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					                Simplified guide on

           Organic Mango
   Culture and Production
                            for

Mango Farmers and Growers
                     Year 2008

                            By:

                  REX A. RIVERA
                   Agronomist
 11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City, Philippines
            Email: rarivera8@yahoo.com
     Website: www.freewebs.com/organicfarmphil
               Telephone: 083-301-0117
                Mobile: 0905-242-2691




                        1
      PAGPAPA BULAKLAK AT BUNGA NG MANGGA
1. Linisin ang puno at kapaligiran ng mangga. Alisin ang patay at may sakit na
   mga sanga.

2. Ararohin, abonohan ng nabolok na dumi ng hayop at halaman at diligin.

3. Hintayin maging magulang na ang mga dahon at handa na ang usbong
   (fruiting buds) sa pamumulaklak.

4. Hintaying ang taginit na panahon, medyo tuyo ang kapaligiran at walang
   nagbabadyang ulan.

5. Sprayan ng pampabulaklak and buong puno, sanga at daho. Ulitin sa ikatlong
   araw. Gumamit ng 2% hanging 3% Potasium Nitrate o Calcium Nitrate na may
   1% HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate.

6. Spreyan uli ng HOC-4n1 sa 7 – 10 – 13 – 17 – 20 at 23 araw (DAFI).

7. Mula 24 hangang 34 araw huwag gagalawing ang mga bulaklak at sumisibol na
   bunga. Ito ang pinaka delikado at sensitibong panahon. Ito rin ang panahong
   dumarating ang mga insect pollinators.

8. Kung sakaling umulan sa panahon ng pagbubulaklak at pag porma ng bunga
   hangang sing laki ng mais, yogyugin lang ang sangga pagkatapos ng ulan.
   Kung sakaling may peste o simulang mangitim, spreyan ng HOC-4n1 na may
   halong sabon upang mahugasan.

9. Spreyan ng HOC-4n1 at HOC-GO sa 45 – 50 – 60 araw.

10. Pag laki ng bunga tulad ng itlog o 60 – 70 araw, maari na silang balutin.

11. Puede ng anihin sa 115 – 120 -125 at 135 araw. Mas matagal, mas matamis at
    mabigat ang bunga ng mangga.

12. Higit na ingat at dahandahan ang pag ani at pagdadala ng bunga. Dito
    maraming nalulugi at nasisirang bunga kung hindi pagingatan.

13. Agad agad dalhin sa Paking House, piliin, hugasan, ihiwalay ang lumulubog sa
    lumulutang. Itubog sa mainit na tubig 5 hangang 10 minuto sa 52 – 55
    centegrado o 30 hangang 60 segundo sa 59 - 60 centegrado. Patuyuin, at
    baluting, ilagay sa mga kahon para ibyahe.

14. Agad dalhin sa merkado, barko o eroplano para hindi mahinugan sa byahe.
    Kailangan hindi tatagal ng 36 oras mula ani hanging makarating sa merkado.
    Maari ilagay sa refrigerated van para hindi agad mahinog.


                                      2
                       SIMPLE GUIDE TO
                    GROWING ORGANIC MANGO

                   By: REX A. RIVERA, Agronomist

                                Year: 2008

1. Distance mango far apart to allow full sunlight and free flow of air.
   (20x20 meters quincunx will give 50 hills per hectare.)

2. Practice clean culture. Keep weeds and grasses short. Grow creeping
   leguminous cover crop to protect soil and beneficial microorganisms.

3. Cultivate and plow the soil at least once a year to aerate and prune off
   roots at the surface that are sensitive to heat and dry spell.

4. Drench with BMO (Beneficial Micro Organism) and HOC (Herbal
   Organic Concentrate) the compost and organic materials. Spread
   organic fertilizer and decompose farm waste before plowing and
   cultivation so the organic materials will be incorporated in the soil.

5. Prune and remove diseased and infested branches and other plant parts
   and bring debris to compost pile. Chop or shred them to small pieces for
   faster decomposition. The compost pile is drench with BMO, IMO or
   EM and covered.

6. Provide enough water and keep soil moisture adequate at all times.
   Cover crops and mulching will help maintain soil moisture especially
   during summer months. However, less moisture is required two to four
   (2-4) weeks before flower induction and one (1) month during fruit
   maturation (100 to 130 days from flower induction. Mango start
   maturing at 90 to 100 days and reaches full maturity in 120 to 135
   DAFI..

7. When the leaves are mature and the flower buds are ready evidence by
   plump and pointed bud tips (about 7 to 9 months from flushing), the
   tree may by induced to flower. The types of natural flower induction
   are:

                                  3
      a. Smudging or smoking the tree is the old practice of flower
         induction.
      b. Spraying Herbal and Mineral concentrate (Substitute to KNO3)
      c. Cultivation or root pruning will also help induce flowering.
      d. Spraying or drenching the tree with cold water and HOC during
         dry spell of two weeks, during the hottest part of the day, when
         the fruiting buds are ready to flower.

8. After flower induction, drench the whole tree from soil, trunk, branches
   to the leaves with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) to drive
   away insect pest especially mango hoppers to prevent them from laying
   eggs on emerging flower after bud break.

9. The most critical period on mango production is from flower induction
   up to 55 day the period of flowering, blooming, and fruit formation and
   development.

10.Smoking (Smudging) and spraying HOC every 3 to 5 days up to 21 days
   from flower induction will greatly help in repelling insect pest and
   preventing diseases. Do not spray or disturb the flowers during bloom
   and pollination. Insect pollinators should be encouraged to come. This is
   at 22 to 40 days after flower induction. You may spray HOC-GO foliar
   fertilizer during this period which will serve both as pollinator
   attractant and growth enhancer.

11.If it rains during the flowering and fruit formation, Spray HOC-3n1
   (Fungicide) immediately after the rain. Gently shake branches to
   remove water droplets on flowers as this is a good medium for growth
   and development of anthracnose and other fungal diseases.

12.At 45 to 90 days Spray HOC-4n1 and HOC-GO alternately once a week
   to help in fruit development and prevent insect infestation.

13.At 55 to 70 days bag the good fruits candidate for export. Leave alone
   the partly damaged or deformed fruits as these will be for domestic
   market or for processing. This will greatly reduce your bagging cost and
   labor expense.




                                 4
14.Allow the fruits to fully mature at 120 to 130 days to gain full sweetness
   and aromatic odor. Fully mature fruits are heavier and command a
   better price.

15.Before harvesting, see to it that you have all the harvesting tools,
   equipment, containers and a packing shed close or within the farm.

16.Give proper instructions and guidance to your workers and harvesters
   before sending them off to harvest. Make them remember that every
   single fruit has value and they should handle them with care, avoiding
   dropping, cracking, bumps and bruising. “HANDLE FRUITS WITH
   CARE”.

17.Have a separate group of workers, especially trained to sort, grade,
   packaging and scale the fruits. Another group at the packing house will
   do the washing, hot water dip treatment, air drying, final sorting or
   grading, packing and weighing to be transported to market
   destinations.

18.After harvest, start the next cycle of tree management. This will be the
   rejuvenation stage from post harvest to next flower induction. A period
   of 7 to 9 months. This is the period often neglected by mango growers.

19.The trees are prunes and sanitized by clearing the surrounding and
   drenching the whole tree with HOC-4n1.

20.Spread the organic fertilizer and decompose farm waste materials. Be
   sure the compost or organic fertilizer is fully mature or decomposed, or
   else they will do more harm than good to the plants.

21.Plow under the canopy cover to cultivate and mix the organic compost
   with the soil. Follow this by harrowing to pulverize and level the soil.

22.Water the trees and spray HOC-GO to initiate new flushing. Two to
   four new shoots will emerge which will be potential bearing buds.

23.During flushing, spray HOC-4n1 at 3 to 5 days interval. The young
   leaves are very susceptible to anthracnose infection and insect pest
   attack being soft and tender. It is advice to smudge the trees during this
   period to drive away insect pests.

                                 5
24.Provide adequate water at all times, and keep down the weeds by
   slashing or cultivation (shallow plowing and harrowing). Place
   mulching materials around the base of the tree to conserve soil
   moisture, prevent weeds to grow and protect beneficial microorganisms
   from intense sunlight or heat. We do not advice the use of chemical
   herbicides as these will kill and destroy beneficial microorganisms and
   soil life.

25.Monitor the trees until they are ready for another flower induction.

                              End of cycle


  ORGANIC CULTURAL MANAGEMENT
            PRACTICES




           ORGANIC CULTURAL MANAGEMENT &
                    REJUVINATION

   After Harvest 8 months:
   1. SANITATION–PRUNING–WEEDING & CULTIVATION
   2. INITIATE FLUSHING – Spray Foliar Fertilizer & Water.
   3. SOIL FERTILIZATION (Organic Fertilizer - Manure)
   4. IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE


                                 6
     5. LEAF INDUCTION - FLUSHING (HOC-4n1+HOC-GO)
     6. IPM (Sanitation, Light trapping, Spray HOC & Biocon)

                        FLOWER MANAGEMENT

     At 8 to 10 Months after flushing:
     1. FLOWER INDUCTION (Flower Inducer or Smudging)
     2. IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
     3. FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO)
     4. ENHANCE POLLINATION (Attract Pollinators)
     5. Spray insecticide and fungicide as needed after rains.

                        FRUIT MANAGEMENT

     1.   IRRIGATION & DRAINAGE
     2.   FOLIAR FERTILIZATION (HOC-4n1 + HOC-GO)
     3.   IPM (BIOCON + HOC-4n1 + Bagging)
     4.   PROPER HARVESTING
     5.   PROPER POST HARVEST HANDLING & TREATMENT

                PACKAGING, STORAGE, TRANSPORT & MARKETING




                 OFF-SEASON MANGO PRODUCTION

      Mango growers can produce mango fruits during the off-season
especially in Mindanao, being outside the typhoon belt. Other areas of the
country with less expected typhoon and heavy rains might venture into
producing off-season fruits as the supply is low, demand is high and price
is good.

PERIOD or SCHEDULE      FLOWER INDUCTION       HARVEST
Season Production       November to February   March to June
Off Season Production   March to October       July to February




FLOWER INDUCTION

                                  7
        Mango trees naturally flower and fruit when it is healthy and ready to
fruit. Stress will help induce flowering during dry season for it’s seasonal
bearing. However, flowering can be induced; by smoking, partial girdling
branch stretching or other mechanical or chemical treatments. Chemical
flower induction by using Potassium nitrate (KNO3) was introduced by Dr.
Ramon Barba after his successful research in 1970 at UPLB, College,
Laguna, Philippines. Research on natural herbal organic base flower
inducers is now being conducted in Mindanao. Smudging is rarely practice
today.


        Other Flower induction practices:
   1.   Natural Climate and weather season (Wet and Dry)
   2.   Smudging (Smoking)
   3.   Partial girdling and root pruning.
   4.   Stretching or bending of branches.
   5.   Spraying cold water with nitrogen fertilizer during hot dry days.
   6.   Use of other Chemicals like Carbide, Lime Sulfur and Ethylene.
   7.   Use of Organic and mineral based flower inducer.




            PREPARING TREES FOR PRODUCTION
     It is easy to induce the trees to flower, but if the tree is not well
prepared, the flowers will just fall off. The tree should be really healthy with
adequate nutrient storage to support and sustain flowering and fruit
development up to full maturity and harvest.

Here are a few pointers to remember and adopt:

   1. Provide enough fertilizer and nutrient to the plant through the soil.
      Never rely only on foliar fertilization. That is only to augment nutrient
      needs during the production period (flowering to fruit development).
      To be sure, apply enough organic fertilizer every 6 months to every


                                     8
  tree augmented with chemical fertilizer if necessary. Soil fertilization
  and conditioning is very necessary but often neglected.

2. Insure that there is adequate soil moisture at all times. Over water is
   not good. Too dry soil is not also good.

3. Protect the trees with biological and organic herbal pesticides and
   fungicides. Enhance natural balance and bio-diversity in your farm
   especially beneficial microorganisms in the soil.

4. Induce the trees to flush after harvest to have new shoot for next
   season fruiting. This is done in combination with pruning, cultivation,
   fertilization, spraying and watering or irrigation and drainage.

5. Two months after flushing when the leaves start maturing, apply
   fertilizer rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potash to
   keep trees maturing and dormant in preparation for next season’s
   fruiting. Use organic fertilizer with guano and burnt rice hull or ash.
   Spray HOC with trace elements, plant food nutrients.




        In selecting trees for flower induction,
              Take note of the following:
1. The tree must have full mature leaves and buds. The leaves are
   crispy; dark-green in color, healthy plum dormant bud tips. At least 8-
   10 months rejuvenation.

2. The tree and leaves should be dry, with no rain expected within 6
   hours from spraying.

3. Trees that fruited the previous season but have not flushed should
   not be induced to flower. Many contractors and growers who want
   fast money often violate this practice.


                                9
 4. To induce the tree to flush, irrigate and fertilize with higher dosage of
    nitrogen, and or spray the leaves with half dose (0.5%) Potassium
    Nitrate (KNO3) or Calcium Nitrate (CaNO3)

 5. Spraying and drenching the whole plant from the base of trunk to
    branches and leaves with foliar fertilizer rich in amino acid or other
    organic weak acid and containing micro-nutrient elements will help
    induce flushing.

 6. The use of Herbal Organic Concentrate (HOC) and homemade lime
    sulfur has been found to induce new vegetative growth.




   CONDITION WHEN USING USEING CHEMICAL
              FLOWER INDUCER

When not          to
                       High Dosage             Low Dosage
induce

1. When the tree 1. When Trees                 1. When trees
is too small,    are just starting             are big, old or
young or         to mature.                    fully mature.
juvenile.
                 2. Leaves and                 2. When leaves
2. When the      buds are about                crispy and buds

                                 10
leaves and buds maturing                     are fully mature.
are young.
                    3. The tree is           4. During hot dry
3. When the         healthy, with            sunny weather.
tree have not       vigorous buds
yet rejuvenated, and leaves.                 5. Eight to ten
weak and sickly.                             months after
                    4. During dry but        harvest after, full
4. During rainy cloudy weather.              rejuvenation &
cloudy weather.                              dormant flower
                    5. Five to seven         buds ready to
5. Just after       months after             break.
harvest or when harvest flushing
the tree has        rejuvenation &
fruits or flushing. mature.




OTHER INDICATIONS

 1. Check on the fruiting buds’ readiness. The buds are slightly rounded
    and mature or dormant, ready to flower. There are two types of buds,
    the leaf and flower bud.
 2. If the buds are flattening with small dormant buds at the sides, they
    are most likely new flushing buds for vegetative growth for next
    season’s fruiting.
 3. The soil and the trees are dry. If it rained the previous days and the
    atmosphere is humid, induction may result to flushing or flowering
    with flushing.
 4. Choose to induce during dry hot months or dry days. Flower induction
    up to 45 days during the early fruit formation are the most critical


                                11
       period where the flowers and young fruits are susceptible to infection
       and infestations.
  5.   As a general rule, the mango flower and fruit if the tree is healthy and
       has accumulated enough carbohydrate and other plant nutrients, and
       is stressed.
  6.   A mango tree needs enough time at least 8 to 10 months to
       accumulate and store food nutrients in its system to support flowering
       and fruiting.
  7.   Too much flowering as in 90 to 100% of foliage flower are dangerous,
       since too much energy is released by the plant, and there will not be
       enough left for fruit development. Usual result is massive dropping
       and only a few fruits remain or even total crop fall. A 40 to 60%
       foliage flowering would be ideal to insure full fruit development with
       bigger and better quality harvest with enough leaves to feed.
  8.   Water or moisture is needed from bud emergence to one month
       before harvest to insure availability of plant food nutrients. The tree
       needs dry and sunny days before and during flowering’ and during
       fruit maturing to one month before harvest to insure full maturing, so
       fruits do not crack or drop up to harvest.




                 PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL
   Natural farming methods of controlling pest and diseases in growing
organic mango: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the use of different
practical yet low cost methods:

  1. Cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic
     weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying,
     etc. See to it that the water source is not contaminated or carrier of
     pest and diseases.
  2. The use of baits and insect traps (light traps, sweet juice tuba trap).
  3. Spraying with herbal organic preparations with pest repellant,
     insecticide and fungicidal properties (HOC).


                                    12
   4. The use of beneficial microorganisms that control pest and diseases.
   5. The use of insect predators, parasites like Trichogramma, braconids,
      and pirate bug.
   6. Crop rotation or inter-cropping with plants that will repel or reduce
      infestation.
   7. Schedule and time production during least pest infestation and
      disease prevalence. There is less insect pest and diseases during
      summer months.
   8. Cultivate and fertilize the soil around the base of the trunk periodically
      with organic fertilizer derived from herbs with pesticide and fungicidal
      properties as well as beneficial microorganisms.
   9. Remove diseased or infested fruits and vegetative parts of the tree
      and dispose of them properly such as removing them from the field,
      burning, bury or composting them for fertilizer. Practice clean culture.




Take note:
When spraying trees with herbal organic concentrate (HOC) start with the
soil surrounding the trunk, upward around the trunk, branches then the
underside of the leaves or foliage and last the top of leaves and crown.
Insect pest and diseases comes from the soil and stay in trunk and branch
where they hibernate and wait then wake or become active when new
growth appears such as flushing and flowering to fruiting.

      Remember that when God created the universe, the earth and
nature, it was complete and balanced. Man interfered with this balance in
the environment and ecosystem for the desire to produce more of their
selected and preferred crops, in the process destroying the equilibrium and
disrupting natural laws and life. Its ill effects of toxic synthetic chemicals are
now being manifested in making the land less productive and the life span
of man is shortening. Other life forms are disappearing. It is time for us to
learn natural laws and adopt Natural Farming System.




                                     13
        Before 1950 even up to 1970 when Dr. Ramon Barba as an effective
flower Inducer for mango discovered potassium nitrate, the trees were left
alone to nature and bear fruits during season. Mango owners just
harvested mango fruits without caring for the trees, just like coconut
farmers. Today, as the prices of chemical inputs get too high, mango
growers are starting to leave the mango trees to the care of nature. Added
to this is the growing demand for chemical free mango or naturally grown
fruits.

      We are now introducing the use of herbal organic pest and disease
control and biological measures. Our latest experience in growing organic
mango show that natural farming system is easier to learn by farmers and
cost lower




                                 14
ONE YEAR CYCLE OF MANGO PRODUCTION
One-Year
Prod.       Stage of Growth            Activity/Operation
Cycle
7           Tree is ready for flower   Sanitize tree Prune &
DBFI        induction                  Spray HOC
0 - FI      Mature buds & leaves       Spray flower Inducer
                                       CaNO3
7-10 DAFI   Bud emergence              Spray HOC-4n1
14 DAFI     Post emergence             Monitor & spray HOC-4n1
21 DAFI     Pre-emergence/bloom        Monitor & Spray HOC as
                                       need arises.
24          An thesis/blooming         Do not spray, unless it
DAFI                                   rains
28          Full an thesis/bloom       Do not spray, unless it
DAFI        (usually 5 days period)    rains
30-32       Post an thesis/bloom       Monitor-spray only after
DAFI                                   rains
 35 DAFI    Fruit set                  Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
                                       HOC-GO
42 DAFI     Post fruit set             Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
                                       HOC-GO
60–70       Fruit enlargement          Spray HOC-4n1 & fruit
DAFI                                   bagging
90 DAFI     Start of maturation        Monitor/spray HOC-4n1 +
                                       FAA
120-130     Full maturity              Harvesting, HWT and
                                       Packaging
130-140     Natural ripening           Processing and Marketing
140-350     Rejuvenation. Flushing,    Cultural management:
DAFI        nutrient absorption,       Pruning, Weeding,
            photosynthesis, food &     Cultivation, Fertilizing,
            energy storage ---         Irrigation and Spraying,
            Dormancy
351-360     Mature flower buds ready Sanitation and Flower
DAFI        for bearing. (Start Cycle) Induction




                                  15
          FLOWER AND FRUIT PROTECTION
      The crucial stage of mango production is the attack of insect
pests and diseases at flowering and fruit development stages.
Insecticides and fungicides are commonly used, but to obtain good
results, the recommended usage and dosage must be followed and
control must be directed during the vulnerable stage of insect and
disease development (not during the height of destructive infestation
and infection). Prevention is better than cure. It is also less
expensive and hence, more profitable.

       Continues raining during flowering and early fruit development
is the most critical condition as Anthracnose fungus disease is
prevalent. It will rot the flowers and young fruits and they turn dark
and fall off. Every time the rain stops or light drizzle, spray
immediately HOC herbal fungicide to wash off the fungus from the
flowers and fruit panicles. Do not postpone or delay as the fungus
can do damage within a few hours. Shaking the branches to remove
water droplets from flowers and young fruits will help for few small
trees.




                    BEST TIME FOR PROTECTIVE CONTROL
                    (1) Prior to Induction    (2 weeks)
                    (2) Flower Induction      (Day 0)
                    (3) Bud Break             (8-12 days)
                    (4) Prior to bloom        (21 days)
                    (5) After flower set      (corn size 40 days)
                    (6) Before bagging        (egg size 60-70 days)
                    (7) Start of maturation   (90-100 DAFI)
                    (8)Care in harvesting     (115 – 125 DAFI)




                                  16
          WRAPPING AND BAGGING FRUITS
      Wrapping the individual fruit with newspaper should be done at
about 53 to 60 days after induction or just after natural thinning or
dropping when the mangoes are about the size of a pullet egg. New
observation finds 70–80 DAFI is more practical period to bag, as
there will be less fruit drops after bagging and only quality fruits may
be bagged.


          ADVANTAGES OF FRUIT BAGGING:

  2. Bagging can reduce or eliminates the incidence of fruit fly and
     Capsid bug damage, sunburn and fungal infections.
  3. Reduced incidence of mechanical damage while the fruit still
     hung on the tree and during harvesting and handling
     operations. It protects fruits from wind scars.
  4. The paper serves as absorbent of latex flow during harvest.
  5. The fruit skin is cleaner and more attractive light green color.
  6. Bagging provides more or less an accurate estimate on the
     number of fruits per tree. This is important in cases where
     marketing is done on contract basis, or estimated on the total
     volume and weight of harvest.




                                   17
               PRE HARVEST PROTECTION
   Spraying foliar fertilizer high in potash with trace mineral
elements during fruit development will make the fruits sweeter. It
will make the peel more flexible and will lessen cracking of fruits
during the final stage of maturity, even when humidity rises and
rains.
   Spraying with herbal organic concentrate or HOC-4n1 will do
this. It will also protect the fruits from insect pests and fungal
diseases.

  Let us not forget that friendly insects, birds and
microorganisms are very helpful in reducing the
population and incidence of insect pests. Providing
favorable natural environment in the orchard for friendly
biological organisms will greatly reduce cost of
production and good quality fruits.



                    HARVESTING MANGO

    It is very important to keep in mind that the preservation of the
superior quality fruit, especially if it is intended for the fresh table
use that is critical during the harvest and post harvest period.
Harvesting and handling of fruits should be entrusted only to properly
trained, preferably experienced workers. It is also advisable for
beginners to first observe professional harvesters during harvest
operations.

   The outmost care in harvesting and handling of mango should be
emphasized. Workers and harvesters should first be given a briefing
before releasing them to the field. It takes a one-year cycle of care
and culture to bring the fruits ready for harvest. It takes less than a
second to drop the fruits does and break or bruise does.


                                   18
   Use the right harvesting poles with soft nets to avoid bruising. Use
wooden or plastic harvesting crates with clean soft padding. Avoid
using banana leaves or other materials that may have fungus
diseases that will infect the fruits.

   Do not remove fruit bags in the field, as they will serve as cushion
and absorbent of latex. They may be removed during grading and
classification before washing and hot water treatment.


            GUIDE TO HARVESTING MANGO
Maturity of mango fruits ready for harvest.

  1. The mango start maturing at 90 days and reach full maturity in
     120 to 135 days after flower induction (DAFI). Note: Earlier fruit
     ripening on tree and dropping may occur in hot arid areas.
     Delayed maturity occurs in cool humid areas.
  2. In hot and dry areas, the fruits tend to ripen earlier, (110 – 115
     days). It does not mean that they have reach full physiological
     maturity (lesser weight and sugar content). In cooler, humid and
     shady areas, the fruit take more time (135 days) from flower
     induction to reach full maturity, as sunlight may be less. When
     new flushing comes together with flowering, the fruits likewise
     take more time to mature (130 DAFI).
  3. If the tree flowers naturally, count 85 to 95 days from flower
     bloom to determine the approximate date of full maturity.
     Blooming is when flowers open, release odor that attract insect
     pollinators.
  4. One sure test is to get samples randomly picked from the tree
     and slices the fruits at the apex portion. If the flesh is still white,
     it is immature, while if it is turning yellow; it is ready for harvest.
  5. Floatation checks. Dip the fruit in 1-% salt solution. Seawater
     may be used. The floaters are immature while those that sink
     are mature, and ready for harvest. 90% sinkers are ready for
     harvest.
  6. The presence of bloom, or powdery deposit on the surface of
     the skin is an indication of full physiological maturity.


                                    19
7. Mature carabao mango fruits have flattened shoulders at the
   stem end. While immature fruits have slope shoulders with full
   cheeks.
8. The pedicel of mature fruits turns yellow green in color.
9. Laboratory test may not be practical for field operations. The
   Titrable Acid of fully mature fruits is less than 45 miliequivalents
   per 100 grams and the total soluble solids at table ripe is 15%
   or higher.


               HARVESTING METHODS

1. Hand picking is still the best method, but it is difficult and time
   consuming for large orchards. Using picking poles and ladder is
   a common practice, especially with commercial mango
   production and big plantations with big tall trees. Avoid bruising
   the fruits with the picking pole.

2. To avoid bruises and damage, in handling and transport, trim
   off the pedicel before packing when latex flow has dried. It is
   done easily by pulling off horizontally the pedicel and it will just
   snap at the neck of the pedicel.

3. The best time of the day to harvest is between 9:00 a.m. to 3:00
   p.m. when the tree and fruits are dry and latex flow is minimal.
   Latex cause acid burning and brownish discoloration of the
   skin, which also make it, open to fungal infection. However for
   large orchard and big harvest, this cannot be followed, as time
   will be limited to meet scheduled shipments. Fully mature fruits
   have less latex flow.

4. To reduce or minimize latex flow, leave two to three centimeters
   pedicel on the fruit when harvesting.     Place the fruit in an
   inverted position with the pedicel down on absorbent paper
   materials, which are free from disease contamination.

5. Keep the fruit bags until sorting, washing, HWT, drying and
   packing.



                                 20
                  POST HARVEST OPERATIONS

CLASSIFYING

     Sorting and classifying occur at the following stages:
       1. During harvest
       2. During field packing.
       3. Before and during washing at the Packing House.
       4. After HWT just before final packaging for shipment.

Fruits are classified according to size, weight and the general
appearance

STEPS OF POST HARVEST OPERATIONS:

1. Field sorting and boxing.
2. Delivery or transport to packing house.
3. Sorting and weighing,
4. Washing and grading, (Separate sinkers from floaters)
5. Hot Water Treatment (5-10 min. in 52-55*C or 30-60 sec. in 59-
   60*C)
6. Air dry with blower and cool.
7. Final sorting and packing.
8. Weighing, sealing of boxes and labeling.
9. Storage and transport to market.
10. Record keeping.




                                   21
                   RETURN ON INVESTMENT
                                        Year 2000
MAGO PRODUCTION GUIDE – Step by Step - by MAGO CONTRACTOR in Mindanao

FLOWER INDUCTION: 30 – 50 TREES 10 YEARS UP –PLANTING DISTANCE 20 X 20
METERS QUINCUNX or 15 x 15 meters triangle.

ACTIVITIES

 OPERATIONS
 3 Man days        Labor Spraying         P150.00 per MD            P 450.00
 4 liters Fuel for Power Sprayer             50.00 per liter          200.00
 5 persons         Meals                   50.00 per person           250.00
 1 person          Supervision                     P500.00            500.00
MATERIALS
10 drams           Water (2,000 LITERS) 10.00 per dram                  100.00
 1 unit            Service Vehicle Hire         P1,000.00 per day   P 1,000.00
20 liters Fuel                               50.00 per liter        P 1,000.00
 1 unit            Power Sprayer and accessories hire                   200.00
TOTAL OPERATIONSAND MATERIALS COST (Every Spraying)                 P 2,300.00

Day 0
 60 Kilos      Flower Inducer (K2NO3) at P75.00 per kilo            P 4,500.00

7 – 10 DAFI
12 packs       ACTARA (Hydrochloride)          P150 per pack        P 1,800.00
 2 liters CYPERMETHRI                           700.00 per liter      1,400.00
 3 kilos MANCOZEB                               450.00 per kilo       1,350.00
 3 kilos FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC                  210.00 per kilo         630.00
               OPERATIONS (Spraying)                                  2,300.00
               SUB-TOTAL                                            P 7,480.00

14 – 21 DAFI
12 packs       GEMTRAK (Hydrochloride) P130.00 per pack             P1,560.00
500 ml         SCORE (fungicide)                                     1.420.00
  3 kilos      FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC        210,00 per kilo            630.00
               OPERATIONS (Spraying)                                 2,300.00
               SUB-TOTAL                                            P5,910.00

32 – 35 DAFI
 1.5 kilos     SEVIN                    P880.00 per kilo            P1,320.00
 3 kilos       AGRICOTE (Hydrochloride)  380.00 per kilo             1,140.00
 3 kilos       FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC 210.00 PER KILO                   630.00
               OPERATIONS (Spraying)                                 2,300.00
               SUB-TOTAL                                            P5,390.00

42 – 45 DAFI
 2 bottles     CYPERMETHRIN                    P700.00              P1,400.00
 3 kilos       MANCOZEB                                              1,350.00
 3 kilos       FOLIAR FERTILIZER HOC               210.00              630.00
               OPERATIONS (Spraying)                                P2,300.00
               SUB-TOTAL                                            P5,680.00

55 – 60 DAFI



                                              22
                     BAGGING
200Kilos             x P2.00 = P400.00 x 50 = P20,000                                         P20,000.00

75 – 80 DAFI

85 – 90 DAFI

95 – 100 DAFI

120 – 125 DAFI
           HARVESTING
200 kilos  x P3.00 = P600.00 x 50 = P30,000.00                                                P30,000.00
REJUVINATION

1 – 30 DAH
                     PRUNING                        P10.00 X 50 = P500.00
                     ORGANIC Fertilizer             100.00 x 50 = 5,000.00
                     Fertilizing                     10.00 x 50 = 500.00                      P 6,000.00

31 – 60 DAH
                     Weeding               10.00 x 50 = P 500.00
                     Cultivation           10,00 x 50 = P 500.00
                     Watering              20.00 x 50 = 1.000.00                              P 2,000.00
61 -70 DAFI

71 – 80 DAF

81 – 90 DAH

91 – 100 DAH

101 – 150 DAH
                     ORGANIC Fertilizer             P50.00 x 50 = P2,500.00
                     Fertilizing                    P 10.00 x 50 = 500.00
                     Cultivation                    P 10.00 x 50 = 500.00                     P 3,500.00

151 – 180 DAH
                     PREPARATION FOR FLOWER INDUCTION
                     Light Pruning 10.00 x 50 = P 500.00
                     Clearing         10.00 x 50 = 500.00                                     P 1,000.00

181 -190 DAH
                     FLOWER INDUCTION

                                                                 GRAND TOTAL                     P93,760.00
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GROSS SALES 200 x 50 = 10,000 x P15 = P150,000.00
Less Expenses                                             93.760.00
Difference GROSS PROFIT                               P 56,240.00
Ex-Farm Gate Price               per kilo                                   P15.00
Cost of production per kilo                                                    9.40
Difference (Profit) per kilo                                                   5.60

Note: This figures can change depending on actual volume and quality of production and market
price prevailing during harvest.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------



                                                             23
       THANK YOU
             REX A. RIVERA
                Agronomist
11 Magsaysay Avenue, General Santos City
       Email: rarivera8@yahoo.com
Website: www.freewebs.com/organicfarmphil
          Telephone: 083-301-0117
           Mobile: 0905-242-2691




                   24

				
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