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#.    AMORPHA         Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 713.                  1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5,

319.     1754        *     False indigo [Greek a-, without, and morphos,

shape, misshapen, as to the simplified, non-papilionaceous

flowers]

                                                                       Shannon C. K. Straub

                                                                                  James L. Reveal

                                                                                  Alan S. Weakley


Shrubs usually erect, sometimes spreading, rarely suffrutescent

or herbaceous perennials, occasionally rhizomatous, unarmed,

pungently fragrant when bruised.                     Stems glabrous or variously

hairy, occasionally becoming glabrescent, often gland-dotted.

Leaves alternate, deciduous, odd pinnate; stipules not caducous,

setaceous to linear; petiolules present; stipels present;

leaflets 7--63, opposite or subopposite, elliptic or oblong to

ovate or nearly orbicular, entire or crenulate, (gland-dotted-

eglandular, veins usually obscure abaxially, midvein with a

terminal slender or swollen mucro.                      Inflorescences terminal,

solitary and racemose or racemes in clusters, rarely compoundly

divided and seemingly paniculate; bracts caducous, entire or

crenulate, often gland-dotted; bractlets caducous, entire;

pedicels spreading to ascending, sometimes obscured, articulate

to hypanthium.            Flowers non-papilionaceous, reduced to a single
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banner petal enveloping androecium and gynoecium; calyx

persistent, greenish to reddish or purplish, occasionally drying

blackish, slightly zygomorphic, cylindric to funnelform,

obscurely to distinctly 5-lobed, not accrescent; banner reddish,

purplish, bluish, or whitish, clawed, entire or erose, glabrous;

stamens 10, monodelphous basally at least at early anthesis

otherwise free, exserted, anthers small, dorsifixed, dehiscing

longitudinally; pistil sessile or nearly so, ovoid, slightly

compressed; styles slender, often exserted; stigma terminal,

capitate; ovules 2.               Fruits loments often persistent through the

following growing season, sessile or short stipitate, slightly

compressed and asymmetrical, oblong to obovoid or claviform,

straight or more often slightly curved to distinctly bent

(falcate or “D-shaped”), gland-dotted (-eglandular), dispersed

with the calyx.            Seeds 1(--2), ovoid to oblong, laterally

compressed.          x = 10.

        Species 16 (15 in the flora): North America, nw Mexico.

        Amorpha apiculata Wiggins is endemic to Baja California,

Mexico.

        Amorpha is notable among papilionoid legumes for having a

non-papilionaceous corolla consisting solely of a petaloid

banner petal, although deviation from the normal papilionoid

floral form is common throughout Amorpheae.                            Even though the
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recognition of the genus has never been in question due to its

easily distinguished floral characters, delimitation of species

within the genus has long caused consternation among

taxonomists.          The range and intergradation of morphological

variation have resulted in a prodigious list of recognized

species, varieties, and forms, most often associated with the A.

fruticosa complex.              Early taxonomic treatments failed to result

in a satisfactory circumscription of the genus (e.g. C. K.

Schneider 1907; P. A. Rydberg 1919; E. J. Palmer 1931), but the

insightful and thorough work of R. L. Wilbur (1975), closely

followed by D. Isely (1998) and here, was a marked improvement.

        The “amorphoid” clade of Amorpheae, to which Amorpha

belongs, has been strongly supported as monophyletic in

molecular analyses (M. McMahon and L. Hufford 2004), although

most relationships among genera in the clade remain unclear.

Analyses of chloroplast, ribosomal DNA, and low-copy nuclear

gene sequence data indicated that Amorpha may not be

monophyletic because either, Parryella filifolia Torrey & A.

Gray or Errazurizia rotundata (Wooton) Barneby, or both, are

nested within it (McMahon and Hufford 2004, 2005; McMahon 2005).

Some of these analyses have indicated that P. filifolia and E.

rotundata are sister species (combined analyses of chloroplast

trnK, matK, ITS/5.8S rDNA, nuclear CNGC4), which may or may not
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be nested in Amorpha, whereas other analyses indicated that E.

rotundata is nested among Amorpha species while P. filifolia may

or may not be (trnK, matK analyzed alone, CNGC4 analyzed alone).

These conflicting outcomes leave unclear the relationship of

these two species to each other and to Amorpha.                                 Preliminary

analyses of additional nuclear gene data sets have also

indicated that E. rotundata and P. filifolia are nested in

Amorpha, but have not clarified whether or not they are sister

species (S. C. K. Straub, unpublished data).                               Morphological

evidence also supports the close association of P. filifolia, E.

rotundata (originally described as P. rotundata Wooton) and

Amorpha.        Parryella filifolia lacks a corolla and the corolla of

E. rotundata is either absent or consists of only a single

petal, which suggests a closer association in terms of floral

evolution to Amorpha than to the other 5-petaled genera of

Amorpheae, an observation supported by developmental studies (M.

McMahon and L. Hufford 2005).                       W. F. Mahler (1965) hypothesized

a close relationship of Amorpha, P. filifolia, and E. rotundata

based on shared pollen characteristics (colporate, A type os,

operculum present).

        The phylogenetic relationships among Amorpha species remain

unclear due to lack of molecular variation in non-coding

chloroplast, nuclear rDNA spacer regions and nuclear gene intron
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sequence data.            Preliminary results from phylogenetic analyses

including DNA sequence data from most species of the genus

indicate that A. californica is the earliest diverging species

in the genus and that A. georgiana and A. nana are closely

related; however, the relationships among the other species of

the genus are thus far unresolved (S. C. K. Straub, unpublished

data).       The lack of molecular variation may be indicative of a

rapid radiation in the genus or of continued gene flow and

partial genetic homogenization through hybridization and

introgression, possibly mediated by widespread species.                               Ongoing

genetic work has suggested that polyploidy is more common in

Amorpha than previously recognized.                       Amorpha fruticosa has long

been known to be a tetraploid, and new information from nuclear

gene DNA sequences and microsatellites now indicates that A.

confusa, A. crenulata, and A. roemeriana may also be

tetraploids, although this is yet to be confirmed by chromosome

counts (Straub et al. 2009; Straub, unpublished data).                              Clearly

further work is needed to resolve species relationships within

Amorpha, to update species concepts within the genus, and to

determine whether or not Amorpha is monophyletic as

circumscribed or if P. filifolia and E. rotundata should be

added to Amorpha.
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        Amorpha has been a group of interest for many years in the

search for biologically active compounds.                           In the area of

medicinal biochemistry, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory

compounds have been isolated from A. fruticosa (e.g. L. Li et

al. 1993; J. Y. Cho et al. 2000).                      Antimicrobial agents have

been identified in both A. fruticosa and A. nana (L. A. Mitscher

et al. 1981, 1985).               This species has also been investigated for

its insecticidal and insect repellant properties (e.g. R. C.

Roark 1947).          The glands on the fruits of this species have been

show to contain compounds that poison numerous types of insects

through ingestion or contact (e.g. chinch bug, cotton aphid, pea

aphid, spotted cucumber beetle, mosquito larvae) and also insect

repellant properties (e.g. striped cucumber beetle, flour

beetles, dog fleas, and houseflies; fide C. H. Brett 1946,

1946b).

        Native Americans of the Great Plains employed several of

the more common Amorpha species for a variety of uses.                              Amorpha

fruticosa was used for bedding, horse feed, and arrow shafts,

and stems were arranged on the ground to create a clean place to

put butchered meat (M. R. Gilmore 1919; P. A. Vestal and R. E.

Schultes 1939; D. J. Rogers 1980).                      Amorpha canescens was used

to treat stomach pain, intestinal worms, eczema, neuralgia, and

rheumatism, and powdered leaves were applied to wounds (W. J.
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Hoffman 1891; Gilmore 1913, 1919; H. H. Smith 1928).                                The leaves

were also mixed with buffalo fat and smoked or used to make tea

(Gilmore 1919).            The dried leaves of A. nana were used to treat

catarrh (F. H. Elmore 1944).

        A few Amorpha species are found regularly in cultivation,

the most common being A. fruticosa and A. canescens, while A.

nana, A. californica, and A. herbacea are less commonly part of

the horticultural trade.                  Amorpha fruticosa has also been used

in the United States and abroad for soil stabilization, erosion

control, and in windbreaks, and has been investigated as a

potential forage and biomass production crop (e.g. S. Karrenberg

et al. 2003; L. R. DeHaan et al. 2006; K. Török et al. 2006).

Cultivation of A. fruticosa has led to its escape and

naturalization in many parts of Europe and Asia.

SELECTED REFERENCES               Isely, D.          1998.      Amorpha.        Leguminosae

U.S.: 132--144.              McMahon, M. M.            2005.       Phylogenetic

relationships and floral evolution in the papilionoid legume

clade Amorpheae.             Brittonia 57: 397--411.                    Palmer, E. J.       1931.

Conspectus of the genus Amorpha.                       J. Arnold Arbor. 12: 157--197.

Rydberg, P. A.            1919.      Amorpha.         N. Amer. Fl. 24(1): 26--34.

Schneider, C. K.             1907.      Conspectus Generis Amorphae.                  Bot. Gaz.

43: 297--307.             Wilbur, R. L.             1964.     A revision of the dwarf

species of Amorpha (Leguminosae).                        J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc.
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80: 51--65.           Wilbur, R. L.            1975.    A revision of the North

American genus Amorpha (Leguminosae-Psoraleae).                               Rhodora 77:

337--409.


1.    Petioles and rachises of leaves beset with

      spine-like glands; Arizona and California

        ................................... 1.                          Amorpha californica

1.    Petioles and rachises of leaves without spine-

      like glands; widespread in the United States and

      southernmost Canada.

      2.     Plants subshrubs, mostly 0.3--1(--3) m;

             petioles 0.05--1.5(--2) cm; leaflets

             slightly to conspicuously revolute (see also

             A. canescens of c United States and s-c

             Canada).

             3.     Plants of the middle United States and

                    s-c Canada.

                    4.     Plants strigulose to glabrate,

                           usually densely gland-dotted;

                           inflorescences unbranched ..... 3.                     Amorpha nana

                    4.     Plants canescent, becoming

                           glabrate, rarely glabrous, sparsely

                           gland-dotted or eglandular;
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                           inflorescences of (1--)5--20(--30+)

                           branches ................. 7.                   Amorpha canescens

             3.     Plants of the Atlantic coastal states.

                    5.     Leaflet mucro slender; plants

                           usually glabrous or sparsely

                           pubescent; plants not of Florida.

                           6.     Leaflets (0.3--)0.6--1(--1.5) x

                                  (0.2--)0.3--0.5(--0.8) cm;

                                  banner reddish purple; petiole

                                  0.1--0.3(--0.5) cm;

                                  inflorescences 1(--4), (0.2--

                                  )0.3--0.5(--0.6) dm; flowering

                                  April--May ........... 2.                Amorpha georgiana

                           6.     Leaflets (1--)1.5--2.5(--3.5) x

                                  (0.7--)0.9--1.5(--1.8) cm;

                                  banner bright blue; petiole

                                  (0.6--)0.8--1.5(--2) cm;

                                  inflorescences (1--)3--5(--8),

                                  1--2(--4.5) dm; flowering late

                                  May--July .............. 4.                 Amorpha confusa

                    5.     Leaflet mucro swollen; plants

                           densely puberulent to pubescent, or

                           if glabrous then plants of Florida.
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                           7.     Leaflet blade margin entire

                                  ...................... 5.                 Amorpha herbacea

                           7.     Leaflet blade margin crenulate

                                  ..................... 6.                 Amorpha crenulata

      2.     Plants shrubs, mostly 1--3(--4) m; petioles

             1--3(--6) cm; leaflets usually not revolute.

             8.     Calyx lobes as long as or longer than

                    calyx tube ................. 10.                     Amorpha schwerinii

             8.     Calyx lobes as long as or distinctly

                    shorter than calyx tube.

                    9.     Leaflet veins conspicuous and

                           distinctly raised abaxially;

                           inflorescence spikes compoundly

                           divided and seemingly paniculate;

                           petioles (2--)3--6(--9) cm

                           ........................ 9.                   Amorpha paniculata

                    9.     Leaflet veins obscure, not raised

                           abaxially; inflorescences spikes

                           racemose; petioles usually less

                           than 2.5 cm.

                           {{shifted 10. to left margin.CH}}

      10. Leaflet midvein terminated by a slightly

             swollen mucro; Texas ............ 8.                        Amorpha roemeriana
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      10. Leaflet midvein slender, not swollen, or if

             so then plants not of Texas.

             11.Calyx lobes obscure, (0--)0.2--0.6(--0.8)

                    mm ............................. 11.                          Amorpha glabra

             11. Calyx lobes obvious, usually more than

                    0.8 mm.

                    12. Foliage and calyx darkening with

                           age, drying blackish; leaflets

                           distinctly shiny adaxially

                           ........................... 14.                        Amorpha nitens

                    12. Foliage and calyx not darkening

                           with age or drying blackish;

                           leaflets not shiny adaxially.

                           13. Leaflets 9--23(--31), rarely

                                  emarginate apically, midvein

                                  terminated by a slender mucro

                                  0.5--1.5 mm; common

                                  .................... 15.                 Amorpha fruticosa

                           13. Leaflets (7--)9--19, commonly

                                  emarginate apically, midvein

                                  terminated by a swollen mucro

                                  0.1--0.6 mm; rare.
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                                  14. Banner bright blue to deep

                                        violet blue; leaflets

                                        mostly 13--19, mostly less

                                        than 1 cm wide, elliptic to

                                        narrowly oblong; se

                                        Oklahoma........ 12.               Amorpha laevigata

                                  14. Banner purple; leaflets

                                        mostly 9--13, mostly more

                                        than 1 cm wide, broadly

                                        elliptic to broadly oblong;

                                        se Oklahoma, w Arkansas

                                        ............. 13.             Amorpha ouachitensis



1.    Amorpha californica                 Nuttall in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl.

N. Amer. 1: 306.             1838

Shrubs (0.7--)1--3(--4) m, arising from a compact, woody root.

Stems mostly puberulent to short pilose or glabrous, often

gland-dotted, smooth.                Leaves (5--)10--20 cm; petioles (0.7--)1-

-1.5(--2.5) cm, puberulent or glabrous, with spine-like glands;

stipules linear to narrowly oblong, (2--)4--6 mm; rachis with

spine-like glands; leaflets (11--)13--19(--25); stipels

acicular, 1--1.5 mm; petiolules 0.7--1.5(--1.8) mm, pilosulose

or glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflets mostly oblong, (0.8--)1.5--
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2.5(--4.2) x (0.6--)1--1.5(--2) cm, round to subcordate basally,

margins entire or finely crenulate, not revolute, round to

obtuse or emarginate apically, puberulent to short pilose or

glabrous; midveins terminated by a swollen, globose mucro.

Inflorescences unbranched, (0.5--)1--1.8(--2.5) dm, rachis

pilose, often with spine-like glands; bractlets linear to

lanceolate, 1.5--4 mm, short pilose, glandular-punctuate,

sometimes eglandular; pedicels 0.3--1.2 mm, mostly puberulent to

short pilose, eglandular.                   Flowers: calyx tube narrowly

cylindric to funnelform, 2--2.8 mm, puberulent, sometimes gland-

dotted on upper half, calyx lobes 0.4--2(--2.5) mm, triangular

to narrowly lanceolate; banner reddish purple, 5--7 x 2.5--4 mm,

broadly obovate, indistinctly clawed, entire; filaments 6--7 mm,

basally united 2--3.2 mm; anthers pale yellow; ovary mostly

densely short pilose.                Fruits 6--8 x 2.5--3.5 mm, sessile,

mostly short pilose and gland-dotted at least on upper half,

margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight adaxially.                               Seeds

olive-brown or reddish brown, 3--4 x 1.5--2 mm, smooth.

        Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): United States, nw Mexico.


1.    Abaxial leaflet surface, rachis and petiolules

      short pilose or peuberulent; calyx tube short
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       pilose to puberulent; calyx lobes (0.8--)1--2(--

       2.5) mm .......... 1a.                 Amorpha californica var. californica

1.     Abaxial leaflet surface, rachis and petiolules

       glabrous or nearly so; calyx tube glabrous or

       sparsely short pilose; calyx lobes 0.4--0.8(--1)

       mm .................. 1b.                    Amorpha californica var. napensis



1a.     Amorpha californica                 Nuttall var. californica                   *

California false indigo, California indigo-bush

Plants mostly short-pilose or puberulent.                             Leaflets hairy on

both surfaces.            Calyx lobes (0.8--)1--2(--2.5) mm.                        2n = 20.

        Flowering May--Jul.               Wooded or chaparral slopes; 200--2300

m; Ariz., Calif.; Mexico (Baja California).



1b.     Amorpha californica                 Nuttall var. napensis                   Jepson, Man.

Fl. Pl. Calif., 556.                1925       *     Napa false indigo, Napa indigo-

bush         E

Plants glabrous or nearly so.                       Leaflets glabrous except for

pubescent midveins adaxially.                       Calyx lobes (0.4--0.8(--1) mm.

        Flowering May--Jul.               Wooded or chaparral slopes; 100--600

m; Calif.

        Of all our species of Amorpha, var. napensis is one of the

most distinctive due to the presence of spine-like glands.                                      Of
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the two varieties, var. californica is the more widespread and

common, with var. napensis endemic to a small portion of

northern California (Marin, Napa, and Sonoma counties).                               As yet,

var. napensis is not listed by the state of California or any

federal agency.



2.    Amorpha georgiana                Wilbur, Rhodora 56: 261, figs. 1--6.

1964       *      Georgia false indigo, Georgia indigo-bush                         E

Shrubs 0.3--1 m, arising from a compact, woody root.                              Stems

sparsely puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted, finely

longitudinally grooved and ridged.                      Leaves (3--)6--15(--18) cm;

petioles 0.1--0.3(--0.5) cm, puberulent or glabrous, gland-

dotted; stipules occasionally persistent, linear or setaceous,

(1--)1.5--2(--2.5) mm; rachis puberulent or glabrous, sparsely

gland-dotted; leaflets (11--)15--43(--47); stipels acicular or

setaceous, 0.8--1.8 mm; petiolules 0.7--1.5(--1.8) mm, mostly

puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflet blades abaxially

elliptic to oblong or (at least terminal leaflet) ovate to

nearly orbicular, (0.3--)0.6--1(--1.5) x (0.2--)0.3--0.5(--0.8)

cm, truncate, round to subcordate basally, margins entire or

inconspicuously crenulate, usually revolute, round to obtuse or

emarginate apically, glabrous or nearly so, sometimes sparsely

hairy; midvein terminated by a slender mucro (0.2--)0.4--1 mm.
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Inflorescences unbranched, (0.2--)0.5--2(--3) dm, rarely with 2-

-4, these (0.2--)0.3--0.5(--0.6) dm, rachis puberulent or more

often glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted; bractlets linear to

narrowly subulate, 1.5--2.5(--3) mm, glabrous or sparsely

pubescent, often ciliate, usually eglandular; pedicels 0.4--1

mm, glabrous or nearly so, eglandular.                          Flowers: calyx tube

turbinate to narrowly campanulate or cylindric, 1.7--2.2 mm,

glabrous, rarely gland-dotted on upper third to two-third, calyx

lobes 0.4--1.2(--1.5) mm, triangular to acuminate; banner

reddish purple (lavender), (4--)5--6 x 3--3.5(--4) mm, broadly

obovate to obcordate, distinctly clawed, entire or finely erose;

filaments 5--8 mm, free; anthers yellow; ovary pubescent.

Fruits 4--5.5 x 2--2.5 mm, stipitate, glabrous, gland-dotted at

least on upper half or two-thirds, margins outwardly curved

abaxially, straight adaxially.                      Seeds olive-green or (-tan), 2--

2.25 x 1--1.25 mm, smooth, lustrous.

        Flowering Apr--May.               Sandy river terraces in woods or

occasionally bordering moist thickets on the middle and inner

Atlantic Coastal Plain; 0--100 m; Ga., N.C., S.C.

        Amorpha georgiana is a Federal species of concern and

listed as endangered by the states of Georgia and North Carolina

and as a species of concern by South Carolina.                               Only about 900

individuals are known, most in and around the Fort Bragg
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Military Reservation of North Carolina (B. A. Sorrie 1995, V. M.

Miller 2004).           Reports of A. georgiana from Echols County,

Georgia, are actually examples of A. herbacea var. floridana,

therefore this species is only currently known from the type

locality in Telfair County, Georgia.



3.    Amorpha nana             Nuttall, Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 5.

1813       *      Dwarf false indigo, Fragrant indigo-bush                          E

Shrubs (0.1--)0.3--0.6(--1) m, usually rhizomatous.                               Stems

strigulose to glabrate, gland-dotted, finely longitudinally

grooved and ridged.               Leaves (1.5--)3--7(--10) cm; petioles (0.2-

-)0.4--0.8(--1) cm, strigulose, sometimes glabrous, usually

gland-dotted; stipules linear or setaceous, (2--)3--5(--6.5) mm;

rachis puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflets (7--)13--

27(--41); stipels acicular, (1--)1.5--2.5(--3) mm; petiolules

(0.7--)0.7--1 mm, mostly pubescent to glabrate, gland-dotted;

leaflet blades elliptic to oblong or ovate, rarely obovate to

nearly orbicular, (0.2--)0.6--1.3(--1.8) x (0.2--)0.3--0.6(--

0.8) cm, mostly round basally, margins entire to inconspicuously

crenulate, usually somewhat revolute, round to truncate or

emarginate apically, glabrous on both surfaces except for

puberulent margins; midvein usually terminated by a slender

mucro (0.6--)0.8--1.2(--1.5) mm.                     Inflorescences unbranched,
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(0.2--)0.3--0.7(--0.9) dm, rachis usually puberulent,

eglandular; bractlets linear to narrowly spatulate, (2.5--)3--

4(--5) mm, puberulent, eglandular; pedicels 1--2(--2.5) mm,

usually puberulent, eglandular.                     Flowers: calyx tube turbinate,

(1.5--)1.8--2(--2.2) mm, glabrous, gland-dotted at least on

upper half, calyx lobes (0.8--)1--2(--2.2) mm, triangular to

narrowly lanceolate; banner dark reddish purple, 4.5--6 x 3.5--

4.5 mm, broadly obcordate, distinctly clawed, emarginate, finely

erose; filaments 6--8 mm, basally united 0.5--1 mm; anthers

purplish; ovary glabrous.                   Fruits 4.5--5.5(--5) x 2--2.8 mm,

sessile, glabrous, gland-dotted at least on upper two-thirds,

margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight adaxially.                                   Seeds

olive-brown, 2.5--3 x 1--1.5 mm, reticulate.                             2n = 20.

        Flowering May--Jul.               Prairies, hillsides, and buttes mainly

on the Great Plains; 200--2200 m; Man.; Colo., Iowa, Kans.,

Minn., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak.

        Amorpha nana is listed as threatened by the state of Iowa;

it is encountered more commonly in the northern and western part

of its range.



4.    Amorpha confusa               (Wilbur) S. C. K. Straub, Sorrie &

Weakley, J. Bot. Res. Instit. Texas 3: 154.                            2009       *     Savanna

false indigo, Savanna indigo-bush                         E
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Amorpha georgiana Wilbur var. confusa Wilbur, J. Elisha Mitchell

Sci. Soc. 80: 58.              1964

Shrubs 0.3--1 m, arising from a compact, woody root.                              Stems

strigulose to glabrate, gland-dotted, finely longitudinally

grooved and ridged.               Leaves (3--)6--15(--18) cm; petioles (0.6--

)0.8--1.5(--2) cm, puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted;

stipules (occasionally persistent), linear or setaceous, (1--

e)1.5--2(--2.5) mm; rachis puberulent or glabrous, sparsely

gland-dotted; leaflets (11--)15--43(--47); stipels acicular or

setaceous, 0.8--1.8 mm; petiolules 0.7--1.5(--1.8) mm, mostly

puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflet blades elliptic to

oblong or ovate to nearly orbicular, (1--)1.5--2.5(--3.5) x

(0.7--)0.9--1.5(--1.8) cm, truncate, round to subcordate

basally, margins entire or inconspicuously crenulate, usually

revolute, round to obtuse or emarginate apically, glabrous or

nearly so, sometimes sparsely hairy abaxially, sparsely to

conspicuously gland-dotted; midvein terminated by a slender

mucro (0.2--)0.4--1 mm.                 Inflorescences of (1--)3--5(--8)

branches, 1--2(--3) dm, rachis puberulent, sparsely gland-

dotted; bractlets linear to narrowly subulate, 1.5--2.5(--3) mm,

merely sparsely pubescent or merely ciliate, usually eglandular;

pedicels 0.4--1 mm, eglandular.                     Flowers: calyx tube turbinate

to narrowly campanulate or cylindric, 1.7--2.2 mm, glabrous,
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rarely gland-dotted on upper third to two-third, calyx lobes

0.4--1.2(--1.5) mm, abaxial lobe acuminate and slightly longer,

adaxial lobes triangular to acuminate; banner bright blue, (4--

)5--6 x 3--3.5(--4) mm, broadly obovate to obcordate, distinctly

clawed, entire to finely erose; filaments 5--8 mm, free; anthers

yellow; ovary pubescent.                  Fruits 4--5.5 x 2--2.5 mm, sessile,

glabrous, gland-dotted at least on upper half or two-thirds,

margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight adaxially.                                  Seeds

olive-brown or brown, 2--2.25 x 1--1.5 mm, smooth and lustrous.

        Flowering (May--)Jun--Jul.                  Pine woodlands, savannas, and

road banks in the outer Atlantic Coastal Plain; 0--50 m; N.C.

        Amorpha confusa is known presently only from Brunswick and

Columbia counties; it is believed to be extirpated in adjacent

South Carolina.            The taxon is a Federal species of concern and

is listed as threatened in North Carolina.



5.    Amorpha herbacea               Walter, Fl. Carol., 179.                 1788       E

Shrubs (0.3--)0.6--1.2(--1.5), arising from a thick, horizontal

rootstock.         Stems sparsely to densely puberulent, often

obscurely gland-dotted, finely longitudinally grooved and

ridged.       Leaves (6--)8--18(--24) cm; petioles (0.05--)0.1--1(--

1.3) cm, puberulent or strigillose, rarely glabrous, gland-

dotted; stipules occasionally persistent, mostly acicular, (1--
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)1.2--2.5(--3) mm; rachis puberulent, sometimes glabrous,

sparingly gland-dotted; leaflets (15--)23--45(--63); stipels

acicular to setaceous, (0.4--)0.8--2 mm; petiolules (0.7--)1--2

mm, puberulent, rarely glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflet blades

elliptic to oblong or ovate to nearly orbicular, (0.7--)1--2.5(-

-3.2) x (0.3--)0.4--1(--1.5) cm, obtuse to round or truncate to

subcordate basally, margins entire or inconspicuously crenulate,

often revolute, obtuse to round or emarginate apically densely

hairy or glabrous; midvein terminated by a sessile or short-

stalked (0.1--0.3 mm) swollen gland-like mucro 0.2--0.8 mm.

Inflorescences of (1--)4--12(--20) branches, (0.3--)1--1.8(--4)

dm, rachis puberulent, sparsely gland-dotted; bractlets mostly

linear, (1.2--)1.8--2.5(--3) mm, sparsely hairy, glandular;

pedicels (0.2--)0.4--1.2(--1.8) mm, puberulent or occasionally

glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted.                     Flowers: calyx tube turbinate

to narrowly campanulate or cylindric, 1.5--2.5(--3) mm, hairy or

glabrous, often gland-dotted on upper two-thirds to one-half,

calyx lobes (0.4--)0.5--1.2(--1.5) mm, abaxial lobe narrowly

triangular and slightly longer, adaxial lobes triangular or

obtuse; banner white, lavender or violet, (4--)5--6(--7) x (2--

)2.5--3.5 mm, broadly obcordate, distinctly clawed, entire or

finely erose; filaments 6--8 mm, free; anthers yellow to

yellowish orange; ovary puberulent or glabrous.                               Fruits 4--6 x
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1.8--2.5 mm, sessile, pubescent or glabrous, gland-dotted on

upper two-thirds to one-half, margins strongly outwardly curved

abaxially, straight to slightly arched adaxially.                                 Seeds not

seen.

        Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): se United States.


1.    Leaves and upper portion of plant hairy; calyx

      tube densely pubescent; fruit puberulent or

      glabrate ............... 5a.                   Amorpha herbacea var. herbacea

1.    Leaves and upper portion of plant glabrous or

      nearly so; calyx tube glabrous or nearly so;

      fruit glabrous ........ 5b.                   Amorpha herbacea var. floridana



5a.     Amorpha herbacea               Walter var. herbacea                *      Clusterspike

false indigo, dwarf indigo-bush                        E

Amorpha cyanostachya M. A. Curtis

Plants densely short-pubescent or puberulent at least in the

upper portions, only occasionally sparsely pubescent or

glabrate.         Leaves: rachis usually puberulent.                       Inflorescences

usually densely puberulent.                    Calyx tube densely puberulent or

short-pilose.           Fruits densely to sparsely puberulent,

occasionally lower third to one-half glabrous, sometime glabrous

throughout.
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        Flowering May–-Jul (--Sep).                     Open woods, sandhills, and

savannas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont and mountains;

0--500 m; Fla., Ga., N.C., S.C.



5b.     Amorpha herbacea               Walter var. floridana                   (Rydberg)

Wilbur, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80: 55.                                1964     *       Florida

false indigo, Florida indigo-bush                            E

Amorpha floridana Rydberg in N. L. Britton et al., N. Amer. Fl.

24: 31.       1919

Plants glabrous or nearly so in the upper portions, only

occasionally sparsely pubescent.                        Leaves: rachis glabrous or

sometimes puberulent.                 Inflorescences sparsely puberulent.

Calyx tube glabrous or nearly so, sometimes strigillose.                                       Fruits

usually glabrous.

        Flowering May–Sep.              Pine woodlands on the Atlantic Coastal

Plain; 0--50 m; Fla., Ga.

        Variety floridana is a species of special concern in the

state of Georgia.



6.    Amorpha crenulata                Rydberg in N. L. Britton et al., N.

Amer. Fl. 24: 30.              1919       *         Crenulate false indigo, crenulate

lead-plant            E

Amorpha herbacea Walter var. crenulata (Rydberg) Isley
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Shrubs 0.4--1(--3), arising from a thick, horizontal rootstock.

Stems sparsely puberulent or glabrous, often obscurely gland-

dotted, finely longitudinally grooved and ridged.                                 Leaves (8--

)15--25(--30) cm; petioles (0.3--)0.8--1.5(--1.8) cm, sparsely

puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted; stipules mostly acicular,

1.2--2.2 mm; rachis often glabrous, sparingly gland-dotted;

leaflets (19--)23--33(--41); stipels acicular, 0.4--1.5 mm;

petiolules (1--)1.5--2(--3) mm, usually glabrous, gland-dotted;

leaflet blades elliptic to oblong or ovate to nearly orbicular,

(0.7--)1.2--2.5(--4.2) x (0.25--)0.5--0.9(--1.1) cm, obtuse to

round or truncate to subcordate basally, margins crenulate,

usually decidedly revolute, obtuse to round or emarginate

apically, glabrous or nearly, gland-dotted abaxially; midvein

terminated by a swollen mucro 0.2--0.5 mm.                            Inflorescences of

(1--)4--10 branches, (0.5--)1--2.5(--3) dm, rachis sparsely

puberulent, sparsely gland-dotted; bractlets linear to narrowly

spatulate, 1.2--2.5 mm, sparsely hairy, glandular; pedicels

(0.5--)1--1.8(--2.2) mm, sparsely puberulent, gland-dotted.

Flowers: calyx tube turbinate to narrowly campanulate, (2--)2.2-

-3.2(--3.5) mm, glabrous or nearly so, often gland-dotted on

upper one-half, calyx lobes 0.8--1.8(--2) mm, abaxial lobe

narrowly triangular and slightly longer, adaxial lobes

triangular or obtuse; banner violet or white, (4.5--)5--6(--7) x
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3--4.5 mm, broadly obcordate, distinctly clawed, entire or

finely erose; filaments 6--9 mm, free; anthers yellowish; ovary

glabrous.         Fruits 4--6.5 x 1.8--2.5 mm, sessile, glabrous,

gland-dotted on upper two-thirds, margins strongly outwardly

curved abaxially, straight to slightly arched adaxially.                                   Seeds

not seen.

        Flowering Feb--Aug(--Nov).                  Rocky margins of pine woodlands

and coastal prairies of the Miami Rock Ridge; 0--10 m; Fla.

        Amorpha crenulata is endemic to the Miami Rock Ridge of

southeastern Florida where approximately 350 individuals remain

in four populations confined to Miami-Dade County.                                 Conservation

measures for this species, including an ex situ collection,

restored populations, and seed bank are overseen by Fairchild

Tropical Garden in Coral Gables (e.g. Wendelberger et al. 2007;

Roncal et al. 2006).                The plant is part of the Center for Plant

Conservation’s national collection of imperiled plants.



7.    Amorpha canescens                Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 467.                  1813        *

Leadplant            E       F

Shrubs or rarely herbaceous perennials, (0.3--)0.5--0.8(--1.2)

m, usually rhizomatous.                 Stems usually canescent, becoming

glabrate, rarely glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted or eglandular,

finely striate longitudinally.                      Leaves (3--)6--12(--15) cm;
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petioles (0.5--)1--3(--5) cm, tomentose to canescent,

eglandular; stipules linear to linear-lanceolate or setaceous,

(1.2--)2--3(--3.5) mm, canescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially,

eglandular; rachis tomentose to canescent or puberulent,

eglandular; leaflets (11--)27--41(--49); stipels acicular, (0.5-

-)0.8--1.2 mm; petiolules 0.5--1(--1.8) mm, usually canescent to

pilose, usually eglandular; leaflet blades elliptic to oblong or

ovate, rarely ovate to suborbicular, (0.3--)1--1.8(--2.5) x

(0.2--)0.4--0.7(--1.2) cm, truncate, round to subcordate

basally, margins entire, sometimes slightly revolute, round to

obtuse or emarginate apically, usually canescent or rarely

glabrous; midvein terminated by a slender mucro (0.2--)0.4--

0.8(--1.2) mm.            Inflorescences of (1--)5--20(--30+) branches,

(0.2--)0.7--1.5(--2.5) dm; rachis sparsely pilose to pubescent,

sparsely gland-dotted; bractlets linear to narrowly lanceolate,

(2.5--)3--4(--4.5) mm, pilose abaxially, glabrous adaxially,

eglandular; pedicels (0.4--)0.5--1.2(--1.5) mm, sparsely pilose

to pubescent, eglandular.                   Flowers: calyx tube turbinate to

somewhat campanulate, (1.5--)1.8--2(--2.5) mm, densely

pubescent, rarely glabrous or nearly so, inconspicuously gland-

dotted, calyx lobes (0.6--)1--1.5(--1.8) mm, triangular to

narrowly lanceolate; banner bright violet, 4.5--6 x 2.5--4 mm,

broadly obcordate, distinctly clawed, entire or finely erose;
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filaments 6--8 mm, basally united 1.5--2 mm; anthers yellowish

to golden-brown; ovary densely pilose.                         Fruits (3--)3.5--4.5(--

5) x 2--3.5 mm, stipitate, villous, rarely glabrous, gland-

dotted at least on upper half or two-thirds, margins outwardly

curved abaxially, straight adaxially.                        Seeds olive-brown, 2--2.8

x 1--1.4 mm, smooth.                2n = 20.

        Flowering May--Aug(--Sep).                  Prairies, hillsides and open

woodlands, occasionally in fields and along roadsides mainly on

the Great Plains; 200--1800 m; Man., Ont.; Ark., Colo., Ill.,

Ind., Iowa, Kans., La., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex.,

N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Wis., Wyo.

        The common name of Amorpha canescens stems from a

historical misguided belief that its occurrence indicated the

presence of lead.              It is a palatable range plant and thus

subject to intensive grazing pressure; in some mowed fields,

meadows, and pastures, the plant often appears as an herbaceous

perennial.         The Bureau of Land Management considers this to be a

sensitive species in Montana, where it is presumed to be

extirpated.          Hybrids between A. canescens and A. fruticosa,

named A. x notha E. J. Palmer, are rare.                          The plant is a species

of concern in Arkansas where it is at the edge of its range; it

is not rare in general being one of the most often cultivated

species of Amorpha.
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8.    Amorpha roemeriana                Scheele, Linnaea 21: 461.                 1848     *

Roemer’s false indigo, Texas indigo-bush                              E

Amorpha texana Buckley

Shrubs 1--3 m, arising from a compact, woody root.                                Stems

puberulent or glabrous, gland-dotted, smooth.                              Leaves (5--)10--

15(--20) cm; petioles (0.5--)1.5--3 cm, usually puberulent,

gland-dotted; stipules linear, 1.5--2 mm, puberulent,

eglandular; rachis usually puberulent, eglandular; leaflets (7--

)9--11(--15); stipels acicular, 1.2--2 mm; petiolules 2--5(--7)

mm, puberulent or glabrous, usually gland-dotted; leaflet blades

narrowly elliptic to oblong, rarely obovate to suborbicular, (1-

-)2.5--4(--5) x (0.7--)1.5--2.5(--3.8) cm, round basally,

margins entire or conspicuously crenulate, flat, round or

emarginate apically, puberulent abaxially, glabrate or glabrous

adaxially; midvein terminated by a slightly swollen mucro 0.4--

0.8 mm.       Inflorescences of 1--3(--6) branches, (0.4--)0.6--1.2(-

-2) dm; rachis puberulent, sparsely gland-dotted; bractlets

linear to narrowly lanceolate, 1.2--2.2 mm, puberulent to short

pilose, eglandular; pedicels 1--1.5 mm, puberulent, eglandular.

Flowers: calyx tube funnelform, 2.5--3.8 mm, short pilose or

glabrous, gland-dotted on upper third, calyx lobes (0.2--)0.4--

1.2(--1.4) mm, usually narrowly lanceolate; banner purple, 5--7
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x 5--6 mm, broadly obcordate, indistinctly clawed, entire or

slightly erose; filaments 6--10 mm, basally united 4--6 mm;

anthers yellow; ovary glabrous.                     Fruits 6--7 x 2.5--3.5 mm,

sessile, glabrous to slightly hairy, gland-dotted at least on

upper half, margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight or

inwardly bent adaxially.                  Seeds brown, reddish brown, or

greenish brown, 2.5--4.5 x 1.5--2 mm, smooth, not lustrous.

        Flowering Apr--Jun.               Grasslands and open woodlands on

limestone soils; 400--800 m; Tex.

        Amorpha roemeriana is confined to the Edwards Plateau area

of central Texas where it occurs in Bandera, Blanco, Comal,

Gillespie, Hays, Kendall, and Kerr counties.



9.     Amorpha paniculata               Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 306.

1838       *      Panicled false indigo, panicled indigo-bush                           C       E

Shrubs or suffrutescent herbs, 1--3 m, arising from a compact,

woody root.          Stems mostly puberulent, canescent or even

tomentose, sometimes glabrate, eglandular, longitudinally

grooved and ridged.               Leaves (10--)20--40 cm; petioles (2--)3--

6(--9) cm, puberulent, canescent or tomentose, eglandular;

stipules linear, 2--3 mm, pubescent, eglandular; rachis

puberulent, canescent, eglandular; leaflets (9--)11--19; stipels

acicular, 1--2 mm; petiolules (2--)4--10 mm, usually pilosulose
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proximally and glabrous distally, sparsely glandular-dotted;

leaflet blades narrowly elliptic to oblong or ovate, 1.5--3(--5)

x (1.4--)1.8--2.2(--2.6) cm, round basally, margins entire,

flat, round apically, canescent to tomentose or glabrate and

sparsely gland-dotted abaxially, usually puberulent to glabrate

or glabrous adaxially; (veins conspicuous and distinctly raised

abaxially;) midvein terminated by a slender mucro 0.5--1.8 mm.

Inflorescences of (1--)5--12 branches, (compoundly divided and

seemingly paniculate,) (0.5--)1.5--3(--4) dm; rachis short

pilose, eglandular; bractlets linear, 1--2 mm, short pilose,

eglandular; pedicels 1--2 mm, short pilose, eglandular.

Flowers: calyx tube funnelform, 1.8--2.2 mm, short pilose,

rarely glabrate, gland-dotted on upper third, calyx lobes (1--

)1.2--2 mm, abaxial lobe linear to narrowly lanceolate, adaxial

lobes usually triangular to ovate; banner purple, 5--7 x 3--4

mm, broadly obcordate, indistinctly clawed, entire or slightly

erose; filaments 5--6 mm, basally united 2.5--3 mm; anthers

orange; ovary glabrous.                 Fruits 4--6(--8) x 2--2.5 mm, sessile,

glabrous, gland-dotted, margins outwardly curved abaxially,

outwardly bent adaxially.                   Seeds reddish brown, 3--3.5 x 1.5--

1.8 mm, smooth.

        Flowering May--Jun.               Moist acid thickets, bogs, and swamps;

of conservation concern; 10--300 m; Ark., La., Okla., Tex.
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        Amorpha paniculata is listed as threatened in Arkansas and

as a species of concern in Oklahoma.



10.     Amorpha schwerinii                C. K. Schneider, Ill. Handb.

Laubholzk. 2: 71, figs. 422m, 44a.                      1907 (as schwerini)              *

Schwerin’s false indigo, Piedmont indigo-bush                                 E

Shrubs (1--)1.5--2.5 m, arising from a compact, woody root.

Stems puberulent, gland-dotted, finely grooved.                               Leaves (5--)8--

12(--22) cm; petioles (0.7--)1--1.8(--2.5) cm, pubescent,

usually eglandular; stipules linear to narrowly lanceolate, 3--

4.5 mm, pubescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially, eglandular;

rachis puberulent, usually eglandular; leaflets (7--)19--27(--

29); stipels acicular, 1--2.2 mm; petiolules (0.5--)1--2 mm,

pilosulose to puberulent, gland-dotted; leaflet blades elliptic

to narrowly oblong, rarely ovate to nearly orbicular, (0.5--

)1.5--3(--4) x (0.4--)0.8--1.5(--2) cm, truncate to subcordate

basally, margins entire or slightly crenulate, slightly

revolute, obtuse to round or emarginate apically, pilose to

pubescent, gland-dotted; midvein terminated by a swollen mucro

0.2--0.5(--0.8) mm.               Inflorescences of 1(--2) branches, (0.2--

)0.4--0.8(--1.2) dm; rachis puberulent to pubescent, usually

eglandular; bractlets linear to narrowly lanceolate, 2--3.5 mm,

pilosulose adaxially, glabrous adaxially; pedicels (0.8--)1--
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1.5(--2) mm, puberulent to pubescent, eglandular.                                     Flowers:

calyx tube turbinate to cylindric, 1.8--2.5 mm, pilosulose,

gland-dotted on upper third or less, calyx lobes (1.2--)2--3.5

mm, linear to narrowly lanceolate; banner purplish, 4.5--6.5 x

3--4.2 mm, broadly obovate to obcordate, distinctly clawed,

entire or erose; filaments 6--8 mm, basally united 1.5--2 mm;

anthers golden-yellow; ovary usually pubescent.                                   Fruits 5--6.5 x

1.8--2.2 mm, sessile, usually glabrous, gland-dotted at least on

upper half, margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight

adaxially.         Seeds not seen.

        Flowering Apr--Jun.               Dry to moist open woodlands and

forests; 100--600 m; Ala., Ga., N.C., S.C.

        Amorpha schwerinii is listed as a species of special

concern in Georgia and South Carolina.



11.     Amorpha glabra              (Persoon) Poiret in J. Lamarck et al.,

Encycl., Suppl. 1: 330.                 1810        *       Mountain false indigo,

Appalachian indigo-bush                     E

Amorpha pubescens Willdenow subsp. glabra Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2:

295.     1807

Shrubs 1--2 m, arising from a compact, woody root.                                    Stems mostly

glabrate or more often glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted or

eglandular, smooth.               Leaves (10--)14--22(--30) cm; petioles
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(1.6--)2--4(--6) cm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, sparsely

gland-dotted or eglandular; stipules linear to linear-

lanceolate, 2.5--4.5 mm, slightly hairy or at least marginally

ciliate, eglandular; rachis glabrous or rarely sparsely

puberulent, sparsely gland-dotted; leaflets (9--)11--15(--19);

stipels acicular to setaceous, 1.2--2 mm; petiolules 2--4(--5.5)

mm, usually glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted; leaflet blades

elliptic to oblong, or occasionally ovate to (rarely) orbicular,

(1.4--)2--4.5(--7.5) x (1--)1.4--2.8(--3.6) cm, round to

truncate or subcordate basally, margins entire or slightly

crenulate, slightly revolute, obtuse to broadly round or

emarginate apically, essentially glabrous, gland-dotted; midvein

terminated by a slightly swollen mucro 0.2--0.4 mm.

Inflorescences of 1--3(--4) branches, (0.5--)1--1.8(--2.8) dm;

rachis usually glabrous, gland-dotted; bractlets usually

narrowly lanceolate, (0.5--)0.8--1.5(--2) mm, puberulent, often

ciliate, eglandular; pedicels (0.8--)1--2.5(--3) mm, usually

glabrous, eglandular.                Flowers: calyx tube broadly turbinate to

campanulate, 2--3(--3.2) mm, glabrous except for ciliated rim,

eglandular, calyx lobes (0--)0.2--0.6(--0.8) mm, broadly

triangular-dentate; banner purplish, (4.5--)6--8(--8.5) x 4--6

mm, broadly obcordate, clawed, entire or erose; filaments 8--11

mm, basally united 3--4.5 mm; anthers golden-yellow to orange;
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ovary glabrous.            Fruits (6.5--)7.5--9(--10) x (2.5--)3--4(--4.5)

mm, sessile, glabrous, gland-dotted at least on upper two-

thirds, margins distinctly outwardly curved abaxially, straight

or near so adaxially.                Seeds not seen.

        Flowering May--Jul.                 Dry to moist thickets and woods, pine-

oak heath ridges; (30--)400--1200 m; Ala., Ga., N.C., S.C.,

Tenn.

        Amorpha glabra is listed as a species of concern in South

Carolina.



12.     Amorpha laevigata               Nuttall in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl.

N. Amer. 1: 306.             1838       *      Smooth false indigo, smooth indigo-

bush         E

Shrubs 1--2(--3) m, arising from a compact, woody root.                               Stems

mostly strigulose to glabrate or more often glabrous, gland-

dotted, smooth.            Leaves (5--)8--20(--25) cm; petioles 1--2.5(--

3) cm, usually glabrous, gland-dotted; stipules linear to

setaceous, 2--3 mm, glabrous, eglandular; rachis usually

glabrous, gland-dotted; leaflets (9--)13--19(--21); stipels

acicular, 1--2 mm; petiolules 2--5 mm, strigulose, sometimes

glabrous, distinctly warty-glandular; leaflet blades elliptic to

narrowly oblong, (1--)1.5--3.5(--4) x 0.4--1(--1.2) cm, round

basally, margins entire or slightly crenulate, flat, round or
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often emarginate apically, glabrous or sparsely strigulose and

gland-dotted abaxially, glabrous and eglandular adaxially;

midvein terminated by a swollen mucro 0.1--0.2 mm.

Inflorescences of (1--)2--3(--8) branches, 1--2(--2.5) dm;

rachis sparsely strigulose, sparsely gland-dotted or eglandular;

bractlets linear to narrowly lanceolate, 1.5--3 mm, strigulose,

gland-dotted; pedicels 0.6--1.2                     mm, strigulose, eglandular.

Flowers: calyx tube funnelform to campanulate, 1.5--3 mm,

glabrous or sometimes strigulose, gland-dotted on upper two-

third, calyx lobes 0.2--1.2 mm, abaxial lobes narrowly

lanceolate, adaxial lobes round to triangular; banner bright

blue to deep violet-blue, 4--6 x 4--4.5 mm, broadly obcordate,

indistinctly clawed, entire or finely erose; filaments 6--9 mm,

basally united 3--5 mm; anthers orange; ovary glabrous.                                   Fruits

4.5--6 x 2--2.5 mm, sessile, glabrous, rarely sparsely

strigulose, gland-dotted at least on upper three-fourths,

margins outwardly curved abaxially, straight or slightly

inwardly curved adaxially.                   Seeds not seen.

        Flowering May--Jun.               Prairies and open woods, often in

moist places; 10--500 m; La.{{?}}, Okla., Tex.

        Amorpha laevigata is an ill-defined taxon with characters

overlapping with those of several other species.                                  It has not

often been collected or even collected recently.                                  Further study
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may show that it does not warrant recognition or, alternatively,

that it is an extremely rare endemic in need of conservation

concern.



13.     Amorpha ouachitensis                 Wilbur, Rhodora 77: 394.               1975       *

Ouachita false indigo, Ouachita indigo-bush                                E

Shrubs 1--2 m, arising from a compact, woody root.                                Stems

pilosulose or glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted, smooth.                                Leaves

7--23 cm; petioles 1--1.7 cm, sparsely pubescent to glabrate or

glabrous, gland-dotted; stipules lanceolate, 3--4 mm, glabrous

except for a villous tuft apically, eglandular; rachis sparsely

puberulent or glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted; leaflets (7--)9--

13(--17); stipels acicular, 1.2--2.2 mm; petiolules 2--3(--4)

mm, pilosulose to glabrate or glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted,

rarely eglandular; leaflet blades broadly elliptic to broadly

oblong, (1.2--)2.5--4(--7) x (0.9--)1.5--2.5(--3.5) cm, round

basally, margins entire or slightly crenulate, flat, round to

truncate or often emarginate apically, puberulent to glabrate or

glabrous, gland-dotted; midvein terminated by a swollen mucro

0.2--0.6 mm.          Inflorescences of 1--4 branches, (0.8--)1--2 dm;

rachis puberulent or glabrous, sparsely gland-dotted or

eglandular; bractlets narrowly oblong, 1--1.5 mm, glabrous

except for a stiffly hairy margin; pedicels 1--1.5 mm,
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puberulent to glabrate or glabrous, eglandular.                               Flowers: calyx

tube narrowly conical to funnelform, 2.8--3.2 mm, puberulent to

glabrate or glabrous, gland-dotted on upper quarter, calyx lobes

0.4--0.9(--1.2) mm, mostly round; banner purple, 5--7.5 x 4.5--6

mm, emarginate, not clawed, entire; filaments 8--10 mm, basally

united 3--6 mm; anthers color unknown; ovary usually glabrous.

Fruits 7--9 x 3--4 mm, sessile, usually glabrous, gland-dotted

at least on upper half, margins outwardly curved abaxially,

straight or sharply bent adaxially.                       Seeds dark brownish to

blackish, 4--5 x 2.5--3 mm, smooth.

        Flowering Apr--Jun.               Moist thickets and woods; 100--600 m;

Ark., Okla.

        Amorpha ouachitensis is listed as a species of concern by

the federal government and the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma;

it is part of the Center for Plant Conservation’s national

collection of imperiled plants and is cultivated at the Missouri

Botanical Garden.



14.     Amorpha nitens              F. E. Boynton, Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 139.

1902       *      Shining false indigo, dark indigo-bush                          E

Shrubs 1--2(--3) m, arising from a compact, woody root.                                   Stems

mostly glabrous or puberulent, usually eglandular, smooth.

Leaves 10--18(--22) cm; petioles (1.5--)2--3.5(--5) cm, usually
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glabrous, eglandular; stipules linear to narrowly setaceous, 3--

5 mm, occasionally short pilose and sparsely gland-dotted;

rachis usually glabrous, eglandular; leaflets (7--)9--15(--19);

stipels not seen; petiolules 2--5(--7) mm, glabrous or

pilosulose, eglandular; leaflet blades elliptic to oblong,

occasionally ovate, 2--4(--7) x (1--)1.5--3.5(--4.5) cm, round

basally, margins entire, flat, round or typically emarginate

apically, usually glabrous, eglandular, rarely sparsely

puberulent and even sparsely gland-dotted abaxially (drying

blackish, distinctly shiny adaxially); midvein terminated by a

slender mucro 0.1--0.2 mm.                   Inflorescences of 1--3(--8)

branches, (0.5--)0.8--1.5(--2.5) dm; rachis glabrous or

sometimes puberulent, usually eglandular; bractlets linear to

setaceous, 1.5--3(--4) mm, glabrous or short pilose, usually

eglandular(drying blackish); pedicels 1--2.2 mm, glabrous or

short pilose, eglandular (drying blackish).                            Flowers: (calyx

drying blackish;) calyx tube funnelform to obconic, rarely

campanulate, 2--2.5 mm, glabrous or short pilose, usually

eglandular, calyx lobes 0.2--1.4 mm, abaxial lobe triangular and

slightly longer, adaxial lobes round to triangular; banner

reddish purple, 4.5--6 x 3--4.8 mm, broadly obovate, obscurely

clawed, 1--1.5 mm, entire or irregularly erose; filaments 5--7

mm, basally united 2--2.5 mm; anthers yellow; ovary glabrous.
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Fruits 6--8 x 2.5--3.5 mm, glabrous, rarely gland-dotted at

least on upper one-third, margins outwardly curved abaxially,

straight or slightly inwardly curved adaxially.                               Seeds not seen.

        Flowering Apr--Jun.               Moist thickets and woods; 50--600 m;

Ala., Ark., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Okla., S.C., Tenn.

        Amorpha nitens is listed as endangered by the state of

Illinois and as a species of special concern in Georgia; it is

considered to be a sensitive species on the Shawnee National

Forest by the United States Forest Service.                            Amorpha nitens and

A. fruticosa share most of their characters and most

distinctively differ by the tendency to blacken upon drying

ascribed to A. nitens, although some few A. fruticosa

individuals can blacken upon drying as well.



15.     Amorpha fruticosa               Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 713.                 1753       *

Bastard indigo, desert false indigo, tall indigo-bush                                    F       W

Amorpha angustifolia (Pursh) F. E. Boynton; A. bushii Rydberg;

A. croceolanata P. Watson; A. curtisii Rydberg; A. dewinkeleri

Small; A. fruticosa var. angustifolia Pursh; A. fruticosa var.

croceolanata (P. Watson) Mouillefert; A. fruticosa var.

occidentalis (Abrams) Kearney & Peebles; A. occidentalis Abrams;

A. tennesseensis Shuttleworth; A. virgata Small
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Shrubs (1--)2--3(--4) m, arising from a compact, woody root.

Stems usually puberulent to glabrate, rarely glabrous,

eglandular or occasionally sparsely gland-dotted, smooth.

Leaves 10--25(--28) cm; petioles (0.8--)1--4 cm, usually

puberulent to glabrate, rarely glabrous, usually eglandular or

occasionally sparsely gland-dotted; stipules linear, 2--4 mm,

pilosulose, usually eglandular; rachis puberulent to glabrate,

usually eglandular or occasionally sparsely gland-dotted;

leaflets [5--]9--21(--31); stipels setaceous, 2--4 mm;

petiolules (1.5--)2--4 mm, pilosulose to puberulent or glabrate,

rarely glabrous, often eglandular or sometimes spars gland-

dotted; leaflet blades elliptic to oblong, rarely ovate, (1--)2-

-4(--5) x (0.5--)1--2(--2.5) cm, acute to round basally, margins

entire or nearly so, flat, acute to round or rarely emarginate

apically, pilosulose to puberulent or glabrate, occasionally

glabrous at least adaxially; midvein terminated by a slender

mucro 0.5--1.5 mm.              Inflorescences of (1--)2--8(--12) branches,

(0.5--)1--2(--2.5) dm; rachis puberulent to pilosulose,

occasionally glabrate, usually eglandular; bractlets linear to

setaceous, 1.5--3 mm, pilosulose adaxially, glabrous adaxially;

pedicels 1--2.2 mm, puberulent to pilosulose, usually

eglandular.          Flowers: calyx tube obconic to funnelform or

campanulate, 2--3(--4) mm, puberulent to pilosulose or glabrous,
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gland-dotted on upper third, infrequently eglandular, calyx

lobes 0.2--1 mm, triangular-dentate, ciliate marginally; banner

reddish purple, 5--6 x 3.5--4.2 mm, broadly obovate to

obcordate, indistinctly clawed, entire, slightly emarginate or

erose; filaments 6--8 mm, basally united 1--2(--3) mm; anthers

yellow; ovary glabrous or rarely pubescent.                            Fruits 5--9 x (2--

)3--4.5 mm, sessile, usually glabrous or pubescent, eglandular

or more often gland-dotted nearly throughout, margins outwardly

curved abaxially, straight to curved adaxially.                               Seeds reddish

brown, 3.5--4.5 x 1.5--1.75 mm, smooth, lustrous.                                 2n = (38) 40.

        Flowering Apr--Jun(--Jul).                  Dry or moist grasslands,

scrublands, woodlands, river and stream banks, tidal marshes,

roadsides, fields, or waste places; 0--2400 m; Man., N.B., Ont.,

Que.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla.,

Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass.

Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C.,

N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn.,

Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.;

Mexico{{state?}}; frequently planted as an ornamental and

locally naturalized in Europe, Asia, Africa.

        Following R. L. Wilbur (1975) and D. Isely (1998), we

maintain a broad circumscription of Amorpha fruticosa, as the

numerous varieties, forms, and regional species delimited from
Amorpha02rev(Straub, Reveal, Weakley) -- Fabaceae      Taxon eds: Raveil & Vincent        Page 42 of 46
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the larger taxon appear to have little taxonomic value due to

overlapping morphological variation and widespread plasticity.

This species is commonly available in the horticultural trade

and is cultivated worldwide.                        Plants in cultivation can be

especially robust arising to 6 m high with far fewer leaflets

than usual.          Amorpha fruticosa spreads easily in riparian

habitats and is often weedy so that it is considered potentially

invasive in Connecticut and a noxious weed in Washington.

Although the native range of A. fruticosa encompasses much of

North America, it has only relatively recently become

established in the Pacific Northwest, perhaps due to its use for

erosion control, and has only been recorded from Oregon and

Washington since the 1980s (J. B. Glad and R. R. Halse 1993).
Amorpha02rev(Straub, Reveal, Weakley) -- Fabaceae   Taxon eds: Raveil & Vincent            Page 43 of 46
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OTHER REFERENCES

Brett, C. H.          1946.       Insecticidal properties of the indigobush

     (Amorpha fruticosa).                J. Agric. Res. 73: 81--96.

Brett, C. H.          1946b.        Repellant properties of extract of Amorpha

     fruticosa.          J. Econ. Entomol. 39: 810.

Cho, J. Y., P. S. Kim, J. Park, E. S. Yoo, K. U. Baik, Y. Kim,

     and M. H. Park.             2000.      Inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-

     production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAX264.7 cells

     from Amorpha fruticosa.                  J. Ethnopharmacol. 70: 127--133.

DeHann, L. R., N. J. Ehlke, C. C. Sheaffer, D. L. Wyse, and R.

     L. DeHaan.          2006.      Evaluation of diversity among North

     American accessions of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L.)

     for forage and biomass.                  Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 53: 1463--

     1476.

Elmore, F. H.           1944.       Ethnobotany of the Navajo.                    School of

     American Research Monograph. Series 1(7).                           University of New

     Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Gilmore, M. R.            1913.      A study in the ethnobotany of the Omaha

     Indians.        Nebraska Hist. Soc. Collect. 17: 314--357.

Gilmore, M. R.            1919.      Uses of plants by the Indians of the

     Missouri River Region.                 Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Ann. Rep. 33: 1--

     126.

Hoffman, W. J.            1891.      The Midewiwin or “Grand Medicine Society”
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     of the Ojibwa.            Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Ann. Rep 7: 143--300.

Glad, J. B. and R. R. Halse.                        1993.    Invasion of Amorpha

     fruticosa L. (Leguminosae) along the Columbia and Snake

     Rivers in Oregon and Washington.                         Madroño 40: 62--63.

Karrenberg, S., J. Kollmann, P. J. Edwards, A. M. Gurnell, and

     G. E. Petts.           2003.      Patterns in woody vegetation along the

     active zone of a near-natural alpine river.                                Basic Appl.

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Li, L., H. K. Wang, J. J. Chang, and A. T. McPhail.                                   1993.

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McMahon, M. and L. Hufford.                    2004.        Phylogeny of Amorpheae

     (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae).                      Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1219--1230.

McMahon, M. and L. Hufford.                    2005.        Evolution and development in

     the amorphoid clade (Amorpheae: Papilionoideae: Leguminosae):

     Petal loss and dedifferentiation.                         Int. J. Pl. Sci. 166: 383-

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Mahler, W. F.           1965.       The pollen morphology of the tribe

     Psoraleae (Leguminosae).                   National Science Foundation

     Research Participation Report: 1--24 (mimeograph).

Miller, V. M.           2004.       Habitat characterization of Amorpha

     georgiana var. georgiana groups at Fort Bragg, North
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     Carolina.         Unpublished master’s thesis, North Carolina State

     University Library, Raleigh, NC. 83 pp.

Mitscher, L. A., Y. H. Park, A. Al-Shamma, P. B. Hudson, and T.

     Haas.      1981.       Amorfrutin A and B, bibenzyl antimicrobial

     agents from Amorpha fruticosa.                    Phytochem. 20: 781--785.

Mitscher, L. A., S. R. Gollapudi, S. Drake, and D. S. Oburn.

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     nana.      Phytochemistry 24: 1481--1483.

Roark, R. C.          1947.       Some promising insecticidal plants.                   Econ.

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     collection of plants of Rosebud around 1920.                             Rosebud

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Roncal, J., J. Fisher, M. Q. N. Fellows, K. S. Wendelberger, J.

     Maschinski, and M. W. Fidelibus.                      2006.      Propagation protocol

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     Walter var. crenulata (Rydberg) Isely.                         Nat. Plants J. 7: 89-

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     Pub. Mus. Milwaukee 4: 175--326.

Sorrie, B. A.           1995.       Status survey of Amorpha georgiana var.
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     georgiana.          Submitted to the US Fish and Wildlife Service,

     Office of Endangered Species, Asheville, NC, and to the North

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Straub, S. C. K., S. M. Bogdanowicz, and J. J. Doyle.                                2009.

     Characterization of twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers

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     georgiana), an endangered species, and their utility in other

     dwarf Amorpha L. species.                      Molec. Ecol. Resour. 9: 225--228.

Török, K., Z. Botta-Kukát, I. Dancza, I. Németh, J. Kiss, B.

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Vestal, P. A. and R. E. Schultes.                        1939.      The economic botany of

     the Kiowa Indians as it relates to the history of the tribe.

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Wendelberger, K. S., M. Q. N. Fellows, and J. Maschinski.                                  2007.

     Rescue and restoration: Experimental translocation of Amorpha

     herbacea Walter. var. crenulata (Rydb.) Isely into a novel

     urban habitat.            Restor. Ecol. 16: 542--552.

								
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