Green Revolution refers to a series of research,
development, and technology transfer initiatives,
occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s, that
increased industrialized agriculture production in
The initiatives involved the development of high-
yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of
irrigation infrastructure, and distribution of
hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and
pesticides to farmers.
From the dictionary:
“A significant increase in agricultural
productivity resulting from the introduction
of high-yield varieties of grains, the use of
pesticides, and improved management
Massive increase in food production and
Decrease in food shortage
Decrease in in malnutrition, under nutrition,
hunger-related diseases & deaths from
Increase in income for the farmers
Surplus food available for export
Rapid improvements in yields like rice
Introduction of high-yielding varieties
Modern techniques ~ Irrigation to supply land with
HYVs are created through the cross-breeding of 2
similar plant species with desired traits like fast
High Rice productivity
Shorter growing season
More resistant to pest intrusion and diseases
Higher Standard of living
More harvest can be sold for money
Buy more inputs
Gives farmers chances to break out of the poverty
Countries are able to provide for themselves
without importing from other countries
Less dependent on others for food supply
Achieve food security in the country
Decrease starvation rate as more people have
enough food to eat
Malnutrition are also kept at bay
Green Revolution agriculture relies on
extensive use of pesticides, which are
necessary to limit the high levels of pest
damage that inevitably occur in
monocropping - the practice of producing or
growing one single crop over a wide area.
Industrialized agriculture with its high yield
varieties are extremely water intensive.
In the US, agriculture consumes 70% of all
fresh water resources
The spread of Green Revolution agriculture
affected both agricultural biodiversity and
Land degradation and soil nutrients depletion
have forced farmers to clear up formerly
forested areas in order to keep up with
production as there is a growing human
Thus many wildlife are lost.
The consumption of the chemicals and
pesticides used to kill pests by humans in
some cases may be increasing the likelihood
of cancer in some of the rural villages using
Poor farming practices including non-
compliance to usage of masks and over-
usage of the chemicals compound this
The transition from traditional agriculture, in
which inputs were generated on-farm, to
Green Revolution agriculture, which required
the purchase of inputs, led to the widespread
establishment of rural credit institutions.
Smaller farmers often went into debt, which
in many cases results in a loss of their
The increased level of mechanization on
larger farms made possible by the Green
Revolution removed a large source of
employment from the rural economy.
Because wealthier farmers had better access
to credit and land, the Green Revolution
increased class disparities. The rich - poor gap
widened due to that
World’s largest and second most populous
Poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and
inadequate water supply and sanitation affect
a large population of the people who reside in
the African continent.
Number of attempts to introduce the
successful concepts from the Mexican and
Indian projects into Africa.
Wanted food security for Africa
Avert Famine and spur national economic
Investments in African agriculture must focus
on the continent's high-potential
These areas have relatively good soil,
rainfall, and infrastructure—and could
rapidly transition from areas of chronic
food scarcity to breadbaskets of
These programs have generally been less
successful, for a number of reasons.
Lack of infrastructure
General lack of will on the part of the
There are reasons why the Green revolution is
not so successful in Africa.
Unavailability of water for irrigation
High diversity in slope and soil types in one given
A recent program to introduce a new high-
yield variety of rice known as “New Rice for
It yields about 30% more rice under normal
conditions, and is able to double yields with
small amounts of fertilizer and very basic
Beset by problems getting the rice into the
hands of farmers, and to date, the only
success has been in Guinea, where it currently
accounts for 16% of rice cultivation
environmentalist urged African government
to reject the project which got a 150 million
infusion, whose plan was to improve African
seed and distribution over the next 5 years.
After a famine in 2001, and years of chronic
hunger and poverty .
The African country of Malawi launched the
agricultural subsidy program in 2005, by
which vouchers are given to smallholder
farmers to buy subsidized nitrogen fertilizers
and maize seeds.
Within the first year, It was successful,
producing the largest maize harvest of the
It has been more and more successful ever
since, donors have changed their policies on
agricultural subsidies and begun funding
Malawi’s program and developing several
other coordinating programs in the country.
Case Study on Green Revolution
India's food-grains production has hovered around a fifth of a
billion tonnes mark in recent years. More than self-sufficient,
India frequently exports its surpluses. India in 55 years has
emerged from famine ridden colonial times, as a famine free
Its population has nearly tripled in that period. More
significantly, India in 1947,lost some of its most fertile lands.
But she has managed to stand up and falsify many
prophesies of doom. India was the greatest success story of
the Green Revolution.
3 million people died
India’s farmers were heavily taxed and left to
fend for themselves and the monsoons.
They began the 1940s with falling, failing
Due to World War 2, India had to contribute
to the war effort.
'war effort' meant seizure of farm produce,
banning of grain trade and turning the gaze
away from the countryside.
Soon, citizens arrive in Kolkata looking for
food. Fearing that declaring an official famine
would mandate supplying food diverted from
its armed forces, the Empire simply let people
die in the streets.
Within three years, with the war won, the
British upped and left a traumatized,
After the US won the war, the army marched
S. Cecil Salmon of the US Agricultural
Research Service was focused on agriculture
and that was how he chanced upon the
legendary Norin strain of wheat that was to
trigger the Revolution.
He sent it back to the US for further study.
In the US, many prototypes were bred and
they finally created in 1959 the Gaines dwarf.
They then crossed it with Mexico's best
varieties at the International Maize and
Wheat Research Centre there.
By the 1960's India was desperate for a
Political uncertainty loomed.
Food crises were endemic.
Total food production hung around about 50
Marginal increases were only through
bringing more land area under cultivation and
not through increases in productivity.
A quantum leap was needed.
Then, India discovered Borlaug and the Norin
dwarf. A small field at Pusa was seeded and
the results were dramatic.
The revolution did not stop here. It has just
begun. Many other changes have to be made
in order for the revolutions to take place.
The induction of an agricultural technology is
not a mere question of buying seeds.
Conducive policies and delivery systems have
Subramaniam piloted the necessary reforms.
To disseminate information, model farms and
district block development offices were put in
Seed farms were developed.
To augment research, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research [ICAR]
As the dwarf variety was chemicals and fertiliser intensive, new industrial
units were licenced.
To encourage two crops a year and monsoon-independence, irrigation
canals and deep water wells were created.
Policy was changed to assure guaranteed prices and markets.
Food stock storages were created.