Docstoc

PROPERTIES OF OCEAN WATER

Document Sample
PROPERTIES OF OCEAN WATER Powered By Docstoc
					   Fresh water
    begins to
    freeze at
    __________F
    and
    __________C.
   For water to freeze and change into
    ice, it must be cooled to its freezing
    point, which implies heat loss. That
    heat loss occurs when the
    temperature of the air is lower than
    the temperature of the water.
   The freezing point of fresh water is
    0°C; however, its maximum density
    is reached at 4°C.
   From an ecological perspective, the
    latter point is extremely important,
    since the deeper water which is
    located under the ice – except in
    some small lakes or ponds - does
    not freeze, which means that the
    creatures living there can survive
    winter under the ice.
   The layer close to the surface becomes less dense when
    approaching the freezing point; it then increases in volume
    instead of shrinking, and becomes “lighter” than the water below
    it at 4°C. Therefore, that cooler layer will float on the surface and
    will continue to cool until ice is formed. Ice (a solid) is lighter
    than water (a liquid) due to its larger volume, and that is why it
    floats. The water located under the ice below remains at 4°C,
    except for the layer just below the ice’s surface. That layer will
    approach the freezing point of 0°C. As it reaches that
    temperature, it turns into ice as well, making the layer of ice on
    the surface even thicker. The colder it gets, the thicker and the
    more solid the layer of ice becomes.
   Water boils
    and melts at
    unusually high
    temperatures
    because of
    __________.
   Water boils and melts at
    unusually high temperatures
    because of hydrogen bonds.
   The water molecule is angular
    in shape, forming negative
    and positive charges on
    opposite sides. This means
    that the H2O molecule is
    highly polar. Because of this
    high polarity H20 molecules
    form hydrogen bonds which
    are very strong. These strong
    hydrogen bonds mean that
    water has a very high boiling
    point because it takes a lot
    more energy to overcome
    them and release H2O
    molecules from the liquid into
    the gaseous phase.
   Without
    hydrogen
    bonding, Earth
    would have
    __________.
   Without
    hydrogen
    bonding, Earth
    would have no
    water cycle,
    no ocean, no
    floating ice,
    and no life as
    we know it.
   Water exists in all
    three phases
    (solid, liquid, and
    vapor) on Earth's
    surface because
    of the presence of
    ____
     ______ bonds.
   Water exists in all
    three phases
    (solid, liquid, and
    vapor) on Earth's
    surface because
    of the presence of
    Hbonds.
   Ice is less
    dense than
    water because
    __________.
   Ice is less dense
    than water
    because water
    molecules in ice
    crystals take up
    more space than
    water molecules
    in liquid water.
   The density of
    freshwater ice
    is __________.
   The density of
    freshwater ice
    is less than
    fresh water so
    the ice floats.
   When ice melts, latent
    heat is absorbed from
    the environment to
    essentially____________.
   When ice melts, latent
    heat is absorbed from
    the environment to
    essentially break
    numerous but not all
    hydrogen bonds.
   *latent heat is the
    amount of energy in the
    form of heat released or
    absorbed by a substance
    during a change of
    phase state(i.e. solid,
    liquid, or gas), – also
    called a phase transition
   When liquid water
    vaporizes (i.e.,
    evaporates,
    sublimates, boils),
    enough latent heat
    is absorbed to
    essentially
    ____________.
   When liquid water
    vaporizes (i.e.,
    evaporates,
    sublimates, boils),
    enough latent heat is
    absorbed to
    essentially break all
    of the hydrogen
    bonds.
 Aswater
 freezes,
 _________.
 Aswater freezes,
 the ice becomes
 less dense than
 water.
   Sea ice,
    formed when
    seawater
    freezes,
    contains
    ___________
    salt than
    seawater.
   Sea ice,
    formed when
    seawater
    freezes,
    contains less
    salt than
    seawater.
   The reason it takes
    so much heat to
    melt ice or
    evaporate water is
    that extra energy is
    required to break
    __________ bonds
    between water
    molecules.
   The reason it takes
    so much heat to
    melt ice or
    evaporate water is
    that extra energy is
    required to break
    hydrogen bonds
    between water
    molecules.
   The average
    kinetic energy
    of water
    molecules is
    known as
    __________.
   The average kinetic
    energy of water
    molecules is known
    as temperature.

   *The kinetic energy
    of an object is the
    extra energy which
    it possesses due to
    its motion.
   Liquid water
    changes to a
    vapor via
    __________.
   Liquid water
    changes to a
    vapor via
    evaporation.
   Latent heat is
    ____________.
   Latent heat is heat used to
    change the phase of a substance
    but not its temperature.
   Ocean heat
    content
    ___________
    downwind
    land masses.
   Ocean heat content
    moderates
    temperatures in
    summer and winter
    on downwind land
    masses.
   The specific heat of ice is
    half that of liquid water.
    Therefore, if 1 calorie of
    heat is required to raise the
    temperature of 1 g of liquid
    water by 1 Celsius degree,
    how much heat is required
    to raise the temperature of
    1 g of ice by 1 Celsius
    degree?
   The specific heat of ice
    is half that of liquid
    water. Therefore, if 1
    calorie of heat is
    required to raise the
    temperature of 1 g of
    liquid water by 1
    Celsius degree, how
    much heat is required
    to raise the temperature
    of 1 g of ice by 1
    Celsius degree? 0.5
    calorie
   The term for the
    total concentration
    of salts in seawater
    is __________.
   The term for
    the total
    concentration
    of salts in
    seawater is
    salinity.
   Water is
    known as the
    universal
    solvent
    because
    ___________.
   Water is known as the
    universal solvent
    because
   water dissolves solids,
    liquids & gases,
   H bonds,
   facilitate breaking
    ionic bonds such as in
    NaCl,
   water dissolves non-
    ionic substances such
    as organic chemicals.
   It is said that the
    oceans contain every
    element on the
    planet dissolved in
    one form or another.
    The principle
    of constant
    proportions
    means that
    __________.
    The principle of
    constant proportions
    means that measuring
    the concentration of one
    principal sea salt allows
    calculation of the
    concentrations of the
    other major salt
    components.
    the principle of
    constant proportions
    states that regardless
    of variations in
    salinity, the ratios
    between the amount of
    major ions in seawater
    is constant.
   The major
    constituents of
    seawater occur in
    _________ relative
    concentrations
    throughout the
    ocean.
   The major
    constituents of
    seawater occur in
    the same relative
    concentrations
    throughout the
    ocean.
   The major
    dissolved
    constituents of
    ocean water, such
    as sodium and
    chloride ions, are
    __________
    properties of
    seawater.
   The major dissolved
    constituents of ocean
    water, such as sodium
    and chloride ions, are
    conservative properties of
    seawater.
   conservative property—A
    property with values that do
    not change in the course of a
    particular series of events.
   Non-
    conservative
    properties of
    ocean water
    __________.
   Non-conservative properties of
    ocean water include constituents
    participating in biogeochemical
    or seasonal cycles that have
    variable concentrations, include
    silica and calcium compounds,
    do no follow the principle of
    constant proportions.
   The surface
    temperature and
    salinity patterns of
    mid-ocean waters
    are controlled
    primarily by large-
    scale __________.
   The surface
    temperature and
    salinity patterns of
    mid-ocean waters
    are controlled
    primarily by large-
    scale precipitation
    and evaporation.
   The differences in
    chemical makeup
    of dissolved solids
    in river water
    versus seawater
    can be explained
    by which of the
    following?
   The differences in chemical makeup of
    dissolved solids in river water versus
    seawater can be explained by which of the
    following?
   Marine organisms in the ocean extract
    calcium and silica to build shells and
    skeletons,
   some forms of ocean life concentrate,
    secrete/excrete certain chemical elements,
   there are differences in solubility and rates
    of physical-chemical reactions among ions.
   The average length
    of time the various
    salts remain in the
    ocean before
    cycling out of the
    ocean is known as
    the __________
    time.
   The average length
    of time the various
    salts remain in the
    ocean before
    cycling out of the
    ocean is known as
    the residence time.
   In the Atlantic
    and Pacific
    Oceans, the
    surface salinity is
    greatest near the
    _________.
   In the Atlantic
    and Pacific
    Oceans, the
    surface salinity is
    greatest near the
    center of each
    ocean basin.
   When
    seawater
    evaporates, all
    dissolved salts
    ___________.
   When
    seawater
    evaporates, all
    dissolved salts
    are left in the
    surface
    waters.
   In the photic zone,
    the concentration
    of dissolved
    __________ is higher
    relative to
    dissolved
    __________.
   In the photic zone,
    the concentration
    of dissolved
    oxygen is higher
    relative to
    dissolved carbon
    dioxide.
   In dark water just
    below the photic
    zone, because of
    respiration, the
    concentration of
    dissolved
    __________ is higher
    relative to
    dissolved
    __________.
   In dark water just
    below the photic
    zone, because of
    respiration, the
    concentration of
    dissolved carbon
    dioxide is higher
    relative to
    dissolved oxygen.
   In the ocean,
    photosynthesis
    requires
    dissolved
    __________.
   In the ocean,
    photosynthesis
    requires dissolved
    carbon dioxide.
    carbon dioxide
    + water + light
    energy →
    glucose +
    oxygen + water
   Carbon
    dioxide
    __________.
   Carbon dioxide accounts for
    80% of the dissolved gases in
    the entire ocean, when
    combined with water forms
    carbonic acid, is important in
    the carbon cycle and global
    climate change.
   For the ocean as a
    whole, the most
    abundant gas
    dissolved in
    seawater is:
   For the ocean as a
    whole, the most
    abundant gas
    dissolved in
    seawater
    is:carbon dioxide
   The process
    whereby inorganic
    molecules of CO2
    and water are
    converted into
    carbohydrates and
    O2 is known as
    __________.
   The process
    whereby inorganic
    molecules of CO2
    and water are
    converted into
    carbohydrates and
    O2 is known as
    photosynthesis.
   The processing of
    carbohydrates in
    cells for the
    release of energy
    and CO2 is known
    as __________.
   The processing of
    carbohydrates in
    cells for the
    release of energy
    and CO2 is known
    as respiration.
   pH is a
    measure of
    ___________.
   pH is a
    measure of
    hydrogen ion
    concentration.
   Pure water is
    close to
    neutral so that
    its pH is very
    close to a
    value of
    __________.
   Pure water is
    close to
    neutral so that
    its pH is very
    close to a
    value of 7.
   The ocean as a
    whole has a
    pH close to
    __________.
   The ocean
    as a whole
    has a pH
    close to 8.
   Seawater is
    buffered; that is,
    when adding an
    acidic or alkaline
    substance to
    seawater, the pH
    __________.
   Seawater is
    buffered; that is,
    when adding an
    acidic or alkaline
    substance to
    seawater, the pH
    changes very little.
   The key
    substance
    which buffers
    seawater is
    __________.
   The key
    substance
    which buffers
    seawater is
    carbon
    dioxide.
   Lake waters
    generally are
    __________
    seawater and can
    exhibit greater
    variations in pH in
    response to
    influxes of acid
    precipitation and
    runoff.
   Lake waters
    generally are not as
    well buffered as
    seawater and can
    exhibit greater
    variations in pH in
    response to
    influxes of acid
    precipitation and
    runoff.
   Rain having which
    one of the
    following pH
    levels would be
    designated acid
    rain?
   Rain having which
    one of the
    following pH
    levels would be
    designated acid
    rain? 4.7
   The density of
    seawater
    __________.
 The density of seawater
 greater than fresh water,
 1.026 g/cm3,
 increases with decreasing
  temperature for water of
  average salinity,
 increases with increasing
  salinity.
   Seawater of 35 psu
    (average salinity of
    seawater) begins to
    freeze at a
    temperature of
    about __________.
   Seawater of 35 psu
    (average salinity of
    seawater) begins to
    freeze at a
    temperature of
    about -2C.
   For seawater of
    average salinity,
    which one of the
    following
    statements is not
    true?
   For seawater of
    average salinity,
    which one of the
    following
    statements is not
    true? The temp.
    of initial freezing
    is higher than
    that of fresh
    water.
   Fresh water is
    most dense at a
    temperature of
    about __________.
   Fresh water is
    most dense at a
    temperature of
    about 4C.
   Density of
    seawater is
    controlled
    primarily by
    __________.
   Density of
    seawater is
    controlled
    primarily by
    temp. &
    salinity.
   Pressure increases
    by __________ for
    each additional 10
    meters of depth
    beneath the
    ocean's surface.
   Pressure increases
    by 10 decibars for
    each additional 10
    meters of depth
    beneath the
    ocean's surface.
   __________ ice
    dominates the
    Southern
    Ocean around
    Antarctica.
   First year ice
    dominates the
    Southern
    Ocean around
    Antarctica.
   Sound
    propogation in
    the ocean is used
    for…
   Sound propogation in the ocean is
    used fordetermining ocean depth,
    locating subs and fish, whale
    communication and detecting small
    changes in water temp. over long
    distances.
   The SOFAR
    channel is:
 The SOFAR
  channel is:
 Where trapped
  sound waves
  can propogate
  distances of
  thousands of
  kilometers

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1513
posted:7/24/2011
language:English
pages:103