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					Yu Xiang
Kang Ming
Chuan Hoe
Yong Yao
Glenn
Wayne
 Green Revolution refers to a series of research,
  development, and technology transfer initiatives,
  occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s, that
  increased industrialized agriculture production in
  India.
 The initiatives involved the development of high-
  yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of
  irrigation infrastructure, and distribution of
  hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and
  pesticides to farmers.
 From the dictionary:
“A significant increase in agricultural
  productivity resulting from the introduction
  of high-yield varieties of grains, the use of
  pesticides, and improved management
  techniques.”
   Massive increase in food production and
    supply
   Decrease in food shortage
   Decrease in in malnutrition, under nutrition,
    hunger-related diseases & deaths from
    starvation
   Increase in income for the farmers
   Surplus food available for export
   Caused by:
     Rapid improvements in yields like rice
     Introduction of high-yielding varieties
     Modern techniques ~ Irrigation to supply land with
     enough water

     HYVs are created through the cross-breeding of 2
     similar plant species with desired traits like fast
     maturation
High Rice productivity
 Shorter growing season
 More resistant to pest intrusion and diseases


Higher Standard of living
 More harvest can be sold for money
 Buy more inputs
 Gives farmers chances to break out of the poverty
 cycle
   Countries are able to provide for themselves
    without importing from other countries
   Less dependent on others for food supply
   Achieve food security in the country
   Decrease starvation rate as more people have
    enough food to eat
   Malnutrition are also kept at bay
  Environmental impact
1. Pesticides
2. Water
3. Biodiversity
 Health impact
 Socioeconomic impacts
   Green Revolution agriculture relies on
    extensive use of pesticides, which are
    necessary to limit the high levels of pest
    damage that inevitably occur in
    monocropping - the practice of producing or
    growing one single crop over a wide area.
   Industrialized agriculture with its high yield
    varieties are extremely water intensive.
   In the US, agriculture consumes 70% of all
    fresh water resources
   The spread of Green Revolution agriculture
    affected both agricultural biodiversity and
    wild biodiversity
   Land degradation and soil nutrients depletion
    have forced farmers to clear up formerly
    forested areas in order to keep up with
    production as there is a growing human
    population.
   Thus many wildlife are lost.
   The consumption of the chemicals and
    pesticides used to kill pests by humans in
    some cases may be increasing the likelihood
    of cancer in some of the rural villages using
    them.
   Poor farming practices including non-
    compliance to usage of masks and over-
    usage of the chemicals compound this
    situation
   The transition from traditional agriculture, in
    which inputs were generated on-farm, to
    Green Revolution agriculture, which required
    the purchase of inputs, led to the widespread
    establishment of rural credit institutions.
   Smaller farmers often went into debt, which
    in many cases results in a loss of their
    farmland
   The increased level of mechanization on
    larger farms made possible by the Green
    Revolution removed a large source of
    employment from the rural economy.
    Because wealthier farmers had better access
    to credit and land, the Green Revolution
    increased class disparities. The rich - poor gap
    widened due to that
Africa
   World’s largest and second most populous
    continent.
   Poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and
    inadequate water supply and sanitation affect
    a large population of the people who reside in
    the African continent.
   Number of attempts to introduce the
    successful concepts from the Mexican and
    Indian projects into Africa.
   Wanted food security for Africa
   Avert Famine and spur national economic
    development
   Investments in African agriculture must focus
    on the continent's high-potential
    breadbasket areas.
    These areas have relatively good soil,
    rainfall, and infrastructure—and could
    rapidly transition from areas of chronic
    food scarcity to breadbaskets of
    abundance.
   These programs have generally been less
    successful, for a number of reasons.
   Widespread corruption
   Insecurity
   Lack of infrastructure
   General lack of will on the part of the
    government
   There are reasons why the Green revolution is
    not so successful in Africa.
     Unavailability of water for irrigation
     High diversity in slope and soil types in one given
     area
   A recent program to introduce a new high-
    yield variety of rice known as “New Rice for
    Africa” (NERICA)
   It yields about 30% more rice under normal
    conditions, and is able to double yields with
    small amounts of fertilizer and very basic
    irrigation.
   Beset by problems getting the rice into the
    hands of farmers, and to date, the only
    success has been in Guinea, where it currently
    accounts for 16% of rice cultivation
   Agronomists, agro-ecologists,
    environmentalist urged African government
    to reject the project which got a 150 million
    infusion, whose plan was to improve African
    seed and distribution over the next 5 years.
   After a famine in 2001, and years of chronic
    hunger and poverty .
   The African country of Malawi launched the
    agricultural subsidy program in 2005, by
    which vouchers are given to smallholder
    farmers to buy subsidized nitrogen fertilizers
    and maize seeds.
   Within the first year, It was successful,
    producing the largest maize harvest of the
    country’s history.
   It has been more and more successful ever
    since, donors have changed their policies on
    agricultural subsidies and begun funding
    Malawi’s program and developing several
    other coordinating programs in the country.
Case Study on Green Revolution
INDIA
   India's food-grains production has hovered around a fifth of a
    billion tonnes mark in recent years. More than self-sufficient,
    India frequently exports its surpluses. India in 55 years has
    emerged from famine ridden colonial times, as a famine free
    Republic.
   Its population has nearly tripled in that period. More
    significantly, India in 1947,lost some of its most fertile lands.
    But she has managed to stand up and falsify many
    prophesies of doom. India was the greatest success story of
    the Green Revolution.
   3 million people died
   India’s farmers were heavily taxed and left to
    fend for themselves and the monsoons.
   They began the 1940s with falling, failing
    crops.
   Due to World War 2, India had to contribute
    to the war effort.
   'war effort' meant seizure of farm produce,
    banning of grain trade and turning the gaze
    away from the countryside.
   Soon, citizens arrive in Kolkata looking for
    food. Fearing that declaring an official famine
    would mandate supplying food diverted from
    its armed forces, the Empire simply let people
    die in the streets.
   Within three years, with the war won, the
    British upped and left a traumatized,
    dismembered India.
   After the US won the war, the army marched
    into Japan.
   S. Cecil Salmon of the US Agricultural
    Research Service was focused on agriculture
    and that was how he chanced upon the
    legendary Norin strain of wheat that was to
    trigger the Revolution.
   He sent it back to the US for further study.
   In the US, many prototypes were bred and
    they finally created in 1959 the Gaines dwarf.
   They then crossed it with Mexico's best
    varieties at the International Maize and
    Wheat Research Centre there.
   By the 1960's India was desperate for a
    breakthrough.
   Political uncertainty loomed.
   Food crises were endemic.
   Total food production hung around about 50
    million tonnes.
   Marginal increases were only through
    bringing more land area under cultivation and
    not through increases in productivity.
   A quantum leap was needed.
   Then, India discovered Borlaug and the Norin
    dwarf. A small field at Pusa was seeded and
    the results were dramatic.
   The revolution did not stop here. It has just
    begun. Many other changes have to be made
    in order for the revolutions to take place.
   The induction of an agricultural technology is
    not a mere question of buying seeds.
    Conducive policies and delivery systems have
    to exist.
   Subramaniam piloted the necessary reforms.
   To disseminate information, model farms and
    district block development offices were put in
    place.
   Seed farms were developed.
   To augment research, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research [ICAR]
    was reorganized.
   As the dwarf variety was chemicals and fertiliser intensive, new industrial
    units were licenced.
   To encourage two crops a year and monsoon-independence, irrigation
    canals and deep water wells were created.
   Policy was changed to assure guaranteed prices and markets.
   Food stock storages were created.

				
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posted:7/24/2011
language:English
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