How to ensure the quality in foreign work placements -a handbook of best practice

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					How to ensure the quality in foreign work placements –
            a handbook of best practice

Supported by the Commission of the European Communities under the Leonardo da
                                 Vinci programme
        Editor: Martin Winther and Anne Schultz Pinstrup, Cirius, Denmark

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List of contents:
Why is quality assurance of transnational work placement so important? ......................3
The process of quality assurance ...................................................................................3
The objectives of transnational mobility ..........................................................................5

Transnational placements in four countries
Denmark .........................................................................................................................6
Germany .........................................................................................................................7
France .............................................................................................................................8
The UK ..........................................................................................................................10

The five elements of quality assurance of transnational work placements
The information element ...............................................................................................11
The legal element .........................................................................................................14
The training element .....................................................................................................16
The monitoring element ................................................................................................18
The certification element ...............................................................................................22

List of partners involved in the project ..........................................................................24
List of material ..............................................................................................................25
Checklist .......................................................................................................................38

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Why is quality assurance of transnational work placement so important?
One must ask oneself this question when dealing with transnational mobility in the
vocational trades. Isn’t mobility itself enough? What more can one demand than to send
the trainee abroad, and receive him or her after a certain period of time in one piece,
sound and healthy and ready to continue his or hers education, training or work?

These modest demands were maybe sufficient in the initial phase of mobility in vocational
education and training, where time and money were seldom sufficient for monitoring,
evaluation, and recognition and certification of the transnational experience. But this is not
sufficient any longer.

The handbook addresses the problem of how to assure quality in foreign work placements
in the vocational education and training system by providing – on the basis of concrete
experience from a number of Member States – examples that can be used for the quality
assurance of transnational placement activities in accordance with national educational
and legal requirements, thus facilitating their incorporation into the national curricula. The
authors hope that the examples of best practice may serve as information on and
inspiration of how to ensure a successful outcome of transnational work placements.

The handbook further contains examples of best practices on how to assure the quality of
the vocational content of a stay abroad. The point of departure is that the quality
assurance of any placement activity ideally contains five basic elements: Comprehensive
and realistic information, an unequivocal legal framework, a clear training purpose,
procedures for monitoring of the stay, and the possibility for certification at national and
European level.

The target groups are employers, trainees and young workers in the commercial and
clerical sector, the metal industry and the hotel and restaurant sector in Denmark,
Germany, France and the UK. The young persons are called trainees in this handbook.

The handbook also contains the material developed within the scope of this project, and
names and addresses of the organisation from where it can be obtained. The handbook
can be found in both paper and electronic form.

The material and procedures described are the results of the efforts made in the project
called “Quality assurance and certification of transnational work placements1” funded by
the Leonardo da Vinci programme under the EU Commission.

The process of quality assurance
At the initial stage of the project, the partners defined five elements as being crucial when
dealing with quality assurance of work placements abroad: The information element, the

    For further information, please refer to the partnership in the project (DK/98/1/59005/PI/I.1.1.a/FPI)

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legal element, the training element, the monitoring element, and the certification element.
The partners each had vast but different experiences in this respect, and the accumulation
of this led to the development of material and procedures for quality assurance. The
material and procedures are templates and easily adaptable to other trades or countries.

A foreign work placement is an intensive experience which influences the trainee in a
number of fields: the complexity and characteristics of the working place, the new
colleagues, the foreign language, as well as the unknown culture. Some of the
impressions may be experienced as random and not be adapted and learnt from unless
the necessary steps to assure this are being taken. This is why quality assurance is an
ongoing process which starts quite some time prior to departure and only stops upon
return from the stay with a proper evaluation. If the framework of the stay is not properly
set, a work placement in another country can be too overwhelming an experience and lead
to a culture shock which means that, in the worst case, the trainee will ultimately abort his
or hers stay.

Quality assurance is a complex matter, where the above mentioned elements must figure.
Assuring the quality of foreign work placements is a lengthy process, where the different
stages are interrelated and dependent on each other. The stages include the preparation
of the trainees, ie. informing the trainee of the challenges and realities waiting for him/her;
the setting of a framework for the work in terms of legal and training matters,
supplemented by procedures for monitoring during the stay; the assurance that the stay is
certified in a way that is recognised nationally and internationally; and finally, the
evaluation of the stay among the parties involved (trainees, companies and planning
organisations/schools). The stages overlap, and of course, information must be given
throughout the stay.

It is therefore difficult to isolate one or some of the stages when establishing or working
with the process of assuring foreign work placements. Even though all of the elements are
interrelated and important, the training element takes up a central position in the process.
Without proper training, the work placement fails its mission which is to give the trainee or
young worker new skills and competencies. These are both professional and personal
skills, ultimately improving the trainees’ opportunities and worth at the labour market.

This is a key issue in the world of today where the gradual disappearance of national
borders in relation to production, trade and commerce requires that the work force is able
to interact with people from other Member States, and are mobile both at a physical and
virtual level. It is therefore essential that work experiences from other countries are
recognised, thereby giving a young persons the possibilities to do part of a national
training programme in another country without having to lengthen the course
correspondingly, or ultimately renounce on the experience. At present, the systems of
recognition of skills achieved through work placements abroad differ from country to
country. In some countries, transnational work placements can be part of the national
training programme (such as in Denmark), whereas skills achieved through foreign work
placements in other countries are obtained as additional qualifications to the national
training programme (such as in Germany and France). Regardless of this, the access to
the labour market is increased, both due to the professional and language skills, and to the
personal qualifications/intercultural skills achieved.

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The intercultural skills are crucial because they create the framework for understanding
and acting in an environment different from one’s own. Experience shows us that they are
most easily adapted and reflected upon through a long-term personal experience abroad,
where one is confronted with own perception, behaviour and perhaps prejudices for a
considerable period of time. Professional and linguistic skills can be acquired in the home
country, but the intercultural skills are difficult to acquire unless one is placed in the foreign

The aims set for transnational work placements take their point of departure in measurable
aims, such as for instance training aims, but it is, however, a fact that the personal
outcome of a stay abroad is just as significant – but difficult to measure. Qualifications like
maturity, openness, the ability to take an initiative, open-mindedness, and flexibility are
skills that prosper during a stay abroad.

The objectives of transnational mobility
The objective of transnational mobility is often to create an “educational mobility”
consisting of different innovative practices within the structure of the educational system in
the home country. The purpose is to develop the professional and intercultural
competencies of the participants through transnational mobility. Such activities undertaken
by a trainee may take place within a structured training programme and have more or less
clearly defined objectives for the parties involved, or take place after end of training
programme, as a supplement to the formal training programme.

The professional or vocational objectives are evidently to obtain new skills and
qualifications within the chosen trade, but may also take the character of fostering the
trainees’ personal qualifications so that the chances at the labour market are improved. As
for the planners of transnational mobility, objectives may also be set in terms of
preparation of the trainees, information to any party involved, finding a sufficient number of
hosting companies of a good quality, setting the practical and legal framework of the stay,
smoothening the recognition and certification of the placement, and undertaking evaluation
of the stay.

In order to help fulfil the objectives, this project developed a range of tools to assure the
quality of transnational work placements. One of the aims was to develop a model after
which quality assurance of foreign work placements could be undertaken. The material
and procedures developed serve as examples and templates, and they can be transferred
to other fields of vocational education and training and other countries, free of charge.

Transnational placements in the participating countries
The countries participating in the project were Denmark, Germany, France and the UK.
The following is a brief description of the current situation in each country for assuring the
quality of transnational work placements.

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The Danish vocational education and training system (VET system) is a centralised, trade-
based system. The Ministry of Education lays down the content and structure of the
training programmes at high level in cooperation with the social partners after consultation
with the National Council of Vocational Education. For each educational line, a special
trade committee is set up, consisting of representatives from the national organisations of
employers and employees. The committees lay down the more detailed provisions on the
content, structure, duration and evaluation requirements of the individual training
programmes. To ensure the uniformity and quality of the competence acquired (at national
level), the trade committees are in charge of approving the companies suitable as practical
training organisations, in Denmark as well as abroad.

School leavers from the 9th form of primary and lower secondary school (15-16 years of
age) have as a main rule free access to the programmes. There is no upper limit of age if
one wants to start a vocational education.

The Danish VET system is based on the principle of dualism, where teaching in schools
alters with practical training in a company. The periods of work placements make up the
bulk of the training programme; approx 60-75 per cent of the entire training period. During
practical training, the trainee has a special legal status as stated in the labour legislation,
ie. being a trainee under education, and not an ordinary employee.

Transnational placements are today an integrated part of the VET system, encompassed
by legislation and traditions, which are also valid for national placements. The quality of
national as well as transnational placements is assured by a set of rules laid down by the
Ministry of Education and executed and controlled by the trade committees, employers
and vocational colleges, who work closely together to ensure the quality of the
placements. All parties share a joint responsibility and cooperate in order to ensure
continuous innovation of the system.

In Denmark, several programmes exist for doing a transnational work placement. The
programme which sends most trainees abroad, approx. 1000 trainees per year, is the PIU
programme (PIU means “work placement abroad”), which enables young Danes in initial
vocational education and training to do part of or all of the practical training in a company
in another EU or EFTA country as an integrated part of the Danish training programme.

The PIU programme was introduced by law in 1992 in part as a response to a large deficit
of available work placements in Denmark at the time. The programme consists of two main
elements: A legal framework laid down by the Ministry of Education, where the
transnational placement is recognised a part of the vocational education; and a financial
support scheme, funded by a special employers’ fund (AER, the Employers’
Reimbursement Scheme).

There are two models for transnational placements:
Model I: Placement directly after college, where the trainee starts the practical training of
his or her vocational training in a foreign company. In this case, the college is the sending

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body, and the trade committee the recognising body of the professional content of the

Model II: Placement from a Danish employer, where the trainee works at a business
partner or affiliate. The Danish employer is responsible for ensuring the professional
content of the placement.

Another programme supporting trainees on work placements abroad is the Leonardo da
Vinci programme under the EU Commission. This programme supports annually approx.
400 trainees opting for a transnational experience.

Some trades have their own programmes for transnational mobility, and in some cases
funding for expenses. This is for instance the case in the agricultural sector.

Transnational work placements are a possibility, but assuring the quality of it has
somehow been lacking behind. The reason for this is multiple; first and foremost, there is a
lack of framework and procedures in which quality assurance of foreign work placements
can take place. Second, the undertaking and administration of foreign work placements
has been performed by enthusiastic but overloaded individuals.

The Deutsch-Französisches Jugendwerk (DFJW) is an organisation involved in bilateral
mobility between Germany and France, in particular the exchange of trainees across their
common border. Since 1963, the organisation has given grants to trainees on foreign work
placements during their initial vocational training or up to twelve months after finalised
education. The stay abroad must include a work placement of minimum four weeks in a
French company as a part of the education or further education. The participant must be
younger than 30 years of age and have knowledge of French. The grant consists of
financial support to transport and costs of living.

The DFJW is not directly involved in arranging the foreign work placements, but assists the
planners and organising schools by submitting information on training companies, a.o.
through the Transnet database, their network of vocational colleges, etc. The organisation
is an active partner in the work of increasing the vocational, social, methodological,
communicative and intercultural competencies of the trainees going abroad. The
acquisition of competencies achieved abroad is seen as a prerequisite of entering the
European labour market.

Since 1980, the bilateral cooperation between Germany and France has included
education and training. From September 1997, the two countries have searched to
accomplish equality in their cooperation, among others in their offerings of places for work
placement. In 1999 in connection with the 74th German-French summit where the theme
was education, vocational education and occupation, further steps were taken to increase
the chances of work, especially for the young generation in the partner countries as well as
in the whole of Europe.

Transnational work placements outside of Germany can be short or long, and are named
differently, depending on the type of placement. In some administrative regions in

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Germany, the chambers of commerce and the agricultural council have procedures for the
recognition of foreign work placements of a duration of at least 3 months. The work
placement takes place in a subsidiary or in a partner company in another country.

Both length and the organisation of foreign work placements may differ. A model of mutual
exchange of trainees is among others used by the chamber of crafts of Germany and
France, and others in Belgium and Ireland, where roofers and carpenters work for three
months in each other’s company. In Germany, the social partners in the dual system meet
the demands of the European labour market by developing the required educational profile
in the form of short or long term foreign work placements.

The EU educational programmes evidently also play a role in transnational mobility in
Germany. The Leonardo da Vinci programme applies to individuals or groups of vocational
trainees on work placements abroad for periods between three weeks and nine months.
The Socrates programme also applies to vocational trainees. Furthermore, the Lingua
programme helps increase the knowledge of foreign languages. Experienced persons use
the opportunity of combining the different programmes, for instance by using the Socrates
programme in the preparation stage of a Leonardo project.

Transnational mobility has for hundreds of years been a part of vocational training in
France. Since the establishment of the European Union, transnational mobility has
increased. The founding of Office Franco-Allemand pour la Jeunesse (OFAJ) with the
priority of increasing education and training in the vocational sector, and the founding of
the German-French secretariat for vocational education and training, transnational mobility
has been at stake. The implementation of the first EU programme for education of young
workers and the PETRA and Leonardo da Vinci programmes have been important steps in
France for increasing mobility in the vocational sector.

Today, the main instrument for mobility in France is the Leonardo da Vinci programme,
and it is considered that the implementation of the Europass will increase the educational
dimension of mobility, provided that the majority of the criteria for the pedagogical and
educational aspects are fulfilled.

There are many players involved in mobility activities in France:
   • The European Commission through programmes and national agencies
   • The governmental institutions, ministries, decentralised governmental institutions
   • Regional councils and other local institutions
   • The parietal organisation OPCA responsible for further training in companies

The role of the regional councils has become increasingly important. They provide co-
financing and other resources needed for transnational mobility. The regions have
established contacts with European institutions and other regions, for instance with the
four most important border regions. They have representations in Brussels and offer
information on contact persons and general information. Most of the regional institutions
co-finance mobility activities within the Leonardo da Vinci programme, whereas others
offer financing through own mobility programmes.

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The regions further promote mobility of young people in terms of coordination activities,
and specific activities like accommodation and language preparation. The majority of the
regions have financial agreements with organisations, which help trainees organise the

Organisations responsible for training, for instance trade unions, chambers of industry and
commerce, educational institutions (high schools and educational centres for vocational
trainees) and companies are involved as well.

In France, transnational work placements can be categorised into four groups with
different objectives:

A: Organisation after length of placement.
Short-term work placements from 2 weeks to 3 months serve in most cases the purpose of
discovering a foreign culture and identifying the professional level of the relevant trade.
Placements longer than 3 months leave more time to experience the profession within the
culture more properly. In these two cases, service, guidance and accompanying measures
may be undertaken differently.

B: Organisation after the trainee’s status during the placement.
This only applies for trainees from the vocational trades going abroad for more than one
week to a European country:
   • Young people in initial vocational education and training
   • Pupils or students who prepare for a diploma in a the technical education
   • Young trainees in vocational education and training
   • Young people involved in qualification measures
   • Job-seekers or educated people, who have not graduated but clearly have the
      objective of finishing their vocational education

One must distinguish between whether the mobility takes place when the trainee has the
status of pupil, or as trainee or worker. In the first case, the purpose of the placement must
fulfil the objectives of the national training programme. The work placement may take
place for a group of pupils, but be recognised for each individual through the Europass
(please refer to the section on the certification element).

The mobility of young workers, job seekers, and companies are based on criteria in a
specific vocational project. The body responsible for the training must help to identify the
personal objectives embedded in the project. The objectives to be fulfilled have to be
negotiated between the planning organisation and the young worker and job-seeker,
because only very few formal national requirements exist as to the vocational content of
the stay.

C: Organisation after the desired level of qualifications.
One must differ between two levels: low skilled and high skilled. For the low skilled, the
point is to stimulate the young persons to get a cultural and European openness. One of
the aims is to improve the personal career opportunities of the young person by giving it an

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international dimension so that the access to the labour market is increased, nationally and
abroad. For marginalized young people, intensive guidance is necessary.

For the high skilled, the aim is to achieve new transferable competencies, develop
adaptability to the labour market, and upgrade the competencies of the trainee or young

D: Organisation where mobility concerns certain trades.
Transnational mobility was previously looked upon as an experiment or as a means to
develop a certain trade. In this way, transnational mobility also serves the purpose of
developing accompanying measures and methods which the professional or cultural
environment can take into account (for instance the seasonal character of a certain trade),
or the need of accepting certain forms of organising production in small and medium sized
companies depending on the trade, for instance by developing a special glossary. Trades
with experience in mobility are the construction industry, the car industry and hairdressers.

The UK
Although most UK employers are reluctant to consider work experience in another country
and have no requirement or financial incentive to do so, an increasing number are involved
in providing work experience for UK nationals. In spite of this, the UK is still mainly
receiving trainees and young workers on work placement.

Vocational training is mainly delivered through work-based training in companies and is
accredited through the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) arrangements, which
measure competence. Trainees have to have some theoretical education but this can be
delivered in the training centre or by a college and the amount of theory is not prescribed.

As these UK based arrangements are increasingly formalised and included in sector
based quality assurance arrangements so more employers become aware of the need to
set and monitor standards. This movement should, over a period of time, enable the
quality assurance of opportunities for incoming students to be more readily measured.
Certainly, the basic precepts of entitlement including a written agreement, induction,
review and assessment should become more familiar to an increasing number of UK

In work based training, two types of training exist; Modern Apprenticeships and National
Traineeships2 which are contracted to training providers and employers through the
national network of TECS3. Most of a typical two-year programme would occur in an
employer’s workplace. Providers are required to follow quality standards in designing

 These two vocational educations differ mainly by the level of skills achieved, where Modern Apprenticeships is
aiming at mid-level management, National Traineeships aiming at skilled worker.
  A TEC is a Training and Enterprising Council, which is a private, regional sector organisation working to promote
employment, training, new business development and transnational mobility. Although it receives financial support
from the UK government it has discretion over how it is spent and is directed by an executive Board consisting of local
business leaders. There is now a new regional structure of which the TECs are part.

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training programmes so all programmes have to contain induction, review, a written
description of learning outcomes, etc. All programmes have to be assessed against
National Vocational Qualification (NVQs), a competence based accreditation system.

All providers can be assessed by the national inspection system for the training sector and
are required to make improvements if inspection grades are low.

Placements in another country would be on a voluntary basis and uncontrolled by any UK
body regarding quality assurance except in the training sector, where contracts from the
TEC would apply if a placement was overseas. Improvements in competence could be
measured on return to the UK through the NVQ system.

The five elements of quality assurance of transnational work
The information element
The overall aim of the information element is to ensure that the parties involved are
adequately informed so that the expectations of host and trainee are in line with realities,
and the work placement becomes a successful experience for both parties. The purpose is
to create transparency between the educational systems and terms used in the involved
Member States.

This includes information on practical, social and cultural matters, and it should be given to
the hosting company rather early in the process, i.e. in the decision-making process and
before the stay actually commences. The process of making a decision on whether or not
to take on a foreign trainee is a lengthy one, and adequate information material at an early
stage is a presupposition for a good quality of the stay. In this way, the expectations to the
trainee in terms of professional and personal competencies (matureness, abilities to work
independently, etc.) will be in balance with the realities - a factor which is very important to
the quality of the learning process during the stay. By balancing expectations with realities,
there would be a big chance that the tasks to be performed would match the qualifications
of the trainee.

However, the host needs more detailed information on the educational background and
professional skills of the trainee in order to provide him/her with the right tasks: His/her
level of vocational skills and how these skills relate themselves to the national curricula for
the training programme in question in the host country. The trainee must be aware of the
professional objectives to be met with during the work placement, and of course be
informed of whom to contact in case of problems and questions regarding working
conditions, social security, private problems, etc. The trainee must also have an insight in
the cultural characteristics of the hosting country. Information on this must necessarily be
given at a general level, but may then take the form of prejudices. It should therefore be
given in a neutral way and be stressed that open-mindedness is of the utmost importance
when being in a foreign work place. In this way, too big cultural clashes and
misunderstandings may be avoided.

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There are many people involved in providing and seeking information. Obviously, the one
responsible for the planning of the stay plays a big role, but the trainee him/herself is also
a key player. However, one should be aware of the cultural differences that exist in the
communication between the parties, and this is a challenge to be coped with for the
planners and organising schools of transnational activities, for instance regarding when the
information should be given, how detailed it should be, etc.

The information can be given in oral, written, or electronic form and should include:
   • Profile of the trainee
   • Profile of the educational system in the sending and receiving country
   • Profile of the hosting company
   • Profile of the sending and hosting country

Information on the sending and hosting country could be obtained through self-study by
the trainee or incorporated in the general subjects at the vocational college.

An important aspect that should not be neglected when working in the international field is
the personality of the persons involved, for the trainee as well as for the organisers. First
and foremost, it is important to show tolerance to other ways of learning which exist in the
hosting country and develop a diplomatic way of acting. These characteristics are of a
higher relevance than a thorough knowledge of the relevant foreign language.

As to the amount of information given at the various stages, it needs no saying that the
initial approach to a potential hosting company must be carefully considered. At this point
in time, only relevant information of a selling character should be given. The purpose is to
get the employer hooked on the idea, thus forming the basis for further interest – and he
will then himself seek more detailed information. If too detailed information is given at the
start, the project of taking on a foreign trainee will seem too complicated.

Material and procedures
Introductory information flyers were produced for the project’s target groups. The flyers
contain brief information on why a company should consider taking on a foreign trainee,
answering frequently asked questions on eg. salary, accommodation, training, etc. and
quotations from former trainees with a transnational experience.

In order to make sure that the foreign hosting companies know their obligations when
taking on a young person, they should get some general information on the broad
framework of the stay and on differences and similarities between young persons and their
educational and cultural background as compared to the young persons in the hosting
country. General information material was produced so that the companies in each trade
could get an idea of the implications of hosting a foreign trainee.

Then, by making the information more and more specific to the relevant trade/education,
the hosting company could see the (vocational) purpose of taking on a foreign trainee, and
the training obligation in itself would not be a barrier to mobility among this target group.
The hosting company would see it as a challenge and not as an obligation - thereby
eliminating any problems of assuring the quality of the stay, mainly in vocational terms.

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In Denmark, there was a lack of this sort of material – as opposed to Germany and France
where exchanges of trainees has taken place for many years across the border of the two
countries. Due to the fact that Denmark for the time being is the only country having a
national mobility programme that gives young people in initial vocational education and
training the possibility to go on a work placement abroad as an integrated part of the
Danish training programme, more comprehensive material had to be produced in that the
Danish training requirements should be followed by the hosting company in another
country. This implies that there was a need for more specific information on the character
of the work placement than the case is for the exchanges taking place between Germany
and France where the participants are mainly young workers having just graduated.

Trade specific sheets informing on the specific trade and educational line in the sending
country were produced in order to enable the hosting company to place the trainee in the
right department, to name a mentor to act as the immediate contact person in the
department, and to define adequate tasks to be performed by the trainee according to
his/hers skills.

Very thorough information may also be given in the form of preparatory visits by planners
and the trainees to potential hosting companies. These visits are made possible through
the EU’s educational programmes, by private organisations (eg. DFJW in Germany, OFAJ
in France, and AER in Denmark), by bilateral organisations (eg. the German-Polish Office
for Youth, and the German-Czech Republic coordination organisations). Information on
preparation courses can be given by the national agencies for the educational
programmes in the respective countries.

The following material exists for the participating countries:

  • Wørking together (introductory flyer for young people in the commercial and clerical
     sector going to the UK)
  • A Danish trainee in your company (general information in English, German and
     French in the chosen trades)
  • Trade specific sheets for each educational line of the chosen trades (in English,
     German and French)

The material can be used to give the initial information, the general information and the
educational and trade specific information.

Furthermore, many trade committees have developed descriptions of the structure and
professional content of the training programmes in English, German and French, as can
be seen in the section on the training element (the so-called checklists).

  • Bilingual secretaries
  • Kindergarten
  • Hotel und gaststätten

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   •    (three introductory flyers for young people trained as bilingual secretaries,
       kindergarten pedagogues and workers in the hotel and catering sector going to

The material is more comprehensive than just an introductory flyer. It stresses the reasons
for taking a foreign trainee on a work placement and mentions the educational background
of the trainee and what the host can expect in terms of professional and personal skills
and knowledge. Furthermore, it contains information on the training obligations of the host
and the legal framework, in which the trainee should be encompassed and the possibilities
for financial support.

Optimal preparation has been achieved within the framework of DFJW and the European
Social Fund in an 8 to 12 weeks’ preparatory course for unemployed youth. As departure
abroad came closer, the motivation to learn about language and culture increased.
Language teaching in the hosting country was followed up by visits to the hosting
company. One of the participating companies has later developed a different model, where
language training alters with work placement, each taking up half of the day.

   • Acueilliez l’Allemagne dans votre institution/entreprise

When working with French educational institutions it is important to involve the superiors of
the relevant institutions as early in the process of establishing the work placement as
possible. The contacts between schools and companies often happen at superior level.

The UK
The UK is a major hosting country of trainees and young workers on foreign work
placement. No material was therefore specifically produced for British people opting for a
transnational work experience, but all material produced for the UK as target country was
tested before final production.

The legal element
A very important aspect in the process of establishing a work placement is to have the
parties involved enter into a binding agreement on the training to be provided and any
other matter related to labour legislation.

When dealing with young people who are away from home for the first time, or who have a
job for the first time, it is vital that the legal framework is set out which clears any
misunderstandings that might occur. When going to another country, there are a lot of
aspects that a young person might not deem relevant, or even consider, due to his/hers
inexperience in this field. A legal framework that takes into account the specific
characteristics in terms of labour legislation of the hosting country (hours of work,
employers liability insurance, holidays, etc), but that also commits the hosting employer to
his training obligation is crucial for quality assurance. A legal binding document secures
the rights and duties of both trainee and host. Ultimately, the legal document will form the
basis from where disputes shall be settled.

19-04-02 11.00                               14
It is, however, not enough to settle on matters such as hours of work, holidays, etc. It is
just as vital for the quality of the stay that a contact person or mentor is appointed as
overall responsible for the integration of the trainee at the work place, and this should be a
part of the legally binding agreement entered by the parties. Some trainees may have
difficulties in approaching the superior to discuss problems during the stay, and if a mentor
or contact person, who has daily contact with the trainee, is appointed, the problems would
be solved on a current basis. The contact person is also the person responsible for making
the trainee feel comfortable at the work place, and this is of course a very important aspect
securing the overall success of the stay. The agreement between the parties should also
include formal procedures for evaluation of the stay – while ongoing. This gives the trainee
the possibility to discuss the stay while in progress with the superior and the contact
person, and may in cases where the relationship between the trainee and the contact
person is not the best, help solve possible problems. The training purpose of the stay
should also be a part of the agreement, so that in the event of unfulfilment or neglect by
either party, the contract solves the matter.

Material and procedures

Standard legal contract have been prepared for trainees going to either Germany, the UK
or France in the three languages. The contract also exists in Danish.

   •   Employment contract
   •   Dienstvertrag
   •   Convention de stage de formation professionnelle initiale
   •   Ansættelseskontrakt

As a supplement to but integrated part of the contracts, the trade committees prepared
lists of tasks to be performed while abroad (the so-called checklists or forms for
preliminary and final approval of the stay, cf. the section on the training element). In this
way, it is ensured that young people in initial vocational education and training who follow
a Danish training programme and go abroad individually on a long term work placement as
a part of the training programme, are provided with training that fulfil the requirements set
out in the Danish curriculum for the programme in question.

Germany and France
The results of the project for Germany and France should be seen under one heading in
that these countries have a long record of cooperation across common border. Even
though the sending organisation and hosting company have agreed upon job content,
there needs to be a legally binding contract committing the company to provide the training
agreed upon and settle the labour legislative aspects of the stay. However, as there are
considerable barriers for mobility at the present time, these had to be defined before
specific legal contracts could be prepared, and only a model contract exists for one of the
sectors covered by the project. The material produced is therefore background material for
the future work on minimising the legal obstacles to mobility.

19-04-02 11.00                               15
   •   Praktikumsvertrag für Schülerinnen der Berufsfachschule für
   •   Mobilitätshindernisse für berufsorientierte deutsch-französische Auslandspraktika
   •   Obstacles à la mobilité pour stages pratiques transnationaux en France et

The UK
The material and procedures to define the legal framework for stays abroad all target
incoming trainees to the UK, and not outgoing ones. The material produced in the project
should therefore be found under the headings of the other participating countries.

The training element
The essence of transnational work placements is to obtain new qualifications and skills
through training. When training takes place in another country as a part of a training
programme, procedures must exist to assure a high quality of the stay. This applies both if
the trainee is abroad as an integrated part of his/hers national training programme, and if
the trainee does a placement immediately after having finished his/hers formal training
programme in the home country. In both instances, training takes place, and the host must
fulfil his obligations in this respect.

The exact training goals for the placement must be identified and communicated to the
host employer, and the host employer must testify his ability to meet these goals. There
must be methods for evaluating the training contents of the placement at regular intervals
in order to adjust the training content if the trainee or host wish so. The purpose is to avoid
misunderstandings of the skills to be achieved by the trainee during the work placement
and the way to achieve them.

When a foreign employer has decided to take on a foreign trainee, he has previously in the
process been given the information on the educational background of the trainee and on
the framework in which the trainee has previously been trained. This helps him forecast
the training to be provided by him during the work placement and thus to place the trainee
in the right department in the company. It also gives him an impression of the trainee’s
skills and qualifications and thus brings his expectations to the output of the placement in
line with realities, from the point of view of the company. The sort of information is very
important to the quality of the stay; when giving great consideration and not let anything
happen by coincidence, the best possible framework for the stay is made.

All of the parties involved in the planning of the transnational placement should be involved
in assuring that training takes place. Evidently, the planners are the ones who are initially
responsible for informing the hosting company of its obligations, and of assessing whether
the company can live up to its obligations. On a daily basis, the contact person or mentor
must bear the responsibility together with the trainee and his/hers colleagues. Procedures
and tools should exist for ensuring this, regardless of whether the placement is an
integrated part of a national training programme or a supplement to a finished national
training programme. In some instances, professional bodies and vocational colleges are in
charge of this aspect, and in some instances, a company may be responsible.

19-04-02 11.00                                16
When training takes place as an integrated part of a national training programme and
curriculum, it must live up to the national rules for the training programme although it takes
place in another country. This is vital for the trainee in that if neglected, he/she will not
possess the qualifications necessary to pass the final test for the profession, and thus
graduate. Procedures therefore exist to ensure that training takes place according to the
national rules, and the planners of the placement must then assure that the hosting
company complies with the rules.

When the placement is a supplement to a formal national training programme and the
trainee has graduated, the training that takes place during a foreign work placement still
has to be ensured. There are no restrictions as to the training to be provided by the
hosting company, but there is still a need to ensure that training takes place. It may be a
first time work experience for the trainee, and the quality of the placement must therefore
be assured. Training will always take place, and the procedures to ensure this may inspire
the hosting company to offer the trainee a serious work placement and thus avoid the
abuse of cheap labour.

Regardless of whichever of the two types of placement, a contact person or mentor should
be appointed as overall responsible for the training provided to the trainee.

Material and procedures

In Denmark where the stay abroad is an integrated part of the Danish training programme,
the hosting company must ensure that training takes place according to the Danish
training programme (on an overall basis) – if not, the Danish trainee will not pass his final
examination. The professional content of a stay abroad is therefore vital when deciding on
hosting companies and matching trainees and companies.

The trade committees, consisting of representatives from the social partners, play a
substantial role when it comes to securing the professional content of the foreign work
placement. The procedure for doing this is that the hosting company fills in a so-called
checklist. These lists have been produced for the training programmes covered by this
project and contain all disciplines and tasks to be performed during the individual training
programme. The hosting company has to fill in the lists so that the relevant trade
committee may assess whether training takes place appropriately and according to the
national rules. Another purpose of the list is that during the stay, both trainee and employer
have the possibility to check whether the training agreed upon at the beginning of the stay
actually takes place. In the case of neglect from either party, the list serves as the core
document solving the dispute.

A complete overview of the checklists developed can be found in the annex on list of
material at the back of the handbook

If the Danish employer places the trainee at a business partner, he is responsible for the
professional content during the placement.

19-04-02 11.00                                17
Germany and France
Most trainees go abroad on a work placement as young workers, ie. they have finalised
their formal national training programme and work in a foreign company to get
supplementary qualifications. No procedures have, however, so far existed to ensure the
systematic acquisition of skills although the training undertakenshould be certified.
In order to ensure the acquisition of skills, a model list was therefore elaborated to set out
the aims of the placement and to raise awareness of the fact that proper and systematic
training should take place. A template for deciding on the aim of the placement and a proof
for certification were developed to forecast training needs and possible tasks to be offered
to the trainee during the placement.

The materials developed are profiles of the trainee and the hosting company that can be
used to clarify whether expectations and demands can meet. The profiles contain personal
and organisational data of the trainee and company, and both parties may state their
wishes and demands for the professional content and skills required for the work
placement. The profiles further serve the purpose of information.

The materials are:
   • Austellung der Ziele eines Praktikums
   • Qualifikationsprofil des/der Praktikanten/in
   • Qualifikationsprofil des Betriebes

The UK
Work experience is included in the national inspection arrangements run by the Office for
Standards in Education (OFSTED). Developments for 2000/2001 include the adoption of
National Standards applicable to central providers and to schools.

“Vocational” course in higher education e.g. medical, engineering, languages are likely to
include a formal period of work experience counting towards the award of the degree. This
is most often delivered in a job placement at the end of the year two, lasting for up to one
year, the student returning to University for a final forth year, although the model does

This work experience is often (but not always) set up by the university following their own
guidelines. There are no national rules or guidelines in this sector. Where work experience
is offered, the QAA (Quality and Assessment Authority) for the sector may include
comments in their institution inspection reports.

The monitoring element
Monitoring is important because it is the measurement of whether the training element is
fulfilled by the host and the trainee, so that he/she progresses in terms of acquisition of
skills and competencies.

A systematic monitoring requires procedures whereby the competent persons and/or
authorities in both sending and hosting country can monitor the placement on an ongoing
basis and intervene in the event of irregularities. Monitoring is in this respect an important

19-04-02 11.00                                18
prerequisite of the overall evaluation of the placement, and should be seen as an
instrument, which helps and guides the sending body, the hosting company and the
trainee to adjust the content of the work placement according to the needs and wishes of
host and trainee.

The monitoring and evaluation of transnational placements is crucial for the aspect of
quality assurance. One has to learn from previous experience – from both company and
the individual trainee, otherwise future placements will not be of the highest possible
quality and standard. Tools are needed in order to ensure a systematic monitoring, and
procedures for this could with advantage be part of the legal agreement between company
and trainee.

During the placement, the monitoring of the acquisition of professional skills can take place
in different ways and by different persons, and be more or less formal. A representative
from the hosting company, for instance a colleague, can act as a mentor for the trainee
and thereby fulfil the role of monitor by observing and adjusting the professional behaviour
of the trainee on a daily basis. Fixed dates in the contract between the parties for
evaluation calls is another, more formal, way to ensure that monitoring takes place. The
two examples could supplement each other. However, one has to bear in mind that it is a
prerequisite for adjusting the professional content of the placement, regular contact
between the parties involved in the work placement is required. This mostly applies when
a sending organisation is involved and when the stay is an integrated part of a national
curriculum. Personal relations and trust are often important elements in the monitoring
process on top of the more formal agreement, and stability in terms of presence of the
contact persons in the sending and hosting body is therefore a vital part in order to ensure
an optimal monitoring of transnational work placements.

The placement itself requires monitoring, but the process of planning transnational
placements should also be evaluated for the benefit of future placement participants.
Therefore, planning and sending organisations and vocational colleges need to be aware
of the importance of evaluating the stay, both in terms of the hosting company and in
terms of the trainee. It is very important to quality assurance that all comments are taken
seriously and dealt with, and for the individual participant having just returned from a
placement in another country, the possibility to share experiences with other people make
up an important part of the overall successful outcome of the stay (a sort of debriefing).
Many young people experience difficulties upon return to the home country – they have
developed personally and experienced a lot, and at home everything has stood still. By
providing them with a tool to make status of their stay, they are better off in coping with
their home surroundings. For the hosting company, sharing experiences and changing the
negative aspects of the stay may be a determining factor when deciding whether to take
on yet another trainee.

The instruments for monitoring and evaluation on-site can be:
   • A logbook for the trainee, where evaluation of achievements is written down
   • A logbook for the host
   • Oral evaluations and interviews
   • Plans for visits with evaluating purposes

19-04-02 11.00                               19
Besides the on-site monitoring, other means can be used:
   • Long-distance monitoring can be done by representatives from the sending body
      phone, e-mail and multimedia and written media
   • Monitoring can also be done in the working and training environment by either
      representatives from the sending body or representatives from the hosting body.

Material and procedures

Questionnaires for evaluation to the target groups were developed, and the result of the
test round led to summing up papers which could to be used as background material by
sending organisations and planners of placements abroad. Material thereby exists for the
further work in assuring the quality of work placements abroad and thus increasing the
possibilities for trainees to get a transnational work experience and for companies to get a
transnational flavour in their company.

All trainees have a logbook where details regarding training programme and achievement
of skills are recorded. The book forms the basis for evaluation both during and after end of
the placement. Besides the logbook, some sending bodies require a written evaluation
from the trainee of the placement. Some sending bodies monitor the placement by visiting
the trainees and keeping a close contact to the hosting company during the stay.

A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the work placement undertaken with focus on
the individual trainee. Quantitative and qualitative data on persons, trades, length of stay
etc. is thus collated. The checklists mentioned under the training element are used for the
evaluation and monitoring of the professional skills acquired during the stay.

   •   Spørgeskema om PIU-ophold

Another measure to quality assure transnational work placements is that when the trainees
receive theoretical instruction at the college after end of the work placement, the
vocational college assesses whether the trainee has achieved the skills required
compared to the requirements of the training programme. At the end of the training
programme, the trainee has to pass the final test (the journeyman’s certificate) at the
Danish vocational college, and this is the final quality assurance of the entire training
programme, including periods of transnational work placements.

The project developed a series of material for monitoring and evaluation of foreign work
placements (questionnaires). Both quantitative and qualitative data from the trainee and
host are thus gathered.

   •   Praktikumsauswertung vom Praktikumsbetrieb auszufüllen
   •   Praktikumsauswertung von dem/der Praktikanten/in auszufüllen
   •   Praktikanten aus anderen Staaten in Ihrem Unternehmen
   •   Fragebogen: Fragenkomplexe an die ehemaligen Praktikanten
   •   Ausländische Praktikanten in deutschen Unternehmen und Betrieben

19-04-02 11.00                               20
The evaluation of the hosting companies is in some instances also done by an oral
interview. The purpose of this is to get statements that affect the qualitative experience of
the work placement because the person interviewed by talking develops a new
understanding and perception of the experience. Written questionnaires are sent to the
trainees as evaluation of the experience.

The monitoring and evaluation elements are in both bilateral and EU-funded mobility
programmes secured by a contractual obligation by the relevant institutions where there is
an obligation to report back quantitative and qualitative data, such as the number and type
of trainees going abroad, and the qualitative output of the foreign work placement.

The materials developed for this project includes among others a written questionnaire for
trainees which ensures a systematic learning and follow up on placements undertaken.
The questionnaire enables the sending body to improve procedures and measures related
to foreign work placements.

   •    Questionnaire sur votre stage

The evaluation procedures are an integrated part of the contractual obligation in the
financial programmes on mobility activities. The programmes require statistical and
financial data, progress of activities, content, etc.

The UK
Due to the UK being a net hosting country of foreign trainees, a survey was undertaken as
to the outcome for the hosting companies of having had a foreign trainee. A written
questionnaire was developed which formed the basis of an evaluation of the experiences
of a number of hosting companies.

    •   Questionnaire to UK hosting companies
    •   Survey on questionnaire to UK hosting companies

In terms of monitoring the acquisition of skills, the system of Modern Apprenticeships and
National Traineeships could be used for foreign trainees. The system requires quality
standards for designing training programmes, and therefore have to contain procedures for
induction, review, a written description of learning outcomes, etc. All programmes are
assessed against National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs), a competence based
accreditation system.

For British trainees going abroad, all transnational placements would be on a voluntary
basis. Improvements in competence could be measured on return to the UK through the
NVQ system.

19-04-02 11.00                                21
The certification element
Upon completion of the placement, the trainee must be able to prove that he has
undergone a transnational learning experience in the context of a vocational training
programme. The certification element is here viewed as a practical issue that hangs
intrinsically together with the four other elements; in that any certification must base itself
on a set of clearly defined set of quality criteria in order to be of any real use, e.g. in a job-
search situation. The certification is in most cases the prerequisite and objective of a
foreign work placement.

The recognition of placements can be done by a body or organisation in the hosting
country, and there is no doubt that formal recognition of skills achieved is crucial for the
individual trainee.

The Europass, the European certification document, serves as a transnational certification
of skills achieved in another Member State than one’s own, and thus creates transparency
of qualifications across borders. The Europass enables the trainees to have their
transnational work placement certified and improves their worth at the European labour

The Europass has proven to be a very important and useful instrument in the four
countries involved in this project, and is considered as an important supplement to the
existing national certification documents, for instance the above mentioned checklists
developed by the Danish partner. However, the Europass is not yet fully implemented in
the Member States, and a uniform practice is therefore awaited.

The main document for certification is the checklist produced for each trade and training
programme covered by this project. Please refer to the list under the section on the
training element.

The project developed a certification document for the trainee which states the tasks to be
fulfilled during the work placement. This enables the trainee to prove his or hers
qualifications to other employers and hereby achieve an improved status at the labour

   •   Praktikumsnachweis

The system in France is rather comprehensive, and no new documents were developed in
this project. In brief, two predominant national systems of certification of foreign work
placements exist:
A: During vocational education
B: As supplementary qualifications

19-04-02 11.00                                  22
A: During the vocational education
The level of integration and the recognition of foreign work placements relate to the system
of education, i.e. to which degree the value of foreign work placements are seen and the
recognition hereof.

The recognition of qualifications could be:
   • Certification through a diploma issued by the relevant ministry or an educational
      institution. Only valid for pupils, trainees, young persons opting for additional
      qualifications and trainees on vocational colleges.
   • Certification through a body recognised by the trades.

B: As supplementary qualifications
Through transnational work placements, the trainees get the opportunity to obtain
additional qualifications that will improve their chances at the labour market.

The certification takes place by the hosting company or sending educational institution. It
can take various forms:
   • Language certificate – work placement certificate
   • Evaluation of professional level
   • Certification of vocational training
   • Certification of the skills and competences achieved
   • Recognition of skills
   • Transnational recognition of achieved skills
   • Recognised diploma

The certification can be formalised by a diploma (Education Nationale) from the Ministry of
Education that promotes a strong integration of work placements in the national curricula.
However, the recognition issue is strongly connected to the organisation of the additional
vocational training.

Foreign trainees on work placement in a UK company can be enrolled in the NVQ system,
which assess the qualifications achieved by the trainee on a continuous basis during the
work placement.

19-04-02 11.00                               23
Appendix I

List of adresses of the organisations involved in the project:

Fiolstræde 44
DK-1171 Copenhagen K
Tel. +45 3395 7000
Fax +45 3395 7001

Deutsch-Französisches Jugendwerk
Molkenmarkt 1-3
D-10179 Berlin
Tel. +49 30 288 7570
Fax +49 30 288 75788

Office Franco-Allemand pour la Jeunesse
51, rue de l'Amiral-Mouchez
F-75013 Paris
Tel. +33 1 4078 1818
Fax +33 1 4078 1888

Tyneside TEC
Moongate House
5th Avenue Business Park
Team Valley
Tyne & Wear
UK – NE110 HF
Tel. +44 191 491 6000
Fax +44 191 491 6159

19-04-02 11.00                                24
Appendix II: List of material
Applicability          Name of           Elements                               Description
of product             training          of quality
in the             product/result        assuranc
process of          / publication        e covered
establishing                             by the
a foreign                                product
                                                          Type of       Type of      Lang       Pages      Where
                                                         product 4      material     uage(      and/or        to
                                                                                      s) 6      duratio    require
                                                                                                  n7       produc
Stage I:            ”Wørking             informatio      Others :      Printed:      EN,       4 A5        Cirius/
                   together”             n               introduct     pamphle       DE,       pages       PIU-
Before                                                   ory           t             FR                    Centre
departure                                                material
                   ”Ein Stück                                                                              DFJW/
                   Frankreich in                                                                           OFAJ
                   dans votre
                   “Auslandsprakti                                                                         DFJW/
                   ka im Rahmen                                                                            OFAJ
                   der Ausbildung
                   Introductory                                                                            DFJW/
                   flyer to the                                                                            OFAJ
                   hotel trade

  Cf. “III.2.1 Product type”.
  Cf. “III.2.3. Type of Material and Electronic/computer materials (details)”.
  Please use the following codes: DA (Danish), DE (German), EL (Greek), EN (English), ES (Spanish), FR (French),
  IT (Italian), NL (Dutch), PT (Portuguese), FI (Finnish) and SV (Swedish).
  Approximate duration of training in hours/number of pages of training materials.

19-04-02 11.00                                         25
                 “A Danish          informatio     Others :    Printed    EN   8       Cirius/
                 trainee in your    n, training    informati   and        DE   pages   PIU-
                 company? –                        on          elecronic FR            Centre
                 work                              brochure    material
                 placement in                                  (internet)
                 the UK as a
                 part of Danish
                 education and
                 training - the
                 and clerical

                  “Ein Dänischer
                 in Ihrem
                 Betrieb -
                 Praktikum in
                 als Teil der
                 ng –
                 zum Kaufmann

                 „Un stagiaire
                 Danois dans
                 entreprise? –
                 Le stage
                 pratique, partie
                 intégrante de la
                 danoise – les
                 services de
                 commerce et
                 de bureau”

19-04-02 11.00                                    26
                 “A Danish              EN
                 trainee in your        DE
                 company? –
                 placement in
                 the UK as a
                 part of Danish
                 education and
                 training - the
                 metal industry”

                 « Ein
                 in Ihrem
                 Praktikum in
                 als Teil der

19-04-02 11.00                     27
                  “A Danish              EN
                 trainee in your         DE
                 company? –              FR
                 placement in
                 the UK as a
                 part of Danish
                 education and
                 training - the
                 hotel and

                 « Ein
                 in Ihrem
                 Praktikum in
                 als Teil der
                 ng. Hotel- und
                 werbe »

                 « Un apprenti
                 Danois dans
                 entreprise. Le
                 stage pratique,
                 intégrante de la
                 hôtelière et de
                 restauration »

19-04-02 11.00                      28
                 Commercial       informatio     Others :    Printed a EN    2
                 and clerical     n, training    trade       nd         DE   pages
                 work :                          specific    electroni FR
                 “The wholesale                  informati   c
                 trade”                          on          material
                 “The retail                     sheets      (internet)
                 trade”                          (for
                 “The clerical                   forecasti
                 trade”                          ng
                 “Grosshandel”                   needs)

                 „Les services
                 “Les services
                 de bureau”
                 “Les services
                 de gros”

19-04-02 11.00                                  29
                 Metal industry           DE
                 ”The industrial
                 wood and
                 plastics’ trade”
                 “The digital
                 media trade”
                 machinery and
                 tools’ trade”
                 and steel
                 “The precious
                 and other
                 metals’ trade”
                 “The electricity,
                 control and
                 “The transport

                 Maschinen und
                 ung und
                 Holz und
                 Neue Medien“
                 Edel- und

19-04-02 11.00                       30
                 Hotel and                             DE
                 restaurant                            FR

                 „Fachkraft im

                 “Le chef de
                 L’employé de
                 cafétéria et de
                 ”Le serveur”

                 Qualifikationspr    Methodo Printed   DE   3   DFJW
                 ofil des/der        logy for
                 Praktikanten/in     forecasti
                                     needs of
                 Qualifikationspr    Methodo           DE   3   DFJW
                 ofil des            logy for
                 Betriebes           forecasti
                                     needs in

19-04-02 11.00                      31
               Commercial           informatio      Training      Printed   EN   4-6     Cirius/
               and       clerical   n, legal,       program                 DE   pages   PIU-
               sector:              training,       mes and                 FR   depend Centre
               “Furnishing          certificatio    certificati                  ing on
               fabrics and          n               on tools                     educati
               fitting”,                                                         onal
               “Window-                                                          line
               “Retail sales
               “Clerical worker
               specialising in
               “Clerical worker
               specialising in
               and IT”, “The
               trade”, “Clerical
               specialising in
               “Clerical worker
               specialising as
               travel agent”,
               “Clerical worker
               specialising in
               forwarding and

19-04-02 11.00 „Bürokaufmann                       32
              Metal industry :        EN
               « Industrietech
               niker »
               « Kraftfahrzeug
               elektriker », »
               ng »,
               « Zweiradmech
               aniker »,
               « Maschinenba
               u- und
               nmechaniker »,
               « Fluggerätme
               chaniker »,
               « Karosserie-
               « Kraftfahrzeug
               mechaniker »,
               « Hufbeschlags
               chmiede »,« Fo
               ung » ,
               « Modellbauer
               « Schuffbautec
               hnik »,
               « Schiffbauer »
               , « Schlosser,
               Schwiesser »,
               « Werkzeugma
               cher »,
               « Goldschmied
               « Segelmacher
               « Industrietech
               », « Boots- und
               Schiffbauer »,
               « Kommunikati
19-04-02 11.00 tionssystemele    33
               ktroniker »,
               « Digitale
               Medien »,
                   « Data
                 supporter »,
                 « Digital
                 media »,
                 « Electronics
                 technicians »,
                 « Precision
                 mechanics –
                 armourer »,
                 « Sail makers »
                 Hotel and                                  EN
                 restaurant                                 DE
                 sector:                                    FR

                 „Fachkraft im

                 “Le chef de
                 L’employé de
                 cafétéria et de
                 ”Le serveur“
                 Ausstellung der                            DE   1   DFJW
                 Ziele eines
                 Praktikumsnac      certificati   Printed   DE   2   DFJW
                 hweis              on tool

19-04-02 11.00                     34
                 Legal contracts informatio        Others : Printed      EN   2       Cirius/
                 « Employment n, legal,            standard              DE   pages   PIU-
                 contract »      monitoring        legal                 FR           Centre
                 « Dienstvertrag                   contracts             DA
                 « Convention
                 de stage de
                  initiale»                                                           DFJW
                 « Ansættelsesk
                 ontrakt «
                 « Praktikumsve
                 rtrag für
                 le für
                 nsekretariat »

                 „Mobilitätshind    informatio     Others:     Printed   DE   19      DFJW
                 ernisse für        n, training    Backgro               FR
                 berufsorientiert                  und
                 e deutsch-                        paper to
                 französische                      define
                 Auslandsprakti                    barriers
                 ka“                               for                                OFAJ
                 „Obstacles à la                   in
                 mobilité pour                     particula
                 stages                            r the
                 pratiques                         legal
                 transnationaux                    ones
                 en France et
                 Praktikumsaus informatio          evaluatio Printed     DE   5       DFJW
                 wertung vom     n, training       n tool
                 eb auszufüllen
                 Praktikumsaus                     evaluatio Printed     DE   4
                 wertung von                       n tool

19-04-02 11.00                                    35
                 “Praktikanten                     Evaluati   Printed   DE   2
                 aus anderen                       on tool
                 Staaten in
                 “Questionnaire     informatio     Evaluati   Printed   FR   8    OFAJ
Stage II         sur votre          n, training    on tool              DE
During the       stage”                                                           DFJW
placement        “Fragebogen:
                 e an die
                 « Ausländische     informatio     Resourc    Printed   DE   8    DFJW
Stage III        Praktikanten in    n, training    e
After the        deutschen                         databas
placement        Unternehmen                       e/ paper
                 Betrieben »
                 « Wørking                         Resourc Printed      EN   2    Tynesi
                 together –                        e                              de
                 evaluation                        databas                        TEC/Ci
                 survey »                          e/ paper                       rius/
                                                   and                            PIU-
                                                   evaluatio                      Centre
                                                   n tool
                 Questionnaire                     Evaluati Printed     DA   2    Cirius/
                 to Danish                         on tool                        PIU_C
                 trainees after                                                   entre
                 end of
                 «Critères de       informatio     Resourc    Printed   FR   17   OFAJ
                 qualité pour la    n, legal       e                    DE
                 mise en place                     databas
                 d’un parcours                     e/ paper
                 de mobilité
                 transnationale                                                   DFJW
                 « Qualitätskrite
                 rien für
                 Praktika von
                 n in Europa »

19-04-02 11.00                                    36
                 « Qualitätsverb    informatio      Others :      Printed   DE    15      DFJW
                 esserung von       n               article
                 ka »
                 « Kan vi           informatio                              DA    2       Cirius/
                 kvalitetssikre i   n                                                     PIU-
                 udlandet ? »                                                             Centre
                 Handbook in        informatio      Training      Printed    EN   100     Cirius/
                 quality            n, legal,       program       and             pages   PIU-
                 assurance and      training,       mes,          electroni               Centre
                 certification of   monitoring      evaluatio     c
                 transnational      ,               n tools,      material
                 work               certificatio    certificati   (internet)
                 placements         n               on tools
                 L’assurance-                       informati
                 qualité des                        on and
                 placements                         resource
                 transnationaux.                    databas
                 Guide des                          e/ paper,
                 meilleures                         methodo
                 pratiques                          logies for
                 „Die                               forecasti
                 Qualitätssicher                    ng and
                 ung von                            analysin
                 Auslandsprakti                     g
                 ka – handbuch”                     training

19-04-02 11.00                                     37

This is a list of the different stages of the process of establishing a foreign work placement.

The list states where in the process of establishing foreign work placements the activities
are appropriate to take place, which criteria should be fulfilled and finally where the
material and products can be found in relation to this project which can support the
activities. Below each product is mentioned where it can be obtained. Addresses etc. can
be found in the appendix

Materials and products are developed to a certain target group, i.e. written in one of the
four languages, English, German, French or Danish and having a specific professional
content. The language is reflected in the title and the professional content. The material
and products are developed as an example of a model after which material in any
language and aimed at any trade can be produced.

This list is a guide to the process of establishing a foreign work placement and not
comprehensive in describing the full range of activities which can be undertaken.
Furthermore some of the activities mentioned in this list are more or less directly

Besides the mentioned materials, each of the organisations has developed a range of
products and services related to several of the elements of the process mentioned below
outside the scope of this project. For further information, please contact the organisations.

Each of the three stages have certain requirements or key elements linked to them, which
are especially important to pursue in order to the assurance of the quality of transnational
work placements.

Stage I, Before departure:
This part of the process contains the establishment of the foreign work placement,
information, motivation, selection and preparation of the trainees and companies. The key
requirement linked to this part of the process is information to trainees and hosts on
foreign work placements, i.e. what is expected from the sender and trainee/young worker
regarding the length of the work placement, professional level of trainee, training
requirements, etc. Information is essential in order to serve several purposes and can be
split up into at least two stages; initial information and more comprehensive information.
Regarding the host, the information must be gradually more specific and comprehensive,
in order first to awake the interest of the host and gradually to inform on the obligations of
the host and training requirements.

Activities                    Criteria/indicators               Type of requirement
Make initial contacts between Arise the interest of the host    “Wørking together” (Cirius)
trainees and host             to take a foreign trainee         “Accueillez l’Allemagne dans
                                                                votre institution” (OFAJ)

Inform the host of general      Inform on the educational       For the clerical and
conditions of hosting a         background of the trainee,      commercial trade, the hotel

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foreign young person             legal conditions and social   and restaurant trade and the
                                 obligations                   metal industry
                                                               ”A Danish Trainee in your
                                                               Company/Ein Dänischer
                                                               Auszubildender in Ihrem
                                                               Betrieb/ Un Apprenti Danois
                                                               dans votre entreprise”
Inform on the training needs     Inform on training needs      Several trade specific
of the trainee by giving trade                                 information sheets:
specific information and                                       For the clerical and
using methodologies for                                        commercial trade, the hotel
forecasting training needs of                                  and restaurant trade and the
trainee                                                        metal industry in English,
                                                               German and French
                                                               Methodology for forecasting
                                                               training needs:
                                                               „Qualifikationsprofil des/der
                                                               Praktikanten/in“ and
                                                               „Qualifikationsprofil des
                                                                „Praktikumsauswertung vom
                                                               „Praktikumsauswertung von
                                                               dem/der Praktikanten/in
                                                               auszufüllen“ ,“Praktikanten
                                                               aus anderen Staaten in
                                                               Ihrem Unternehmen”
Determining for training     Formalise training                Several trade specific
elements when the trainee is requirements                      checklists for the clerical and
abroad as an integrated part                                   commercial trade, the hotel
of his national training                                       and restaurant trade and the
programme                                                      metal industry in English,
                                                               German and French
                                                               „Ausstellung der Ziele eines
                                                               Praktikums“ and
Formalise agreement through Enter into a legally binding       Standard legal contracts:
standard legal contracts and document                          “Employment contract”,
define legal barriers for                                      “Convention de Stage”,
mobility                                                       “Dienstvertrag”,

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                                                                  „Praktikumsvertrag für
                                                                  Schülerinnen der
                                                                  Berufsfachschule für
                                                                  Background papers:
                                                                  “Mobilitätshindernisse für
                                                                  berufsorientierte deutsch-
                                                                  and „Obstacles à la mobilité
                                                                  pour stages pratiques
                                                                  transnationaux en France et

Stage II, during the placement:
The next stage in the process is the work placement itself. It is essential to ensure that the
professional and personal requirements of the trainee and host are being met with and if
necessary, being adjusted to reality. Therefore a central requirement in the process is the
training requirement, i.e. that the national requirements are met with during the work
placement abroad. The framework has been set via the legal contracts and similar
documents, and monitoring the trainee and host and evaluating the work placement on an
ongoing basis now become key elements to assure that appropriate training takes place.
Monitoring and evaluation can be done in oral or written. Below are some examples of
tools for evaluation.

Activities                      Criteria/indicators               Type of requirement
Undertake evaluation            Ensure satisfying living- and     Evaluation tools:
                                work conditions for the           „Fragenkomplexe an die
                                trainee, i.e. professional and    ehemaligen Praktikanten”
                                social integration of the         (DFJW)
                                trainee, fulfilment of training   “Questionnaire sur votre
                                and professional                  stage”
                                requirements/elements.            (OFAJ)
                                Ensure requirements of host
                                are being met with.

Stage III, after the placement:
After the placement has taken place, evaluation again becomes essential in assuring the
quality of future work placements. Therefore, the result from the above mentioned
evaluation tools should be collected and made useful. Certification of the skills achieved
are essential in this part of the process. Documentation for this purpose has been made in
this project and exists in other ways for instance via the Europass from the EU

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Activities                   Criteria/indicators            Type of requirement
Undertake final evaluation   Make results useful for future ”Questionnaire to Danish
                             activities                     trainees after end of
                                                            placement abroad”
                                                            “Wørking together” – survey
                                                            (Tyneside TEC)
                                                            As background material the
                                                            two papers on criteria for
                                                            quality assurance exist:
                                                            Critères de qualité pour la
                                                            mise en place d’un parcours
                                                            de mobilité transnationale »
                                                             „Qualitätskriterien für
                                                            transnationale Praktika von
                                                            Auszubildenden in Europa“

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