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					                        Biology 30 – Protein Synthesis Review NG

DNA
– be able to draw and label a strand of DNA!
– label and know the function of the components of the DNA double helix: the
  backbone (=deoxyribose, phosphate), and the four nitrogenous bases (A= adenine, T=
  thymine, G= guanine, C= cytosine) a.k.a. the ―rungs‖ of the ladder
          o know the components of a nucleotide

– describe how DNA is composed of antiparallel strands

– describe how Chargaff’s rule led to the idea of complementary base pairing
         o describe complementary base pairing
         o how many H bonds for each complementary base pair?

1. Analysis of a DNA sample from the nuclei of purple flowers determined that the
thymine content of the nucleotides in the DNA was 23%. What is the likely content of
adenine, cytosine, and guanine in the DNA?

    Row       Adenine        Cytosine        Guanine
     A.        23%            27%             27%
     B.        23%            27%             23%
     C.        27%            23%             23%
     D.        27%            23%             27%


             Use the following information to answer the next two questions.


The extraction and sequencing of fossil DNA provides a wealth of information on extinct species.
Scientists have compared DNA recovered from museum samples with DNA from freshly
excavated fossils, and the fresh samples yielded six times as much DNA and twice the amount of
valid sequences as those from museums.



2. The DNA found in fossils is composed of the same basic subunits as DNA found in
organisms alive today. These subunits are known as

    A.   Helicases
    B.   Nucleotides
    C.   Chromosomes
    D.   Okazaki fragments
           Use the following additional information to answer the next question.


During sampling of fossil DNA, technologists found the sequence: ATTACCGAT



3. The complementary strand of DNA that would pair with this sequence is

   A.   ATTACCGAT
   B.   TAATGGCTA
   C.   GCCGTTAGC
   D.   TAATCCGAT


4. The two chains of the double helix structure of DNA are ___i___, due to hydrogen
   bonds between base pairs, and they are __ ii___ to each other.

The statement above is completed by information in row

Row                        i                                         ii
 A.                  complementary                              non-parallel
 B.                     leading                                   lagging
 C.                     lagging                                   leading
 D.                  complementary                                parallel

– know that genes are composed of DNA which are composed of specific sequences of
  base pairs

– describe how DNA is similar and yet different in various organisms

– describe the main functions of DNA


DNA replication
– explain (flow chart) and/or draw HOW DNA replicates (copies) itself




– know the enzymes involved in DNA replication and the function of each
         o helicase, primase, DNA polymerases, ligase
5. Once DNA has been sequenced, it can be replicated many times for use by the
researchers to analyze the genes found on the chromosomes. The enzyme used to join
together the fragments of DNA into a completed strand and the technology scientists use
to replicate DNA is shown in

Row       Enzyme used to join fragments of DNA        Technology used to replicate DNA
 A.                  DNA polymerase                         gel electrophoresis
 B.                     DNA ligase                       polymerase chain reaction
 C.                       helicase                          gel electrophoresis
 D.                 restriction enzyme                   polymerase chain reaction

– describe the model of DNA replication as SEMICONSERVATIVE → describe what
  this term means

– identify WHEN DNA replicates itself

– describe WHY DNA replicates itself


Protein Synthesis
– explain the ―one gene – one enzyme‖ (or ―one gene – one protein‖) hypothesis

6. The most direct relationship between a gene and an enzyme is that

   A.   an enzyme causes a gene to destroy carcinogens
   B.   the sequence of nucleotides in a gene determines the structure of an enzyme
   C.   each gene contains the code needed to construct many different types of enzymes
   D.   the sequence of amino acids in an enzyme is unrelated to nucleotide sequence in a
        gene

– provide similarities and differences between DNA and RNA

– describe and/or draw the molecular structure of RNA


7. Which of the following statements about RNA is not correct?

   A.   Thymine is not present in RNA.
   B.   The sugar ribose is found in RNA.
   C.   RNA molecules are absent from ribosomes.
   D.   RNA molecules are smaller than DNA molecules
– distinguish between messenger RNA, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA by
  indicating the function of each

– describe the molecular structure and function of an enzyme

– describe WHY protein synthesis is important

– identify WHEN protein synthesis occurs

– protein synthesis has two stages:

                DNA      →    RNA →         protein

– summarize/ draw the steps in TRANSCRIPTION
       o know the enzymes involved in TRANSCRIPTION
       o know WHERE TRANSCRIPTION occurs

– summarize/ draw the steps in TRANSLATION
       o know structure and function of all molecules involved in TRANSLATION
           → ribosome, mRNA strand, tRNA, amino acids
       o explain the functions of codons, anticodons, initiator (start) codons and
           terminator (stop) codons
       o know WHERE TRANSLATION occurs

****be able to TRANSCRIBE a DNA sequence into a mRNA strand, then use your
―magic chart‖ to TRANSLATE the mRNA strand into an amino acid sequence
AND VICE VERSA (amino acid to mRNA to DNA)

                 Use the following information to answer the next question.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), an enlargement of the prostate gland, causes urination
problems such as dribbling and pain. BPH is not a precursor to prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is
linked to the absence of a protein coded for by the p27 gene. The absence of this protein leads to
uncontrolled cell growth in prostate tissue.
                                                                          —from Seppa, 1998


8. In normally functioning cells, the protein coded for by the p27 gene is produced
continuously. The process by which the p27 gene’s code is read from the DNA and the
name of the molecule formed in the process are identified in row
Row                     Process                              Molecule
 A.                  transcription                            mRNA
 B.                   translation                             mRNA
 C.                  transcription                            tRNA
 D.                   translation                             tRNA


                  Use the following information to answer the next question.


                                      Portion of Insulin Protein

                      Phenylalanine–Valine–Asparagine–Glutamine–Histidine



9. What is the strand of DNA that would code for this portion of insulin?
   A. AAG CAA TTA GTT GTA
   B. AAA CAA TTC CAC CTA
   C. CAC GAG AAC GTA TTC
   D. TTC GTA AAC GAG CAC


                  Use the following information to answer the next question.


                               Some Events in Protein Synthesis

                 1        The polypeptide folds into an enzyme shape.
                 2        tRNAs transport amino acids to the ribosomes.
                 3        A polypeptide is released from the ribosomes.
                 4        mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.



Numerical Response
1. The sequence of events that results in the production of an enzyme is _____ , _____ ,
_____ , and _____.
(Record your four-digit answer in the numerical-response section of the answer sheet.)
                  Use the following information to answer the next question.


Human oxytocin and ADH are two hormones with very similar molecular structures but very different
functions. In the following diagram, all amino acids are the same except those labelled ―1‖ and ―2‖.




10. The two point-mutations in DNA that would change the code for oxytocin to ADH
occur
    A. at 1, where T would be replaced by A and at 2, where A would be replaced by C
    B. at 1, where A would be replaced by T and at 2, where C would be replaced by A
    C. at 1, where U would be replaced by A and at 2, where U would be replaced by G
    D. at 1, where U would be replaced by A and at 2, where G would be replaced by U


                  Use the following information to answer the next question.


    Some Events that Occur in a Cell During the Manufacture of Proteins

         1       mRNA nucleotides are fused into a long chain
         2       Amino acids join in a chain
         3       Double helix of DNA uncoils
         4       Polypeptide is released
         5       tRNA anticodons match with mRNA codons
         6       mRNA attaches to a ribosome



11. The sequence in which these events occur is

    A.   1, 3, 5, 6, 4, 2
    B.   1, 3, 6, 5, 2, 4
    C.   3, 1, 5, 6, 4, 2
    D.   3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4
Applications
– illustrate how a change in the sequence of base pairs in DNA can change the function
  of genes → describe the effect of mutations on cells and organisms
– types of mutations:
           o point mutation
              - can result in:
                      silent mutation
                      nonsense mutation
                      missense mutation
           o frameshift mutation

– sickle cell anemia as an example of a point mutation causing missense

– mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
           o what is it? WHO is it inherited from?
           o how it is used to establish relationships among organisms?
           o explain why similarities in genomes indicate common ancestry


             Use the following information to answer the next three questions.


A deletion mutation in mitochondrial DNA causes Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS). A large
sample of different types of somatic cells was removed from a male with KSS, tested, and found
to contain the deletion. The only type of mitochondrial DNA that was found in somatic cells
from the man’s mother was mitochondrial DNA that did not have the KSS deletion.



12. A reasonable hypothesis to explain these results is that the mutation in the
mitochondrial DNA that caused KSS in the man first occurred in the

   A.   mother’s oocytes
   B.   man’s somatic cells
   C.   man’s spermatocytes
   D.   mother’s somatic cells
13. Mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA both code for the formation of proteins.
Which of the following statements about protein synthesis is true?

    A. An mRNA anticodon binds with an amino acid codon, which results in the
       placement of a specific tRNA molecule in the polypeptide chain.
    B. An mRNA anticodon binds with a tRNA codon, which results in the placement of
       a specific polypeptide molecule in the amino acid chain.
    C. A tRNA anticodon binds with an mRNA codon, which results in the placement of
       a specific amino acid molecule in the polypeptide chain.
    D. A tRNA anticodon binds with a polypeptide codon, which results in the
       placement of a specific mRNA molecule in the amino acid chain.


           Use the following additional information to answer the next question.


In an individual with KSS, part of the coding strand of mitochondrial DNA that has been
deleted has the following base sequence.

                               ACC TCC CTC ACC AAA



14. The third amino acid coded for by this segment of mitochondrial DNA is

    A.   lysine
    B.   threonine
    C.   glutamate
    D.   phenylalanine


– recombinant DNA technology/ genetic engineering
  o sketch a flow chart/ diagram of the procedure to clone a gene (e.g., insert human
     insulin gene into a bacterial plasmid)
  o potential uses
  o societal implications – dis/advantages

– describe the function of restriction and ligase enzymes – how are they used in genetic
  engineering?
15. Which enzymes would a geneticist use to cut DNA into fragments?
    A.   Ligase enzymes
    B.   RNA polymerases
    C.   DNA polymerases
    D.   Restriction enzymes

– transgenic organisms
         o what are they? What are some potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and
             environmental science?
         o societal implications – dis/advantages

– gel electrophoresis/ DNA fingerprinting
          o how it is done (procedure) – sketch a flow diagram/ label
          o potential uses
          o societal implications – dis/advantages



Biologists have been able to map the large territory inhabited by the bear population by
locating their feces. In order to use DNA found in feces to track bears, it is necessary to
identify individual bears by the DNA found in their feces. One technique that is used to do
this is DNA fingerprinting.


16. In DNA fingerprinting, gel electrophoresis is used to

    A.   cut DNA into fragments
    B.   separate fragments of DNA
    C.   match a gene with its function
    D.   pair homologous chromosomes


– PCR – used to amplify DNA – what process is this similar to?
        o how it is done (procedure) – sketch a flow diagram/ label
        o potential uses

17. PCR is similar to a process that normally occurs in cells prior to cell division. The
row that identifies the site and name of this process is

  Row             Site                   Process
   A.           nucleus                replication
   B.           nucleus               transcription
   C.          cytoplasm               replication
   D.          cytoplasm              transcription
– totipotency vs. pluripotency

– nuclear transplantation

– CLONING!
         o how Dolly was cloned (draw/ label or flow chart)
         o implications to society/ the individual – dis/advantages

– stem cells
  – what are they?
  – potential uses
  – societal implications – dis/advantages

– Human Genome Project

– DNA microarrays

– Gene Therapy
            o somatic vs. germ-line therapy
            o societal implications – dis/advantages

                 Use the following information to answer the next question.


Between 50 000 and 100 000 genes are involved to build, run, and maintain a human body.
Any one of these genes can mutate.

If geneticists locate a harmful mutation, there is hope that one day they will be able to repair
the gene both in the affected individual and in his or her gametes.
                                                                        —from Turner, 1996


18. The technology to replace genes in cells of humans is called

    A.   gene cloning
    B.   gene therapy
    C.   carrier screening
    D.   DNA fingerprinting

				
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