Simplified guide on
Culture and Production
Mango Farmers and Growers
REX A. RIVERA
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City, Philippines
PAGPAPA BULAKLAK AT BUNGA NG MANGGA
1. Linisin ang puno at kapaligiran ng mangga. Alisin ang patay at may sakit na
2. Ararohin, abonohan ng nabolok na dumi ng hayop at halaman at diligin.
3. Hintayin maging magulang na ang mga dahon at handa na ang usbong
(fruiting buds) sa pamumulaklak.
4. Hintaying ang taginit na panahon, medyo tuyo ang kapaligiran at walang
5. Sprayan ng pampabulaklak and buong puno, sanga at daho. Ulitin sa ikatlong
araw. Gumamit ng 2% hanging 3% Potasium Nitrate o Calcium Nitrate na may
1% HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate.
6. Spreyan uli ng HOC-4n1 sa 7 – 10 – 13 – 17 – 20 at 23 araw (DAFI).
7. Mula 24 hangang 34 araw huwag gagalawing ang mga bulaklak at sumisibol na
bunga. Ito ang pinaka delikado at sensitibong panahon. Ito rin ang panahong
dumarating ang mga insect pollinators.
8. Kung sakaling umulan sa panahon ng pagbubulaklak at pag porma ng bunga
hangang sing laki ng mais, yogyugin lang ang sangga pagkatapos ng ulan.
Kung sakaling may peste o simulang mangitim, spreyan ng HOC-4n1 na may
halong sabon upang mahugasan.
9. Spreyan ng HOC-4n1 at HOC-GO sa 45 – 50 – 60 araw.
10. Pag laki ng bunga tulad ng itlog o 60 – 70 araw, maari na silang balutin.
11. Puede ng anihin sa 115 – 120 -125 at 135 araw. Mas matagal, mas matamis at
mabigat ang bunga ng mangga.
12. Higit na ingat at dahandahan ang pag ani at pagdadala ng bunga. Dito
maraming nalulugi at nasisirang bunga kung hindi pagingatan.
13. Agad agad dalhin sa Paking House, piliin, hugasan, ihiwalay ang lumulubog sa
lumulutang. Itubog sa mainit na tubig 5 hangang 10 minuto sa 52 – 55
centegrado o 30 hangang 60 segundo sa 59 - 60 centegrado. Patuyuin, at
baluting, ilagay sa mga kahon para ibyahe.
14. Agad dalhin sa merkado, barko o eroplano para hindi mahinugan sa byahe.
Kailangan hindi tatagal ng 36 oras mula ani hanging makarating sa merkado.
Maari ilagay sa refrigerated van para hindi agad mahinog.
SIMPLE GUIDE TO
GROWING ORGANIC MANGO
By: REX A. RIVERA, Agronomist
1. Distance mango far apart to allow full sunlight and free flow of air.
(20x20 meters quincunx will give 50 hills per hectare.)
2. Practice clean culture. Keep weeds and grasses short. Grow creeping
leguminous cover crop to protect soil and beneficial microorganisms.
3. Cultivate and plow the soil at least once a year to aerate and prune off
roots at the surface that are sensitive to heat and dry spell.
4. Drench with BMO (Beneficial Micro Organism) and HOC (Herbal
Organic Concentrate) the compost and organic materials. Spread
organic fertilizer and decompose farm waste before plowing and
cultivation so the organic materials will be incorporated in the soil.
5. Prune and remove diseased and infested branches and other plant parts
and bring debris to compost pile. Chop or shred them to small pieces for
faster decomposition. The compost pile is drench with BMO, IMO or
EM and covered.
6. Provide enough water and keep soil moisture adequate at all times.
Cover crops and mulching will help maintain soil moisture especially
during summer months. However, less moisture is required two to four
(2-4) weeks before flower induction and one (1) month during fruit
maturation (100 to 130 days from flower induction. Mango start
maturing at 90 to 100 days and reaches full maturity in 120 to 135
7. When the leaves are mature and the flower buds are ready evidence by
plump and pointed bud tips (about 7 to 9 months from flushing), the
tree may by induced to flower. The types of natural flower induction
a. Smudging or smoking the tree is the old practice of flower
b. Spraying Herbal and Mineral concentrate (Substitute to KNO3)
c. Cultivation or root pruning will also help induce flowering.
d. Spraying or drenching the tree with cold water and HOC during
dry spell of two weeks, during the hottest part of the day, when
the fruiting buds are ready to flower.
8. After flower induction, drench the whole tree from soil, trunk, branches
to the leaves with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) to drive
away insect pest especially mango hoppers to prevent them from laying
eggs on emerging flower after bud break.
9. The most critical period on mango production is from flower induction
up to 55 day the period of flowering, blooming, and fruit formation and
10.Smoking (Smudging) and spraying HOC every 3 to 5 days up to 21 days
from flower induction will greatly help in repelling insect pest and
preventing diseases. Do not spray or disturb the flowers during bloom
and pollination. Insect pollinators should be encouraged to come. This is
at 22 to 40 days after flower induction. You may spray HOC-GO foliar
fertilizer during this period which will serve both as pollinator
attractant and growth enhancer.
11.If it rains during the flowering and fruit formation, Spray HOC-3n1
(Fungicide) immediately after the rain. Gently shake branches to
remove water droplets on flowers as this is a good medium for growth
and development of anthracnose and other fungal diseases.
12.At 45 to 90 days Spray HOC-4n1 and HOC-GO alternately once a week
to help in fruit development and prevent insect infestation.
13.At 55 to 70 days bag the good fruits candidate for export. Leave alone
the partly damaged or deformed fruits as these will be for domestic
market or for processing. This will greatly reduce your bagging cost and
14.Allow the fruits to fully mature at 120 to 130 days to gain full sweetness
and aromatic odor. Fully mature fruits are heavier and command a
15.Before harvesting, see to it that you have all the harvesting tools,
equipment, containers and a packing shed close or within the farm.
16.Give proper instructions and guidance to your workers and harvesters
before sending them off to harvest. Make them remember that every
single fruit has value and they should handle them with care, avoiding
dropping, cracking, bumps and bruising. “HANDLE FRUITS WITH
17.Have a separate group of workers, especially trained to sort, grade,
packaging and scale the fruits. Another group at the packing house will
do the washing, hot water dip treatment, air drying, final sorting or
grading, packing and weighing to be transported to market
18.After harvest, start the next cycle of tree management. This will be the
rejuvenation stage from post harvest to next flower induction. A period
of 7 to 9 months. This is the period often neglected by mango growers.
19.The trees are prunes and sanitized by clearing the surrounding and
drenching the whole tree with HOC-4n1.
20.Spread the organic fertilizer and decompose farm waste materials. Be
sure the compost or organic fertilizer is fully mature or decomposed, or
else they will do more harm than good to the plants.
21.Plow under the canopy cover to cultivate and mix the organic compost
with the soil. Follow this by harrowing to pulverize and level the soil.
22.Water the trees and spray HOC-GO to initiate new flushing. Two to
four new shoots will emerge which will be potential bearing buds.
23.During flushing, spray HOC-4n1 at 3 to 5 days interval. The young
leaves are very susceptible to anthracnose infection and insect pest
attack being soft and tender. It is advice to smudge the trees during this
period to drive away insect pests.
24.Provide adequate water at all times, and keep down the weeds by
slashing or cultivation (shallow plowing and harrowing). Place
mulching materials around the base of the tree to conserve soil
moisture, prevent weeds to grow and protect beneficial microorganisms
from intense sunlight or heat. We do not advice the use of chemical
herbicides as these will kill and destroy beneficial microorganisms and
25.Monitor the trees until they are ready for another flower induction.
End of cycle
ORGANIC CULTURAL MANAGEMENT
ORGANIC CULTURAL MANAGEMENT &
After Harvest 8 months:
1. SANITATION–PRUNING–WEEDING & CULTIVATION
2. INITIATE FLUSHING – Spray Foliar Fertilizer & Water.
3. SOIL FERTILIZATION (Organic Fertilizer - Manure)
4. IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
5. LEAF INDUCTION - FLUSHING (HOC-4n1+HOC-GO)
6. IPM (Sanitation, Light trapping, Spray HOC & Biocon)
At 8 to 10 Months after flushing:
1. FLOWER INDUCTION (Flower Inducer or Smudging)
2. IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
3. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO)
4. ENHANCE POLLINATION (Attract Pollinators)
5. Spray insecticide and fungicide as needed after rains.
1. IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
2. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO)
3. IPM (BIOCON + HOC-4n1 + Bagging)
4. PROPER HARVESTING
5. PROPER POST HARVEST HANDLING & TREATMENT
PACKAGING, STORAGE, TRANSPORT & MARKETING
OFF-SEASON MANGO PRODUCTION
Mango growers can produce mango fruits during the off-season
especially in Mindanao, being outside the typhoon belt. Other areas of the
country with less expected typhoon and heavy rains might venture into
producing off-season fruits as the supply is low, demand is high and price
PERIOD or SCHEDULE FLOWER INDUCTION HARVEST
Season Production November to February March to June
Off Season Production March to October July to February
Mango trees naturally flower and fruit when it is healthy and ready to
fruit. Stress will help induce flowering during dry season for it’s seasonal
bearing. However, flowering can be induced; by smoking, partial girdling
branch stretching or other mechanical or chemical treatments. Chemical
flower induction by using Potassium nitrate (KNO3) was introduced by Dr.
Ramon Barba after his successful research in 1970 at UPLB, College,
Laguna, Philippines. Research on natural herbal organic base flower
inducers is now being conducted in Mindanao. Smudging is rarely practice
Other Flower induction practices:
1. Natural Climate and weather season (Wet and Dry)
2. Smudging (Smoking)
3. Partial girdling and root pruning.
4. Stretching or bending of branches.
5. Spraying cold water with nitrogen fertilizer during hot dry days.
6. Use of other Chemicals like Carbide, Lime Sulfur and Ethylene.
7. Use of Organic and mineral based flower inducer.
PREPARING TREES FOR PRODUCTION
It is easy to induce the trees to flower, but if the tree is not well
prepared, the flowers will just fall off. The tree should be really healthy with
adequate nutrient storage to support and sustain flowering and fruit
development up to full maturity and harvest.
Here are a few pointers to remember and adopt:
1. Provide enough fertilizer and nutrient to the plant through the soil.
Never rely only on foliar fertilization. That is only to augment nutrient
needs during the production period (flowering to fruit development).
To be sure, apply enough organic fertilizer every 6 months to every
tree augmented with chemical fertilizer if necessary. Soil fertilization
and conditioning is very necessary but often neglected.
2. Insure that there is adequate soil moisture at all times. Over water is
not good. Too dry soil is not also good.
3. Protect the trees with biological and organic herbal pesticides and
fungicides. Enhance natural balance and bio-diversity in your farm
especially beneficial microorganisms in the soil.
4. Induce the trees to flush after harvest to have new shoot for next
season fruiting. This is done in combination with pruning, cultivation,
fertilization, spraying and watering or irrigation and drainage.
5. Two months after flushing when the leaves start maturing, apply
fertilizer rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potash to
keep trees maturing and dormant in preparation for next season’s
fruiting. Use organic fertilizer with guano and burnt rice hull or ash.
Spray HOC with trace elements, plant food nutrients.
In selecting trees for flower induction,
Take note of the following:
1. The tree must have full mature leaves and buds. The leaves are
crispy; dark-green in color, healthy plum dormant bud tips. At least 8-
10 months rejuvenation.
2. The tree and leaves should be dry, with no rain expected within 6
hours from spraying.
3. Trees that fruited the previous season but have not flushed should
not be induced to flower. Many contractors and growers who want
fast money often violate this practice.
4. To induce the tree to flush, irrigate and fertilize with higher dosage of
nitrogen, and or spray the leaves with half dose (0.5%) Potassium
Nitrate (KNO3) or Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3)
5. Spraying and drenching the whole plant from the base of trunk to
branches and leaves with foliar fertilizer rich in amino acid or other
organic weak acid and containing micro-nutrient elements will help
6. The use of Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) and homemade lime
sulfur has been found to induce new vegetative growth.
CONDITION WHEN USING USEING CHEMICAL
When not to
High Dosage Low Dosage
1. When the tree 1. When Trees 1. When trees
is too small, are just starting are big, old or
young or to mature. fully mature.
2. Leaves and 2. When leaves
2. When the buds are about crispy and buds
leaves and buds maturing are fully mature.
3. The tree is 4. During hot dry
3. When the healthy, with sunny weather.
tree have not vigorous buds
yet rejuvenated, and leaves. 5. Eight to ten
weak and sickly. months after
4. During dry but harvest after, full
4. During rainy cloudy weather. rejuvenation &
cloudy weather. dormant flower
5. Five to seven buds ready to
5. Just after months after break.
harvest or when harvest flushing
the tree has rejuvenation &
fruits or flushing. mature.
1. Check on the fruiting buds’ readiness. The buds are slightly rounded
and mature or dormant, ready to flower. There are two types of buds,
the leaf and flower bud.
2. If the buds are flattening with small dormant buds at the sides, they
are most likely new flushing buds for vegetative growth for next
3. The soil and the trees are dry. If it rained the previous days and the
atmosphere is humid, induction may result to flushing or flowering
4. Choose to induce during dry hot months or dry days. Flower induction
up to 45 days during the early fruit formation are the most critical
period where the flowers and young fruits are susceptible to infection
5. As a general rule, the mango flower and fruit if the tree is healthy and
has accumulated enough carbohydrate and other plant nutrients, and
6. A mango tree needs enough time at least 8 to 10 months to
accumulate and store food nutrients in its system to support flowering
7. Too much flowering as in 90 to 100% of foliage flower are dangerous,
since too much energy is released by the plant, and there will not be
enough left for fruit development. Usual result is massive dropping
and only a few fruits remain or even total crop fall. A 40 to 60%
foliage flowering would be ideal to insure full fruit development with
bigger and better quality harvest with enough leaves to feed.
8. Water or moisture is needed from bud emergence to one month
before harvest to insure availability of plant food nutrients. The tree
needs dry and sunny days before and during flowering’ and during
fruit maturing to one month before harvest to insure full maturing, so
fruits do not crack or drop up to harvest.
PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL
Natural farming methods of controlling pest and diseases in growing
organic mango: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the use of different
practical yet low cost methods:
1. Cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic
weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying,
etc. See to it that the water source is not contaminated or carrier of
pest and diseases.
2. The use of baits and insect traps (light traps, sweet juice tuba trap).
3. Spraying with herbal organic preparations with pest repellant,
insecticide and fungicidal properties (HOC).
4. The use of beneficial microorganisms that control pest and diseases.
5. The use of insect predators, parasites like Trichogramma, braconids,
and pirate bug.
6. Crop rotation or inter-cropping with plants that will repel or reduce
7. Schedule and time production during least pest infestation and
disease prevalence. There is less insect pest and diseases during
8. Cultivate and fertilize the soil around the base of the trunk periodically
with organic fertilizer derived from herbs with pesticide and fungicidal
properties as well as beneficial microorganisms.
9. Remove diseased or infested fruits and vegetative parts of the tree
and dispose of them properly such as removing them from the field,
burning, bury or composting them for fertilizer. Practice clean culture.
When spraying trees with herbal organic concentrate (HOC) start with the
soil surrounding the trunk, upward around the trunk, branches then the
underside of the leaves or foliage and last the top of leaves and crown.
Insect pest and diseases comes from the soil and stay in trunk and branch
where they hibernate and wait then wake or become active when new
growth appears such as flushing and flowering to fruiting.
Remember that when God created the universe, the earth and
nature, it was complete and balanced. Man interfered with this balance in
the environment and ecosystem for the desire to produce more of their
selected and preferred crops, in the process destroying the equilibrium and
disrupting natural laws and life. Its ill effects of toxic synthetic chemicals are
now being manifested in making the land less productive and the life span
of man is shortening. Other life forms are disappearing. It is time for us to
learn natural laws and adopt Natural Farming System.
Before 1950 even up to 1970 when Dr. Ramon Barba as an effective
flower Inducer for mango discovered potassium nitrate, the trees were left
alone to nature and bear fruits during season. Mango owners just
harvested mango fruits without caring for the trees, just like coconut
farmers. Today, as the prices of chemical inputs get too high, mango
growers are starting to leave the mango trees to the care of nature. Added
to this is the growing demand for chemical free mango or naturally grown
We are now introducing the use of herbal organic pest and disease
control and biological measures. Our latest experience in growing organic
mango show that natural farming system is easier to learn by farmers and
ONE YEAR CYCLE OF MANGO PRODUCTION
Prod. Stage of Growth Activity/Operation
7 Tree is ready for flower Sanitize tree Prune &
DBFI induction Spray HOC
0 - FI Mature buds & leaves Spray flower Inducer
7-10 DAFI Bud emergence Spray HOC-4n1
14 DAFI Post emergence Monitor & spray HOC-4n1
21 DAFI Pre-emergence/bloom Monitor & Spray HOC as
24 An thesis/blooming Do not spray, unless it
28 Full an thesis/bloom Do not spray, unless it
DAFI (usually 5 days period) rains
30-32 Post an thesis/bloom Monitor-spray only after
35 DAFI Fruit set Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
42 DAFI Post fruit set Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
60–70 Fruit enlargement Spray HOC-4n1 & fruit
90 DAFI Start of maturation Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
120-130 Full maturity Harvesting, HWT and
130-140 Natural ripening Processing and Marketing
140-350 Rejuvenation. Flushing, Cultural management:
DAFI nutrient absorption, Pruning, Weeding,
photosynthesis, food & Cultivation, Fertilizing,
energy storage --- Irrigation and Spraying,
351-360 Mature flower buds ready Sanitation and Flower
DAFI for bearing. (Start Cycle) Induction
FLOWER AND FRUIT PROTECTION
The crucial stage of mango production is the attack of insect
pests and diseases at flowering and fruit development stages.
Insecticides and fungicides are commonly used, but to obtain good
results, the recommended usage and dosage must be followed and
control must be directed during the vulnerable stage of insect and
disease development (not during the height of destructive infestation
and infection). Prevention is better than cure. It is also less
expensive and hence, more profitable.
Continues raining during flowering and early fruit development
is the most critical condition as Anthracnose fungus disease is
prevalent. It will rot the flowers and young fruits and they turn dark
and fall off. Every time the rain stops or light drizzle, spray
immediately HOC herbal fungicide to wash off the fungus from the
flowers and fruit panicles. Do not postpone or delay as the fungus
can do damage within a few hours. Shaking the branches to remove
water droplets from flowers and young fruits will help for few small
BEST TIME FOR PROTECTIVE CONTROL
(1) Prior to Induction (2 weeks)
(2) Flower Induction (Day 0)
(3) Bud Break (8-12 days)
(4) Prior to bloom (21 days)
(5) After flower set (corn size 40 days)
(6) Before bagging (egg size 60-70 days)
(7) Start of maturation (90-100 DAFI)
(8)Care in harvesting (115 – 125 DAFI)
WRAPPING AND BAGGING FRUITS
Wrapping the individual fruit with newspaper should be done at
about 53 to 60 days after induction or just after natural thinning or
dropping when the mangoes are about the size of a pullet egg. New
observation finds 70–80 DAFI is more practical period to bag, as
there will be less fruit drops after bagging and only quality fruits may
ADVANTAGES OF FRUIT BAGGING:
2. Bagging can reduce or eliminates the incidence of fruit fly and
Capsid bug damage, sunburn and fungal infections.
3. Reduced incidence of mechanical damage while the fruit still
hung on the tree and during harvesting and handling
operations. It protects fruits from wind scars.
4. The paper serves as absorbent of latex flow during harvest.
5. The fruit skin is cleaner and more attractive light green color.
6. Bagging provides more or less an accurate estimate on the
number of fruits per tree. This is important in cases where
marketing is done on contract basis, or estimated on the total
volume and weight of harvest.
PRE HARVEST PROTECTION
Spraying foliar fertilizer high in potash with trace mineral
elements during fruit development will make the fruits sweeter. It
will make the peel more flexible and will lessen cracking of fruits
during the final stage of maturity, even when humidity rises and
Spraying with herbal organic concentrate or HOC-4n1 will do
this. It will also protect the fruits from insect pests and fungal
Let us not forget that friendly insects, birds and
microorganisms are very helpful in reducing the
population and incidence of insect pests. Providing
favorable natural environment in the orchard for friendly
biological organisms will greatly reduce cost of
production and good quality fruits.
It is very important to keep in mind that the preservation of the
superior quality fruit, especially if it is intended for the fresh table
use that is critical during the harvest and post harvest period.
Harvesting and handling of fruits should be entrusted only to properly
trained, preferably experienced workers. It is also advisable for
beginners to first observe professional harvesters during harvest
The outmost care in harvesting and handling of mango should be
emphasized. Workers and harvesters should first be given a briefing
before releasing them to the field. It takes a one-year cycle of care
and culture to bring the fruits ready for harvest. It takes less than a
second to drop the fruits does and break or bruise does.
Use the right harvesting poles with soft nets to avoid bruising. Use
wooden or plastic harvesting crates with clean soft padding. Avoid
using banana leaves or other materials that may have fungus
diseases that will infect the fruits.
Do not remove fruit bags in the field, as they will serve as cushion
and absorbent of latex. They may be removed during grading and
classification before washing and hot water treatment.
GUIDE TO HARVESTING MANGO
Maturity of mango fruits ready for harvest.
1. The mango start maturing at 90 days and reach full maturity in
120 to 135 days after flower induction (DAFI). Note: Earlier fruit
ripening on tree and dropping may occur in hot arid areas.
Delayed maturity occurs in cool humid areas.
2. In hot and dry areas, the fruits tend to ripen earlier, (110 – 115
days). It does not mean that they have reach full physiological
maturity (lesser weight and sugar content). In cooler, humid and
shady areas, the fruit take more time (135 days) from flower
induction to reach full maturity, as sunlight may be less. When
new flushing comes together with flowering, the fruits likewise
take more time to mature (130 DAFI).
3. If the tree flowers naturally, count 85 to 95 days from flower
bloom to determine the approximate date of full maturity.
Blooming is when flowers open, release odor that attract insect
4. One sure test is to get samples randomly picked from the tree
and slices the fruits at the apex portion. If the flesh is still white,
it is immature, while if it is turning yellow; it is ready for harvest.
5. Floatation checks. Dip the fruit in 1-% salt solution. Seawater
may be used. The floaters are immature while those that sink
are mature, and ready for harvest. 90% sinkers are ready for
6. The presence of bloom, or powdery deposit on the surface of
the skin is an indication of full physiological maturity.
7. Mature carabao mango fruits have flattened shoulders at the
stem end. While immature fruits have slope shoulders with full
8. The pedicel of mature fruits turns yellow green in color.
9. Laboratory test may not be practical for field operations. The
Titrable Acid of fully mature fruits is less than 45 miliequivalents
per 100 grams and the total soluble solids at table ripe is 15%
1. Hand picking is still the best method, but it is difficult and time
consuming for large orchards. Using picking poles and ladder is
a common practice, especially with commercial mango
production and big plantations with big tall trees. Avoid bruising
the fruits with the picking pole.
2. To avoid bruises and damage, in handling and transport, trim
off the pedicel before packing when latex flow has dried. It is
done easily by pulling off horizontally the pedicel and it will just
snap at the neck of the pedicel.
3. The best time of the day to harvest is between 9:00 a.m. to 3:00
p.m. when the tree and fruits are dry and latex flow is minimal.
Latex cause acid burning and brownish discoloration of the
skin, which also make it, open to fungal infection. However for
large orchard and big harvest, this cannot be followed, as time
will be limited to meet scheduled shipments. Fully mature fruits
have less latex flow.
4. To reduce or minimize latex flow, leave two to three centimeters
pedicel on the fruit when harvesting. Place the fruit in an
inverted position with the pedicel down on absorbent paper
materials, which are free from disease contamination.
5. Keep the fruit bags until sorting, washing, HWT, drying and
POST HARVEST OPERATIONS
Sorting and classifying occur at the following stages:
1. During harvest
2. During field packing.
3. Before and during washing at the Packing House.
4. After HWT just before final packaging for shipment.
Fruits are classified according to size, weight and the general
STEPS OF POST HARVEST OPERATIONS:
1. Field sorting and boxing.
2. Delivery or transport to packing house.
3. Sorting and weighing,
4. Washing and grading, (Separate sinkers from floaters)
5. Hot Water Treatment (5-10 min. in 52-55*C or 30-60 sec. in 59-
6. Air dry with blower and cool.
7. Final sorting and packing.
8. Weighing, sealing of boxes and labeling.
9. Storage and transport to market.
10. Record keeping.
RETURN ON INVESTMENT
MAGO PRODUCTION GUIDE – Step by Step - by MAGO CONTRACTOR in Mindanao
FLOWER INDUCTION: 30 – 50 TREES 10 YEARS UP –PLANTING DISTANCE 20 X 20
METERS QUINCUNX or 15 x 15 meters triangle.
3 Man days Labor Spraying P150.00 per MD P 450.00
4 liters Fuel for Power Sprayer 50.00 per liter 200.00
5 persons Meals 50.00 per person 250.00
1 person Supervision P500.00 500.00
10 drams Water (2,000 LITERS) 10.00 per dram 100.00
1 unit Service Vehicle Hire P1,000.00 per day P 1,000.00
20 liters Fuel 50.00 per liter P 1,000.00
1 unit Power Sprayer and accessories hire 200.00
TOTAL OPERATIONSAND MATERIALS COST (Every Spraying) P 2,300.00
60 Kilos Flower Inducer (K2NO3) at P75.00 per kilo P 4,500.00
7 – 10 DAFI
12 packs ACTARA (Hydrochloride) P150 per pack P 1,800.00
2 liters CYPERMETHRI 700.00 per liter 1,400.00
3 kilos MANCOZEB 450.00 per kilo 1,350.00
3 kilos FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC 210.00 per kilo 630.00
OPERATIONS (Spraying) 2,300.00
SUB-TOTAL P 7,480.00
14 – 21 DAFI
12 packs GEMTRAK (Hydrochloride) P130.00 per pack P1,560.00
500 ml SCORE (fungicide) 1.420.00
3 kilos FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC 210,00 per kilo 630.00
OPERATIONS (Spraying) 2,300.00
32 – 35 DAFI
1.5 kilos SEVIN P880.00 per kilo P1,320.00
3 kilos AGRICOTE (Hydrochloride) 380.00 per kilo 1,140.00
3 kilos FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC 210.00 PER KILO 630.00
OPERATIONS (Spraying) 2,300.00
42 – 45 DAFI
2 bottles CYPERMETHRIN P700.00 P1,400.00
3 kilos MANCOZEB 1,350.00
3 kilos FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC 210.00 630.00
OPERATIONS (Spraying) P2,300.00
55 – 60 DAFI
200Kilos x P2.00 = P400.00 x 50 = P20,000 P20,000.00
75 – 80 DAFI
85 – 90 DAFI
95 – 100 DAFI
120 – 125 DAFI
200 kilos x P3.00 = P600.00 x 50 = P30,000.00 P30,000.00
1 – 30 DAH
PRUNING P10.00 X 50 = P500.00
ORGANIC Fertilizer 100.00 x 50 = 5,000.00
Fertilizing 10.00 x 50 = 500.00 P 6,000.00
31 – 60 DAH
Weeding 10.00 x 50 = P 500.00
Cultivation 10,00 x 50 = P 500.00
Watering 20.00 x 50 = 1.000.00 P 2,000.00
61 -70 DAFI
71 – 80 DAF
81 – 90 DAH
91 – 100 DAH
101 – 150 DAH
ORGANIC Fertilizer P50.00 x 50 = P2,500.00
Fertilizing P 10.00 x 50 = 500.00
Cultivation P 10.00 x 50 = 500.00 P 3,500.00
151 – 180 DAH
PREPARATION FOR FLOWER INDUCTION
Light Pruning 10.00 x 50 = P 500.00
Clearing 10.00 x 50 = 500.00 P 1,000.00
181 -190 DAH
GRAND TOTAL P93,760.00
GROSS SALES 200 x 50 = 10,000 x P15 = P150,000.00
Less Expenses 93.760.00
Difference GROSS PROFIT P 56,240.00
Ex-Farm Gate Price per kilo P15.00
Cost of production per kilo 9.40
Difference (Profit) per kilo 5.60
Note: This figures can change depending on actual volume and quality of production and market
price prevailing during harvest.
REX A. RIVERA
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City