Docstoc

ANNEXURE 2 – TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

Document Sample
ANNEXURE 2 – TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT Powered By Docstoc
					    NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN
                        (NBSAP)

                        STOCKTAKING REPORT


              PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS IS A DRAFT REPORT



Send comments, corrections, additions, suggestions, etc. to:
NBSAP Project Manager
Bev Geach



email bgeach@deat.gov.za
phone 012 310 3919
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                           ANNEXURE 2 – TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Scotty Kyle1
ORGANISATION                                     Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Resource Ecologist, Coast
DATE                                             19 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  035 – 592 0234 / 082 859 9930
                                                  rkyle@iafrica.com

1 Dr. Kyle was not interviewed. Information was extracted from the following reports:

     Kyle, S. 2003. Towards the wise use of the living resources of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland
           Park. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, Coast Research.

     Kyle, S. 2003. Resource use in KZN coastal protected areas. Part 1. Resource use in the
           Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park World Heritage Site. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, Coast
           Research.


                QUESTION                                            RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Subsistence use of terrestrial resources in
       location                                Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park World Heritage
                                                Site.
       specific species used
                                                Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park World Heritage
                                                Site.
                                                Wide variety of taxa.
2. Categorisation of use:                       Informal but much of it legal resource harvesting
       formal versus informal                  (permits administered through EKZNW). Illegal
                                                resource use is extensive but difficult to quantify.
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Neighbouring    communities     throughout the
   (category or description)?       GSLWP. Tribes are resident within the GSLWP
                                    and border on the Protected Area.
                                                Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife.
4. How are they using the resource?             Food, craft production, subsistence income,
                                                building material, fuel, medicinal purposes.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Subsistence. Communities are very poor with little
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, to no employment opportunities.               Resource
   poverty alleviation etc)?               harvesting provides limited income and food.




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 2
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over The region has a long history of terrestrial resource
   what, where and how much is used?  use.     Traditional harvesting (using low tech
                                      methods) has been sustainable but, more recently,
                                      extraction pressure has increased.            Modern
                                      subsistence use is undertaken by very poor people
                                      to satisfy daily needs or to collect funds to do so.
                                      Subsistence       collecting   is      also     being
                                      “commercialised” resulting in non-sustainable
                                      harvesting practices.        EKZNW is presently
                                      formalising “resource use” industry by drafting
                                      Operational Management Plans for specific
                                      resources along the KZN coastline (see end of
                                      document).
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable Monitoring is undertaken by EKZNW on volumes
   quantities to be harvested) if harvested. Quantification is very difficult because
   consumptive?                          regulation only occurs at limited control (access)
                                         points.
8. Is there any record of volumes used          Estimates are conservative because of the above
    Tonnes/annum                               reason (see 7.). Figures for 2002.
    Tourists per year                          Terrestrial component
    etc                                        Legal harvesting of firewood, building materials,
                                                lala leaves, medicinal plants, wild fruits worth
                                                R2 720 900.00

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated /               Residents from local villages within the protected
    governed – is preference given to any       areas and those bordering on the protected areas.
    particular user group or individuals?
10. Is     there    any    application    of    Traditional management systems of resources are
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge      eroding to be replaced by highly exploitative
    systems for management?                     methods and volumes.          EKZNW, in their
                                                Management Plans, are attempting to regulate
                                                harvesting by placing certain conditions on
                                                harvesting to ensure some level of sustainability.
11. Estimates of efficiency of use       Use is at a subsistence level and likely to be
         Know quantities/levels      of efficient. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife does not support
           waste?                        any commercial resource use from their protected
                                         areas. This, however, is a “grey” area since
         Does market price reflect real certain activities such as incema harvesting have
           value?                        become commercial.
         Other?




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 3
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                            Working Document


Additional Information
The extensive use of most terrestrial resources (firewood, building material, lala leaves, sedges,
reeds, wild fruit, incema, medicinal plants, honey, palm wine, craftwood) requires clarification and
formalisation through policy and management plans.

  In developing Operational Management Plans, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife are guided by the following
  principles of resource use.
         o   Resource use must be below sustainable levels.
         o   There must be monitoring of the resource.
         o   Use should not clash with other priority goals (e.g. harvesting of special species or
             habitats).
         o   “No use” land areas must be set aside as biological benchmarks.

A major problem associated with the harvesting of natural resources in the GSLWP by local
communities is that there are no clear boundaries demarcating the Protected Areas and that local
communities are allowed free and uncontrolled access. In addition to the above principles, Ezemvelo
KZN Wildlife intend implementing the following to regulate the subsistence use of natural resources.
        o There are certain “no go” species that may not be harvested (e.g. orchids, cycads,
             certain medicinal plants).
        o There may be no harvesting of resources using a vehicle.
        o Only local residents may harvest natural resources from an area.
        o There may be no commercial use of resources.
        o Only sustainable (traditional) harvesting techniques may be used.

Certain activities are having serious impacts on resources and will require some regulation (e.g.
harvesting of incema grass) or phasing out (e.g. gillnetting). Presently, both these activities are
undertaken legally with permits.




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 4
      737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                 CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
     Greyling, M. and Potgieter, M. In prep. Mopane worms as a key woodland resource: the use,
           trade and conservation of Imbrasia belina. In: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in
           South Africa: Policy, People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton
           and B.G.S. Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.



               QUESTION                        RESPONSE

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                  Insects as a protein resource among African
       location                               communities.
       specific species used                  Rural areas of the Limpopo Province.
                                               Mopane worm (Imbrasia belina).
2. Categorisation of use:           Informal. But there are small commercial ventures.
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Rural communities.
   (category or description)?
4. How are they using the resource? The resource provides an important dietary
                                    supplement (very seasonal) particularly in times of
                                    hardship. Mopane worms have a high crude
                                    protein content, 65% of dry weight.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Subsistence food. Traded on informal and informal
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, markets.
   poverty alleviation etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over No.      Commercialisation of the industry has
   what, where and how much is used?  definitely led to increased pressure on the
                                      resource.
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable Reports from rural communities in mopane
   quantities to be harvested) if woodland areas, newspaper reports and some
   consumptive?                          authors have indicated that the abundance of
                                         Imbrasia     bellina   caterpillars   is   declining.
                                         Exploitation for food is but one factor leading to
                                         their decline.     Additional research is required
                                         before     recommendations         on    sustainable
                                         management are forthcoming. Most important is
                                         conservation of the habitat.
8. Is there any record of volumes used         In 1982, the South African Bureau of Standards
    Tonnes/annum                              estimated that annual sales of mopane caterpillars
                                               through agricultural co-operative markets in South
    Tourists per year
                                               Africa amounted to approximately 40 000 large
    etc                                       bags, each containing 40 kg of traditionally

      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 5
      737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                               prepared, dried caterpillars (which is around 780
                                               million harvested I. belina larvae). This is equal to
                                               approximately    1600 metric      tonnes     entering
                                               reported and known channels of commerce, but it
                                               is most probably only a fraction of the volume
                                               actually consumed.

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated / Harvesting mopane worms creates employment
   governed – is preference given to any opportunities for the unskilled and particularly for
   particular user group or individuals? people living in and around mopani veld, an area
                                         which otherwise offers little industrial potential.
10. Is     there    any    application   of The knowledge and traditional practises of
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge indigenous communities may contribute to
    systems for management?                 developing sustainable harvesting strategies, while
                                            ensuring community benefit is important where
                                            conservation conflicts with people‟s livelihood
                                            needs. BUT commercialisation is a factor.
11. Estimates of efficiency of use             In 1995 the industry in Botswana (still crude and
         Know quantities/levels      of       cash only) was believed to be worth about
           waste?                              UK£4.42 million annually, while providing
                                               employment to 10 000 people.
         Does market price reflect real
           value?
         Other?




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 6
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Gerhardt Strydom
ORGANISATION                                     Mpumalanga Parks Board
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             14 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  013 – 759 5300 / 082 804 3550

There is highly exploitative and unsustainable harvesting of veld plants throughout Mpumalanga.
Illegal harvesting is especially concentrated in the Wakkerstroom, Graskop, Barberton and Dulstroom
areas. Harvesting is done to generate some income. Poverty and unemployment is high. Single
parent families exacerbate the problem. Collectors might earn R10.00 to R20.00 per month. Initiating
Medicinal Markets is one way of reducing pressure on in situ material.

                QUESTION                                            RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Tinjonjela Medicinal Plant Project.
       location                                Barberton
       specific species used                   Medicinal plants / cash crops
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal project.      DEAT funding of R1.9M.
        formal versus informal     Collaboration with MPB.
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Traditional Healers (individuals, well organised
   (category or description)?       groups) with elected President.
                                    Local community (200 direct beneficiaries)
                                                Mpumalanga Parks Board
4. How are they using the resource?             Consumptive but not destructive activity. Medicinal
                                                plants and cash crops are cultivated on a
                                                commercial scale (using agricultural principles) for
                                                local consumption and big markets (e.g. Faraday
                                                Medicinal market in Gauteng).
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Alleviate harvesting pressure on wild stocks of
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, medicinal plants in Barberton Mountain Range.
   poverty alleviation etc)?               Medicinal plants cultivated for commercial sale to
                                           Medicinal markets and local Traditional Healers.
                                                Cash crops cultivated to supplement diet and
                                                create cash flow for the venture.

REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over Seed is collected from the wild. The project is
   what, where and how much is used?  professionally managed with technical guidance
                                      from Mpumalanga Parks Board, who were directly
                                      involved during the planning and implementation
                                      phases.

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 7
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


7. Is there baseline info on sustainable No monitoring is undertaken. Adult plants are not
   quantities to be harvested) if harvested.
   consumptive?
8. Is there any record of volumes used
    Tonnes/annum
    Tourists per year
    etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated / The Project was initiated in the region specifically
   governed – is preference given to any to fulfil DEATs policy of poverty alleviation. A
   particular user group or individuals? secondary motivation was to reduce harvesting
                                         stress on in situ plant populations. The Project is
                                         managed by Traditional Healers from the
                                         Barberton district.
10. Is     there    any    application   of     Probably. Managed by Traditional Healers.
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge
    systems for management?
11. Estimates of efficiency of use              The Project is a successful commercial venture.
         Know quantities/levels         of     Town Land is used (40ha, of which 20ha is arable).
             waste?                             Cash crops are cultivated for cash flow. Big
                                                markets (e.g. Faraday) are targeted for medicinal
         Does market price reflect real        plant sales.
             value?
         Other?




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 8
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
    White, R.M., Cocks, M., Herbert, D.G. and Hamer, M.L. In prep. Traditional medicines from
         forest animals. Text box in: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy,
         People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach
         (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.



              QUESTION                                            RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description               The use of animal products in traditional
      location                               medicine.
      specific species used                  Nationwide. Has become highly commercialised.
                                              Multiple indigenous species. Mammalian parts are
                                              more frequently traded than birds, reptiles or
                                              invertebrates.
  2. Categorisation of use:           Informal because most of the trade is illegal.
      formal versus informal
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Collectors, Vendors, Traders, Traditional Healers.
     (category or description)?       Black communities nationally.
                                              Multiple Conservation agencies.
                                              Law enforcement agencies.
                                              Multiple    Government    departments     (Health,
                                              Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Water Affairs and
                                              Forestry, Environment and Tourism).
  4. How are they using the resource?         Animal products in traditional medicines are
                                              frequently used to instil a sense of power or magic
                                              to a potion.
  5. What is the interest/motivation for All levels, depending on the stakeholder.
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,
     subsistence, poverty alleviation
     etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control No. Legislation does protect certain species but
     over what, where and how much harvesting is so pervasive that any form of
     is used?                      monitoring or enforcement is unrealistic. The
                                   perception that animals are being conserved in
                                   protected areas such as indigenous state forests
                                   and reserves is false because conservation
                                   legislation is seldom enforced. The collection of
                                   animals for the traditional medicine trade is thus a
                                   cause for concern, threatening populations of
                                   individual species and potentially altering
     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 9
     737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                               ecosystem functioning
   7. Is there baseline info on No. Harvesting is destructive.
      sustainable quantities to be
      harvested) if consumptive?
   8. Is there any record of volumes No.
      used
    Tonnes/annum
    Tourists per year
    etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

   9. How are use rights allocated /           Wild animals are collected by rural hunters,
      governed – is preference given to        farmers, and the suppliers or traders themselves.
      any particular user group or             Street traders selling animal products tend to be
                                               black people. More formal trade occurs through
      individuals?
                                               store owners, who in the Eastern Cape are mostly
                                               Indian or white entrepreneurs and in KwaZulu-
                                               Natal are often Indian.
   10. Is there any application of             No.
       traditional/indigenous knowledge
       systems for management?
   11. Estimates of efficiency of use          Since the trade in animal products is known to be
        Know quantities/levels of             illegal, hunters say that store owners rarely pay
           waste?                              good money. For example, hunters may obtain
        Does market price reflect real        only R25–R50 for a bushbuck skin or R10–R45 for
           value?                              a blue duiker skin. Significant value is then added
        Other?                                as the products are usually sold to the consumer in
                                               pieces; sections of bushbuck skin approximately
                                               5cm by 5cm may cost R10.


Additional Information
Vulture poisoning is becoming very serious and is causing dramatic declines in population numbers
(S. McKean, personal communication; see Steven Piper for more details). This is occurring in
Maputaland where vultures appear to have very high value for medicinal purposes. Bearded vulture
and Cape griffon have declined dramatically in the last 10 years in the Drakensberg. Birds are
poisoned because they are “thought” to kill stock (mostly on the Lesotho side). Their medicinal value
might also be important. Will cause extinction.




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 10
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Gerhardt Strydom
ORGANISATION                                     Mpumalanga Parks Board
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             14 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  013 – 759 5300 / 082 804 3550

There is highly exploitative and unsustainable harvesting of veld plants throughout Mpumalanga.
Illegal harvesting is especially concentrated in the Wakkerstroom, Graskop, Barberton and Dulstroom
areas. Harvesting is done to generate some income. Poverty and unemployment is high. Single
parent families exacerbate the problem. Collectors might earn R10.00 to R20.00 per month. Initiating
Medicinal Markets is one way of reducing pressure on in situ material.

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

   1. Project name / description                Ebutsini Medicinal Plant Nursery.
       location                                Swazikraal region, vicinity of Oshoek border post.
       specific species used                   Undescribed species of Dioscorea, cash crops
   2. Categorisation of use:                    Formal project.    Funding from DEAT, Nestlé
       formal versus informal                  (administered by LEAP NGO). Collaboration with
                                                MPB.
   3. Who are the stakeholders / users Traditional Healers.
      (category or description)?       Mpumalanga Parks Board
   4. How are they using the resource?          Consumptive but not destructive activity. Medicinal
                                                plant nursery set up specifically to cultivate an
                                                undescribed species of Dioscorea. The population
                                                is small (107 individuals) with a very localised
                                                distribution.   Seeds are collected for ex situ
                                                cultivation and commercial sale. The plants have
                                                been tested and shown to have high levels of
                                                cortisone.
   5. What is the interest/motivation for       Alleviate harvesting pressure on wild stocks of
      the   use     (e.g.   commercial,         Dioscorea sp.
      subsistence, poverty alleviation          Ex situ cultivation of the species for commercial
      etc)?                                     sale.
                                                Cash crops cultivated to supplement diet and
                                                create cash flow for quick turnover.

REGIMES OF USE

   6. Is there management / control Seed is collected from the wild. The project is
      over what, where and how much professionally managed with technical guidance
      is used?                      from Mpumalanga Parks Board, who were directly
                                    involved during the planning and implementation

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 11
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                              phases.
  7. Is there baseline info on Yes, the entire parent population is known and
     sustainable quantities to be monitored. Adult plants are not harvested. Seed
     harvested) if consumptive?     is collected (3000 seedlings at present).
  8. Is there any record of volumes
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           The Project was initiated at the request of
      governed – is preference given to       Traditional Healers in the region. The in situ
      any particular user group or            population is small and very vulnerable to
                                              exploitation.
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             Managed by Traditional Healers.
      traditional/indigenous knowledge
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          The Project has the potential to be a successful
       Know quantities/levels of             commercial venture. The species has proven
          waste?                              medicinal value and is highly marketable. Cash
       Does market price reflect real        crops are cultivated for quick turnover. The Project
          value?                              is managed as part of a bigger project in the region
       Other?                                under the auspices of the Mlondozi Development
                                              Trust, who pays overheads and supplies capacity.




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 12
     737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Gerhardt Strydom
ORGANISATION                                     Mpumalanga Parks Board
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             14 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  013 – 759 5300 / 082 804 3550

There is highly exploitative and unsustainable harvesting of veld plants throughout Mpumalanga.
Illegal harvesting is especially concentrated in the Wakkerstroom, Graskop, Barberton and Dulstroom
areas. Harvesting is done to generate some income. Poverty and unemployment is high. Single
parent families exacerbate the problem. Collectors might earn R10.00 to R20.00 per month. Initiating
Medicinal Markets is one way of reducing pressure on in situ material.

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Phindulwandle Medicinal Plant Nursery.
         location                              Inkomati District, vicinity of Driekoppies Dam
         specific species used                 (Jeppe‟s Reef border post)
                                                Indigenous medicinal plants / cash crops
2 Categorisation of use:            Formal project. Collaboration with MPB.
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Traditional Healers (formed a Section                        21
(category or description)?          company).
                                    Mpumalanga Parks Board
4. How are they using the resource?             Medicinal plants and cash crops are cultivated on a
                                                commercial scale (using agricultural principles) for
                                                local consumption and big markets.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Commercial enterprise.       Project was initiated
use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, because of the loss of harvesting land after
poverty alleviation etc)?                  construction of the Driekoppies Dam.
                                           Medicinal plants cultivated for commercial sale to
                                           Medicinal markets and local Traditional Healers.
                                                Cash crops cultivated to supplement diet and
                                                create cash flow for the venture.

REGIMES OF USE

6 Is there management / control over Seed is collected from the wild. The project is
what, where and how much is used?    professionally managed with technical guidance
                                     from Mpumalanga Parks Board, who were directly
                                     involved during the planning and implementation
                                     phases.
7 Is there baseline info on sustainable No monitoring is undertaken. Adult plants are not
                                        harvested.
       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 13
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


quantities    to    be     harvested)  if
consumptive?
8. Is there any record of volumes used         Not yet.
     Tonnes/annum
     Tourists per year
     etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

   9. How are use rights allocated /           Local Traditional Healers became involved in the
      governed – is preference given to        project because harvesting land was lost following
      any particular user group or             the construction of the Driekoppies Dam. The
                                               Traditional Healers have formed a Section 21
      individuals?
                                               company and are the beneficiaries of the venture.
   10. Is there any application of Probably. Managed by Traditional Healers with
       traditional/indigenous knowledge technical input from MPB when required.
       systems for management?
   11. Estimates of efficiency of use   The Project is a successful commercial venture.
        Know quantities/levels of
           waste?
        Does market price reflect real
           value?
        Other?




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 14
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Coert Geldenhuys1
ORGANISATION                                     ForestWood cc
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Private consultant
DATE                                             18 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  012 – 833 277 / 082 776 1593

1 Dr. Geldenhuys was not interviewed. Information was extracted from the following manuscript:
      Geldenhuys, C. In prep. Meeting the demand for Ocotea bullata bark: implications for the
           conservation of high-value and medicinal tree species. In: Indigenous Forests and
           Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M.
           Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.


                QUESTION                                              RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

   1. Project name / description                Sustainable commercial bark harvesting from
       location                                natural forests.
       specific species used                   Umzimkulu District, KZN
                                                Black stinkwood Ocotea bullata (Specially
                                                Protected tree in terms of the KwaZulu-Natal
                                                Nature Conservation Management Amendment Act
                                                (Act 5, 1999).
   2. Categorisation of use:           Formal project. Co-operation with Department of
       formal versus informal         Water Affairs and Forestry.
   3. Who are the stakeholders / users Sizamimpilo     Association    (medicinal plant
      (category or description)?       harvesters).
                                       Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.
   4. How are they using the resource?          Consumptive but not destructive activity (provided
                                                recommended harvesting techniques are followed).
                                                Bark is harvested from trees in natural forests and
                                                then sold at the Durban Herbal Market.
   5. What is the interest/motivation for       Subsistence / poverty alleviation.
      the   use     (e.g.   commercial,         Project was initiated to stop uncontrolled bark
      subsistence, poverty alleviation          harvesting and the consequent negative impacts
      etc)?                                     on forest resources and to initiate sustainable
                                                management of the resource.

REGIMES OF USE

   6. Is there management / control             A management plan offers guidelines for resource
      over what, where and how much             harvesting, planting for alternative resources,
      is used?                                  monitoring of resource use impacts.
   7. Is there baseline info on                 The status of the growing stock was assessed in

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 15
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                               Working Document


     sustainable quantities to           be 13 state forests in the Umzimkulu District and
     harvested) if consumptive?             indicated bark harvesting was impacting severely
                                            on certain tree species. Following this, the bark
                                            harvesting management plan has stipulated
                                            sustainable levels of harvesting.
  8. Is there any record of volumes Study is an experimental stage.
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           Communities in Umzimkulu District were identified
      governed – is preference given to       because extensive (unsustainable) harvesting was
      any particular user group or            known from the area. The communities are poor
                                              with little opportunity for income.
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             Traditional harvesting practices were no longer
      traditional/indigenous knowledge        being followed. Commercial harvesters are very
      systems for management?                 wasteful frequently causing mortality of target
                                              trees.
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use
       Know quantities/levels of
          waste?
       Does market price reflect real
          value?
       Other?




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 16
     737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
    Mander, M. In prep. An overview of the medicinal plant market in South Africa. Text box in:
        Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People and Practice. M.J.
        Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg:
        University of Natal Press.



              QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description               Use of plants for traditional medicine.
      location                               Nationwide.     BUT there is also a growing
      specific species used                  international demand for South African medicinal
                                              products (other African countries).
                                              Multiple indigenous species based on woodland
                                              and forest plants.
  2. Categorisation of use:                   Almost entirely informal. There are reported to be
      formal versus informal                 28 million consumers of traditional medicines in
                                              South Africa. Traditional medicines are generally
                                              harvested from wild plant stocks on commercial,
                                              tribal and state lands.
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Gatherers, Vendors, Traders, Traditional Healers.
     (category or description)?       Black communities nationally.
                                              Multiple Conservation agencies.
                                              Law enforcement agencies.
                                              Multiple    Government    departments     (Health,
                                              Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Water Affairs and
                                              Forestry, Environment and Tourism).
  4. How are they using the resource?         Traditional medicines are considered essential for
                                              the welfare of black households in South Africa.
                                              Medicines are purchased at medicinal markets for
                                              self-medication or as healers‟ prescriptions
  5. What is the interest/motivation for All levels, depending on the stakeholder.
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,
     subsistence, poverty alleviation
     etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control            No. Legislation does protect certain species but
     over what, where and how much            harvesting is so pervasive that any form of
     is used?                                 monitoring or enforcement is unrealistic.
  7. Is there baseline info on                No. Harvesting is generally destructive. In at least
     sustainable quantities to be             80% of species there is thus a high potential for

     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 17
     737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


     harvested) if consumptive?               harvesting to result in plant mortality. The current
                                              market supply of medicinal plants from woodlands
                                              and forests is clearly not sustainable, resulting in a
                                              loss of biodiversity, reduced incomes and health
                                              care, and cultural erosion.
  8. Is there any record of volumes Of the 771 plant species recorded in the trade, 574
     used                           plant species or 75%, are from woodland and
   Tonnes/annum                    forest biomes. As the volumes of plants traded
                                    from different biomes are unknown, and given the
   Tourists per year               extensive trade between woodland/forest areas
   etc                             and most urban centres, it feasible that 75% of the
                                    total volume of plants traded comes from woodland
                                    and forest. Accordingly, 15 000 tonnes of
                                    woodland and forest plants could be traded
                                    annually, accounting over 60 million plants.

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           The supply of woodland and forest plant products
     governed – is preference given to        is not only critical for the welfare of many millions
     any particular user group or             of consumers, but also for the welfare of people
                                              employed in the industry. In South Africa the total
     individuals?
                                              number of people involved in the medicinal plant
                                              trade may be between 200 000 to 300 000. Most of
                                              these are black rural women, the most
                                              marginalised group in South African society, and
                                              the medicinal plant industry thus plays a critical
                                              role in empowering large numbers of these women
  10. Is there any application of Only in localised areas where use is of a
      traditional/indigenous knowledge subsistence nature. Gathering and transportation
      systems for management?          to large medicinal markets is exploitative.
                                       (However there are movements in the right
                                       direction - Sizamimplo Harvesters is a regional
                                       association, currently functioning in the Eastern
                                       Cape and KwaZulu-Natal that has been
                                       established to promote sustainable harvesting
                                       practices in partnership with tribal and public
                                       authorities and private landowners).
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          There is little processing of products or value
       Know quantities/levels of             added, with most products being sold in raw form.
          waste?                              Consequently, frequently very high levels of waste
       Does market price reflect real        because products are sold under informal,
          value?                              unhygienic conditions.
       Other?




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 18
     737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                     Working Document


                                                CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
    Shackleton, C., Grundy, I. and Williams, A. In prep. Use of South Africa‟s woodlands for
         energy and construction. In: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy,
         People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach
         (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.



              QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description               Use of woodlands to provide fuel                       and
      location                               construction timber for rural households.
      specific species used                  Regions falling      within   natural   distribution    of
                                              woodlands.
                                              Multiple indigenous species.
  2. Categorisation of use:           Informal. Wood is collected from vicinity of rural
      formal versus informal         households, villages.
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Communities.
     (category or description)?       Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs.
                                              Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.
                                              Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
                                              Department of Agriculture.
  4. How are they using the resource?         Fuelwood (between 80% and 99% of rural
                                              households meet their energy needs with local
                                              gathering)
                                              Building purposes (roofs and walls, household
                                              fencing, kraal fences, and animal pens)
  5. What is the interest/motivation for Subsistence. Formal fuel sources are unavailable
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial, or beyond financial means.
     subsistence, poverty alleviation Building materials are available and cheap.
     etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control No. Harvesting leads to localised degradation.
     over what, where and how much Some harvesting is “non-destructive” in that dead
     is used?                      wood is collected.
                                              Building material requirements are serviced by
                                              livewood cut from the natural vegetation.
  7. Is there baseline info on                No. There is a dire shortage of empirical studies
     sustainable quantities to be             documenting the productivity of woodlands in
     harvested) if consumptive?               South Africa.
  8. Is there any record of volumes           Estimated that more than 13 million m3 of
     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 19
     737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                               Working Document


      used                                     fuelwood is used annually in South Africa, the
     Tonnes/annum                             equivalent of 9.8 million tons (dry mass). The
     Tourists per year                        majority is harvested from the woodland biome,
                                               ranging from 0.6 to 7.7 tonnes per family per
     etc                                      annum (a mean of 687 kg per person per year).

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /
      governed – is preference given to
      any particular user group or
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of No. Traditional management systems exist with
      traditional/indigenous knowledge extraction of certain forest species. Some species
      systems for management?           have cultural value and certain taboos might be
                                        association with their harvesting.
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use           The gross direct use value of fuelwood to rural
       Know quantities/levels of              households ranges from R600 to over R4400 per
          waste?                               year, with a mean of approximately R2000. This is
       Does market price reflect real         the equivalent of R165 per month, similar to the
          value?                               amount paid for electricity use in peri-urban
       Other?                                 townships. With approximately 1.53 million rural
                                               households in the woodlands biome, the gross
                                               direct-use value of fuelwood is therefore
                                               approximately R3 billion per year.




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 20
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                         Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       See below1
ORGANISATION                                     Mpumalanga Parks Board
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Research and Development Division
DATE                                             19 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  Information provided by Mervyn Lotter 031 – 235
                                                  2395/6/7, 083 299 7618, mervyn@intekom.co.za
1 Information was extracted from the following article:
      Mthombeni, N. September 2000. Policy guide towards the sustainable use of Athrixia spp. in
            Sterkspruit Nature Reserve. Research and Development Division, Mpumalanga Parks
            Board, Lydenburg.


                QUESTION                                                RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

   1. Project name / description                Sustainable use of Athrixia spp. in Sterkspruit
       location                                Nature Reserve.
       specific species used                   Sterkspruit Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga.
                                                Athrixia elata, Athrixia phylicoides.
   2. Categorisation of use:                    Formal. Residents (mostly women) from the local
       formal versus informal                  community were given permission to harvest
                                                Athrixia from the Protected Area. The activity was
                                                halted when harvesting methods were noted to be
                                                destructive.
   3. Who are the stakeholders / users Local community neighbouring Sterkspruit Nature
      (category or description)?       Reserve.
                                       Managers of Sterkspruit Nature Reserve.
                                                Mpumalanga Parks Board.
   4. How are they using the resource?          Consumptive          activity   (destructive   and   non-
                                                destructive).
                                                Athrixia elata is a remedy for sore feet. It is used
                                                as a tea and to make brooms.
                                                Athrixia phylicoides is used as a purgative, as a
                                                cough remedy, to treat sores. The plant is also
                                                used as a tea and to make brooms. Brooms are
                                                sold for R5.00.
   5. What is the interest/motivation for Subsistence. Local community is very poor with
      the   use     (e.g.   commercial, high levels of unemployment.
      subsistence, poverty alleviation
      etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

   6. Is there management / control Harvesting is not permitted in the Sterkspruit
       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 21
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


     over what, where and how much            Nature Reserve. There is no control of use outside
     is used?                                 Protected Area.
  7. Is there baseline info on                No.
     sustainable quantities to be
     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes           No.
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           Residents from the community neighbouring the
      governed – is preference given to       Sterkspruit Nature Reserve were involved.
      any particular user group or
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             The collection method was destructive. The root
      traditional/indigenous knowledge        system was uprooted during harvesting resulting in
      systems for management?                 plant death. Harvesting was not sustainable.
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          Much wastage because the plant is killed.
       Know quantities/levels of
          waste?
       Does market price reflect real
          value?
       Other?




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 22
     737371a6ed9e.doc
        Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                               Working Document


                                                   CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
       Jacobsen, T.R. and McKean, S.G. In prep. The woodcarving industry in the Dukuduku forest,
            St. Lucia. Text box in: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People
            and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds).
            Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.



                 QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1.      Project name / description               Wood harvesting to produce curios (wood
         location                               carvings) in the region of Dukuduku forest, St.
         specific species used                  Lucia.
                                                 Dukuduku forest, St. Lucia.
                                                 Multiple indigenous species. The most commonly
                                                 used species is Trichilia dregeana, followed by
                                                 Ekebergia capensis. Hymenocardia ulmoides is
                                                 used exclusively for its root system
     2. Categorisation of use:                   Informal. Woodcarvers obtain wood from one of
         formal versus informal                 the most sensitive conservation areas in South
                                                 Africa, the Dukuduku forest.
     3. Who are the stakeholders / users Woodcarvers residing in the Dukuduku forest and
        (category or description)?       in the adjacent Dukuduku North (Kuhla Village)
                                         area.
                                                 KZN Wildlife.
                                                 Department of Water Affairs and          Forestry
                                                 (responsible for managing the forest).
                                                 Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.
     4. How are they using the resource?         Most woodcarvers produce „curios‟ resembling
                                                 local animals, such as warthogs, guineafowl and
                                                 giraffes.
     5. What is the interest/motivation for Subsistence. Woodcarvers occupy 12 stalls within
        the   use     (e.g.   commercial, five kilometres of the town of St. Lucia, along the
        subsistence, poverty alleviation St. Lucia-Mtubatuba road.
        etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

     6. Is there management / control No. All the woodcarvers depend on the trees
        over what, where and how much found in the Dukuduku forest for wood. Although
        is used?                      carvers should obtain permission to harvest wood
                                      from DWAF, the reality is that there are few or no
                                      restrictions on access to the forest and regulations
                                      are defied. There is little control on either where
                                      wood can be extracted from or how much can be
        af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 23
        737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                              harvested.
  7. Is there baseline info              on No. Trees are felled if all parts are to be used,
     sustainable quantities to           be otherwise specific parts are selectively harvested.
     harvested) if consumptive?             The species, part and size of the tree harvested
                                            depend on the type of item to be produced
  8. Is there any record of volumes There are 12 stalls. On average, each stall sells
     used                           four carvings per week.
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           On average three men attend each stall. No
      governed – is preference given to       women carvers were observed. The youngest
      any particular user group or            woodcarvers are apprentices in their early teens,
                                              the average age of woodcarvers is 31 years.
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             By planting seedlings of desired species, avoiding
      traditional/indigenous knowledge        the extraction of young trees and cutting only those
      systems for management?                 parts of the tree that are needed, several
                                              woodcarvers are actively involved in the control
                                              and regulation of the resources they use. There
                                              are, however, some woodcarvers who claim that
                                              there is a relatively endless supply of wood and
                                              whose primary concern for daily survival outweighs
                                              their intention to use the forest resources
                                              sustainably
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          Carving is a wasteful exercise. Carvings of a
       Know quantities/levels of             variety of animals are sold across a range of sizes
          waste?                              and prices from R5 to R250, and averaging R40
       Does market price reflect real        per carving. Each woodcarver earns on average
          value?                              R50 per week Warthogs, birds and rhino are the
       Other?                                most frequently sold types of carving




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 24
     737371a6ed9e.doc
        Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                                 QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                        Mr. Thys Slabbert (see below1)
ORGANISATION                                      Mirma. Commercial production of marula products.
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                   Manager
DATE                                              26November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                   082 468 7763

  1
      Information was also extracted from the references:
       Cunningham, A.B. and Shackleton, C.M. In prep. Use of fruits and seeds from indigenous and
            naturalised plant species. In: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy,
            People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach
            (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.

       Mander, M., Cribbins, J., Shackleton, S. & Lewis, F. 2002. The commercial marula industry
           in South Africa. A sub-sector analysis. Investigational Report No. 236. Institute of
           Natural Resources.



                 QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description                  Harvesting of marula fruit.            Commercial
      location                                  production of products including amarula Cream,
      specific species used                     marula beer, marula oil, marula juice.
                                                 Acornhoek, Bushbuckridge, Limpopo Province.
                                                 Sclerocarya birrea (Marula tree).
  2. Categorisation of use:           Formal. Processing units rely on fruit harvesters.
      formal versus informal
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Harvesters,     Tribal  Authorities    from    local
     (category or description)?       communities.
                                      Distell: producers of Amarula Cream
                                                 Mhala Development Centre            (Thulamahashe:
                                                 producers of marula juice
                                                 Communities: producers of traditional marula beer.
  4. How are they using the resource?            Fruit collectors harvest by picking ripe fruit off the
                                                 ground. Bags of fruit are then collected by the
                                                 factories. Fruit is pulped to produce a variety of
                                                 products: nuts, juices, oils, cosmetics, amarula
                                                 Cream.
  5. What is the interest/motivation for Subsistence / poverty alleviation.               Commercial
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial, industry.
     subsistence, poverty alleviation
     etc)?

        af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 25
        737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control Harvesting is non-destructive. The tree is not
     over what, where and how much damaged. The buyers (factories) insist that the
     is used?                      fruit must drop to the ground before it can be
                                   harvested.     Fruit picked from trees is not
                                   purchased – harvesters quickly become very
                                   disciplined.    The residents of fruit picking
                                   communities now recognise “ownership” of trees
                                   and will not tolerate others harvesting from their
                                   tree.
  7. Is there baseline info              on No. Not consumptive. There is some concern that
     sustainable quantities to           be the craft industry (manufacturing wooden
     harvested) if consumptive?             implements for sale) is threatening the resource by
                                            cutting down/damaging marula trees (marula wood
                                            is not good for craft production). There is also a
                                            serious problem of successful recruitment because
                                            goats and other livestock browse (kill) seedlings.
  8. Is there any record of volumes One marula tree can produce 2 tons of fruit during
     used                           a fruiting season of three months. By 1987 2000
   Tonnes/annum                    tons of fruit were being processed annually into
                                    liqueur, 500 tons into fruit juice and 40 000 bottles
   Tourists per year               of marula jelly were being made.
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           Local communities in the vicinity of the marula
      governed – is preference given to       factory.
      any particular user group or
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             No.
      traditional/indigenous knowledge
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          Very little wastage. Only fallen fruit may be
       Know quantities/levels of             harvested for the operations.       One tree will
          waste?                              produce up to 2 tonnes a year. This relates to
       Does market price reflect real        about R500-R600 per tree. A fruit harvester is
          value?                              capable of making R180/day.           There are
       Other?                                approximately 600 fruit harvesters (which might
                                              support as much as 60 000 people). Fruiting
                                              occurs from January through to April.
                                              The total value of the commercial marula product
                                              trade to rural communities is estimated to be R1.1
                                              million annually. The trade results in an annual
                                              income of R578 per trader for an estimated 1900
                                              trading households; the income is for an average
                                              of 29 days worked during the year (fruiting
                                              season).

     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 26
     737371a6ed9e.doc
Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                             Working Document


                                         The supply of marula fruit exceeds demand
                                         resulting in the suppliers being vulnerable to
                                         pricing strategies of the buying companies.




af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 27
737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       P.G. Strydom & M.T. Steyn
ORGANISATION                                     Wildlife Management Division,       Plant   Conservation,
                                                 Mpumalanga Parks Board
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             14 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  013 – 759 5300 / 082 804 3550

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description                 Mananga Cycad Project.
      location                                 Mlambo tribal authority at Mananga border gate,
      specific species used                    Mpumalanga.
                                                Ex situ cultivation of cycads (E. lebomboensis).
  2. Categorisation of use:                     Formal project. Collaboration with MPB. Funding
                                                received from Development Bank (R100 000.00).
      formal versus informal
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Mlambo tribal members (custodians of Mananga
     (category or description)?       Mtn).
                                      Mlambo Community Cycad Nursery
                                                Mpumalanga Parks Board.
  4. How are they using the resource?           Consumptive but not destructive activity (provided
                                                only seeds are harvested). Cycad seeds are
                                                legally collected from the wild and cultivated ex
                                                situ. Seedlings are then sold to generate income.
                                                Informal collection by collectors who then sell the
                                                cycads to the community
  5. What is the interest/motivation for        Subsistence venture. Project was initiated to
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,          alleviate pressure on wild population of cycad.
     subsistence, poverty alleviation           Project has the potential to be commercial but
     etc)?                                      conflict within the Tribe prohibits this.

REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control Seed is collected from the wild. MPB has set
     over what, where and how much stringent limits (Encephalartos are CITES 1 listed)
     is used?                      to volumes of seed harvested.               However,
                                   accessibility to in situ plants is difficult so cone
                                   harvesting tends to be selective. This is a big
                                   concern for nature conservation authorities.
  7. Is there baseline info on No monitoring is undertaken. Adult plants are not
     sustainable quantities to be harvested.
     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes Productivity to date is very much at a subsistence.
     used
       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 28
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                Working Document


     Tonnes/annum
     Tourists per year
     etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /            Only Mlambo tribal members are involved.
      governed – is preference given to
      any particular user group or
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of              Traditional management might be causing the
      traditional/indigenous knowledge         conflict that is restricting the Project achieving
      systems for management?                  potential.
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use           The Project is not operating at full potential
       Know quantities/levels of              because of conflict between villages. This might
          waste?                               reflect weak leadership.
       Does market price reflect real
          value?
       Other?




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 29
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Vincent Zondi (see below1)
ORGANISATION                                     Department of Science and Technology
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             22 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  012 – 337 8243 / Vincent.zondi@dst.gov.za

1
 Mr. Zondi is co-ordinating the Poverty Relief Programme. He was not interviewed. The information
was extracted from the following publication:
     Anon. 2003. Poverty Relief Programme – 2003. Department of Science and Technology.
           Pretoria.


                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

    1. Project name / description               Beekeeping for Poverty Relief Programme.
        location                               Initiatives in all nine provinces.
        specific species used                  Bees (Apis spp.)
    2. Categorisation of use:           Formal project. Initiated by Department of Science
        formal versus informal         and Technology – Poverty Relief Programme.
    3. Who are the stakeholders / users Poor communities living in under developed rural
       (category or description)?       and peri-urban areas of South Africa.
                                        Twenty three businesses (more than 250 people)
                                        in all provinces in South Africa have been
                                        introduced to the initiative.
                                                Agricultural Research Council.
                                                Department of Science and Technology.
    4. How are they using the resource?         Non-consumptive activity.       Honey and bees wax
                                                are products.
    5. What is the interest/motivation for Poverty relief               initiative,   socio-economic
       the   use     (e.g.   commercial, development.
       subsistence, poverty alleviation
       etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

    6. Is there management / control The programme teaches skills which address,
       over what, where and how much among        others,     sustainability,     resource
       is used?                      management and environmental management.
                                     Beekeeping is a non-consumptive activity that is
                                     limited by the flowering productivity of target plants
                                     (most often gum plantations, citrus orchards but
                                     indigenous tree species such as Faurea saligna
                                     are productive).

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 30
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


  7. Is there baseline info on Not applicable.
     sustainable quantities to be
     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes Projects are at experimental stage.
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           Previously marginalized groups and communities
     governed – is preference given to        living in less developed rural and peri-urban areas
     any particular user group or             were targeted. This included groups of mentally,
                                              socially and physically disabled people to use
     individuals?
                                              beekeeping as a means of income and
                                              occupational therapy. Country wide: 281 project
                                              members, of which 144 are women, 41 are
                                              handicapped, 189 are youth.
  10. Is there any application of             Unknown.
      traditional/indigenous knowledge
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          The products (honey) compete on a commercial
       Know quantities/levels of             market. A marketing platform is in place for the
          waste?                              exclusive (but optional) use by the beneficiaries of
       Does market price reflect real        the Beekeeping Development Programme.
          value?
       Other?




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 31
     737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Vincent Zondi (see below1)
ORGANISATION                                     Department of Science and Technology
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             22 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  012 – 337 8243 / Vincent.zondi@dst.gov.za

1
 Mr. Zondi is co-ordinating the Poverty Relief Programme. He was not interviewed. The information
was extracted from the following publication:
     Anon. 2003. Poverty Relief Programme – 2003. Department of Science and Technology.
           Pretoria.


                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

    1. Project name / description               Weaving for Poverty Relief Programme.
        location                               Manguzi Community (Kwangwanase / Kosi Bay),
        specific species used                  KZN.
                                                Sedges and grasses
    2. Categorisation of use:                   Formal project. Initiated by Department of Science
        formal versus informal                 and Technology – Poverty Relief Programme and
                                                implemented by Council for Scientific and Industrial
                                                Research (CSIR).
    3. Who are the stakeholders / users Manguzi Community (Kwangwanase / Kosi Bay),
       (category or description)?       KZN.
                                        Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
                                        (CSIR).
                                                Department of Science and Technology.
    4. How are they using the resource?         Consumptive activity. Harvesting grasses and
                                                palm leaves to create crafts.
    5. What is the interest/motivation for Poverty   relief           initiative,   socio-economic
       the   use     (e.g.   commercial,   development.
       subsistence, poverty alleviation
       etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

    6. Is there management / control The programme teaches skills which address,
       over what, where and how much among       others,     sustainability,  resource
       is used?                      management and environmental management.
                                     Sustainable socio-economic activities rely on the
                                     sustainable use of natural resources.
    7. Is there baseline info              on
       sustainable quantities to           be
       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 32
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                               Working Document


     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           The Manguzi community is very poor. Both men
      governed – is preference given to       and woman are involved in the initiative. 355
      any particular user group or            people are involved, 278 are women, 61 are youth.
      individuals?
  10. Is there any application of             Indigenous knowledge       was    acknowledged,
      traditional/indigenous knowledge        captured and optimised.
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          A small business, Ngezandla Zethu Handcraft,
       Know quantities/levels of             exists which employs 25 full time people and uses
          waste?                              245 people as local suppliers of twine and rope
       Does market price reflect real        raw materials. The business provides a retail
          value?                              outlet for products from other SMMEs (fish traps,
       Other?                                carvings, baskets).




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 33
     737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Information from website. http://www.resourceafrica.com
ORGANISATION                                     ResourceAfrica
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION
DATE                                             25 November 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  Web site.


                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description                 Tipfuxeni       Women's   Empowerment     Project
      location                                 (TWEP).
      specific species used                    Bushbuckridge area. Limpopo Province.
                                                Variable natural resources (grass, reeds and
                                                seeds).
  2. Categorisation of use:                     Formal. The Tipfuxeni Women's Empowerment
      formal versus informal                   Project (TWEP) is aimed at creating an
                                                environment that will provide women in the
                                                Bushbuckridge area with the power to control their
                                                livelihoods and effectively manage their natural
                                                resource base through the establishment of
                                                sustainable, economically viable projects.
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users The project is currently working in ten villages in
     (category or description)?       the vicinity of the Orpen Gate of the Kruger
                                      National Park, with approximately 200 women
                                      involved.
                                                ResourceAfrica (implementing agency)
                                                United     States    Agency   for   International
                                                Development       (USAID)   and    Development
                                                Alternatives Incorporated (DAI), W. K. Kellogg
                                                Foundation (funding agents)


  4. How are they using the resource?           Non consumptive. Project empowers women to
                                                produce, market and sell quality crafts and curios
                                                from natural resources.
  5. What is the interest/motivation for        Social development. Aims to achieve increased
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,          environmental awareness and an improvement in
     subsistence, poverty alleviation           people's livelihoods through capacity building and
                                                training.
     etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control Yes, the environmental sustainability is a key
     over what, where and how much education activity. The Project will provide:1).
     is used?                      expertise for conducting research on natural

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 34
       737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                              resource availability and use patterns in the areas
                                              where TWEP operates, 2). conduct environmental
                                              awareness campaigns amongst women involved in
                                              TWEP, and 3). plant trees in the Bushbuckridge
                                              area, helping to rehabilitate areas where natural
                                              resource harvesting has taken place.
  7. Is there baseline info on Unknown. Probably not.
     sustainable quantities to be
     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes Not applicable.
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           The Tipfuxeni Women's Empowerment Project
     governed – is preference given to        (TWEP) is aimed at creating an environment that
     any particular user group or             will provide women in the Bushbuckridge area with
                                              the power to control their livelihoods and effectively
     individuals?
                                              manage their natural resource base through the
                                              establishment of sustainable, economically viable
                                              projects. Women far outnumber men because of
                                              the lack of employment opportunities in the
                                              Bushbuckridge area that leads men to migrate to
                                              urban areas in search of work. The TWEP is aimed
                                              at building rural women's capacity for participation
                                              in community-based natural resource management
                                              and economic empowerment
  10. Is there any application of Yes.        Craft production draws on indigenous
      traditional/indigenous knowledge knowledge systems..
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use   Unknown.
       Know quantities/levels of
          waste?
       Does market price reflect real
          value?
       Other?




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 35
     737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                                CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
    Jäger, A.K., McGaw, L.-J., Grace O.M. and van Staden, J. In prep. Bioprospecting of forest
         and woodland plant species used in Zulu traditional medicine. In: Indigenous Forests and
         Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M.
         Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.

    Jäger, A.K., McGaw, L.-J., Grace O.M. and van Staden, J. In prep. Success stories of South
         African bioprospecting. Text box In: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa:
         Policy, People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S.
         Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.



              QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  1. Project name / description               Bioprospecting - the search for new
      location                               compounds and drugs from natural sources.
      specific species used                  Nationwide. .
                                              Multiple indigenous species.
  2. Categorisation of use:                   Formal.    BUT the testing and developing of
      formal versus informal                 products based on illegal or dishonest procedures,
                                              such as removing specimens from a country
                                              without relevant permits, or not disclosing that
                                              specimens will be investigated for biological activity
                                              is termed “biopiracy”.
  3. Who are the stakeholders / users Indigenous people with whom knowledge of plant
     (category or description)?       properties usually lies.
                                      Research Institutions (e.g. CSIR).
                                              Pharmaceutical companies.
                                              Multiple    Government    departments     (Health,
                                              Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Water Affairs and
                                              Forestry, Environment and Tourism).
  4. How are they using the resource?         Some local success stories: a new antibiotic
                                              extracted from a South African plant species, the
                                              discovery of an anti-obesity agent from an
                                              indigenous South African plant (Hoodia), a
                                              mosquito repellent extracted from a bushy plant
                                              found in Mpumalanga. Much of the work done by
                                              the CSIR.
  5. What is the interest/motivation for Multiple: commercial, medical, agricultural etc.
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,
     subsistence, poverty alleviation
     etc)?

     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 36
     737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document



REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control Developing countries increasingly recognise the
     over what, where and how much value of their bioresources and are putting in place
     is used?                      legislation on indigenous property, making it
                                   difficult for commercial enterprises to engage
                                   openly in bioprospecting.
  7. Is there baseline info on The process is not consumptive.
     sustainable quantities to be
     harvested) if consumptive?
  8. Is there any record of volumes No.
     used
   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

  9. How are use rights allocated /           The CSIR is undertaking a major bioprospecting
     governed – is preference given to        programme aimed at screening 10 000 plant and
     any particular user group or             microbe extracts annually. The CSIR, in
                                              conjunction with indigenous healers, has
     individuals?
                                              developed a database of information on traditional
                                              uses of South African plants. A formal agreement
                                              states that the CSIR is obliged to negotiate benefit
                                              sharing with traditional healers before commercial
                                              development of any discovery resulting from the
                                              information from the database.
  10. Is there any application of             Indigenous    knowledge       is   significant    to
      traditional/indigenous knowledge        bioprospecting. .
      systems for management?
  11. Estimates of efficiency of use          In a study by the Research Centre for Plant Growth
       Know quantities/levels of             and Development (UNP), 88% of 41 plant species
          waste?                              occurring in South African forests and woodlands
       Does market price reflect real        were identified as having promising activities when
          value?                              screened for pharmacological activity according to
       Other?                                their traditional usage. Activities included anti-
                                              inflammatory,       antibacterial,    antiamoebic,
                                              anthelmintic,         antischistosomal          and
                                              antihypertensive activities.




     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 37
     737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                      Working Document


                                              QUESTIONNAIRE

NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                        Tertius Carinus (082-9082794) or Mr. Etienne Fourie/
                                                  Adriana Dinu, Development Director FFI
ORGANISATION                                      Agulhas Plain Project / Agulhas Biodiversity Initiative
                                                  (ABI)
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                   ABI Project Co-ordinator
DATE                                              26/11/03
CONTACT DETAILS                                   ABI Project Co-ordinator, Agulhas Biodiversity Initiative,
                                                  P.O.Box 120, L‟Agulhas, 7287. Tel.: 028 – 435 6078,
                                                  Fax: 028 – 435 6225. E-mail: tertiusc@parks-sa.co.za or
                                                  Adriana Dinu-Wright, Program Development Director,
                                                  EarthVoice/Fauna & Flora International P.O. Box 975,
                                                  Schoemansville, Hartbeespoort, NW Province.
                                                  Tel/Fax: 012 – 253 0023. E-mail: adrianadin@aol.com

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Harvesting flowers from             selected
           location                            fynbos plant species.
           specific species used               Agulhas Plain, Western Cape.
                                                Multiple wild         fynbos   species     (not
                                                threatened).
2. Categorisation of use:                       Formalized but using the informal sector.
       formal versus informal                  (identified by the Agulhas Biodiversity
                                                Initiative (ABI) as requiring strict
                                                monitoring).
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Western Cape Nature Conservation
   (category or description)?       Board
                                    Flower Valley Conservation Trust (FVCT)
                                                FYNSA
                                                Walker Bay Fynbos Conservancy
                                                Fauna & Flora International (FFI)
                                                Cape Action Plan for Environment and
                                                People (C.A.P.E)
                                                SANParks
                                                Local community of the Agulhas Plain
4. How are they using the resource?             Fynbos is harvested according to
                                                international  certification standards
                                                (Flower Label Program) based on
                                                currently known sustainable levels and
                                                monitored by FVCT and WCNCB.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the The           wild   fynbos    is   harvested    for
       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 38
       737371a6ed9e.doc
        Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


     use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, commercial purposes; it is certified by
     poverty alleviation etc)?          Flower Label Program (the second
                                        largest flower certification agency in the
                                        world) according to social, environmental
                                        and conservation guidelines and is
                                        exported to Europe. The proceeds are
                                        used      for   providing      employment
                                        opportunities for the local communities in
                                        Agulhas Plain, for conservation, and for
                                        community development.
                                                 The aim of the ABI is to conserve the
                                                 globally significant biodiversity of the
                                                 lowland     fynbos,     while distributing
                                                 significant    benefits   to  the    local
                                                 community living in the Agulhas Plain.

REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over Western Cape Nature Conservation
   what, where and how much is used?  Board is issuing permits for wild fynbos
                                      harvesting on the Agulhas Plain, listing
                                      the species which are allowed to be
                                      harvested and the quantities. WCNCB
                                      has an enforcement unit that checks that
                                      the harvesting is done according to the
                                      permit conditions. With the introduction
                                      of the certification program (Flower Label
                                      Program), all the wild fynbos will be
                                      harvested according to best social and
                                      environmental practices.
                                                 FFI ensures the conservation of
                                                 threatened species and ecosystems,
                                                 world-wide and chooses solutions that
                                                 are sustainable, based on sound
                                                 scientific research and also caters for
                                                 human needs.
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable The ABI Project is supporting a series of
   quantities to be harvested) if studies to identify the sustainable levels
   consumptive?                          for harvesting of various fynbos species.
                                         Currently the harvesting is done
                                         according to best available knowledge on
                                         sustainability and information is available
                                         only at the farm level.
8.   Is there any record of volumes used         No records in terms of volumes for
    Tonnes/annum                                Agulhas Plain. About 40 to 50 000
    Tourists per year                           tourists visit the area. The southern tip is
                                                 a major tourist destination.
    etc




        af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 39
        737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated / There are community owned lands in
   governed – is preference given to any Agulhas Plain, such as Elim where the
   particular user group or individuals? communities decide on allocating use
                                         rights. On private farms flower pickers
                                         are contracted to harvest the fynbos.
                                         Alternatively, they have their own pickers
                                         and bouquet makers.         Preference is
                                         given to previously disadvantaged
                                         groups.
10. Is     there    any    application  of      Not aware of any (Adriana Dinu, personal
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge      communication).
    systems for management?
11. Estimates of efficiency of use              Flower Valley Conservation Trust is
 Know quantities/levels of waste?              using all the waste from the fynbos
 Does market price reflect real value?         harvesting to make hand-made recycled
                                                fynbos paper, which is sold locally and
 Other?
                                                internationally.
                                                Market place reflects real value.
                                                About 60% of the regions‟ inhabitants live
                                                in rural areas.      There is a high
                                                unemployment rate (58% in Gansbaai
                                                alone), health services are rudimentary
                                                and education levels are poor.




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 40
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                              CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
  The information was extracted from the following web pages:


  http://www.botny.uwc.ac.za/presents/focuson/cal1/value.htm
  http://www.resourceafrica.org


               QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

2. Project name / description                  Commercial wildflower industry based on the
       location                               fynbos habitats, Western Cape.
       specific species used                  Fynbos species are said to have a good
                                               horticultural and economic potential. Multiple
                                               local species including the internationally traded
                                               Proteas and Leucospermum. Freesias, gladioli
                                               and ornithogalum have all been developed from
                                               fynbos bulbous plants. More popular species are
                                               ericas, brunias, everlastings and reeds because
                                               they stay fresh for a long time and can thus
                                               perform as excellent export products.
3. Categorisation of use:                      Formal. The South Africa Agricultural Research
       formal versus informal                 Council (ARC) Fynbos Unit co-ordinates species
                                               harvesting, cultivation and conservation.
4. Who are the stakeholders / users Export markets (Netherlands, West Germany,
   (category or description)?       England and the United States of America).
                                    Local landowners.
                                               ARC Fynbos unit
                                               Western Cape Nature Conservation
                                               South Africa Protea Producers and Exporters
                                               Association (SAPPEX)
                                               Provincial Department of Agriculture
5. How are they using the resource?            Harvesting certain fynbos species for a
                                               commercial venture.         Some species are
                                               cultivated for new wildflower hybrids.
6. What is the interest/motivation for the Commercial. Provides an incentive for local
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, landowners to conserve and manage their
   poverty alleviation etc)?               wildflowers.

REGIMES OF USE

7. Is there management / control over For the past 25 years, South African ARC Fynbos
   what, where and how much is used?  Unit has been overseeing harvesting, cultivation,
                                      collecting and conservation of resources in the

      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 41
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                fynbos. SAPPEX acts as an umbrella body of the
                                                fynbos industry and has established a cultivar
                                                committee to oversee the selection of new plants
                                                for evaluation and the release of new cultivars, to
                                                meet market demands.
8. Is there baseline info on sustainable There is no information available.
   quantities to be harvested) if
   consumptive?
9. Is there any record of volumes used   No information available.
    Tonnes/annum
    Tourists per year
    etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

10. How are use rights allocated /              This is a commercial venture.
    governed – is preference given to any
    particular user group or individuals?
11. Is     there    any    application    of    No information available.
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge
    systems for management?
12. Estimates of efficiency of use              In total, harvested resources generate an income
         Know quantities/levels          of    of about US$10 million per annum.
             waste?                             This industry contributed between R40 million
         Does market price reflect real        and R5O million to the provincial economy in
                                                1993 and provided employment for 20 000
             value?
                                                people (source: Cape Nature Conservation).
         Other?




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 42
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                    Working Document


                                               QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED Elsabe Powell(see below1)
    ORGANISATION                  Northern Cape: Environment and Conservation
     POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                      Nature Conservation Scientist: Botanist
     DATE                                       19 November 2003
     CONTACT DETAILS                            epowell@grand.ncape.gov.za

     1 Information was extracted from a letter from Elsabe Powell and the following article:


     Powell, E. & Moolman, M. 2000. A review document on the medicinal plant Harpagophytum
     procumbens DC (Devil‟s claw). Draft document. Northern Cape Nature Conservation Service.
     The Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) Harvesting Project in the North West Province,
     South Africa. A Case Study of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM)
     'Best Practice' in South Africa. http://www.resourceafrica.com


               QUESTION                                              RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

   1. Project name / description               North West Province Devil's Claw Harvesting
                                               Project Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s
          location
                                               claw).
          specific species used
                                               North-West Province (and Northern Province to a
                                               lesser extent)
                                               Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil‟s claw),
                                               Harpagophytum zeyherii is also used but is less
                                               preferred.
   2. Categorisation of use:                   Formal. The project was initiated to prevent over-
                                               harvesting of the species.       Community-based
          formal versus informal
                                               natural resource management. The North West
                                               Province DACE Devil's Claw Harvesting Project is
                                               aimed at ensuring the sustainable utilization of the
                                               plant for the benefit of rural people, and the
                                               capacity building component, as well as the
                                               regulation and monitoring aspects of the project
                                               are operating effectively and ensuring that the
                                               Devil's Claw plant stocks are not depleted due to
                                               unsustainable harvesting practices.
   3. Who are the stakeholders / users Harvesters,   Tribal               Authorities   from    local
      (category or description)?       communities.
                                       Commercial traders.
                                               Pharmaceutical companies.
                                               Conservation agencies (coordinated by the North
                                               West Province Department of Agriculture,
                                               Conservation and Environment and Northern

      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 43
      737371a6ed9e.doc
     Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                              Province Nature Conservation).
  4. How are they using the resource?         Consumptive but not destructive activity (provided
                                              recommended harvesting techniques are followed).
                                              Storage tubers (secondary roots) are harvested.
                                              They are washed, sliced and sun dried. The dried
                                              material is sold to commercial traders who then sell
                                              directly to pharmaceutical companies. The plant
                                              has medicinal properties of commercial value –
                                              used for a variety of ailments including
                                              rheumatism, arthritis, diseases of liver, kidney and
                                              bladder.
  5. What is the interest/motivation for      Subsistence / Commercial.           Frequently the
     the   use     (e.g.   commercial,        harvesters receive remuneration that is not worth
     subsistence, poverty alleviation         the effort invested in collecting. This has lead to
                                              dissatisfaction.
     etc)?

REGIMES OF USE

  6. Is there management / control Yes, the industry is regulated. The plant species is
     over what, where and how much protected by Provincial Ordinance and a permit is
     is used?                      required from the relevant conservation agency to
                                   harvest. The conservation agency has developed
                                   harvesting guidelines. Monitoring takes place on
                                   an ongoing 'ad-hoc' basis, and is carried out by
                                   DACE officials. Two officials within DACE have the
                                   specific task of dealing with the in-field Devil's
                                   Claw Project activities, such as checking up on
                                   harvesters to see that it is carried out correctly,
                                   with harvesters not damaging the primary tubers.
                                   The DACE officials check up on harvesters in a
                                   'spot-check' fashion, with each village being
                                   monitored approximately three times in a season.
                                   The two Dace officials are also always present
                                   when the harvested plant material is sold to the
                                   buyers, as this forms part of their monitoring
                                   process
  7. Is there baseline info              on Yes. Nature conservation agencies are monitoring
     sustainable quantities to           be population information. Harvesting takes place
     harvested) if consumptive?             according to a quadrant system to help ensure that
                                            sustainable harvesting is practiced. Each
                                            community's Devil's Claw harvesting area is
                                            divided into four quadrants. One quadrant is
                                            harvested per season and this means that a
                                            specific plant is harvested once every four years.
  8. Is there any record of volumes From 2000 to 2001, the wild harvesting of Devil's
     used                           Claw increased three-fold in South Africa (6900 -
                                    21029 kg) (Six tons harvested in SA in 1999).
   Tonnes/annum
                                    Fifty tons harvested in Botswana in 1999.
   Tourists per year
                                    Six hundred tons harvested in Namibia in 1999.

     af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 44
     737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


      etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

   9. How are use rights allocated /            In South Africa most harvesting takes place in
      governed – is preference given to         communal lands of the former Bophutaswana
      any particular user group or              Homeland, which now forms part of the North West
                                                Province. This area borders the Kalahari Desert
      individuals?
                                                and the aridness of the land provides restricted
                                                livelihood opportunities for rural people. Devil's
                                                Claw harvesting provides an opportunity for the
                                                generation of cash income where few other
                                                sources of cash income are available.
                                                The North West Province initiated the Devil's Claw
                                                Harvesting Project in 2000, whereby poor
                                                marginalized communities in the province were
                                                empowered and given the skills. Officials initiated
                                                the project by identifying specific areas where the
                                                plant occurs and then identified communities, in a
                                                participatory manner, who were willing to become
                                                involved in the project as plant harvesters.
   10. Is there any application of No. Harvesting must follow guidelines developed
       traditional/indigenous knowledge by conservation and research institutions.
       systems for management?          Harvesting can be destructive if these guidelines
                                        are not adhered to.
   11. Estimates of efficiency of use       Dried Devil's Claw material is purchased for R 17
                                            per kg from the harvesters. The international
            Know quantities/levels      of
                                            market controls the pricing and the harvesters
             waste?                         have no say in their selling price. This is a definite
            Does market price reflect real challenge facing the project as the prices fluctuate
             value?                         according to international economics and markets,
            Other?                         and the harvesters do not participate in any price
                                            negotiations. There is dissatisfaction amongst
                                            harvesters because their payment is remuneration
                                            is at a subsistence scale yet the industry is worth
                                            several R million/year.



Additional information
There are currently 2 381 trained and registered harvesters in the North West Province. This number
is on the increase as rural people start seeing the benefits that Devil's Claw can play in their
livelihoods. The majority of the harvesters in the North West Province are women. Harvesters are
paid, on average, approximately 17 Rand per kilogram of dried Devil's Claw material.
In the first harvesting season of 2000/2001, a total number of 10 904,20 kg of wet material and 14
780,73 kg of dry material was harvested. A total amount of R133 688,27 was paid out to the
harvesters and R8 054,49 paid out the various Tribal Authorities. This adds up to a total of R141
742,76 that was generated within the region to the benefit of local communities. Tribal Authorities who
own the communal lands upon which the Devil's Claw harvesting takes place are entitled to 50 cents
per kilogram of harvested Devil's Claw plant material, and they are thus paid out accordingly.

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 45
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                            Working Document


During the second harvesting season of 2001/2002 a total number of 9 812,95kg of wet material and
88 744,66kg of dry material was harvested. A total number of R1 799 689,66 was paid out to the
harvesters during the second season and R 45 313,68 was paid out to the various Tribal Authorities.
This adds up to a total number of R1 845 003.34 that was paid out to the community and it highlights
the success of the project thus far.




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 46
      737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                       Working Document


                                                 CASE STUDY
REFERENCE
     Seydack, A.H.W. and Vermeulen, W.J. In press. Timber harvesting from southern Cape
          forests: the quest for sustainable levels of resource use. In: Indigenous Forests and
          Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M.
          Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds). Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.


               QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                  Harvesting of indigenous forest tree
         location                             species in the southern Cape.
         specific species used                Indigenous forests extend from the
                                               foothills of the Outeniqua Mountains near
                                               Mossel Bay, in the west, to Krom River at
                                               the eastern end of the Tsitsikamma
                                               coastal plateau.
                                               Principal timber are Podocarpus falcatus;
                                               Ocotea bullata; Podocarpus latifolius.
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal.
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Department                      of   Water   Affairs   and
   (category or description)?       Forestry.
                                    Saw mills.
                                               Furniture shops.
                                               Local communities.
4. How are they using the resource?            The felling of indigenous hardwoods
                                               serves    to  supply    the    minimum
                                               requirements    of     small    furniture
                                               workshops and local timber industries.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Commercial.
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence,
   poverty alleviation etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over Harvesting is strictly regulated by DWAF.
   what, where and how much is used?  From 1992 onward, the senility (maturity
                                      condition) criteria yield regulation system
                                      was implemented. This yield regulation
                                      strategy involves the pre-emption of
                                      mortality through the selective harvesting
                                      of canopy trees of declining productivity.
                                      Non-senile canopy trees are retained for
                                      continued growth (productivity realisation

      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 47
      737371a6ed9e.doc
        Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                                 of large trees).
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable Sustainable harvesting values have been
   quantities to be harvested) if calculated using a technical scientific
   consumptive?                          approach. The yield regulation system
                                         for sustainable harvest levels is based on
                                         species-specific     productivity     data
                                         (increment, ingrowth, mortality) and
                                         congruent with prevailing features of
                                         forest dynamics (absence of silvicultural
                                         manipulations). Ongoing monitoring of,
                                         and research into, aspects of forest
                                         dynamics provides the basis for
                                         continuing improvements in indigenous
                                         forest management.
8.   Is there any record of volumes used         Due     to    market     demands,      only
    Tonnes/annum                                Podocarpus latifolius, Ocotea bullata,
    Tourists per year                           Olinia ventosa and Platylophus trifoliatus
                                                 are being harvested to full potential. The
    etc
                                                 actual annual yields therefore only
                                                 represent a take-off amounting to 40% of
                                                 total forest productivity (0.2 versus 0.5
                                                 m3/ha/yr).

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated /                No. DWAF issues harvesting permits to
    governed – is preference given to any        local timber companies.
    particular user group or individuals?
10. Is     there    any    application    of     No. Management is facilitated by a
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge       specialised     indigenous    forest
    systems for management?                      management unit.
11. Estimates of efficiency of use               From 1984 onward all areas of the
 Know quantities/levels of waste?               „Timber harvesting‟ management class
 Does market price reflect real value?          were scheduled into ten annual areas
                                                 and these were harvested according to a
 Other?
                                                 10-year felling cycle. The effective
                                                 harvestable area was/is however only
                                                 6175 ha. The comparatively limited
                                                 timber volume harvested, nevertheless,
                                                 continues to play an important role in the
                                                 local economy. The round wood timber
                                                 intake by the local timber industry of
                                                 indigenous     species     and      Acacia
                                                 melanoxylon from the natural forests of
                                                 the Department of Water Affairs and
                                                 Forestry amounted to 3000 m3/yr
                                                 (averaged over the 5-year period 1995–
                                                 1999). This resulted in a direct income of
                                                 R2.4 million per annum for the
                                                 Department. The GDP contribution by
        af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 48
        737371a6ed9e.doc
Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                         the local timber industry associated with
                                         this timber intake was determined as R16
                                         million. Furthermore, 530 direct jobs and
                                         contributions to state coffers in the form
                                         of taxes of R4.8 million were involved.




af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 49
737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Cori Ham
ORGANISATION                                     Commercialisation of Products from the Wild (CP-Wild)
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Co-ordinator
DATE                                             2 December 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  P.O. Box 3351, Matieland, 7602.     Tel/Fax: 021 – 874
                                                  1942, Cell: 082 – 771 9540

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Establishment of Indigenous Plants,
         location                              Commercialisation & Domestication
         specific species used                 Network.
                                                Southern Africa; Namibia, Botswana,
                                                Malawi, Mozambique & South Africa
                                                Network project, not specific in terms of
                                                species but rather in terms of country
                                                and the project uses fruits, medicinal
                                                plants, fibre & bark.
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal.
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users International Centre for Research in
   (category or description)?       Agroforestry (ICRAF).
                                    Small scale processors, working with
                                    indigenous products e.g. medicinal
                                    products sold in Durban.
                                                Funding is via the Innovation Fund,
                                                National Research Foundation.
4. How are they using the resource?             Process raw material into products,
                                                which are sold for income generation
5. What is the interest/motivation for the The project will develop ecologically
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, realistic and socially acceptable SMME's
   poverty alleviation etc)?               based on the sustainable utilization of
                                           species and products traditionally
                                           harvested from forests and woodlands in
                                           South Africa.
                                                Employment generation and income
                                                development, adding value to indigenous
                                                resources, formalisation of natural
                                                resource products.

REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over No direct control from the CP-Wild‟s
   what, where and how much is used?  perspective. Sustainable use is taught to

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 50
       737371a6ed9e.doc
      Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                               communities. A major goal of the project
                                               is the survival of the used species in their
                                               natural environments and teaching
                                               environmental conservation in rural
                                               areas.
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable Yes, baseline information              is   being
   quantities to be harvested) if collected.
   consumptive?
8. Is there any record of volumes used   No information available.
     Tonnes/annum
     Tourists per year
     etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated / Yes. The goal of the project is job
   governed – is preference given to any creation, local empowerment, and
   particular user group or individuals? associated improved quality of life in rural
                                         areas of South Africa.
10. Is     there    any    application   of This project intends to build on the
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge traditional knowledge systems of species
    systems for management?                 and products, which are familiar to
                                            particular communities.
11. Estimates of efficiency of use             No wastage. Market price does not
         Know quantities/levels of            reflect the real value.
           waste?
         Does market price reflect real
           value?
         Other?

Additional Information
The project will accumulate information on which of the many species from the forest and woodland
ecosystems have been used. The intention is to turn this knowledge, together with the local
practitioners, into useful technologies for the benefit of the rural and national economies, and for
restoration of the degraded environments. The project will also establish core characteristics of
selected species which would help to overcome constraints in their cultivation and development, to
provide a basis for monitoring sustainable resource use from the natural environment, and to improve
production from outside the natural ecosystems within cost-effective industries.




      af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 51
      737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                   Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Dirk Nortje
ORGANISATION                                     Mountains to Ocean (MTO)
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Area Manager
DATE                                             25/11/03
CONTACT DETAILS                                  Tell.: 042 – 280 3606.


Information was also extracted from the following reference:
     Kok, R. In prep. The seven-weeks fern (Rumohra adiantiformis): an economically viable forest
          product. Text box in: Indigenous Forests and Woodlands in South Africa: Policy, People
          and Practice. M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton and B.G.S. Geach (eds).
          Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.


                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Harvesting of forest ferns from
       location                                indigenous forests in the southern
       specific species used                   Cape.
                                                Knysna fern or seven            weeks   fern
                                                (Rumohra adiantiformis).
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal harvesting.
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Private florist companies.
   (category or description)?       Export markets.
                                                DWAF.
4. How are they using the resource?             Ferns are harvested and exported for the
                                                cut-flower industry. The export business
                                                to Europe is lucrative.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Commercial.
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, Employment creation.
   poverty alleviation etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over Yes. DWAF issues harvesting permits
   what, where and how much is used?  for each forest. The amount harvested,
                                      where and when the harvesting takes
                                      place is strictly regulated. The current
                                      regulated-escapement harvesting system
                                      ensures that a certain percentage of the
                                      population will always escape harvesting.
                                      Only 50% of all the pickable fronds
                                      (length 25cm and insect or other

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 52
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                damage 10% of the frond area) per
                                                plant may be harvested. This means that
                                                plants with only one pickable frond will
                                                escape harvesting, and that only one
                                                frond can be removed where a plant has
                                                two or three pickable fronds.         The
                                                harvesting cycle is 15 months to give the
                                                plants adequate time to recover.
                                                Research      indicates    that     these
                                                precautions might be adequate to ensure
                                                sustainable harvesting at the current
                                                intensity.
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable        Yes.      DWAF enforces harvesting
   quantities to be harvested) if               conditions base on their baseline
   consumptive?                                 information.
8. Is there any record of volumes used          This is a commercial industry regulated
 Tonnes/annum                                  by DWAF.         Detailed records of
 Tourists per year                             harvesting are maintained.      Nursery
                                                stands can generate up to 250 000
 etc
                                                fronds/ha/yr while established beds
                                                under pine stands can produce between
                                                60 000–100 000 fronds/ha/y. This
                                                compares favourably with the 1000
                                                fronds/ha/yr under natural conditions in
                                                the southern Cape forests.


EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated /               Harvesting concessions are awarded by
    governed – is preference given to any       DWAF.
    particular user group or individuals?
10. Is     there    any    application    of    No
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge
    systems for management?
11. Estimates of efficiency of use              The industry earned at least R7 million in
 Know quantities/levels of waste?              foreign exchange during the 1997–1998
 Does market price reflect real value?         financial year. The Rumohra industry
                                                also created a number of employment
 Other?
                                                opportunities in the southern Cape and
                                                Tsitsikamma.       This extends from
                                                monitoring and control positions in the
                                                Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
                                                to picking and processing positions in the
                                                private sector. At least 50 people make
                                                a living from picking Rumohra in the
                                                indigenous forests and pine plantations.
                                                Maintenance of fern beds under pines
                                                and in shade houses provides another 60

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 53
       737371a6ed9e.doc
Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                  Working Document


                                         jobs, while the final preparations in the
                                         region for export requires at least 30 full
                                         time jobs. The Rumohra trade also
                                         opened up opportunities for the sale of
                                         other forest greenery and today another
                                         28 products are exported to Europe.
                                         These include other ferns like Gleichenia
                                         polypodioides        and        Blechnum
                                         punctulatum as well as the leaves and/or
                                         stems of a number of indigenous plant
                                         species. A conservative estimate is that
                                         these additional products provide at least
                                         another 200 jobs in the southern Cape
                                         and Tsitsikamma.




af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 54
737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                 Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                       Mr. S.W. Mbandezi
ORGANISATION                                     Department of Water Affairs & Forestry (DWAF)
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                  Forester
DATE                                             03/12/2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                  Tel.: 043 – 683 7344, Cell: 073 – 218 3838, Fax. 043 –
                                                  683 7290

                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Nothenga Medicinal Nursery.
         location                              Izeleni Location, Eastern Cape.
         specific species used                 Indigenous trees with medicinal value
                                                (especially Curtisia dentata, Pittosporum
                                                viridiflorum).
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal (with Proposed constitution).
        formal versus informal
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Local community.
   (category or description)?       DWAF
                                                Traditional healers.
4. How are they using the resource?             The objective is to supply the local
                                                community with the muti plants who use
                                                them for medicinal purposes and to sell
                                                to traditional healers.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the The main goal of this project is to relieve
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, pressure from the state forest by
   poverty alleviation etc)?               encouraging muti plant collectors to grow
                                           some of the species they collect, in their
                                           own backyards. It also serves as a
                                           commercial enterprise to alleviate
                                           poverty.

REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over Yes there is management. Two, eight-
   what, where and how much is used?  member committees referred to as
                                      Participatory   Forestry Management
                                      Committee     (PFMC‟s),  have  been
                                      established to oversee sustainable
                                      harvesting.
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable No baseline information yet.
   quantities to be harvested) if
   consumptive?
8. Is there any record of volumes used   No volume records yet.

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 55
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                               Working Document


   Tonnes/annum
   Tourists per year
   etc
EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated /               Preference is given to local community
    governed – is preference given to any       members.
    particular user group or individuals?
10. Is     there    any    application    of    Yes, traditional knowledge systems are
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge      being used to guide harvesting methods.
    systems for management?
11. Estimates of efficiency of use              No information available.
 Know quantities/levels of waste?
 Does market price reflect real value?
 Other?




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 56
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                                    Working Document


                                                QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME OF PERSON INTERVIEWED                        Mr. S.W. Mbandezi & Mr. M.M. Gcilitshana.
ORGANISATION                                      Department of Water Affairs & Forestry (DWAF)
POSITION / ROLE IN ORGANISATION                   Both are Foresters in the Eastern Cape.
DATE                                              3 December 2003
CONTACT DETAILS                                   Tel.     043 6837344,
                                                  Fax. 043 - 6837290
                QUESTION                                             RESPONSE
STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

1. Project name / description                   Ndakana Sweet Honey Beekeeping
 location                                      Project.
 specific species used                         Ndakana, Eastern Province.
                                                Honey farming in Eucalypt plantations.
2. Categorisation of use:           Formal with detailed Business Plan and
 formal versus informal            Constitution.
3. Who are the stakeholders / users Rural communities from the Ndakana
   (category or description)?       region.
                                    Qhilika Breweries.
                                                DWAF.
4. How are they using the resource?             Harvest honey and the Qhilika Breweries
                                                in Grahamstown intends making Qhilika
                                                (beer), using honey.
5. What is the interest/motivation for the Commercial,                subsistence,   poverty
   use (e.g. commercial, subsistence, alleviation.
   poverty alleviation etc)?
REGIMES OF USE

6. Is there management / control over           Yes, a Plan of Operation exists.
   what, where and how much is used?
7. Is there baseline info on sustainable        Not applicable.    Honey production is
   quantities to be harvested) if               dependent on tree productivity, a function
   consumptive?                                 of local environmental conditions.
8. Is there any record of volumes used          There are no records yet. The project
    Tonnes/annum                               anticipates approximately 100 hives. A
                                                hive yields about 15kg of honey. The
    Tourists per year
                                                initial goal, therefore, is to produce about
    etc                                        1.5 tonnes of honey annually.

EQUITY & EFFICIENCY

9. How are use rights allocated / Preference of harvesting will largely be
   governed – is preference given to any given to the community that lives
   particular user group or individuals? adjacent to the forest.

       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 57
       737371a6ed9e.doc
       Sustainable use of biodiversity in South Africa                             Working Document


10. Is     there    any    application   of No.
    traditional/indigenous       knowledge
    systems for management?
11. Estimates of efficiency of use          No additional information available.
         Know quantities/levels         of
             waste?
         Does market price reflect real
             value?
         Other?




       af970cf7-b517-4547-bdcd-                          Page : 58
       737371a6ed9e.doc

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:7/24/2011
language:English
pages:58