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					W A S H T E N A W C O U N T Y W O R K F O R C E D E V E L O P M E N T   B O A R D
I N PA R T N E R S H I P W I T H T H E C O M M U N I T Y A C T I O N    B O A R D

REPORT CARD 2005 & BEYOND
2005 WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT BOARD (WDB) MEMBERS                                  2005 COMMUNITY ACTION BOARD (CAB) MEMBERS


Private Sector                                                                  Consumer
Suzanne Bade                   M Works University of Michigan                   Ellette Collins                   Head Start
Nicholas Fortson               University Bank                                  Juanita House
James Frenza                   Frenza and Associates                            Cynthia Maritato                  Department of Human Services
Gene Graber                    Applied Dynamics International                   Suzanne Shaw
Cindy Harrison, Vice-Chair     Chelsea Community Hospital
Sabrina Keeley                 Ann Arbor Area Chamber of Commerce               Private Sector
Mary Kerr                      Ann Arbor Area Conventions & Visitors Bureau     Cyril Berry, Vice-Chair           Berry Rental
Eric Mahler                    Dykema Gossett                                   Shoshana DeMaria                  Ann Arbor Public Schools
Mark Ouimet                    Ouimet Group                                     Michael DuRussel, Chair           DuRussels’ Potato Farms
Keith Peters                   Ypsilanti Area Chamber of Commerce               Hurley Myers, Vice-Chair          Jordan Promotions
David Potter                   Community Economic Development,Inc.              Donn Wolf, Vice-Chair             Public Relations Associates
Anne Williams, Vice-Chair      ExcellenceQuest, Inc.
Donn Wolf, Chair               Public Relations Associates                      Public
Frank Zyber                    Saint Joseph Mercy Health Systems                Robert Brackenbury                Washtenaw County Board of Commissioners
                                                                                Joseph Dulin                      Roberto Clemente Student Dev.
Community Based Organizations (CBO)                                             Brenda McKinney                   Superior Charter Township
Diane Davidson                 Washtenaw Housing Alliance                       Rolland Sizemore, Jr.             Washtenaw County Board of Commissioners
Janie Jones                    Breakfast Optimist of Ypsilanti                  Christina Montague                Ann Arbor Public Schools
James Magyar                   Center for Independent Living
                                                                                WDB Liaison
Education                                                                       Steven Gulick                     Huron Valley Central Labor Council
Diana McKnight-Morton          Washtenaw Community College, Board of Trustees
William (Bill) Miller, Vice-Chair Washtenaw Intermediate School District
Clifford L. Smith Jr.          Willow Run Board of Education                    2 0 0 5 E D U C AT I O N A D V I S O R Y ( E A G ) M E M B E R S


Economic Development                                                            Sara Aeschbach                    Ann Arbor Public Schools
Timothy Robinson               Washtenaw Development Council                    Barbara Bleyaert                  Washtenaw Intermediate School District
                                                                                Cathy Dries                       Washtenaw Community College
Labor                                                                           Patricia Dahl                     Lincoln Consolidated Schools
Steven Gulick, Vice-Chair      Huron Valley Central Labor Council               Michael DuRussel                  DuRussels’ Potato Farms
Edward Resha                   Huron Valley Central Labor Council               Steven Gulick                     Huron Valley Central Labor Council
                                                                                Cindy Harrison                    Chelsea Community Hospital
Public Assistance                                                               Linda King                        Washtenaw Community College
Cynthia Maritato               Department of Human Services                     Diana McKnight-Morton             Washtenaw Community College, Board of Trustees
                                                                                Ronald Mead                       Chelsea High School
Rehabilitation Services                                                         Scott Menzel                      Whitmore Lake Public Schools
James Bunton                   Michigan Rehabilitation Services                 William (Bill) Miller, Co-Chair   Washtenaw Intermediate School District
                                                                                Christina Montague                Ann Arbor Public Schools
Veterans                                                                        David Potter                      Community Economic Development, Inc.
Gregg Weaver                   Washtenaw County Council of Veterans             Timothy Robinson                  Washtenaw Development Council
                                                                                Clifford L. Smith Jr.             Willow Run Board of Education
Washtenaw County Liaisons                                                       Alan (Al) Smith                   Regional Career Technical Center (RCTC)
Wesley Prater                  Washtenaw County Board of Commissioners,         Laurita Thomas                    University of Michigan
                               Chief Elected Official                           Arthur (Art) Williams             Huron High School
Robert Guenzel                 Washtenaw County Administrator                   Larry Whitworth                   Washtenaw Community College
                                                                                Anne Williams, Co-Chair           ExcellenceQuest, Inc.



                                                                                E T C S A D M I N I S T R AT I V E S TA F F


                                                                                Trenda Rusher                     Executive Director
                                                                                Jennifer Bivens                   Program Manager
                                                                                Rana Al-Igoe                      Administrative Specialist
C O N T E N T S


Introduction 4




Goal A: Develop sector-based workforce development strategies. 6




Goal B: Address the workforce development needs of small and medium-sized businesses. 10




Goal C: Address the unique needs of the County’s working poor and special populations. 12




Goal D: Harness the potential between workforce and economic development resources. 16




Goal E: Improve system-wide workforce planning to address future population growth. 19




Other Key Issues in 2005 and Beyond: Aging and Wages 21




Glossary of Acronyms 23




Endnotes 23
I N T R O D U C T I O N


Report Card 2005 is a strategic planning tool published by the Washtenaw

County Workforce Development Board (WDB) in partnership with the

Washtenaw Community Action Board (CAB). The WDB is a business-led

organization serving as a catalyst for workforce development in Washtenaw

County. In 2001, the WDB published Report Card 2000, in which five

primary workforce goals and related strategies were outlined.

Those goals were:

                         1 Develop sector-based workforce       Much progress has been made in
                           development strategies.              striving toward these goals. Since
                                                                the last report, much has been
                         2 Address the workforce develop-       achieved in moving toward these
                           ment needs of small and medium-      goals, from new or expanded
                           sized employers.                     partnerships with local chambers of
                                                                commerce and economic develop-
                         3 Address the needs of the County’s    ment organizations, to county-wide
                           working poor.                        efforts to end homelessness and
                                                                provide stronger transition support
                         4 Harness the untapped human           for ex-offenders, and to regional
                           resources in the county, including   partnerships that allow for improved
                           high school and college graduates,   collaboration across southeast
                           and persons with disabilities, to    Michigan. The WDB looks forward
                           address the current labor            to deepening its relationship with
                           shortage.                            public, and private, and non-profit
                                                                sector leaders to address the most
                         5 Improve system-wide planning         pressing workforce development
                           efforts and customer outcomes        issues facing our communities.
                           through a concerted quality
                           assurance initiative.




4
ABOUT THIS REPORT


Report Card 2005 is both an update
and an extension of Report Card
2000. All of the goals from Report
Card 2000 are, in fact, still important
in 2005 and have been adopted
again by the Workforce Development
Board as goals through 2007
(though a few of the goals have
changed in focus and wording).
What has changed since 2000 is the
availability of more recent data about
demographics and about business
and industry patterns in the County.


The information contained in this
report comes from several sources,
including statistical information com-
piled by the U.S. Census Bureau, the
Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics,       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                       Funding for this report was provided
the Michigan Department of Labor                                                 by the WDB and MDLEG. Additional
and Economic Growth (MDLEG),              Preparation for Report Card 2005       copies of this report will be provided
and the Institute of Labor and            was a collaborative effort between     at www.ewashtenaw.org/govern-
Industrial Relations at the University                                           ment/departments/etcs/Publications.
of Michigan. Sources for most data,       the Washtenaw County Workforce
charts and tables are included in the     Development Board and an advisory      For additional printed copies,
Endnotes section of the report.           committee comprised of representa-     please contact:
                                          tives from business, economic          Washtenaw County ETCS
The WDB looks forward                     development, public services, and      (Employment Training and
                                          education. Corporation for a Skilled   Community Services)
to deepening its relationship             Workforce (CSW), an Ann Arbor          555 Towner
                                          based workforce policy and research    Ypsilanti, Michigan 48198
with public, and private, and
                                          organization, wrote this report.       Phone734.544.2955
                                          CSW’s team consisted of Project        Fax 734.544.6730
non-profit sector leaders to
                                          Manager Brian Tell, Larry Good,        Email: etcsgroup@ewashtenaw.org
address the most pressing                 and Tatiana Bailey. The report was
                                          designed by Somberg Design.
workforce development issues              www.sombergdesign.com.

facing our communities.




                                                                                                                        5
G O A L                              A
     D e v e l o p s e c t o r - b a s e d w o r k f o rc e

     development strategies.

     WASHTENAW COUNTY continues                more than $1.17 billion.3 Computer
     to be a thriving place to work and to     software and hardware, machine
     do business. Although the recession       tools, laboratory equipment and
     of 2002-03 was certainly felt in the      medical equipment are the area’s
     Ann Arbor MSA1, with a net loss of        lead export products, with Canada,
     4,600 jobs in 2002 and 3,400 jobs         Mexico, Japan, Australia, China,
     in 2003, an analysis of the longer        India and France receiving the
     period of 1991 to 2003 indicates          lion’s share.4
     that the area had a 20.1 percent
     overall growth in employment.2 This       Nearly all industry sectors have
     is higher than employment growth          increased slightly in number of jobs
     for the U.S. and for any other area       since 2001 and are forecasted to
     in Michigan except for the Grand          increase through 2010.5 The biggest
     Rapids-Muskegon-Holland MSA during        gains have been in the services
     the same period (see Figure 1).           sector, with significant job growth in
                                               the education, health services, and
     The diversity of employers in             business services sectors as well as
     the area is one of the reasons            in wholesale trade. Even manufactur-
     why Washtenaw County’s economy            ing employment, which declined sig-
     thrives. The area is home to national-    nificantly in neighboring Southeast
     ly and internationally important          Michigan communities between
     employers in automotive technology,       1999 and 2002, held steady or
     printing and book manufacturing,          grew slightly in the Ann Arbor MSA.
     health care, and postsecondary
     education, and is a growing center        With a diverse industrial base, occu-
     for information technology, and           pational diversity is also a prevalent
     biotechnology research and commer-        feature of the area’s economy. The
     cialization. Global trade is a big part   highest growth occupations in the
     of the industrial diversity equation.     Ann Arbor region include jobs in
     Ann Arbor is the fourth largest ex-       computer applications, health care,
     porting area in Michigan and is within    education, landscaping, and retail.6
     the top 100 exporting areas in the        Between 2000 and 2010, jobs in the
     U.S. with a total export value of         Ann Arbor area are expected to




6
                                Farm


                                Production


                                Admin. Support


                                Transportation


                                Total


                                Construction


                                Service


                                Sales


                                Management


                                Health Care


                                Professional

-7%   0%    7%     14%   21%

Figure 1. Occupational Job Growth
Ann Arbor Region
2000-2010




                               Lndscp/Grndskpng                                     Electrical Drafter


                               Janitor/Cleaner                                      Home Health Aide


                               Cashiers                                             Education Admin


                               Food Prep Work                                       Database Admin


                               Fam & Gen Pract                                      Social Srv Asst


                               Comp Appl Eng                                        Network Admin


                               Retail Salesperson                                   Network Syst Anal


                               Registered Nurse                                     Comp Syst Soft Eng


                               Comp Supp Spec                                       Comp soft Appl Eng


                               Health Spec Teach                                    Comp Sup Spec

0                1,000         2,000                0%   20%    40%   60%    80%   100%

Figure 2. Largest Numeric Growth Occupations        Figure 3. High Growth Detailed Occupations
Ann Arbor Region                                    Ann Arbor Region
2000-2010                                           2000-2010




                                                                                                         7
AN IMPORTANT FEATURE OF SECTOR-BASED STRATEGIES IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF

CAREER PATHWAYS INTO HIGHER SKILLED, HIGHER WAGE JOBS FOR BOTH JOB

SEEKERS AND INCUMBENT WORKERS.

                            increase by 13.7 percent overall,        2003, Michigan lost nearly 41,000
                            with the following areas projected       high pay, low education jobs while
                            to experience the greatest growth:       adding 216,000 low pay, low educa-
                            professionals (23%), health care         tion jobs, and 273,000 middle and
                            (20%), management (17%), sales           high pay, high education jobs.8 This
                            (17%), service (16%), and construc-      analysis is further evidence of the
                            tion and repair (15%).7 The largest      shift toward a two-tiered skills
                            increases in the number of jobs is       economy and of how important it
                            projected to occur in the following      is that workers at all levels, from
                            positions: health specialist teachers,   entry-level to seasoned, acquire
                            computer support specialists,            the skills needed to succeed in the
                            registered nurses, retail sales per-     labor market.
                            sons and computer application
                            engineers.                               In 2005, the State of Michigan
                                                                     formally adopted the sector-based,
                            SECTOR-BASED STRATEGIES                  RSA approach as one of the corner-
                            have proven to be among the most         stones of its integrated workforce

In 2005, the State of       effective at engaging employers in       and economic development plan.
                            workforce development partnerships.      The WDB is committed to fostering
Michigan formally adopted   Sector-based strategies strive to        the development of additional RSAs
                            meet the occupational and skill          across southeastern Michigan and
the sector-based, RSA       needs of particular industries or sec-   will continue to be a catalyst for
                            tors; they are structured responses      bringing employers in health care,
approach as one of
                            to worker shortages, skill shortages,    education, automotive, biotechnology
the cornerstones of its     training mismatches, and other work-     and other important sectors in the
                            force challenges. They are typically     region together in partnership with
integrated workforce        organized by and for employers, with     our region’s outstanding education
                            service providers and educational        and training institutions and human
and economic
                            institutions playing supporting          services providers to ensure that

development plan.           partnership roles.                       there is an adequate supply of
                                                                     qualified workers for the region’s
                            An important feature of sector-based     high skilled and high wage jobs.
                            strategies is the development of
                            career pathways into higher skilled,
                            higher wage jobs for both job
                            seekers and incumbent workers.
                            A new report by Glazer and Grimes
                            suggests that between 1990 and




8
STRATEGIES


   Work in partnership with the State of Michigan, SEMWAC,
Washtenaw Development Council (WDC) and other state and regional
stakeholders to foster Regional Skills Alliances in growing sectors in
the region. Build off the successes and challenges of the existing
health care and construction skill alliances.


   Develop and provide return-to-learning workshops for incumbent
workers at their work-sites to help alleviate fear of lifelong learning,
explore career pathways options, and facilitate referrals to lifelong
learning resources in the region.


   Coordinate regional applications for state training and business
development funds, such as MiRSAs, Economic Development Job
Training grants, VC Fund of Funds, or Community Development
Block Grants.




MODEL           PRACTICES


Since Report Card 2000 was published, the WDB has established a
Partnership Agreement with area construction industry leaders and is
a co-sponsor of the annual ”Just Build It” Expo which educates middle
and high school students about occupations in construction and
building trades.


The Board is also a part of the Southeast Michigan Works Agencies
Coalition (SEMWAC) which has formed a Healthcare Regional Skills
Alliance (RSA) with the City of Detroit and Counties of Wayne, Macomb,
St. Clair, Genesee, Shiawasee, Oakland, and Livingston. The Healthcare
RSA includes hospital and education executives from across the entire
southeastern Michigan region and will address the specific workforce
needs of the health care industry.




                                                                           9
G O A L                                                                     B
A d d re s s t h e w o r k f o rc e d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s

of small and medium-sized businesses.

                             N U M B E R    O F   E M P L O Y E E S     ( P E R C E N T   O F     T O T A L ,     8 , 2 7 0 )

                        1 to 4               5 to 19               20 to 99            100 to 499               500 +

     Number of
  Establishments        4,203 (50%)          2,726 (34%)           1,106 (13%)         213 (2%)                 21 (1%)
  (all industries)


  Top Two               770                  491                   207                 45                       7
  Industries by         Professional,        Retail Trade          Accommodation       Manufacturing            Manufacturing
  Number of             Scientific &                               & Food Services
  Establishments        Technical            338                                       32                       4
                        Services             Health Care           193                 Retail Trade             Health Care
                                             & Social              Retail Trade                                 & Social
                        508 Construction     Assistance                                                         Assistance

                                                                        Source: U.S. Census, County Business Patterns, 2001.




ACCORDING TO a recent report                 Parallel to the national figures, small   A 2003 NEEDS assessment study
prepared for the U.S. Department of          businesses also comprise 99.7 per         of nearly 700 clients of the Michigan
Labor, nationwide, “small and emerg-         cent of Washtenaw County’s employ-        Small Business Technology and
ing businesses represent more than           er base. The most recent figures,         Development Center (MiSBTDC)
99.7 percent of all employers,               from 2001, indicate 8,270 business        found that small business owners in
generate more than 50 percent of             establishments in the County, with        Michigan are highly concerned with
the U.S. Gross Domestic Product              8,248 of those employing 500 or           meeting a range of education and
(GDP), and create most of the next           fewer workers.10 This is an increase      training needs for themselves and
new jobs in the U.S. economy. Small          of 2.6% since 1997. However, this         their employees. Among the highest
businesses represent a critical point        does not tell the whole story. As the     learning needs expressed were:
of entry and source of skills training,      table above shows, 50 percent of          obtaining sources of capital, under-
particularly for those workers who           businesses in the area have fewer         standing taxes, cash flow manage-
often are on the margin in the labor         than five employees; 84% have fewer       ment, general bookkeeping, market-
market.9 And small business owner-           than 20 employees; and 97% have           ing strategies and market research,
ship is increasingly becoming a              fewer than 100 employees.                 networking and sales techniques,
viable option for some segments                                                        web site development, strategic plan-
of the population who may face               And these figures do not include the      ning and business expansion, export-
difficulties sustaining full-time employ-    8,772 additional individuals who          ing/importing, motivating employees,
ment, such as older workers and              reported self-employment income           customer service, hiring/firing,
persons with disabilities.                   from non-incorporated businesses.11




10
SMALL BUSINESSES REPRESENT A CRITICAL POINT OF ENTRY AND SOURCE OF SKILLS

TRAINING, PARTICULARLY FOR THOSE WORKERS WHO OFTEN ARE ON THE MARGIN IN

THE LABOR MARKET.

accessing government services,
compliance with federal regulations,           STRATEGIES
and understanding and advocating
for small business legislation                    Launch a regional marketing/communications campaign to
(SBTDC, 2003).                                 emphasize the importance of workforce and human resources issues
                                               to small businesses and to increase the number of small business
The study underscores the breadth              customers served through the workforce development system.
of specific skills and knowledge that
the workforce employed by small                   Partner with MiSBTDC and WDC to conduct small business work-
businesses needs to possess in                 force needs assessments and strengthen staff capacity around usage
order to succeed in today’s business           of Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and non-WIA resources for services
climate; it also provides a starting           to small businesses and their employees, using the areas highlighted
point for discussions about coordinat-         in the MiSBTDC needs study as a starting point.
ing service provision in support of
the County’s small businesses and                 Develop a Regional Skills Alliance that specifically targets the
entrepreneurs.                                 workforce needs of small businesses in industries that are important
                                               to the Washtenaw County economy.
The strategies build on these
successes and seek especially to                  Advocate to MDLEG to exercise its option to participate in the
improve the capacity of the County’s           Self-Employment Assistance Program under Federal unemployment
institutional stakeholders to gauge            insurance and welfare-to-work laws. This is a voluntary program in
the workforce and training needs               which only 10 states currently participate.
of small businesses and provide
value-added services that meet
those needs.



   MODEL          PRACTICE


   In 2003-2005, the WDB approved funding to retrain close to 900
   employees of small to midsize companies in an effort to upgrade
   their current workforce and remain globally competitive. Employee
   were trained in the plastics, book manufacturing, food manufacturing,
   industrial supply, sanitation manufacturing, IT, and retail sectors.
   Training occurred in such skill areas as injection molding, facilities
   maintenance, communication skills, and Microsoft software.




                                                                                                                      11
G O A L                                C
     A d d re s s t h e u n i q u e n e e d s o f

     t h e C o u n t y ’s w o r k i n g p o o r a n d

     special populations.

     IN 2005, we do not have current                  the 59,265 married couple families,
     poverty statistics. However, if past             than $30,000 per year. Of the
     trends are any indication, poverty is            18.3 percent of families who have
     a significant and persistent character-          a female head of household with
     istic of the Washtenaw County area.              no male present, 5,200 of these
     Despite a thriving economy and low               families earned less than $30,000
     unemployment relative to the rest of             per year.16
     the state, 11 percent — 33,450
     County residents, of which 6,000                 Other factors related to working
     were children below the age of 18 —              poverty are homelessness, disability
     lived in poverty when the 2000                   and age. Researchers Shaheen and
     Census was   taken.12   This is a 33             Williams have found that insufficient
     percent increase since 1995 when                 income and lack of employment
     the number of residents living in                are persistent barriers to homeless
     poverty was 25,059.13                            individuals and families “exiting home-
                                                      lessness.”17 In Washtenaw County,
     While poverty is often a result of pro-          33 percent of homeless individuals in
     longed unemployment, many of those               the County are employed either full
     in poverty are working individuals and           or part time, often making less than
     families. Statewide, 25 percent of               $200 per week. The Washtenaw
     Michigan’s working families live below           County Blueprint to End Homeless-
     200 percent of the federal poverty               ness lists the fair market rent for
     line, which is $18,850 per year or               this area at $815 and notes that it
     below for a family of   four14,   for            is “nearly impossible for an individual,
     example. One-third of these families             let alone a family, to afford adequate
     have at least one parent who does                housing.”18 Of individuals who are
     not have health care insurance. In               homeless for the first-time in
     Washtenaw County, about 48 per-                  Washtenaw County, 42 percent
     cent of households earned between                are employed and 45 percent have
     $60,000-$124,999 in      2000.15        Of the   at-tended or graduated from a
     remaining households, 32 percent                 college or technical school.19
     earned less than $60,000. Of




12
                                             STRATEGIES


                                                Support the Human Services Collaborative Council’s Economic
                                             Well Being outcomes for Washtenaw County related to housing, pover-
                                             ty, employment, transportation and health care coverage, including the
Persons with disabilities constitute
                                             creation of county-wide career pathways initiatives for low-income, low-
an untapped pool of potential
                                             skilled workers.
workers for employers in the county.
Many members of this group live in
                                                Support the employment- and education-related recommendations
poverty or are unemployed despite
                                             of the Washtenaw County Blueprint to End Homelessness, including
possessing strong skills. There were
                                             expanding current employment and training/mentoring programs
approximately 40,000 persons with
                                             (e.g., Delonis Shelter, Food Gatherers, etc.) for the homeless.
disabilities in the County in 2000.
Of the 25,417 between the ages
                                                Advocate for the adoption and use of a Self Sufficiency Standard
of 21 and 64 who reported employ-
                                             by Washtenaw County service providers, and advocate to MDLEG for
ment status, only 63 percent were
                                             statewide adoption of a Self Sufficiency Standard.
employed.20 Disability can also
be a compounding factor for many
who are homeless. 17 percent of
homeless individuals surveyed in         A MAJOR CHALLENGEin both
Washtenaw County report physical         defining poverty and designing
or mental disabilities as the reason     service delivery to address poverty
for their homelessness.                  is the inadequacies of the Federal
                                         Poverty Threshold used by the U.S.
Senior citizens often experience         Census Bureau. The Federal Poverty
dimensions of poverty at higher rates    Threshold was created in 1969 and
than other population segments.          has not changed since other than to
Approximately 10,000 older adults        reflect yearly inflation adjustments; it
live below the poverty threshold in      is based on the cost of a single item
Washtenaw County. Often, affordable      — food; it is universal for all states
housing is a key factor. The Blueprint   and does not provide for state or
for Homelessness suggests that           local variations; and it assumes a
recent trends in public policy do not    single family model — a stay-at-home
favor older adults. Yet, nationally,     mom and a working dad.
“there are six times as many older
adults with unmet housing needs as       In a growing movement, 34 states
are currently served by rent-assisted    and many local service areas
housing.”21                              have developed an alternative to
                                         the Federal Poverty Threshold
As well, veterans and returning          called the Self-Sufficiency Standard
soldiers from the Iraqi War face sub-    (www.6strategies.com); Michigan
stantial challenges in re-entering the   is not among those 34 states. In
labor market; addressing their needs     contrast to the Federal Poverty
is an issue that intersects across       Threshold, the Self-Sufficiency
workforce, economic, and community       Standard:
development needs in the county.




                                                                                                                        13
CLEARLY, A MORE AGGRESSIVE STANCE MUST BE TAKEN THROUGHOUT THE COUNTY TO

ALLEVIATE OR REMOVE THE CONDITIONS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO WORKING POVERTY.



• Is   a basic family survival budget       MODEL            PRACTICES
and includes the costs of housing,
food, transportation, medical               The Washtenaw County Michigan Works/Employment Training and
care, child care, miscellaneous             Community Services (ETCS) are leading the charge against
costs, taxes, and the benefits of           poverty. For example, we:
tax credits.
                                            • Partnered   with Washtenaw County Community Corrections to open a
• Is   calculated at the county or          Michigan Works! “mini-station” on the same campus as the county jail
MSA level for 34 states and the             to provide immediate job search assistance to ex-offenders who are
District of Columbia, and allows for        re-entering society and the labor market.
comparisons across communities
and regions.                                • Championed     and convened the Washtenaw Housing Alliances’ Blueprint
                                            to End Homelessness and funded an innovative partnership between
• Is   calculated for 70 different family   S.O.S. Community Services and other area community based organiza-
types — describing costs for every          tions serving homeless families and linking them directly to services at
family composition from a single            the Michigan Works! One Stop Career Center.
adult with no children to a two-parent
family with three teenagers.                • Partnered   with the Ypsilanti Gateway Community and Economic
                                            Development Corporation to rehabilitate homes for home ownership
Clearly, a more aggressive stance           by low-income families in the Gateway area; allow students from the
must be taken throughout the                University of Michigan School of Architecture to design affordable
County to alleviate or remove the           housing which the Gateway Board will build; and provide support for
conditions that contribute to working       youth recreational, educational, and career development activities at
poverty. Career pathways that pro-          the Parkridge Community Center.
vide strong support for individuals to
advance to higher-skilled, higher-pay-      • Participated   in the development of the Washtenaw County Human
ing jobs are one strategy that can          Services Collaborative Council’s (HSCC) community indicators.
contribute to the succsess of county-
wide efforts. Career pathways strate-       • Sponsored   the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) which provides
gies can, and should, be key compo-         nutritious meals to children during the summer months when they are
nents of regional skills alliances and      on school vacation. Many children in Washtenaw County depend on
other sector-based approaches               free or reduced-price school breakfasts and lunches when school is
described earlier.                          in session, but suffer an increased risk of hunger and developmental
                                            decline during the summer months. Schools, along with faith-based and
                                            community organizations are our partners and serve as summer sites.
                                            During the summer of 2005, over 46,000 meals were distributed to
                                            approximately 1,300 children.


                                            • Partnered   with the Human Services Coordinating Council and have
                                            served as champions of the County Poverty Task Force.




14
               P O V E R T Y            S T A T U S ,           1 9 9 9 ,        W A S H T E N A W                C O U N T Y

  Families                                      Families, Female Householder,                   Individuals
                                                No Husband Present

  Total: 3,775                                  Total: 2,049                                    Total: 33,450

  w/children             w/children             w/children              w/children              18 years           65 years          w/children
  under 18               under 5                under 18                under 5                 and over           and over          under 18


  2,871                  1,620                  1,871                   1,001                   27,212             1,423             5,957

                                                                                                                   Source: U.S. Census, 2000




   P O P U L AT I O N L I V I N G B E L O W P O V E R T Y L E V E L ( b y r a c e a n d g e n d e r ) , 1 9 9 9 , W A S H T E N A W C O U N T Y *

                                                                                     Asian            Some            Two or
                                                                   Native
                 Total            White            Black                             Pacific          Other           More             Hispanic
                                                                   American
                                                                                     Islander         Race            Races

  Total          31,920           20,736           6,586           214               235              749             1,465            1,935

  Male            14,615          9,633            2,701           70                70               418             755              968

  Female          17,305          11,103           3,885           144               165              331             710              967
                                                              *Source: U.S. Census, 2000. Includes only residents 15 years or older;
                                                             total individuals in poverty (33,450) includes all residents 1 year or older.



     U N E M P L O Y M E N T                 R A T E S ,         1 9 9 7 - 2 0 0 3

                Washtenaw (%)              Michigan (%)                 United States (%)

  1997          2.10                       4.20                         4.90

  1999          1.80                       3.80                         4.20

  2001          2.30                       5.30                         4.70

  2003          3.10                       7.00                         6.00

                                                               Source: U.S. Census, 2000




From July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003,               including One-Stop Career Center
federally-funded and state-funded                 services and the Partnership for
workforce development programs in                 Adult Learning (PAL) demonstration
Washtenaw County had 79,508 job                   project.
seeker visits*, out of a total labor
force of 180,950, and 3,902                       Of the $3.4 million used for
employers visits.                                 community service programs,
                                                  43% was used for senior services,
Of the $3.1 million used for work-                19% for home rehab/repair, 13%
force development programs, 42%                   for emergency services, and
was used for Work First, 28% for WIA              25% for other services.
programs, 14% for employment serv-                * Duplicated count.
ices, and 16% for other programs




                                                                                                                                                    15
G O A L                                                                   D
                                          Harness the potential between

                                          w o r k f o rc e a n d e c o n o m i c

                                          d e v e l o p m e n t re s o u rc e s .

                                          Compared with the two other largest        college graduates since 1998, the
                                          counties in southeast Michigan,            county is positioning itself well with a
                                          Macomb and Wayne, Washtenaw is             workforce with the range of skills and
                                          the only one that has shown increas-       competencies needed by our globally
                                          es in the number of graduates in two       competitive industries.
                                          of these areas — high school and
                                          community college graduates. (Note:        Yet, this same population is also high-
                                          while recent data on graduates from        ly transient, moving in and out of the
                                          four-year universities was not avail-      county in any given year, mostly for
AN EDUCATED, skilled population is        able for this report, if past trends are   education and career reasons. In
one of Washtenaw County’s chief           any indication, Washtenaw County far       order to increase the number of
assets and is a vital ingredient in the   outstrips other counties here as           graduates who remain in Washtenaw
area’s continued economic success.        well). This constant supply of educat-     County, the area’s workforce develop-
Compared with the rest of Michigan        ed individuals represents a vast           ment, economic development and
and the U.S., the area’s educational      potential source of skilled labor for      education stakeholders must step up
attainment is impressive. Forty-eight     the area’s employers. High school          efforts to communicate the vast
percent of the area’s population 25       students, in particular, appear to be      array of career, business and entre-
years and older has a bachelor’s,         increasing their interest and participa-   preneurship opportunities that exist
graduate or professional degree,          tion in advanced technology courses,       in the region. The strategies are
compared with 21.8 percent                mentorship and job shadowing expe-         intended to intensify efforts to reach
statewide and 24.4 percent nation-        riences, and pursuit of community          out to students and youth and com-
wide. High school graduation rates        college degrees vs. four-year              municate the vast opportunities avail-
also outpaced the state’s and             degrees.23 Combined with a 50              able in Washtenaw County.
nation’s: Washtenaw County, 91.5%;        per cent increase in community
Michigan, 89%; U.S., 86%.22


One reason for such high educational          MODEL          PRACTICE
attainment is the fact that every year
approximately 17,000 people gradu-            The Washtenaw Workforce Development Board has established a
ate from the area’s exceptional high          Partnership Agreement with both the Ypsilanti Area and Ann Arbor Area
schools, community colleges, and              Chambers of Commerce to fund annual education-business activities
public and private universities.              which expose youth and their parents to career opportunities at
                                              businesses across the County.




16
AN EDUCATED, SKILLED POPULATION IS ONE OF WASHTENAW COUNTY’S CHIEF ASSETS

AND IS A VITAL INGREDIENT IN THE AREA’S CONTINUED ECONOMIC SUCCESS.




      C O M P A R I S O N         O F       R E G I O N A L       G R A D U A T E S ,           1 9 9 7 - 9 8           A N D    2 0 0 1 - 0 2

                         High School           Percent              Community           Percent                    4-Year           Percent
                                               Change               College             Change                     University       Change

    Washtenaw Cty.
    1997-98                        2,234                   --                   780                      --              13,594                  *
    2001-02                        2,812                 26%                  1,174                    50%                    *                  *

    Macomb Cty.
    1997-98                        7,000                   --                 3,200                       --              9,500                  *
    2001-02                        7,979                 14%                  2,917                    - 9%                   *                  *

    Wayne Cty.
    1997-98                       16,300                     -                3,000                       --              9,500                  *
    2001-02                       16,436                 < 1%                 2,956                  - 1.5%                   *                  *

                   * Source: MDLEG, Office of LMI, 2005; aggregate four-year university graduation data for 2001-02 unavailable.




E d u c a t i o n a l        A t t a i n m e n t      Wa s h t e n a w              C o u n t y,         2 0 0 0                Compared with the two
Percent high school graduate or higher 91.5 / Percent bachelor’s degree or higher 48.1
                                                                                                                                other largest counties in

P    E   R    C    E     N    T   A     G     E      O      F         A   G     E        G       R      O      U    P           southeast Michigan,

Percent high school graduate or higher                      Bachelor’s degree or higher                                         Macomb and Wayne,

                                             100%                                                                               Washtenaw is the only one
                                             90%
                                                                                                                                that has shown increases
                                             80%
                                                                                                                                in the number of graduates
                                             70%

                                             60%                                                               60%              in two of these areas —
                                             50%                                                               50%
                                                                                                                                high school and community
                                             40%                                                               40%
                                                                                                                                college graduates.
                                             30%                                                               30%

                                             20%                                                               20%

                                             10%                                                               10%

                                             0%                                                                0%

Years 25-34      35-44   45-64    65 and                        Years 25-34    35-44    45-64        65 and
                                  over                                                               over

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000                     Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000




                                                                                                                                                 17
     STRATEGIES


         Develop a unified, county-wide “opportunities” campaign that
     includes:
     • Materials and training for high school and college/university counsel-      • 68% of students say academic
     ing, advising and career development staff, teachers, faculty, alumni         coursework is very important; 41%
     association staff, and other key education staff who have influence           say technical/business coursework
     over student and graduate career decisions.                                   is very important.
     • Messages and activities that promote employment, entrepreneurship
     and lifestyle opportunities in Washtenaw County to high school and col-       • Almost all (combined percentage
     lege graduates, with a focus on career progression in high-wage, high-        of 88%) respondents say they either
     growth sectors.                                                               agree or strongly agree that they
                                                                                   have developed the skills to become
       Continue to promote integrated curricular experiences in all second-        life-long learners.
     ary and post-secondary programs — not just career and technical
     education programs — to include more balanced emphasis on basic               Source: WISD, Washtenaw County High

     academics, academic specialties, and career preparation.                      Schools, Class of 2003, Senior Exit

                                                                                   Survey Results




Summary From High School                   • 27% of students were taking 1-2          Another survey of Washtenaw
Seniors Exit Survey                        AP courses.                                County graduates followed-up
(All High Schools in Washtenaw
                                                                                      respondents from a 1998, five
County, 2003):                             • In 2003, 17% of students partici-
                                                                                      years later.
                                           pated in career and technical educa-
• There was a significant decrease in      tion clubs; another 17% participated
the percentage of students who were        in community service clubs.                Findings included that 55% had
taking classes to prepare for a 4-                                                    completed a four year college
year college (from 63% in 2002 to          • In 2003, 30% of students partici-
                                                                                      program, 14% were in a post-
45% in 2003).                              pated in job shadowing during the
                                           school year and 19% during the             graduate training program; 8%

• A relatively high percentage of          summer; these represent significant        completed a two-year college
students were taking courses in            increases over the 2002 survey             program and 5% completed a
advanced computer programming              information.
                                                                                      technical program (WISD,
(25% in 2003, up from 16% in
                                                                                      Washtenaw County Graduate
2002).                                     • In 2003, 11% of students partici-
                                           pated in mentorship or internship          Follow-up Study, 2003).
• Between 11and 15% were taking            programs during the school year and
courses in either advanced web page        7% during the summer; 26% of stu-
design, electronics, CAD/CAM and           dents participated in work experience
coursework leading to technical            for course credit during the school
certification.                             year and 7% during the summer.
                                           Again, these represent increases
                                           over 2002.




18
G O A L                                                                   E
I m p ro v e s y s t e m - w i d e w o r k f o rc e p l a n n i n g t o

a d d re s s f u t u re p o p u l a t i o n g ro w t h

FROM 1990 TO 2002 the popula-             continued growth in all age ranges        * Distance learning programs of all
tion of Washtenaw County grew by          and racial categories, with a total        education providers
faster than both the state and nation.    anticipated population growth of          * Adult basic education, literacy and
The County grew 18.2 percent,             448,020 by 2030, an increase of            GED programs
from 292,937 in 1990 to 334,351           34 percent over the 2002 popula-          * Internships and apprenticeships
in 2002. In that same period the          tion.24 Coupled with the predicted        * The Workforce Development Board
population in the state of Michigan       industrial growth in the area, if these   * Washtenaw Development Council
increased by only 8.1 percent and         forecasts hold, all communities in        * Michigan Works! Service Center
the U.S. population increased by          the region will feel increased strains    * The Family Independence Agency
15.8 percent. Some key characteris-       on physical infrastructure; demands       * MDLEG — Michigan Rehabilitation
tics of the Washtenaw County              for employment, housing and other          Services
population include:                       social services; traffic patterns;        * Union programs
                                          secondary and postsecondary               * Michigan Small Business
• More than half of the county’s total    enrollments, and on their overall          Technology Development Center
population lives within the City of Ann   social and cultural quality of life.      * Chambers of Commerce
Arbor and Ypsilanti Township. Nearly                                                * Community and faith-based
70% of the population lives within        The suggested strategies below are         organizations
either the City of Ann Arbor, City of     intended to promote further system-       * Local, municipal and county
Ypsilanti, Ypsilanti Township and         wide workforce planning. One of            government
Pittsfield Township.                      the characteristics that makes the        * Workforce practices of employers
                                          County so vibrant is the presence          in the region
• Between 1999 and 2003, the labor        of so many high quality economic          * And many others…
force grew by 2.5 percent, while the      and educational building blocks.
statewide labor force declined by         These include:                            The downside to having so many
0.7 percent.                              * Washtenaw Community College             capable stakeholders is that creating
                                          * Eastern Michigan University             and maintaining ongoing working
• 58% of the County’s population is       * University of Michigan                  partnerships for needs assessment
between the ages of 20 and 54;            * Cleary College                          and service delivery can be complex
27% of the population is 19 years         * Concordia College                       and difficult. The preparation of this
or younger; 15% is over age of 55         * Washtenaw Technical Middle              Report Card is a case in point.
* 77.4% of population is White,             College                                 During the research component for
12.3% is African-American or Black,       * K-12 districts and programs             this document, the research team
2.7% is Hispanic, and 6.3% is Asian.      * Area career and technical               uncovered half a dozen other reports
Forecasts for the county predict            education programs




                                                                                                                         19
produced by Washtenaw County
stakeholders in 2005 alone that                STRATEGIES
addressed workforce, economic,
education and/or human services                   Work with the newly established Labor Market Information (LMI)
trends in the County; nearly all of            Council at MDLEG to conduct ongoing data collection, assessment and
them utilized similar data sets (most          reporting of workforce, economic, education and demographic trends
commonly from the U.S. Census),                for the County beyond 2005.
but analyzed the data differently for
different purposes and audiences.                 Form a standing Workforce Sector Task Force comprised of area
The bottom line is that all of the             stakeholders to redefine county-wide performance indicators based
right ingredients for stronger                 on sector-based strategies and regional skills alliances that target
regional cooperation are in place              currently important and emerging sectors.
in the region. They just need to
be thought about differently and                  Clarify and strengthen the roles that the area’s education, work-
mobilized more systemically. The               force and economic development partners play in the regional labor
strategies are intended to move the            market. Work in partnership with the Michigan Department of Labor
County toward greater collaboration            and Economic Growth to define and implement system-wide capacity
in order to most effectively address           building efforts for partners.
issues brought about through the
area’s growth.




     MODEL PRACTICES


     Since Report Card 2000 was published, community leaders have taken several good strides toward addressing
     growth through the establishment of smart land use practices, and in the county-wide alignment of goals and
     outcomes in several critical human service areas. Two other strong examples of system-wide planning and
     collaboration are:


     • The Community Scholarship program, created as a partnership between the WDB and Washtenaw Community
     College (WCC). The Community Scholarship program enables customers of the One Stop Career Center to receive
     educational scholarships totaling approximately $60,000 per person through the year 2009. The WCC has a site
     co-located with the One Stop Career Center in Ypsilanti. This innovativ program clearly links education with
     economic advancement for adult learners.


     • An innovative program to address the workforce and career development needs of youth aging out of foster
     care. The Washtenaw County Workforce Development Board/ETCS Group has developed this a unique partnership
     with the American Society of Employers, Michigan Family Independence Agency, Department of Human Services
     (DHS), and Michigan Works!. The program provides Foster Care children 16 years of age and older with a mentor,
     workforce case manager, foster care work, and access to County Human Services to pave the way for education,
     employment, and housing. Up to 50 youth annually may be enrolled in WIA-with a focus on leadership for tomor-
     row through this collaboration!




20
OTHER KEY ISSUES IN 2005 AND
BEYOND: Aging and Wages
      W A S H T E N A W C O U N T Y P O P U L AT I O N B Y A G E , P E R C E N TA G E O F T O TA L A N D P E R C E N TA G E C H A N G E

  Age Groups                      1990 Census                2000 Census         % Change                2030 Forecast         % Change

  Age 0-4                          19,160 (7%)                 0,130 (6%)            2+ 5%                  26,985 (6%)            + 34%
  Age 5-17                        41,936 (15%)              51,158 (16%)             + 22%                66,885 (15%)             + 30%
  Age 18-34                     111,602 (39%)              108,812 (34%)               - 3%              122,577 (27%)             + 13%
  Age 35-64                       89,013 (31%)             116,524 (36%)             + 31%               158,943 (35%)             + 36%
  Age 65 +                         21,226 (8%)                26,271 (8%)            + 24%                72,631 (16%)           + 176%
  Total Population                     282,937                  322,770*             + 14%                      448,020            + 39%

                                                    Source: SEMCOG; * 2000 total population does not equal the sum of the age
                                                    population due to revisions to total population by the U.S. Census Bureau.




AGING                                           assessment of labor market                           Last year, foster
Forecasting data from the Southeast             opportunities for older workers and
Michigan Council of Governments                 begin to identify new solutions, such                grandparents volunteered
(SEMCOG), which is based on U.S.                as helping boomers returning to
                                                                                                     75,000 hours in
Census trends, suggests that the                work after retirement to compete
Washtenaw County population that is             with younger workers; assisting                      Washtenaw County.
over the age of 65 will nearly triple           older dislocated workers in declining
between now and 2030. All age                   industries to start small businesses;
groups are expected to grow over                and developing career pathways that
this period, but none as dramatically           utilize volunteer positions as skill
as the older population. Recent retire-         building opportunities that can lead
ment forecasts have sent mixed mes-             to paid positions.
sages. On the one hand we hear that
major industries are facing unprece-
dented waves of retirements; on the                 M O D E L         P R A C T I C E
other, we hear that as people live
longer, particularly the Baby Boomer                The Washtenaw County ETCS Foster Grandparents Program has 30
cohort, they are remaining attached                 community placements including schools, hospitals, day care centers,
to the labor market longer, giving                  and the juvenile detention center. Last year, foster grandparents volun
rise to the emerging “Boomerang”                    teered 75,000 hours in Washtenaw County. Many of the children and
phenomenon. Most likely, the truth is               teenagers who are served are challenged by disabilities, homelessness,
somewhere in the middle. Therefore,                 abuse, chronic illness, or are in “at risk” situations. This collaboration
over the next several years, it will be             allows many senior citizens to maintain and enhance their skills as
important to do a more in-depth                     well as help the community in many ways.




                                                                                                                                           21
MICHIGAN’S ECONOMY IS HEADING MORE AND MORE TOWARD A TWO-TIERED SKILLS-

BASED ECONOMY, SPLIT BETWEEN LOW PAY, LOW EDUCATION JOBS AND HIGH PAY,

HIGH EDUCATION JOBS


          W A S H T E N A W C O U N T Y E M P L O Y M E N T B Y I N D U S T R I A L C L A S S A N D P E R C E N T O F T O TA L *

     Industrial Class                                           1990 Forecast             2000 Forecast             2030 Forecast

     Services                                                  110,208 (52%)              119,998 (52%              144,626 (50%)
     Retail Trade                                                33,166 (16%)              38,888 (17%)              49,573 (17%)
     Manufacturing                                               37,363 (17%)              34,517 (15%)              44,308 (15%)
     Finance, Insurance and Real Estate                           10,970 (5%)               10,729 (5%)                14,319 (5%)
     Transportation, Communication, and Utility                     6,912 (3%)                8,916 (4%)               11,068 (4%)
     Wholesale Trade                                                6,177 (3%)                6,618 (3%)                9,903 (3%)
     Public Administration                                          4,549 (2%)                7,960 (3%)               11,098 (4%)
     Agriculture, Mining and Natural Resources                      4,550 (2%)                4,549 (2%)                5,074 (2%)
     Total Employment                                                 213,895                   232,175                   289,969


                                                    Source: SEMCOG; * Data represents all (covered and non-covered) employment.




WAGES                                           of all employment in Washtenaw               There are two overall strategies that
As described earlier, Michigan’s econ-          County. This is significant because          can be pursued:
omy is heading more and more                    these industries typically pay lower         • Begin, now, to consider the overall
toward a two-tiered skills-based econ-          overall wages and fewer benefits             portfolio of industries and businesses
omy, split between low pay, low edu-            than other industries such as                it grows and attracts to Washtenaw
cation jobs and high pay, high educa-           Manufacturing, Logistics (transporta-        County, and seek to ensure that the
tion jobs,25 and 25 percent of                  tion, warehousing), Utilities, and           balance does not favor low-skill and
Michigan’s working families live below          Business Services such as in the             low-wage industries; and
200 percent of the federal poverty              financial or insurance sectors. If           • Mobilize county stakeholders and
line.26   While Washtenaw County’s              both the population and employment           resources, including employers them-
labor market trends do not typically            composition forecasts hold true, it          selves, to develop career pathway
parallel the State’s, there is reason to        means that Washtenaw County will             opportunities for low-skill workers to
be on the look-out. Forecasts by                face a substantial increase in actual        gain the skills, training and education
SEMCOG for the composition of                   numbers of individuals and families          needed to advance into jobs in the
employment by industrial class sug-             who are employed in Services and             County’s higher wage industries.
gest that Services and Retail Trade             Retail Trade and who, therefore, will
will continue to comprise two-thirds            likely be on the lower end of the
                                                wage scale.




22
G L O S S A R Y                                 O F              A C R O N Y M S

CAB / Community Action Board                                               RSA/MiRSA / Regional Skills Alliances / Michigan Regional
                                                                           Skills Alliances
DHS / Department of Human Resources
                                                                           SEMCOG / Southeast Michigan Council of Governments
EAG / Education Advisory Group
                                                                           SEMWAC / Southeast Michigan Works Agencies Coalition
GDP / Gross Domestic Product
                                                                           WCC / Washtenaw Community College
HSCC / Human Services Collaborative Council (Washtenaw County)
                                                                           WDB / Workforce Development Board
MDLEG / Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth
                                                                           WDC / Washtenaw Development Council
MiSBTDC / Michigan Small Business Technology and
Development Center                                                         WIA / Workforce Investment Act (Federal)


MSA / Metropolitan Statistical Area                                        WISD / Washtenaw Intermediate School District




E N D N O T E S                                 Economic Growth. Institute of Labor and
                                                Industrial Relations, University of Michigan,
                                                                                                  17 A Home for Everyone: Washtenaw
                                                                                                  County’s Blueprint to End Homelessness.
                                                July 2005.                                        Data summary, draft. August 11, 2005.
1 The Ann Arbor metropolitan statistical
area consists of Washtenaw, Livingston          9 Connecting the Workforce Investment             18 Ibid.
and Lenawee counties. Lenawee County in         System to Small and Emerging Business.
particular is increasingly important to the     Research Institute for Small and Emerging         19 Ibid.
Washtenaw County economy due to its rapid       Business (RISEbusiness). U.S. Department
growth; it is one of the fastest growing        of Labor, April 2005.                             20 U.S. Census, 2000.
counties in the nation.
                                                10 U.S. Census, County Business Patterns.         21 A Home for Everyone: Washtenaw
2 Fulton, George A. and Grimes, Donald R.       Note: we use the Michigan Small Business          County’s Blueprint to End Homelessness. V-3.
The Economic Outlook for the Ann Arbor          Technology Development Center standard of         Special Populations — Older Adults. August
Metropolitan Area in 2005-2005. Institute of    500 employees as the break between small          11, 2005.
Labor and Industrial Relations, University of   and large businesses.
Michigan. March 2005.                           11 U.S. Census, 2000.                             22 Ibid.


3 Washtenaw County International Economic       12 Ibid.                                          23 WISD, Washtenaw County High Schools,
Impact Study, 2002.                                                                               Class of 2003, Senior Exit Survey Results.
                                                13 Report Card 2000: Washtenaw County
4 Ibid.                                         Workforce Development Environmental Scan,         24 SEMCOG 2030 Regional Development
                                                2001.                                             Forecast, Community Detail Report.
5 SEMCOG 2030 Regional Development
Forecast, Community Detail Report.              14 Federal Register, Vol. 69, No. 30, Feb.        25 Glazer, Lou and Grimes, Donald. A
                                                13, 2005, pp.7336-7338, reprinted in              New Path to Prosperity? Manufacturing and
6 Annual Planning Information Report,           Improving Outcomes for Our Community’s            Knowledge-Based Industries as Drivers of
Program Year 2005, for Washtenaw County.        Well Being, Human Services Collaborative          Economic Growth. Institute of Labor and
Michigan Department of Labor and Economic       Council, Fall 2005.                               Industrial Relations, University of Michigan,
Growth, 0304-784 DLEG-LMI 23.                                                                     July 2005.
                                                15 U.S. Census, 2000.
7 Ibid.                                                                                           26 Federal Register, Vol. 69, No. 30, Feb.
                                                16 Ibid. for entire paragraph.                    13, 2005, pp.7336-7338, reprinted in
8 Glazer, Lou and Grimes, Donald. A New                                                           Improving Outcomes for Our Community’s
Path to Prosperity? Manufacturing and                                                             Well Being, Human Services Collaborative
Knowledge-Based Industries as Drivers of                                                          Council, Fall 2005.




                                                                                                                                               23
555 Towner Street
Ypsilanti, MI 48198
Phone: 734.544.6850
Fax: 734.544.6730
E: etcsgroup@ewashtenaw.org
http://etcs.ewashtenaw.org/


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