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					             PAST PAPER QUESTIONS
JAN 09
1) Weightlifters need to ensure that they prepare physically and
psychologically in order to perform in a competitive situation.

Figure 1 shows a weightlifter who has moved into the squat position prior to
attempting his lift.

                                    Figure 1




   (a) (i) Identify the joint action, main agonist and type of muscle contraction
       taking place at the knee joint as the weightlifter moves downwards from
       a standing position into the squat position. (3 marks)
   (b) (ii) In what plane and about which axis is the movement into the squat
       position taking place? (2 marks)

(c) Identify the structural and/or functional changes to the heart that may
occur as a result of a long-term training programme. (4 marks)

(2) (a) Many people participate in games to maintain their health and to
improve their fitness. What do you understand by the terms health and
fitness? (2 marks)

(b) Sub-maximal fitness tests such as the Harvard Step Test can be used by
coaches to measure their performers’ cardio-respiratory endurance (stamina).
How could a coach ensure that the results from sub-maximal fitness tests are
valid and reliable? (5 marks)




                                        1
(c) Cardio-respiratory endurance (stamina) is a component of fitness. Using
examples from games, name three other components of fitness and explain
their importance within the game. (3 marks)

3) In order to improve performance, a coach must be able to analyse
movement and to provide effective feedback.
Figure 2 shows a javelin thrower just prior to delivering his throw.

                                   Figure 2




(a) (i) Figure 3 represents the lever system operating at the elbow when the
javelin throw is executed.



                                   Figure 3


                       A                   B                 C


(ii) Name the lever system and identify the parts labelled A, B and C in Figure
3. (4 marks)




                                       2
4) Figure 4 is a diagram of an athlete performing a javelin throw.




Using Figure 4, copy and complete Table 1 in your answer book, identifying
the joint action, main agonist and type of contraction at the shoulder and
elbow as the arm moves from Position A to Position B. (5 marks)




                                       3
5) Squash is a demanding activity that is affected by important physiological
and learning processes.

(a) Gaseous exchange occurs whilst a squash player is at rest and during
exercise.

   (i)    Explain how gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs. (3 marks)

   (ii)   What features of the alveoli assist gaseous exchange? (3 marks)


Table 2 shows the proportion of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and
exhaled air at rest and during exercise.

                                     Table 2

                     % Inhaled air          % Exhaled air      % Exhaled air
                                            at rest            during exercise

Percentage           20.00                  16.00              14.00
oxygen
Percentage           0.04                   4.00               6.00
carbon dioxide

(iii) Using the information in Table 2, state and explain the effects of exercise
on gaseous exchange in the lungs. (3 marks)


6) Whilst participating a sports performer will experience changes in lung
volumes and ventilation rates depending upon the duration and the intensity
of exercise.

   (a) Explain the terms tidal volume, minute ventilation and respiratory
       frequency. (3 marks)

Figure 5 shows the ventilation rates of a performer working at a set intensity.




                                        4
(b) Describe how the shape of the graph in Figure 5 would change for a
performer:

   (i)    Working at a higher intensity than that shown in Figure 5, give
          reasons for your answer; (3 marks)

   (ii) Working at the same intensity as that shown in Figure 5 but after a
   period of several months’ endurance training, give reasons for your
   answer. (3 marks)

Jan 08
7) In sprint swimming races, swimmers need a quick and efficient start.
Figure 1 shows a swimmer performing a racing start.




 (a) (i) With reference to Figure 1, copy and complete Table 1 in your answer
book, identifying the joint action and the main agonist at the hip, knee and
ankle as the swimmer moves from position A to position B. (6 marks)

                                   Table 1




                                       5
(ii) Name, sketch and label the lever system operating at the ankle during the
racing start. (3 marks)



8) Health, fitness and fitness testing play an important role in successful
performance.


      (a) (i) What do you understand by the terms fitness and health? (2 marks)

      (ii) What are the benefits of fitness testing? (4 marks)

      (iii) What are the limitations of fitness tests? (3 marks)


When exercising, a games player will experience changes in the way in which
blood is distributed around the body.

(b) (i) Explain why the blood flow to the brain during a game remains the
same as at rest. (2 marks)

(ii) Explain why there is a need for an increase in blood flow to the skeletal
muscles during the game and how this is achieved. (4 marks)

(iii) What factors determine the blood pressure in blood vessels? (3 marks)


(c) Climbing the ladder during the experiment in Figure 5 is an example of a
skill. Explain the difference between skill and ability. (2 marks)

(d) Agility and flexibility are two important fitness components required by
games players.

(i)       What do you understand by the terms agility and flexibility? (2 marks)

(ii) Describe a suitable test for measuring each of these components.
(4 marks)




                                           6
9) During a game, the success of a tennis player will be affected by the
efficiency of their cardio-respiratory system and by the quality of shots that
they play.

Figure 6 shows a graph of the relationship between the partial pressure of
oxygen and the saturation of haemoglobin and myoglobin.




(a) Which of the curves A, B and C represents the following:
(i) haemoglobin during exercise
(ii) myoglobin
(iii) haemoglobin at rest? (2 marks)

(b) Explain the causes of the increase in breathing rate experienced during
exercise. (4 marks)

(c) During exercise, the arterial venous difference (a-VO2 diff) increases.
What do you understand by the term arterial-venous difference and what is
the significance of this increase to the performer?


June 07
10) To be effective in athletic competition, performers need an understanding
of the skills and the fitness components required.
(a) Explain the difference between skill and ability and identify the
characteristics of a skilled performer.

b) Power is a major fitness component of many athletic events.
(i) What do you understand by the term power? (2 marks)




                                        7
(ii) Describe a suitable test for measuring power and name the type of event
(sprinting, throwing, jumping), for which the test would be valid. (3 marks)

(iii) Name two other fitness components apart from power that you consider
to be important for a named athletic event, giving a reason for each of the
components you suggest. (3 marks)


11) Running is an example of an activity that requires an efficient respiratory
system and high levels of motivation.

Figure 1 shows the drive phase and recovery phase of the leg action while
running.




   (a) Using Figure 1, identify the main agonist, the joint action and the type
       of contraction at the knee when moving from Position A to Position B.
       (3 marks)

Exercising for an extended time can leave the runner breathless.

(b) Which three lung volumes provide air to the body during exercise? (3
marks)

(c) Regular training may cause changes to the structure and the efficiency of
the lungs that will help to improve performance.

(d) Describe the changes that may occur in terms of lung capacity and
gaseous exchange. (3 marks)




                                        8
12) During a game, the performer’s body systems will adapt as the demands
made on it change.

Table 1 shows changes in the way blood is distributed around the body during
exercise, compared with rest.

                                     Table 1




(a) (i) Using Table 1, give reasons for the changes in blood flow to the skin
and the heart during maximum effort compared with rest. (4 marks)

(ii) Explain how this redistribution of blood is achieved. (3 marks)

(iii) Describe the mechanisms that assist the return of blood to the heart.
(3 marks)




                                        9
13) During a demanding practice session, carbon dioxide is produced by the
body.

   (a) (i) State two ways in which carbon dioxide is transported by blood. (2
       marks)


Figure 2 shows the oxyhaemoglobin disassociation curve.




(ii) During exercise the curve shifts to the right. Explain the causes of this
change and the effect that this has on oxygen delivery to the muscles.
(4 marks)

(iii) Explain how the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood cause the
heart rate to increase. (3 marks)




                                        10
14) Racket players require skills that they have previously learned in order to
perform movements.

Figure 3 shows a squash player executing a forehand stroke.




(a) Using Figure 3, copy and complete Table 2 in your answer book and
identify the type of joint, the joint action and the main agonist at the shoulder
and elbow that are involved in the movement of the racket arm from Position
A to Position B. (6 marks)




Squash is an activity that requires a high level of local muscular endurance.
(b) Explain the term local muscular endurance and describe a suitable test to
measure it. (3 marks)




                                       11
Jan 07
15) Figure 1 shows a football player kicking a ball.




(i)    With reference to the movement of the kicking leg from position A to
       position B, copy and complete Table 1 in your answer book. (6 marks)




(ii) In which plane and about what axis does the kicking action take place?
(2 marks)




                                       12
16) Games players require a good level of cardio-respiratory endurance
(stamina) and effective feedback if they are to be successful.

   (a) (i) What do you understand by the term cardio-respiratory endurance
       and why is it an important component of fitness for games players? (2
       marks)

      (ii) Name and describe a suitable test for measuring cardio-respiratory
      endurance. (3 marks)

   (b) Cardio-respiratory endurance training can cause adaptations to the
       heart.

   (c) Describe the changes that occur to the heart as a result of cardio-
       respiratory endurance training. (3 marks)

17) Performance can be improved by the effective use of levers and
reinforcement.

Figure 2 shows a high jumper at take off.




   (a) (i) Using Figure 2, name, sketch and label the lever system operating
       at the ball of the take-off foot. (3 marks)

      (ii) On your diagram, draw and label the effort arm and the resistance
      arm. (2 marks)


(b) Name two key components of fitness required by a high jumper and
explain how these components are used in this event. (4 marks)


                                      13
18) Performance can be developed from an analysis of movement and a
transfer of skills.

This performance can be measured by the use of tests.

Figure 3 shows a performer throwing a ball.




 (a) With reference to the movement of the throwing arm from position A to
position B, copy and complete Table 2 in your answer book. (5 marks)




19) During a game, a defender will work at various intensities.

(a) (i) Describe how cardiac output increases when a defender is working at a
higher intensity. (3 marks)

(ii) Describe how the parasympathetic and the sympathetic pathways control
heart rate during the game. (5 marks)



                                      14
June 06
20) To produce a successful triple jump, an athlete has to use his muscles
and joints effectively and demonstrate a high skill level.

Figure 1 shows a triple jumper in the take-off phase of his jump.




(a) Name the joint action that has occurred at the hip, labelled position A in
Figure 1, and identify the main agonist that has caused this action. (2 marks)

(b) (i) Name and sketch the lever system operating at the knee during take-
off, clearly labelling the effort arm and the resistance arm. (4 marks)

(ii) What are the advantages and disadvantages of this class of lever system?
(3 marks)

(c) Successful triple jumpers will use their abilities to improve their level of
skill.

(d) Briefly explain the terms ability and skill. (2 marks)

(e) What are the characteristics of a skilled performance? (3 marks)




                                         15
21)a) Arteries, capillaries and veins form part of the circulatory system.
Explain the main features of one of these blood vessels in relation to its
function.
(3 marks)

(b) During a practice session, blood flow is redirected to the active muscles.
Explain how this is achieved. (3 marks)



(c) Table 1 shows the redistribution of blood around the body during exercise,
compared with rest.
                                    Table 1




Using Table 1, explain why tennis players should not eat at least one hour
prior to a practice session. (3 marks)


22) Games players will take part in regular training and practice to improve
their cardiac function and performance.

(a) During practice, cardiac output will vary.
(i) Briefly explain the terms cardiac output and stroke volume and the
relationship between them. (3 marks)

(ii) Explain how training affects cardiac output and its components. (3 marks)




                                       16
   (b) In order to increase cardiac output during exercise, there needs to be
       an increase in the return of blood to the heart. Describe the
       mechanisms that assist the return of blood to the heart. (3 marks)


23) To achieve a successful javelin throw, the athlete must learn to co-
ordinate the action of the muscles and joints to increase the distance of the
throw.
Figure 3 shows an athlete throwing a javelin.




(a)i) Copy Table 2 into your answer book and then complete it. Using Figure
3, identify the type of joint, the joint action and the main agonist involved at
the elbow and the shoulder to achieve the position shown in Figure 3. (6
marks)




                                       17
24) A javelin thrower may undertake a training programme designed to
improve his performance.

Identify and define two main components of fitness that are required by a
javelin thrower. (3 marks)


25) Figure 5 shows the start of a 100 metre sprint race.




(a) (i) Copy Table 3 into your answer book and then complete it. Using Figure
5, identify the type of contraction, the joint action and the main agonist that
are involved at the ankle during the drive phase and the recovery phase. (4
marks)




                                      18
(ii)    Through which plane and about what axis do the drive phase and the
        recovery phase take place? (2 marks)

(iii)   Name, sketch and label the lever system acting at the ball of the foot,
        as shown in Figure 5 during the drive action. (3 marks)


Jan 06
26) During a floor routine, a gymnast will demonstrate a range of movements
which they will have perfected by acting on the guidance given to them by
their coach.

(a) Figure 1 shows the gymnast in a press-up position.
Position A Position B

                                    Figure 1




(i)     Name the main agonist and main antagonist acting at the elbow joint
        as the gymnast moves from position A (up position) to position B
        (down position). (2 marks)


(iii)   Name the types of muscle contraction that occur at: position A (up
        position) whilst the performer is stationary and; as the performer
        moves from position A (up position) to position B (down position). (2
        marks)

        (iii) Using Figure 1, identify through what plane and about which axis
        the elbow action takes place. (2 marks)




                                        19
(iv) Figure 2 shows a wide arm press-up. What joint action will take place at
the shoulder when moving from the up position to the down position in Figure
2 and what is the name of the main agonist in this movement? (2 marks)


27) Games players need to have an efficient cardio-respiratory system and
they need to process the information they receive during the game, to enable
them to meet the demands of the match.

(a) Describe three structural features of the lungs that assist the diffusion of
respiratory gases. (3 marks)

28) When a person is participating in a sporting activity, the physical demands
of exercise are met by increasing blood flow to some areas of the body.

   (a) (i) Explain the terms cardiac output and stroke volume and the
       relationship between them. (3 marks)

       (ii) What are the effects of training on resting cardiac output and stroke
       volume? (2 marks)

       (iii) During a sustained period of exercise, a trained performer’s stroke
       volume will change compared with their resting stroke volume. How is
       this achieved? (4 marks)

29) Weightlifters will follow a strength training programme to ensure that they
perform to their optimum level in a competitive performance.
Figure 4 shows a weightlifter performing a squat.




                                        20
 (a) With reference to Figure 4, copy and complete Table 1 in your answer
book and identify the joint action, main agonist and the type of muscle
contraction at the hip and ankle joint in the upward phase of the squat.
(6 marks)




(b) The squat may be used as a maximal test for measuring strength.
What are the principles of a maximal test? (3 marks)

(d) Using an example from a game of your choice, explain the term agility and
suggest how it can be measured. (3 marks)

(e) As part of their training programme, players undergo regular fitness
testing. One of the players performs a standard agility test in a controlled
environment.

(f) Discuss whether this is likely to be a valid and reliable measure of the
player’s agility in an invasion game. (4 marks)




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