      existing buildings. Conversion of existing                             Supervision;
      buildings to modern uses and upgrading their                        • Facilities and Property Management; and
      provisions to meet current requirements;                            • Dispute Resolution (Expert Witness, Mediation
    • Improvement works required under the Fire                              and Arbitration).
      Safety (Commercial Premises) Ordinance;
    • Acting as expert witness in court and arbitrator                    Building Surveyor’s Vision
      in building and contract disputes; and
    • Design and management of conser vation,
      restoration and rehabilitation of historic heritage                     Whenever there is a building need, be it of a
      projects.                                                               new building or existing building, a Building
                                                                              Surveyor will be able to help find a satisfactory
    Profile of Employment                                                     solution.

    Building Surveyors are employed in both private
    and public sectors or engaged in private practices
    serving Clients of different concerns.

    H K SAR G ove r nm e nt an d Q uasi - G ove r nm e nt
    Agencies

    • Buildings Department;
    • Housing Department;
    • Architectural Services Department;




    The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
General Practice Division




The General Practice Surveyor                                Valuation of Properties




L
       and is a strategic resource for operation             General Practice Surveyors value all types of landed
       and an investment asset. Interest in land or          properties for various purposes. The range of
       property is bought and sold for residential,          valuation services covers:
       retail, office and industrial uses. These uses
require careful planning, continuous management              • Valuations for sale, purchase, let ting and
and improvement; properties are also developed                 mortgage purposes.
as direct investments or securitized and if they             • Statutory valuations relating to resumption,
are professionally managed, their values will be               rating, stamp duty, and other taxation purposes.
enhanced.                                                    • Valuations of company portfolios for balance
                                                               sheet purposes, company floatation, takeovers
General Practice Surveyors through their profess-              and mergers.
ional training, skill and knowledge are in a position        • Feasibility studies on all types of properties.
to offer timely and effective advice in connection           • Acting as an expert witness, independent valuer
with the development, use and management of                    or arbitrator in valuation disputes.
the property resources both for operational needs
and investment purposes. They are concerned with             Development and Town Planning Consultancy
                                                                                                                                              
the planning, development, use, management,
leases administration and valuation of land and              Real estate development is a complex process,




                                                                                                                                The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
buildings; negotiation of sales and lettings by              which needs professional expertise and judgment.
private treaty and sale by tender or auction; financial      Through proper training and experience, General
and economic aspects of investment in property.              Practice Surveyors can provide a comprehensive
And contemporaneously, because of the General                range of professional services covering:
Practice Surveyors’ understanding of the principles of
investment and asset pricing, the profession is ready        • Market studies and evaluation of development
to respond to the mounting demand for valuation                opportunities.
of trade-related business assets and business                • Negotiation with Government on modification,
enterprises.                                                   surrender and regrant of land leases.
                                                             • Applications and appeals to Town Planning
The services offered by General Practice Surveyors             Board in respect of change of uses.
can be wide and varied. They range from professional         • Preparation of detailed financial assessments,
and agency services connected with the investiga-              cash f low studies and expenditure control
tion, valuation, planning, development, acquisition,           systems throughout the development period.
disposal and management of property to more                  • Preparation of development and design briefs.
recently, valuation of franchises and intangibles. The       • Constant monitoring of the development to
major roles played by General Practice Surveyors are           ensure that it meets the client’s requirements
as follows:                                                    and reflects market needs.




                                                   The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Sales, Lettings and Auctions                                          Business Valuation

     General Practice Surveyors, on behalf of clients,                     Contemporarily, experienced General Practice
     negotiate the purchase, sale or leasing of all types                  Surveyors are engaged to provide independent
     of land and buildings. They may act as auctioneers                    valuation of trade-related business assets and
     in the disposal of properties or as owner’s agents in                 business enterprises in connection with mergers
     selling properties by private treaty or tender. They                  and acquisitions activities in Hong Kong and
     may also advise on marketing strategy and on the                      mainland China.
     preparation of sale and lease documents.
                                                                           Apart from their work in the private practice,
     Property and Asset Management                                         General Practice Surveyors are also employed
                                                                           by the Hong Kong SAR Government in various
     In a society of rising user expectations, good                        departments such as the Lands Department,
     quality professional management services are an                       Rating and Valuation Depar tment and
     essential element to sustain and enhance the value                    Housing Department to handle work including
     of the property. General Practice Surveyors have                      government land disposal, resumption, rating,
     been involved in the management of all types of                       taxation, public housing and home ownership
     properties. They negotiate with tenants on rent                       scheme so on and so forth.
     review, lease renewal and re-letting of premises.
     They also advise on situations of refurbishment/
     r e n ov ati o n a n d r e d eve l o p m e nt . Up o n t h e
     securitization of proper ties, General Practice
     Surveyors will also contribute their expertise to
     the long range investment strategy and property
     portfolio planning.




0




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
Land Surveying Division




The Land Surveyor                                              • Setting out of land boundaries; and
                                                               • Preparation of certified plans for subdivision of



B
         roadly speaking, land surveying is an art of            land parcels.
         position fixing. Surveyors involve themselves
         in all sorts of civil engineering works and land      Engineering Surveying
         developments such as building houses, roads,
bridges, canals, viaducts, defining property boundar-          This type of surveying relates closely to civil
ies, preparing plans from various surveys and managing         engineering projects. The preparation of initial survey
properties. Closely related to the development of              plans for detail design, setting out of critical points
civilisation of mankind throughout the world, the              for construction and the measurement of earthwork
profession has contributed to the transformation               quantities for payment are types of works under this
of sparsely populated and undeveloped areas into               category. Land Surveyors are actively involved in
modern industrial and commercial metropolises. Like            the construction of roads, flyovers, bridges, seawalls,
other professions, advancement of technology has led           railways, tunnels and skyscrapers. Land surveying
to specialisation and land surveying is of no exception.       techniques are also being used in industries like
                                                               shipbuilding, aircraft construction and fixing of
Cadastral Surveying                                            machinery where high precision on position
                                                               determination is required. Monitoring of unstable
                                                                                                                                          
Cadastral Surveying is concerned with the physical             structures, reservoirs, bridges, slopes, and areas is part
determination of boundaries and areas of land                  of the works that may not be familiar to the public but




                                                                                                                                  The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
properties. It is always advisable for landowners              important in protecting lives and properties. Major
and developers to ascertain the boundaries and area            services provided under this category are:
entitlements of their properties by land boundary
surveys prior to any land development. There are               • Preparation of initial site survey plans;
at present two legislations in Hong Kong which                 • Preparation of photo mosaics superimposed with
provide for the control of professional services in              engineering layouts for planning of engineering
this aspect. Registered Professional Surveyors of the            projects;
Land Surveying Division [RPS(LS)] registered under             • Computation of construction alignments for civil
the Surveyors Registration Ordinance and Authorised              engineering works;
Land Surveyors [ALS] registered under the Land                 • Setting out pre-determined positions for
Survey Ordinance are well-qualified professionals                construction;
to conduct land boundary surveys. Under the Land               • Measurement of earthwork quantities; and
Survey Ordinance, any legal instrument effecting a             • Monitoring of unstable structures, bridges,
subdivision of land must be accompanied by a land                reservoirs, slopes and areas.
boundary plan prepared and certified by an ALS for
registration with the Land Registry. The main services         Geodetic Surveying
provided by RPS(LS) and ALS include:
                                                               The purpose of Geodetic Surveying is to establish a
• Re-establishment of land boundaries for valuation,           very accurate main survey framework. It involves the
  land transaction and various land development                establishment of a national network of horizontal and
  purposes;                                                    vertical reference points covering an entire territory.




                                                     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Land Surveyors use very precise equipment for taking                  Mapping, a much wider application of digital map
     measurement over a large area for establishment of                    data throughout government, business and industry
     accurate survey network. With the advancement of                      can be achieved.
     space technology, Land Surveyors often use a satellite
     system, called Global Positioning System (GPS), for                   Land Information Management
     measuring points which are many or even hundred
     kilometers apart.                                                     In the Land Information Management aspects, Land
                                                                           Surveyors are engaged in the collection, integration
     In the Hong Kong SAR, the Lands Department of the                     and dissemination of a wide range of spatial
     Government establishes and maintains the main                         information. With the use of geographic information
     survey framework. Trigonometrical stations situated                   system technology, Land Information Management is
     on hilltops, traverses installed along the roadside                   rapidly penetrating a number of application domains
     and benchmarks on bedrock constitute the geodetic                     such as environmental conservation, urban planning,
     control point system. By connecting to the network,                   pollution control, transport management, emergency
     any survey can be tied together with respect to a                     rescues and many others. Land surveying is the most
     unique reference system. In fact, the position of                     basic activity to create and maintain building blocks
     many land boundaries, roads, railways, bridges and                    for the setting up of geographic information systems
     construction works are referred to this system. Major                 and Land Surveyors are in a good position to make
     services provided under this category are:                            valuable contributions to these systems.

     • Taking precise observation and maintaining the                      Photogrammetric Surveying
       monuments of networks of horizontal and vertical
       reference points;                                                   Photogrammetry is the science of measurement by
     • Establishment of a territorial common reference                     means of photographs or digital imagery.
       system; and
     • Detecting and measuring the movement of the                         The photographs and digital imagery can be captured
       earth’s crust for scientific research and reducing                  on ground, under water and in air. Photogrammetric
       the impact of natural disaster.                                     Surveying is the method of producing graphic plans,
                                                                           digital data, and computer models from photographs
     Topographic Surveying and Digital Mapping                             or digital imagery. Major services/products provided
                                                                           under this category are:
     Mapping is a national service for security and
   development. Maps have been in use for thousands                      •   Digital mapping;
     of years. Besides being a principal means of position                 •   Digital terrain model;
     locator, accurate maps are necessary for effective                    •   Orthophoto/othoimage;
     management of our environment.                                        •   3D digital map;
                                                                           •   Deformation monitoring;
     With the use of emerging technology in the                            •   Landslide investigation; and
     Topographic Surveying and map revision, the                           •   Antiquities and heritage sites recording.
     complete series of 1:1000 scale maps covering the
     whole territory of Hong Kong have been available                      Hydrographic Surveying
     in digital form. Digital topographic information is
     the basic building block to support the sustainable                   Safe navigation and subaqueous construction
     development, natural resources management,                            require an accurate knowledge of the depth and
     environmental protection, urban planning and utilities                topography of the seabed. Land Surveyors have used
     management. Additionally, Digital Mapping forms                       different techniques including the Differential Global
     the basic foundation for other information systems                    Positioning System (DGPS) in the hydrographic survey
     such as community services information systems,                       for positioning. In harbours and their approaches, the
     electronic street guide systems, natural disaster                     depth has to be constantly monitored. As the seabed
     management systems, transport management                              is hidden from the naked eyes, its profile is determined
     systems and many others. It is foreseeable that many                  by an echo sounder which sends sound waves down
     disciplines will benefit from Digital Mapping. As the                 to the bottom of the sea and calculates the depth by
     advancement of technology has resulted in lower                       measuring the time required for the signal to return
     system costs and continual improvements in Digital                    to the surface.




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
In the Hong Kong SAR, the Government has taken
over responsibilities from the British Admiralty for
producing navigation charts for the Hong Kong
Waters. Major services provided under this category
are:

• Measurement of water current;
• Bottom sampling;
• Location of rocks, lights, buoys and wrecks;
• Determination of channel depths and preparation
  of charts;
• Determination of subaqueous excavation
  quantities; and
• Collection of any information relating to marine
  navigation.




                                                                                                                                    




                                                                                                                             The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors




                                                The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Planning & Development Division




     The Planning & Development Surveyor                                   Town Planning Applications




     R
             eal estate development is a complex                           Depending on the statutory town plan zoning that
             process which requires professional input                     the development site falls within, development on it
             of various kinds throughout different stages                  may require prior approval from the Town Planning
             of the process, from project inception to its                 Board. Planning & Development Surveyors can
     completion. Planning & Development Surveyors,                         advise on zoning implications and the strategy to
     as a town planning and development consultant,                        submit planning applications, review and or appeal;
     can provide a comprehensive range of professional                     and coordinate with other professional experts to
     services to suit the specific needs of their clients.                 prepare the necessary technical impact assessments
                                                                           to support the planning application. Professional
     Property Development                                                  services may also be provided in submitting planning
     Development Feasibility Study                                         objection to gazetted town plans to safeguard the
                                                                           interests of land owners.
     Prior to inception of a development proposal,
     Planning & Development Surveyors provide clients                      Development Project Management
     with necessary site search and detailed analysis, and
     advise them on property values and appropriate                        Property development requires a wide range of input

     land acquisition strategies. They conduct detailed                    from various disciplines. Planning & Development
     market research to understand specific markets and                    Surveyors can help to set up a right team for
     recommend the appropriate type and mix of land                        development projects with team members coming
     uses, and the optimal scale of development with a                     in at an appropriate time during the process; monitor
     view to maximizing project return while minimizing                    the project progress against the development
     the risks. Development appraisal, covering land                       programme; advise on re-distribution of resources;
     and property valuation, cash flow analysis, project                   and to resolve issues arising during the development
     return estimation, sensitivity analysis, etc., can be                 process.
     undertaken to test the viability of the development
     proposal under different scenarios.                                   Project Evaluation

     Land Administration Input                                             In order to update the clients on the change
                                                                           in financial position of the project, Planning &
     Planning & Development Surveyors specialize in                        Development Surveyors will carry out continual
     the interpretation of lease conditions; can advise                    evaluation of the development proposal throughout
     on compliance with the lease conditions or any                        the development process. It is done by inputting
     modifications to the lease conditions required; can                   the actual cash inflow and outflow as well as a
     act for the land owner to submit an application to the                more accurate forecast on future income and
     Lands Department for a modification (or surrender                     expenditure into the financial model. A regular
     and re-grant) of their land lease, negotiate with                     review of the property market trends can ensure that
     the Government on the lease terms and conditions                      the development meets the client’s requirements
     (including the land premium); and assist in the                       apart from the supply and demand situation in the
     execution of the lands document.                                      market.




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
Town Planning
Public Sector

Planning & Development Surveyors are involved
in the formulation of planning, land, housing,
environmental and other development strategies and
policies; participate in the preparation of statutory
town plans under the Town Planning Ordinance
and the non-statutory departmental and layout
plans. Major development briefs are also prepared
to guide development. Through the statutory and
non-statutory plans, they regulate and control
the type of land use and property development
permitted having regard to the relevant planning
policies, the environmental context and specific site
characteristics.

Private Sector

Planning & Development Surveyors advise clients
on the extent to which the use and value of their
land and property would be affected by town
planning and environmental policies. The most
common professional services include preparation,
coordination and /or submission of planning
applications, master layout plans, rezoning requests
and planning objections; acting on behalf of clients
in making written representations; and attending
hearing in planning review, appeal cases according
to the Town Planning Board and Appeal Board
proceedings respectively.

Other Common Professional Services                                                                                                   




                                                                                                                              The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
Planning & Development Surveyors also assist
clients in site planning and advise on urban design
matters together with the relevant design experts.
They also specialize in coordinating large-scale
planning studies usually supported by various
technical impact assessments e.g. Environmental/
Ecological Impact Assessment (EIA), Drainage Impact
Assessment (DIA), Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA),
Geological Impact Assessment (GIA), Landscape and
Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA), and Social Impact
Assessment (SIA).




                                                 The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Property & Facility Management Division




     The Property & Facility Management Surveyor




     P
               rofessional surveyors have always been                      acquire the required level of professional competence
               engaged as estate surveyors, estate director/               in three major areas of competencies. In the area of
               managers, property managers, maintenance                    Mandatory Competencies, candidates are expected
               managers, property service managers,                        to achieve general knowledge and understanding in
     facility managers, etc. in the day-to-day and strategic               all of the following:
     management of properties, assets, and estates in the                  • Core skills: ethics, knowledge of HKIS structure,
     public and private sectors. We have contributed to the                    rules and regulations;
     professionalism, quality and excellence of the property               • Basic business and communication skills: self
     management of governmental, corporate and private                         management and customer care;
     commercial, industrial and residential buildings. Our                 • Information technology: analysis of information
     responsibilities are wide ranging and have included                       and data;
     the following: strategic facility planning; asset                     • Law: dispute resolution and conflict avoidance;
     management; space planning management; real                               and
     estate design and management; operation and                           • Health, safety and environmental awareness
     maintenance; property management; corporate real
   estate and related services.                                          They are also required to acquire general knowledge
                                                                           and understanding in two of the following Optional
     Employment of PFMS                                                    Skills: Business management, Organisational
                                                                           Leadership, Negotiation Skills; Managing People
     Professional Surveyors are employed in over 140                       and Resources, Recruitment and Selection; and
     organisations spreading across 10 different sectors.                  Accounting Principles and Procedures.
     This includes Government, Government agencies,
     public corporations, developers, property and facility                Candidates may choose two out of the following
     management services providers, multi-national                         four Core Competencies and engage themselves in
     companies, international real estate consultants. We                  such breadth and depth in knowledge application
     provide in-house or consultancy services in strategic                 and analysis with the ability to give advice. These
     facility planning, asset management, space planning                   competencies are grouped under Property Asset
     management, real estate design and management,                        Management, Corporate Real Estate, Project
     operation and maintenance, property management,                       Management, and Property Management. Finally
     corporate real estate and related services.                           candidates are required to achieve general knowledge
                                                                           and understanding in two of the following five
     Training and Competencies                                             Non-Core Competencies: Finance Management,
                                                                           Human Resources and Organisation Management,
     After obtaining the relevant academic qualification,                  Information Technology and Communication
     candidates wanting to become Property & Facility                      Management, Quality and Performance Management
     Management Surveyors are required to undergo at                       and Benchmarking, and Major Research. This will lead
     least 400 days of recognized professional training to                 to the knowledge necessary to be an outstanding
                                                                           Property & Facility Management Surveyor.




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
Quantity Surveying Division




The Quantity Surveyor                                         Once a cost plan is prepared, and a realistic estimate
                                                              agreed, effective cost planning ensures that



Q
          uantity Surveyors are professionals                 everything that follows is in accord with the plan,
          who have been trained as construction               from the acceptance of the successful contractor’s
          cost consultants. They possess expert               tender to the final project cost.
          knowledge of costs, values, finance,
contractual arrangements and legal matters                    In planning construction costs, maintenance and
pertaining to the construction field.                         running costs are borne in mind, thus helping to
                                                              achieve a project that is cost effective throughout
Quantity Surveyors provide appropriate services to            its life.
suit diverse needs and the majority of their employers
or clients include professional quantity surveying            Cost Control & Financial Management
firms, private developers, corporations, Government
departments and related bodies, building and civil            Cost control is one of the most important processes in
engineering contractors, insurance companies etc.             any capital project. The basic objectives are to achieve
                                                              for the client the best value for money, to maintain the
Quantity Surveyors are equipped to provide                    required balance of expenditure between the various
advice concerning various disciplines ranging                 parts of the project, and to keep the final expenditure
                                                                                                                                        
from building construction, and civil and structural          within the client’s approved budget.
engineering, to petro-chemical installations and




                                                                                                                                 The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
mineral extraction.                                           When clients, or their consultants, decide to effect
                                                              changes to the designs and introduce variations,
Preliminary Cost Advice                                       Quantity Surveyors rapidly assess and report the cost
                                                              implications of the changes.
From the outset, Quantity Surveyors give practical
advice on the likely cost of a project. Cost studies          In principle, cost control consists of three basic steps;
and advice including, but not limited to, alternative         namely:
design solutions, structural forms, choice of materials,
construction sequences and maintenance costs are              • establishing an overall cost target;
also prepared. From such information, a detailed cost         • checking any deviations that affect the cost target;
plan is developed for budgetary control.                        and
                                                              • taking such remedial action as is necessary to
Cost Planning                                                   preserve the target.

Cost planning is a specialist technique developed by          In practice, the process of cost control embraces a
Quantity Surveyors. Its aim is to help all members            range of professional activities such as cost analyses
of the design team – architects, engineering                  of earlier projects, cost planning/estimating, cost
consultants, interior design specialists and the like         studies of alternative construction options, cost
– to jointly maximize practical and aesthetic design          checking during the design stage, cost reconciliation
solutions for a project whilst keeping within the             during the tendering stage, and cost monitoring
Client’s budget.                                              during the construction stage.




                                                    The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Cost planning facilitates improved economic                           element in effective cost control as well as the basis
     standards, and so better value for money, during                      for the valuation of variations.
     the design stage, whilst constant monitoring during
     the construction phase ensures that the risk of                       On occasions, the situation may warrant other forms
     overspending is identified early so that prompt                       of tendering and contractual arrangements. These
     corrective action may be taken.                                       include design and build, guaranteed maximum
                                                                           price, construction management, prime cost contract
     Cost estimates and financial reports, which are                       and cost plus, to name just a few. Quantity Surveyors
     regularly produced by Quantity Surveyors, form an                     provide advice on the best choice of contractual
     important aspect of the financial management of                       arrangement to suit the circumstances of each
     capital projects. Periodic financial reports enable                   individual project.
     clients to anticipate and control their future financial
     commitments.                                                          Tendering

     Value Management                                                      Competitive tendering of one kind or another
                                                                           remains the usual basis for awarding construction
     Value management is a systematic approach to                          contracts, and bills of quantities are fundamental
     eliminate waste from a design or client’s brief,                      to this process. Bills of quantities translate the
     while at the same time retaining the safety and key                   drawings, plans and specifications produced by the
     functions of the project.                                             designer into a document that enables a contractor
                                                                           to calculate his tender price fairly and accurately, on
     The objective of value management is to provide                       exactly the same basis as his competitors.
     the project functions to the required standard and
     quality having regard to the best value for the money                 Valuation of Construction Works
     expended. This does not necessarily mean at the
     lowest initial cost, but the highest value considering                In most construction contracts, the contractor is
     all factors impacting upon the project as a whole.                    paid monthly. Quantity Surveyors prepare interim
                                                                           valuations of the work carried out on the project at
     Quantity Surveyors are well qualified to lead value                   regular intervals and submit recommendations for
     management studies on a project. The structured                       payment.
     nature of value management permits the project
     team to obtain a clearer understanding of the                         Quantity Surveyors are normally retained throughout
   project functions and objectives hence being able to                  and beyond the completion of the project in order
     reduce unnecessary costs. Value management also                       to facilitate the settlement of the accounts, when all
     addresses the whole life implications of the building                 necessary adjustments are dealt with. If required,
     design both in terms of cost and the client’s business                they will also prepare any analyses of the final
     objectives.                                                           account that may be required, prepare statements
                                                                           of expenditure for tax or accountancy purposes,
     Procurement Methods                                                   and assess the project’s replacement value for
                                                                           insurance.
     Quantity Surveyors have the expertise, knowledge
     and tools required in the selection of the “right”                    Financial Claims & Programme Analysis
     contractors and suppliers for any given project.
                                                                           Quantity Surveyors also prepare, and provide
     No two projects are the same. Most major projects                     specialist advice and responses to claims,
     (and many smaller ones) are individual challenges                     counterclaims and the like, for both time and money,
     and need individual solutions.                                        including:

     The most common method of procurement is through                      • extension of time analysis: forensic analysis and
     competitive tendering based on a variety of forms of                    delay demonstration techniques;
     contract and options. The bills of quantities prepared                • delay and disruption: time slicing, project analysis
     by Quantity Surveyors have been used world-wide                         and productivity analysis; and
     as the basis of tendering for many decades. During                    • direct loss and/or expense: preparation of claims,
     construction, bills of quantities also form a crucial                   responses to claims, auditing and analysis.




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
Dispute Resolution

If disputes arise, Quantity Surveyors offer the
following expertise and technical knowledge:

• independent appraisal of the strengths and
  weaknesses of an employer’s and/or a contractor’s
  case concerning quantum;
• technical advice and assistance throughout the
  dispute resolution process;
• preparation of particularized documents including
  technical position papers, assistance with
  pleadings, further and better particulars and
  witness statements; and
• when suitably experienced, to act as expert
  witnesses for quantum or other associated
  specialist areas.

Insurance Advice

Quantity Surveyors may choose to pursue their
career in the field of construction insurance. The
construction insurance professionals work in a
variety of capacities in different organisations;
examples of which include:

• insurance administration personnel working
  for contractors/developers/consultants/
  public entities/Government/insurers/or other
  employers;
• loss adjusters for loss adjusting firms on behalf of
  the insurers;
• underwriting personnel for insurance brokers/                                                                                       
  insurers; and




                                                                                                                               The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors
• risk assessment personnel for insurance broker/
  insurers.




                                                  The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007
     Young Surveyors Group




     T
             he Young Surveyors Group (YSG) is a section                   Development Council, with senior members
             of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors                       appointed by the General Council and Divisions.
             representing the interests of more than 3,500                 Furthermore, educational visits to universities and
             members – comprising student members,                         promotional visits to colleges and schools have been
     probationers and young qualified members of all                       organised to communicate with undergraduates of
     divisions – the power of the surveying profession                     universities and to promote the surveying profession
     in future.                                                            respectively.

     A YSG representative, usually the Chairman of
     YSG, sits on the General Council and Executive
     Committee of the Institute and YSG representatives
     are nominated to various Divisions, Boards, Panels,
     Committees and Working Groups of the Institute
     in order to express the views from YSG members’
     perspective.

     YSG organises CPD ( Continuing Professional
     D eve l o p m e nt ) and PQSL ( Pre - Q u a li f i c ati o n
0
     Struc tured Learning ) events to provide
     opportunities for our members to learn from
     outstanding personalities of the industry, academic
     or government and also help student members to
     tackle the Assessment of Professional Competence
     (APC). It organises and participates in various
     social events such as leadership training, sports
     competition, dragon boat competition, volunteering
     services, fund raising campaigns, annual dinner and
     wine tasting training. Apart from the traditional
     events, it continues to create new themes for
     members such as goodwill visits to the Mainland and
     other professional institutions. These are introduced
     to provide an excellent opportunity for YSG members
     to train their presentation skills and learn from
     celebrities within our society.

     Beyond the Institute, YSG encourages young
     members to participate in different kinds of
     activities. For example, YSG members are actively
     involved in the annual Education & Careers Expo
     and HK Real Estates Service Expo in Mainland,
     which are organised by the Hong Kong Trade and




     The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors Directory and Annual Report 2006-2007

				
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