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					                  CASHEW

   Botanical Name : Anacardium occidentale L.

   Family : Bromiliaceae




                                                 1
IMPORTANCE
   Highly drought tolerant and can be cultivated in
    drier parts of Sri Lanka where no other
    commercial crop could thrive.
   Give high yield even under water scarcity
    conditions.
   Gives the highest return for a investment among
    horticultural crops
   Not labor intensive
   Easily marketable commodity with an export    2

    potential.
BOTANY OF CROP
   Bushy, low branching evergreen tree reaching
    to 12 to 15 m in height.
   Dominant tap root with an extensive network of
    laterals.
   This feature helps survive under extreme
    conditions such as arid and low fertile areas.
   Panicle carries both male and hermaphrodite
    flowers in 9:1 to 3 :1 ratio
   Hermaphrodite flowers are self fertile but not   3
    self pollinating
CONT……….

   Cashew fruit is a kidney shaped nut of of 3 – 5
    cm in length and 2-3.5 cm in width and weight
    ranges from 2 g-20 g.
   After pollination nuts begin to develop and reach
    the full size in about four weeks.
   This is followed by the growth of the peduncle in
    to fleshy apple.
   Both the nut and the peduncle (apple) reach
    maturity in 60 – 90 days.
   When ripe the entire fruit (nut and apple) falls.4
CONT……

   Cashew tree continues to flower for 2-3 month
    and it is common to see flowers and fruits in
    various stages of development at the same time
    on the same inflorescence.




                                                     5
VARIETIES
   Several varieties have been cultivated in the
    past
   Kondachchi, Mannar, Trinidad, Batticaloa,
    Shanthigudu, Ulal, Vital and indegenous type.

PLANTING MATERIALS

   Either seedling or Grafted plants.


                                                    6
CULTIVATION AND MANAGEMENT
   Land preparation – forest clearing, Uprooting,
    Leveling, Fire barriers, Drainage
   Spacing and layout -7 m x 7m spacing for grafted
    plants
    layout          Spacing (m)   Number of plants / ha

                    5x5           400
                    6x6           277
    Square
                    7x7           205
                    8x8           156
                    9x9           123
                    10 x 10       100
                    11 x 11       83                      7

                    12 x 12       69
CONT…………
layout        Spacing (m)   Number of plants / ha

              3x6           555

              4x8           312
Rectangular
              5 x 10        200

              6 x 12        139

              7 x 14        102

              8 x 16        78

              9 x 18        62




                                               8
CONT……………

layout               Spacing (m)         Number of
                                         plants / ha
             Triangular    Row spacing
             side
             5             4.33          462
Triangular
             6             5.2           327
             7             6.06          235
             8             6.93          180
             9             7.8           140
             10            8.67          115
             11            9.53          95
             12            10.4          80
                                                       9
CONT……….

   Lining and pegging
   Digging and preparation of planting holes
   Transplanting in the field
   Staking
   Irrigation –It is important to irrigate the newly
    established plants in the field. Extra care should
    be placed during long drought periods. Manual or
    pitcher irrigation could be practiced. In large
    plantations drip irrigation could be used.       10
CONT……..

   Mulching
   Removal of branches and shoots from
    rootstock
   Weeding
   Filling if vacancies
   Training at initial stage
   Fire protections

                                          11
FERTILIZATION
   Basal Dressing
       Young plant mixture 250 g
       Dolemite            500 g
   Adding of any kind of organic matter to the
    above would be beneficial.

   To prepare 100 kg of YPM (approximate 4:3:2)
    Urea                -38 kg
    Imported RP         -47 kg
    MOP                 -15 kg                     12
    CONT……..

   Rate of application
    fertilizer              Time after transplant (years)

                 1     2            3          4            5

    Urea         76    133          190        247          304

    Imported RP 94     165          235        306          376


    MOP          30    52           75         97           120

    YPM (g)      200   350          500        650          800


                                                                  13
CONT………
 To make   100 kg of APM
    Urea               -33.5 kg
    Imported RP        -41 kg
    MOP                -25.5 kg
   Rate of application
       Average yield/plant   Recommended dosage
       (kg/plant/year)       (kg/plant/year)
       5-10                  1

       10-15                 1.5

       15-20                 2

       20 or more            2.5                  14
HARVESTING
   Fruit could be harvested about two month
    after fertilization of flowers.
   Hand harvesting is practiced.




                                               15

				
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posted:7/24/2011
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