Table of Contents
Values and Vision 10
Management Styles 17
Good Decision Making 25
Written Communication 38
Public Speaking 43
Managing Employees 49
Organizational Ethics 64
Time Management 73
Course Evaluation 102
Teamwork: the work done by several associates with each doing a part,
but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole.
What do you think of when you hear the word “teamwork?” Most people have a
variety of thoughts about it: working together, achieving goals, as well as time-
consuming and communication problems. But teams are integral part of the way we
do business at Justice Federal Credit Union. Good managers must be good team
members and leaders.
Every manager functions as a part of many teams. Each is a member of the
management team, department team, committee teams, and project teams. The
purpose of each team is different, but the definition above relates to each.
Each team is comprised of several employees with individual skills and
Each individual brings something different to the team, as a result.
Each team has a goal to reach, whether it is a sales goal, project completion,
or organizational change.
Each team, and the manager in charge of that team, is assessed on reaching
the goal efficiently.
A good team is the sum of its parts: each individual working toward the goal.
Teams have advantages and disadvantages. To decide whether a team is the right
way to complete a project, both the good and the bad must be considered.
Teams can be more responsive to the needs of an organization and produce
the desired result.
Teams can get the job done, as they are made up of several employees. The
entire job does not fall on the shoulders of one employee.
Good teams communicate well. Team members expand their horizons to
learn about the job functions of other employees. They learn new skills due
to good communication and good teamwork.
Team members get personal satisfaction from being part of an effective team.
When the team reaches the goal, it is the result of all team members working,
sharing, and trusting. Bonds are built in good teams.
The final product of a team is of a higher quality, due to the input of the ideas
and expertise of a group of employees.
The opportunity is available to use the strengths of team members and
compensate for their weaknesses.
Time is a big disadvantage for teams. Because it involves a group of
employees, meetings must be held which pull team members away from their
Individual team members must give their skills and expertise to the team.
Team membership places additional responsibilities on these employees and
their individual performance may suffer as a result.
Teams include a range of personalities and conflicts may occur.
Teams often do not establish effective avenues of communication, which leads
to a lack of forward movement toward the goal.
Trust: an individual's belief in, and willingness to act
based on the words, actions, and decisions of another.
An important aspect of a good team is trust. If each member of the team trusts the
others to complete tasks, the team will thrive. The team must be able to speak
openly and share ideas without recrimination.
Team leaders must trust the team members at all times. Micromanaging teams does
not produce the best results. Some team leaders feel they must involve themselves
in the responsibilities given to other members of the team. This is an ineffective way
to manage a team. The members of a micromanaged team will depend on the leader
to provide all guidance and will not share ideas. It is also common that
micromanaged team members will not complete assigned tasks without the direction
and intervention of the team leader, due to a fear of failure or repetition of the task.
They will also not have trust in the team as a whole and may be unwilling to
participate fully. These deficiencies diminish the effectiveness of that team.
The team must communicate progress, obstacles, as well as resolution of these
obstacles, Open and clear communication is essential to a good team. Members
should be able to successfully express their ideas verbally. They should be able to
listen with an open mind to the ideas of other members. They should be able to build
a consensus and work towards the team’s goal and not their personal goals.
The need for trust arises from each team member’s interdependence on others.
Team members often depend on other people to help obtain, or at least not to
frustrate, the outcomes that are valued. As each member’s interests with others are
intertwined, it is important to recognize that there is an element of risk involved
insofar as situations will occur where one team member compels the cooperation that
is sought. Therefore, trust is very valuable in team interactions.
Trust has been identified as a key element of successful conflict resolution (including
negotiation and mediation). This is not surprising insofar as trust is associated with
enhanced cooperation, information sharing, and problem solving.
The managers of Justice Federal Credit Union must successfully fulfill the role of a
team. They must work together to meet the organizational goals, understand and
communicate information to their individual branches and department teams, as well
as participate and communicate information with the project teams.
Exercise: Building a Team
What does it take, beyond trust, to build an effective team? Below is quiz to
determine if team building is needed. As it is taken, think about the management
team, not other teams participated in. After it is completed, there will be a group
consensus of the answers.
The Justice FCU Management Team
To what degree do you believe the following characteristics exist in the
management team at Justice FCU?
Low Degree High Degree
Poor communication 1 2 3 4 5
Members afraid to speak up 1 2 3 4 5
Loss of productivity 1 2 3 4 5
Goals not being met 1 2 3 4 5
Belief that employees are not 1 2 3 4 5
recognized for good work
Complaining outside the team 1 2 3 4 5
Conflicts among team members 1 2 3 4 5
Decisions made that members do not 1 2 3 4 5
Confusion about roles and assignments 1 2 3 4 5
Limited time working together 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of commitment to the team goals 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of involvement 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of trust 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of creativity 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of risk-taking 1 2 3 4 5
Ineffective team meetings 1 2 3 4 5
To score, add up the numbers that have been circled. Refer to this scale:
26-32 Team functions well
33-48 Team could function better, but has no major difficulties
49-64 Team needs to function better
Over 64 Team functions poorly
Empowering the Team
The team leader must be empowered, before the team can be empowered. The
team leader must accept that his or her success resides in the empowerment of the
team. This is not an easy task. The team leader must have the belief that the team
is effective and will be successful.
To empower the team:
Develop individual team member skills.
Build the team.
Encourage learning from mistakes.
Allow the team to set goals.
Open organizational doors that allow the team to
Listen to the problems of the team and coach
members to overcome those problems.
Recognize small achievements.
Set high expectations and standards
Celebrate with the team.
Today’s business leaders understand that great teamwork makes successful
companies. Changes occur very rapidly, too rapidly for one person to know every
thing about every issue with total accuracy. To keep up with change, teamwork is
Create the team, trust the team, and empower the team for success.
Leadership: the ability to influence people
toward the attainment of an organization goal.
Leadership causes others to do what the leader wants them to do. A good leader
motivates others to exert their best efforts. A leadership theorist, James M. Bass,
developed the theory of transformational leadership. He defines this as “Someone
who raises (follower’s) awareness about issues of consequence, shifts them to higher
level needs, and influences them to transcend their own self interests for the good of
the group or organization and to work harder than they originally expected they
Exercise: Interpreting Transformational Leadership
Please write down how you feel each part of his definition can be accomplished:
Raises (follower’s) awareness about issues of consequence
Shifts awareness to higher level needs
Influences them to transcend their own self interests for the good of the group or
Work harder than they originally expected they would
Can YOU be a leader?
Whether you realize it or not, you already have the ability, the knowledge, and the
experience to become a leader. Leadership is an observable, learnable set of skills.
It’s not something mystical that can’t be mastered by ordinary people with the desire
and determination to substantially improve their leadership abilities.
Your position as a branch or department manager plays an important role in
establishing the attitudes of the staff team. Although there are exceptions,
employees will usually reflect the manager’s assumptions and the manager’s
relationship with them. The manager has a profound effect on the quality of the work
environment, and the morale of the staff. Your attitude, your actions, and your words
are influential to your staff and the rest of the Justice FCU employees.
1. Leadership is a rare skill.
Nothing is further from the truth. While great leaders may be a rare as great
athletes, great artists, or great musicians, everyone has leadership potential.
There are unlimited leadership roles in organizations, and in life. People may be
leaders in one organization and have quite ordinary roles in another.
2. Leaders are born, not made.
Sometimes it seems as though the leaders we learned about in school were born
with extraordinary powers to lead. In actuality, great leaders work hard to fulfill
leadership roles. The major qualities and competencies of leadership can be
learned, if you have the desire.
3. Leaders are charismatic.
Some are, but most are not. Leaders, for the most part, are normal, regular
people. Research shows that there is nothing in terms of appearance,
personality, or style that sets leaders apart from their followers.
4. Leadership exists only at the top of an organization.
The larger the organization, the more leadership roles are available to those who
make the effort to lead. Each branch and each department is a small
entrepreneurial section within the organization that requires leadership.
5. A leader controls and manipulates others.
This is the most damaging myth of all. Leadership is not the exercise of
power, but the empowerment of others. Leaders lead by pulling rather than
pushing. They create expectations and reward progress toward them.
Leader versus Manager
There is a significant difference between management and leadership. However,
both are very important in your roles as department and branch managers. To
manage means to bring about, to accomplish, to take charge of or responsibility for,
and to conduct. Managing is about efficiency. Management is about systems,
controls, policies, procedures, and structure. Leadership is influencing, guiding in
direction, course, action, and opinion.
Leader versus Manager Qualities
Problem solving Flexible
Stabilizing Initiates change
Position Power Personal power
Organizations need officers and supervisors to be both a manager and a leader.
Leaders help provide people pride and satisfaction in their work. They inspire people
to higher levels of achievement by showing them how their work contributes to
worthwhile ends. Managers set goals and objectives and ensure that work is
completed productively, efficiently and on schedule. Managers at Justice FCU must
effectively blend both the qualities of an inspiring leader and a consistent manager.
One of the major differences between a manager and a leader is the source of
power. Sometimes power comes from an individual’s position in the credit union,
while other sources of power are based on personal characteristics.
Power: the potential ability to influence the behaviors of others.
The traditional manager’s power comes from the organization. The manager’s
position gives him or her the power to reward or punish subordinates in order to
influence their behavior. In contrast, personal power is the tool of the leader.
Subordinates follow a leader because of the respect, admiration or caring they feel
for the individual and his or her ideas.
The Five Practices and Ten Commitments
In the book The Leadership Challenge, Kouzes and Posner set forth Five Practices
and Ten Commitments that all leaders must model:
Model the Way.
FIND YOUR VOICE by clarifying your personal values.
SET THE EXAMPLE by aligning actions with shared
Inspire a Shared Vision.
ENVISION THE FUTURE by imaging exciting and
ENLIST OTHERS in a common vision by appealing to
Challenge the Process.
SEARCH FOR OPPORTUNITIES by seeking innovative
ways to change, grow and improve.
EXPERIMENT AND TAKE RISKS by constantly
generating small wins and learning from mistakes.
Enable Others to Act.
FOSTER COLLABORATION by promoting cooperative
goals and building trust.
STREGTHEN OTHERS by sharing power and discretion.
Encourage the Heart.
RECOGNIZE CONTRIBUTIONS by showing appreciation
for individual excellence.
CELEBRATE THE VALUES AND VICTORIES by
creating a spirit of community.
Values and Vision
Values: a principle or quality intrinsically desirable
or important to an individual.
Values are ideals that guide or qualify your personal conduct, interaction with others,
and involvement in your career. Values help you distinguish what is right from what
is wrong. They are also the basis of how you can conduct your life and your career in
Every leader must have values. These are an important part of how managers guide
themselves day by day. Values relate to the role of manager and also the self. The
way you live your values is important.
Vision: an ideal and unique image of the future.
Research has shown that there is one trait that every leader shares: concern with a
guiding purpose or vision. Their visions and intentions pull people towards them. A
vision can be pictured—it has form and color. People want to know what the future
will look like and feel like when they arrive at their goal.
engages your heart and your spirit.
taps into concerns and needs.
asserts what you want to create.
provides meaning to the work.
is a living document that can always be changed.
is based in two deep human needs: quality and dedication.
Exercise: The Importance of Workplace Values
Please write down six workplace values you identified in the pre-class Vision
Now imagine that you have been given a six month sabbatical, all expenses paid, to
a Caribbean island. The sun shines, a gentle breeze blows, and the waters are
crystal clear. You may not take any work with you and you are not allowed to
communicate by email, telephone, or any other means. You will be out of touch with
the office the entire six months. Before you leave, those with whom you work need to
know something. You need to explain to them your vision and how that should guide
their decision making and actions while you are away.
Divide into groups. Each member of the group will read his or her vision statement
aloud. Then the group will consider the best way to express this vision to the staff
before you leave.
Here’s what I would do:
Management: the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and
efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Simply stated, management is the art of getting things done through people.
What does it really mean to be a manager? Being a manager can be an immensely
satisfying experience for you and those who work for you. By effectively managing
the efforts of others, you have more opportunities to make things happen. You can
be a leader, a mentor, a person of vision and action who is respected and rewarded
for your contributions.
Manager’s responsibilities include:
Seeing that all work for your branch or department is completed properly.
Having a concern for the big picture.
Working through others.
Communicating information effectively.
Working with other managers and teams.
Your experience as a manager is unique. The job is undoubtedly harder than you
expected and almost certainly lacks the glamour and power you may have imagined.
You must get used to the idea of having difficult conversations with people, and may
be amazed at the topics you must discuss.
Learning the skills and techniques of successful management is helpful, but it does
not always translate into being an effective manager. Many management roles, such
as leader, negotiator, and coach, take practice. These skills are learned through your
commitment to improvement and practice.
Often times, people who are good workers and have good skills are promoted into
management roles. It takes commitment to learn new skills, adopt a broader
perspective, and make deeper commitments.
Poor interpersonal skills cause managers most of their problems. They don’t listen
enough, they don’t share enough information, and they fail to treat employees with
respect. Arrogance, disrespect, and unpleasant attitudes lead to predictable results:
alienation, lack of trust, high turnover, and poor morale.
Here are some perceptions about difficult managers:
Give many orders, but rarely listen to new ideas.
Say little about what is going on elsewhere in the organization.
Fail to plan well, which means employees must pick up the slack.
Provide confusing feedback and performance reviews.
Set staff members against themselves with favoritism.
Do not support employees’ effort to do their job.
The job of being a manager is complex and multidimensional. Three categories are
used to describe the essential skills necessary for managers:
A conceptual skill involves the manager’s thinking and planning abilities. It involves
knowing where the department or branch fits strategically into the total credit union
Human skills are the manager’s ability to work with and through people, as well as
work well as a member of other groups and teams. This skill is demonstrated in the
way the manager relates to other people and includes the ability to motivate, coach,
lead, communicate, and solve problems. A manager’s human skills allow employees
to express themselves without fear of ridicule and encourage participation in the
process. A manager with human skills respects other people and is respected by
Technical skills include mastery of the methods, techniques, and equipment used
every day to do the business of the department or branch. It also includes
specialized knowledge, analytical ability, the competent use of available tools, and
the ability to solve problems.
Successful branches and departments do not just happen. They are managed to be
that way. As a manager, you have some choices to make. What kind of boss do you
want to be?
How the Role of Manager Has Changed
Dependence on policies and procedures Dependence on good judgment and
Technical skills Communication skills
High value place on rigidity High value placed on flexibility and
Control of workers Motivation of workers
“Us first” mentality “Members first” mentality
Administrative skills Entrepreneurial skills
Specific responsibilities Ambiguity, blurring of roles
Static skill training Constant learning
Management of a homogeneous Management of a diverse workforce
Exercise: My Current Management Skill Level
Assess your skills level as objectively as you can in each category listed below. Rate
yourself according to the following scale:
4 Excellent 3 Good 2 Fair 1 Poor
My Rating Management Skill
Set Goals: The ability to set measurable goals that motivate me to
Motivate Employees: The ability to get other employees to perform their
Appraise Employees’ Performance: The ability to accurately and
effectively evaluate employee performance in a timely manner.
Provide Feedback: The ability to deliver timely, specific. and
constructive feedback to employees.
Delegate: The ability to complete work effectively through other
employees while raising their skill level and development.
Listen: The ability to correctly and actively hear the communication of
Solve Problems: The ability to understand, evaluate, and rectify
problems in the workplace.
Discipline Employees: The ability to provide honest feedback to
employees in a way that facilitates improvement.
Manage Conflict: The ability to resolve conflicts between others, as well
as yourself and others.
Communicate Verbally: The ability to verbally communicate information
to others clearly and effectively.
Interview: The ability to effectively question to get the desired
Conduct Meetings: the ability to facilitate a meeting so the intended
outcomes are achieved.
Exercise Authority: The ability to say “no” and mean it.
Make Decisions: The ability to make high quality decisions based on
Manage Time Effectively: The ability to organize and use time in an
Manage Personal Stress: The ability to cope with the pressures of the
Now review your answers and assess your strengths and weaknesses as a
My Strengths Areas I Need to Improve
Focus on Management
In the past few months, several employees were terminated. Each manager dealt
with the loss of an employee in a different manner.
John, a branch manager, lost a fairly new and well-liked teller due to a loss of over
$1,000. When informing his staff she would not be returning to work, he told them
she was no good and he was glad she had been “let go.” He expressed that she
had caused him a lot of extra work by not knowing how to do the job, and he just did
not have the time to train her. He said he was sorry that everyone had to pick up the
extra work on the teller line, but that was the way it went.
Cynthia, a department manager, lost an employee for a variety of reasons. The
employee was well liked throughout Justice FCU. After the employee was
terminated, Cynthia did nothing. She did not say anything to her staff about the loss
of this employee.
Molly, a department manager, lost a long time employee. It came to light that this
employee had lied on his resume and job application. Molly expressed to her staff
her regret that the employee was gone. She told them that she would miss him and
his expertise, but it was right that he was no longer an employee. She promised to
help the staff complete his work until a new employee could be hired and trained.
Which manager had the best transition after the loss of the employee?
Historical Forces Shaping Management
The practice of management can be traced to 3000 B.C. to the first government
organizations developed by the Sumerians and the Egyptians, but the formal study of
management emerged in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. That study
A management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of
management and tried to make organizations efficient operating machines.
Scientific Management (Frederick Winslow Taylor)
A subfield of classical management that emphasized scientifically determined
changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor
Bureaucratic Organizations (Max Weber)
A subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized
management on an impersonal, rational basis through such elements as
clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal record keeping, and
separation of management and ownership.
A management perspective that suggests jobs should be designed to meet
high-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential,
A management perspective that incorporates techniques from both Japanese
and American management practices. Japanese firms emphasize employee
involvement and the success of Japanese firms is often attributed to their
group orientation that focuses on trust and intimacy. In contrast, in the U.S.
the basic orientation is toward individual rights and achievements.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
A concept that focuses on managing the total organization to deliver quality to
members. Four significant elements of TQM are employee involvement, focus
on the customer, benchmarking, and continuous improvement.
Theory X and Theory Y
Two opposing philosophies of human nature have been identified by management
theorist Douglas MacGregor. Theory X assumes that employees are naturally
selfish, lazy, lacking in ambition, reluctant to assume responsibility, and don’t care
Assumptions of Theory X:
The average human has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.
Because of the human characteristic of dislike for work, most people must be
coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment to put forth
adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives.
The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid
responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and wants security above all.
Theory Y is often referred to as the human relations approach to management. This
theory suggests that workers desire increasing amounts of responsibility and skill
development to contribute to the success of the organization.
Assumptions of Theory Y:
The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or
rest. The average human being does not dislike work.
External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means to bring
about effort towards organizational goals. A person will exercise self-direction
and self-control in service of the objectives to which he or she is committed.
The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept,
but also to seek responsibility.
The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and
creativity to the solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly,
distributed in the population.
Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of
the average human being are only partially utilized.
A perceptive manager recognizes the fact that both Theory X and Theory Y
types of employees exist in the workplace. There are people who welcome
challenge and those who avoid work. The manager’s job is to effectively
lead both types to success
Exercise: Situational Leadership
Read each statement and choose the method you feel would be the most effective,
1. Interpersonal relationships have been pretty good, but performance has been
dropping during the last few months. Employees seem unconcerned about
meeting their goals. You continually need to remind them to meet deadlines.
They do not want to make their own decisions; they would rather have you make
decisions. Clarifying their roles has helped in the past.
a. Have employees plan strategies and goals and do not push for immediate
b. Incorporate any recommendations they may suggest and see that goals
c. Clarify roles and supervise carefully, but downplay friendliness.
d. Be open to any employee involvement, but do not push too much for better
2. Your staff, which is usually good about taking on responsibilities, is not
responding well to the recent changes you have implemented. They seem to be
dismayed or offended by your pressure on them to meet their goals. You have
put extra pressure on them because senior management is putting pressure on
a. Allow employees to become involved in redefining strategies and goals.
b. Implement changes and supervise carefully. Do not worry about
employees’ current state of mind, because they will get over it.
c. Avoid confronting the problem by not pressuring them anymore and ignore
their current state of mind.
d. Encourage group input. See that new changes are put in place.
3. Your employees are not responding lately to the personal attention you have
given them and your friendly approaches. Their performance is going downhill.
a. Emphasize policies, strategies, and the importance of improving
b. Be open toward employees and do not push for performance.
c. Talk to employees about their attitudes toward you and then emphasize
d. Do not intervene with respect to performance and stop being so friendly for
4. During the past few weeks, you have noticed that employees have not been
getting along. They have worked well together in the past. Their performance
continues to exceed goals.
a. Talk with employees about their interpersonal relations and the need to
change things in order to prevent performance from slipping.
b. Do nothing right now.
c. Take immediate and firm action right now to correct the problem. Do not
be friendly as a way to pacify them.
d. Be available for discussion, but be cautious of hurting your relationships
with employees. Do not take any action immediately to solve the problem.
5. Employee performance is improving. You have been making sure that everyone’s
goals are clear. Interpersonal relationships have been improving, too.
a. Continue to have friendly interactions, but continue to make sure that all
employees stay on track with their goals.
b. Do not emphasize performance anymore. Begin reducing the number of
c. Make your employees feel involved and good, but do not continue to
d. Emphasize the importance of goals and deadlines and de-emphasize
6. Performance and interpersonal relations are good. You feel a little uneasy about
your lack of direction with your staff. You have not emphasized production or
shown excessive friendliness and concern for your employees.
a. Leave your staff alone.
b. Discuss the situation and make necessary changes.
c. Direct employees toward specific strategies on meeting goals, but it is not
necessary to emphasize interpersonal relationships.
d. Be extra friendly to show your appreciation for their performance, but no
specific direction is required regarding performance.
7. Some new policies have been implemented which require you to shift some
responsibilities. Employees may have some good suggestions for you. They
have been flexible in these kinds of situations and they respect your opinion.
They like to be involved in the decisions that affect them, but they look to you as
the one who should make the decisions.
a. You decide the best way to shift the responsibilities.
b. Get buy-in from the employees on the need for the change and allow them
to organize the implementation.
c. Be open to the changes employees recommend, but maintain control of the
d. Avoid confrontation and leave things as they are.
8. You are a new manager. The previous manager was not liked by employees.
The employees have good interpersonal skills and seem to be doing a good job.
a. Redefine the goals. Do not be too friendly, so they will know you are the
b. Involve the employees in decision making to show them the importance of
their contributions. There is no need to emphasize performance.
c. Discuss the past performance and ask their opinions as you evaluate the
need for new strategies.
d. Leave well enough alone. Do nothing.
Situational Leadership Grid
SITUATION ONE TWO THREE FOUR
1 C B D A
2 B D A C
3 A C B D
4 C A D B
5 D A C B
6 C B D A
7 A C B D
8 A C B D
Quadrant 1: Directing Behaviors
Quadrant 2: Coaching Behaviors
Quadrant 3: Encouraging Behaviors
Quadrant 4: Delegating Behaviors
QUADRANT 1 QUADRANT 2
High Relationships High Relationship
Encouraging Behaviors Coaching Behaviors
Low Task High Task
QUADRANT 3 QUADRANT 4
Low Relationships Low Relationships
Delegating Behaviors Directing Behaviors
Low Task High Task
Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
This approach focuses attention on the characteristics of the employees in
determining appropriate leadership/ management styles. Employees vary in
readiness level. Those who are low in task readiness (new employees, for example)
may need a different style of management than those who are high in task readiness
and have good abilities, skills, confidence, and a willingness to grow.
Share ideas and facilitate in decision Explain the decisions and provide
making opportunity for clarification
Turn over the responsibility for Provide specific instructions and
decisions and implementation closely supervise performance
HIGH MODERATE MODERATE LOW
S4 S3 S2 S1
Able and willing or Able, but unwilling or Unable, but willing Unable and
confident insecure or confident unwilling or
Follower Directed Leader Directed
S1 Telling is for low readiness employees who are unable and unwilling to take
responsibility for their own performance.
S2 Selling is for employees with moderate readiness.
S3 Participating is for employees with moderate readiness.
S4 Delegating is for employees with high readiness.
Managers must always evaluate employees and use the most effective style to meet
their individual needs, If an employee is at a very low level of readiness, you must be
very specific and tell him or her exactly what to so, how to do it, and when to do it.
As the readiness of an employee grows and reaches a high level, the manager
provides a general goal and sufficient authority to complete the task as they see fit.
Focus on Management
Miguel is a head teller. The branch wonders how they would survive without him.
He helps everyone and members flock to his teller window because they enjoy
interacting with him.
Miguel got married last week, and everyone in the branch attended his wedding.
While he was on his honeymoon, it was discovered that he had taken $1,000 of
American Express Traveler’s Checks from the branch stock without processing the
transaction on Symitar. When he returned, he explained that he needed the money
for his honeymoon and planned to complete the transaction and use the checks
received as wedding gifts to pay for the Traveler’s Checks. He knew he would be
able to complete the transaction, and had the checks to prove it. He never meant to
steal the Traveler’s Checks.
Was Miguel’s decision a good one?
Good decision-making is an essential skill for career success generally, and effective
leadership particularly. If you can learn to make timely and well-considered
decisions, then you can often lead your team to spectacular and well-deserved
success. However, if you make poor decisions, your team risks failure and your time
as a leader will, most likely, be brutally short.
Learning to manage means learning to exercise sound judgment and make good
decisions. Effective management is a series of decisions that lead to the
accomplishment of organizational objectives. And, it is not as simple as sorting the
right decisions from the wrong decisions, because your options are rarely simply right
or simply wrong.
Senior Management requires you to use your best judgment and common sense to
choose the right course of action that will best support the organization when all
options are considered. We can control, or at least affect, our successes and failures
through the decisions we make.
Learning to make good decisions means analysis of those decisions facing you.
However, before you begin to make a decision, consider the following:
Focus on Management
Mary, a member of your staff, is asking to take PTO. Mary has never
managed her PTO very well. In the past, she has frequently used leave
without pay when she was too ill to come to work. She is requesting two
days off to celebrate her anniversary. Her current PTO balance is 20 hours, so
taking 16 hours will leave her only 4 hours. She also has not yet taken her required
5 consecutive business days of leave and it is October.
Who is responsible for this decision? You or Mary?
In many cases, decision-making is also problem solving. As a manager of human
beings, you will need to analyze problems. However, they are not always YOUR
problem and all of them include decisions. Consider the following:
It is ok to “push back” a problem or a decision to the staff member or team. By
letting the employee(s) make the decision and solve the problem, you build
skills and understanding of responsibilities.
“Pushing back” decisions is empowering to the employees. It lets them know
that it is ok to use their own decision-making skills.
“Pushing back” is a form of delegation: you ask the employee to make the
decision, which removes it from your “to-do” list.
It will require coaching at first. Like in Mary’s case above, you can explain the
situation to her and ask what she thinks is the best solution, but you will need
to coach her along the way and help her make the decision that is best for her
and for the organization.
When you “push back” decisions, it is important to remember that you will have to live
with the decisions that are made. You must be prepared to go the distance. It is
hard to teach yourself that you do not own every issue, make every decision, or solve
Decision Making Tools
Below are two decision-making tools. Understanding these tools is helpful as you
make decisions as a manager.
Six Slices of the Same Pie
This tool is an important and powerful technique. You will view decisions from six
important viewpoints and step away from your habitual style of thinking to see a
broader view of the situation.
Most people, especially those who are successful, think rationally and positively.
They see what they see, based on their background and experience. However, by
not looking at a decision from more perspectives, they fail to consider important
elements, such as emotion, intuition, negativity, or even creativity. They just do what
they always do.
Six Slices of the Same Pie will force you to look at a decision from a variety of
perspectives. You may use this technique with groups or on your own. Using it in
groups will help keep everyone on the same page and avoid the confrontations that
can occur. Remember: each Slice of Pie involves a different style of thinking.
Therefore, your group will use six styles to make the decision.
Slice of Apple: Here the focus is on available data. It is important to look at
all the available information and learn from it. Are there pieces of information
missing? Do you need that information or not? Look at past trends and try to
extrapolate needed information from the information you have.
Slice of Cherry: The focus here is on the intuition, instincts, and emotional
response of the decision maker, as well as consideration of how stakeholders
will react emotionally. Also, consider the reactions of group members who do
not share your style of thinking.
Slice of Mincemeat: Look at the bad things. What could go wrong? What
may not work? This step helps you see the weaknesses in your decision,
eliminate them, alter them, or plan for them. Mincemeat thinking has an
important role in this process. If you do not look at the dark side, your decision
is flawed, and your decision may contain fatal flaws. Most people tend to think
positively, so this slice is very important to the process.
Slice of Peach: Here the focus is on the positive and optimistic. Here is
where you look at the best, see the benefit of the decision, and the value of it
to the stakeholders. Peach thinking is optimistic and often gets you through
the “Mincemeat” times.
Slice of Rhubarb: This is creativity. You can use several tools here to
encourage creativity. SWOT, brainstorming, and drill down techniques are
great for creativity, especially with a group or team. It is important here to
encourage creativity and restrict criticism of ideas.
Slice of Blueberry: This is process, and usually the role of the team leader in
a group. The leader can use Blueberry thinking to direct the group back to
other slices of the pie to reenergize discussions and decisions.
This technique looks at a decision from six specific styles of thinking: data, emotion,
pessimism, positivism, creativity, and process. It includes the good and the bad,
including emotions and dark thinking. Decisions made with this technique will be
sounder and more resilient.
Where the Solution Lies
This is a simple decision making tool. It is used when changes are being put into
place that will, hopefully, make improvements. It will help you see where the real
problem lies and lead you toward the correct decision very quickly. It will help you
find the decision that has the greatest benefits toward solving the problem that faces
you. It is also helpful to sort out a number of choices that are available and help you
choose the best one.
Here are the steps:
1. Make a list of all the problems being faced or the options available at this time.
2. If the list is very long, group the items into related facets of the same option.
3. Score each item or related groups of items as a percentage of 100%. In the
end, the entire list of scores must equal 100%.
4. The best decision is to change the item or group of items, with the highest
score on the list first. By the time that change is accepted, the other, lower
scoring items on the list may not even require changing.
Your ability to make good decisions is essential in your role as a manager at Justice
FCU. Using these tools is a good place to begin.
In your job as a manager at Justice Federal Credit Union, you have two essential
avenues of communication:
1. Managerial Communication with your staff
2. Conducting and participating in constructive meetings with your staff and other
Communication: the process by which information is exchanged
and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to
motivate or influence behavior.
As a manager of people, how important is communication? Consider this: Managers
spend 80% of every working day communicating with others. In other words, 48
minutes of every hour is spent in meetings, on the telephone or talking formally or
informally with coworkers and staff. The other 20% is spent sitting at the desk,
completing tasks, most of which is also in the form of communicating by reading or
Communication permeates every management function:
Planning - gathering information, writing emails, letters, reports, meeting with
Leading - communicating with others to motivate them.
Organizing - gathering information and communicating it.
For communication to be effective, it must be:
Received: You must take the time and make the effort to communicate
important information to your employees and coworkers. If you don’t tell them,
they will not know.
Interpreted accurately (understood): Think about how you communicate
and provide sufficient facts to make sure that your intended message is
Remembered: Provide information in a form that can be taken away, such as
agendas, after meeting notes, handouts for the staff, etc.
Used: Follow up and be sure that what was communicated, especially when
really essential, is improving the work of the employees and/or team.
There are three important things to remember as you strive for effective
1. Expect to be misunderstood by at least some of your listeners or readers.
2. Expect to misunderstand others.
3. Strive to reduce the degree of misunderstanding, but you will never totally
eliminate it nor anticipate all possible outcomes.
Managers who believe giving orders is the most important form of communications
are in for a surprise. Listening is the key skill for effective communication, and
you must listen effectively to employees, members, vendors, teammates,
Our listening skills are only 25% effective. Why is that? Simply put, we think faster
that we speak. While most people can speak 125-150 words per minute, we can
listen at 450 words per minute. As a result, we get bored or frustrated by the
slowness of the speaker and fail to listen intently. We also concentrate a lot of our
“listening” time formulating what to say next, rather than on what is being said to
Employees say more and communicate more effectively when they believe someone
is really listening to them The people around you know when you are listening; you
may be surprised with the significance of their comments when you really listen.
A good listener is attentive and paraphrases what the speaker says to clarify and
confirm the meaning. The following tips will improve your listening skills:
Give your full attention to the speaker.
Project sincerity verbally and nonverbally.
Paraphrase for understanding.
Ask open and closed end questions.
Assertiveness and the Ability to Say “NO”
Assertiveness is important because you need this skill every day in your role as a
manager. Imagine how mush easier your job will be when your employees and
supervisors understand you and feel that you are forthright with them. Your
assertiveness will increase your effectiveness when you coach and counsel your
employees. You will be better prepared when employees try to manipulate, mislead,
or even lie to you.
Assertiveness: communication characterized by
positive, direct, honest, and confident expressions
about your decisions, ideas, or rights.
Assertive communication tells those around you that you do not beat around the
bush. Assertive communication is clear and easy to understand.
Exercise: HOW ASSERTIVE ARE YOU?
Respond to each item with yes or no, by checking the appropriate box. Then check
your score, using the instructions at the end of the quiz. This quiz will tell you if you
need to work on being more assertive.
1 I state my own view when someone with more authority disagrees with me.
2. I express irritation if someone with whom I am talking starts talking to someone
else in the middle of our conversation.
3. I insist that the landlord or repairperson make timely reports.
4. I openly express love or affection and tell people that I care for them.
5. I make direct eye contact when speaking with someone.
6. When a person is being highly unfair, I call it to his or her attention.
7. I ask friends for small favors or help.
8. I say no without apology if people make unreasonable demands of me.
9. At work, I suggest new procedures or ways of doing things.
10. I cut short phone calls when I am busy.
11. I am able to refuse unreasonable requests made by others.
12. I look for a seat in the front of a crowded room rather than sit in the back of the
13. If someone keeps kicking the back of my seat, I ask him or her to stop.
14. I can speak in front of a group without becoming nervous.
15. I have confidence in my judgment.
16. I seek repayment from a friend who borrowed $10 and forgot to repay me.
17. I remain calm when others are reviewing my work or scrutinizing it.
18. I speak up in a meeting, if I feel my idea is relevant.
19. I do not apologize for what I am about to say.
20. I ask a friend who calls me late at night not to call after a certain time.
21. When merchandise is faulty, I return it for adjustment.
22. I can ask for a raise or a promotion without feeling overly anxious of nervous.
23. I speak firmly and loudly enough to be heard and understood.
24. I state my own and others’ limitations without feeling guilty.
25. When I meet someone for the first time, I introduce myself and extend my
26. I can work with others without trying to make them feel guilty or manipulated.
27. In a restaurant, if a meal is unacceptable, I ask the waiter to correct it.
28. I express my opinions, rather than keeping them to myself.
29. I am able to confront an issue or problem at work rather than call in sick.
30. I insist that my spouse or roommate take on a fair share of the household
Total: YES__________ NO___________
Scoring Key based on the number or “YES” answers:
26 or more You may need to tone down your assertiveness.
22 -26 You are assertive enough.
15-21 You have some areas to work on.
Less than 15 You have some major work to do to become more assertive.
Assertive Communication Skills
Describe directly and completely the situation you are concerned about.
Explain how others behavior affects you.
Say no and mean it.
Know the facts before taking a position.
Focus your comments on observable behaviors.
State firmly and specifically the changes you would like to take place.
Be more concerned with earning the respect of others than their affection.
Say what you mean.
Formal Organizational Communication
There are typically three directions in which formal organizational communication
Downward communication refers to the messages and information sent from senior
managers to subordinates. This form of communication may come in forms such as
speeches, announcements on Intramation, procedures, email, etc.
Upward communication includes information that flows from lower to higher levels
within the organization. Combining a sufficient flow of upward and downward
communication helps ensure that the communication between management and
employees is complete. The types of information communicated upward include
problems, suggestions for improvement, performance evaluations, grievances, and
disputes, financial, and accounting information.
In an effort to facilitate upward communication, management uses techniques such
as quarterly management meetings, employee surveys, suggestion boxes, and face-
to-face conversations. Despite these efforts, barriers to upward communication may
exist. Managers may resist hearing about employee problems, or employees may
not trust managers sufficiently to provide information upward.
Horizontal communication refers to the exchange of information between peers and
coworkers within and across departments. The purpose of horizontal communication
is to inform and request support.
Informal communication may include many types of conversation—some important
and some just friendly. But informal communication is a very important part of good
Management By Walking Around
A communication technique called Management by Walking Around (MBWA) was
made famous by the books In Search of Excellence and A Passion for Excellence by
Tom Peters and Robert Waterman. These books describe executives who talk
directly to employees to learn what is going on in the organization. MBWA works well
for managers at all levels of an organization by mingling and developing positive
relationships with employees and learning directly from them about their work.
Informal communication will not happen without some effort on your part. You have
to make it easy for people to share their thoughts with you. Consider the following:
Are you a good listener? If you practice the listening skills we have discussed,
your employees will know you are paying attention and that you really care
what they have to say
Are you approachable? If your management style encourages people to
approach you, they will open up and share more information.
Are you trustworthy? If employees know you will not misuse information, the
risk they take in talking with you is diminished.
Are you fair? If you are fair and act fair, it will elicit trust from employees.
Are you predictable? If you react equally and consistently to information that
is shared, employees will base their readiness to talk to you based on those
As Marvin Gaye once said, “I heard it through the grapevine.” Your employees hear
information daily from this informal, person-to-person communication network. The
grapevine links employees in all directions. Sometimes the communication is true or
partly true, and other times it is false, but you can never stop this form of workplace
communication. Realize that employees are going to think and talk about things that
affect them and their jobs. To reduce rumors, provide employees with adequate work
related information. Decide carefully if it is necessary and possible to keep a secret.
Hush-hush information is always more interesting and susceptible to rumors.
As a manager at Justice FCU, meetings are apart of every day: staff meetings,
project meetings, team meetings. Communication through meetings is essential to
our ability to meet organizational goals, share ideas, and make decisions.
The success of every meeting depends on what is done before, during, and after a
meeting. All meetings take time and cost money. Consider a weekly one-hour staff
meeting, held 52 weeks per year with 5 employees attending. If hourly rates for
those five employees average $12, each weekly meeting costs the organization $60
and over a year costs $3,120 in salaries and productivity. As a result, to make
meetings pay off in the time and money required to hold them, each meeting must be
Before a Meeting
The very first step is to decide whether you really need to meet. Unnecessary
meetings are one of the biggest time waters in organization. Bill Gates once said,
“Meetings that largely involve status updates are signs of poor information flow.” So,
before you begin to plan and schedule a meeting, consider:
Could a meeting be avoided by another means of communication, such as
Is there a goal for the meeting?
Is the topic for everyone you plan to invite, or could it be handled in informal
If you decide to lead a meeting, pay attention to the following guidelines:
Set a goal for the meeting. Every meeting should have a goal or a purpose
to be achieved. If one does not exist, find another way to communicate.
Decide to invite only the people who must attend to meet the goal. The
whole team does not need to attend every project meeting. Think about
having smaller, more specific meetings, than one big project meeting on a
Create an agenda. The agenda should include the goal of the meeting and
the specific topics in the order they will be addressed. Assign the person
responsible for handling each topic, so he or she can be prepared. Set times
for the meeting and each topic and as the meeting leader, keep everyone on
Create the meeting information. Create and/or draw together the relevant
documents needed to meet the goal.
Send a meeting request through Microsoft Outlook. Do this far enough in
advance for everyone to prepare. Attach the agenda and all relevant
documents to the meeting request.
During the Meeting
To lead a constructive meeting, there are several important steps:
Lead the meeting. You have assigned others to agenda items and it is their
role to come to the meeting prepared to lead that discussion. Your role is to
keep the meeting on track, to assign further responsibilities, and help elicit
Start on time. Meetings that start late are a waste of time for those who
arrived on schedule. Meetings should begin and end promptly. Those who
are late will be responsible for learning what was missed outside the meeting.
Wrap up the meeting. At the end of each meeting, provide a quick summary
of the meeting goal and the steps were taken to meet it. Go over assignments
given during the meeting to ensure that everyone knows what is expected of
him or her. If time permits, take a few minutes to determine if the meeting
process met the established goals.
Good Meeting Leaders Should:
Establish a forum for team members to provide updates and
status reports outside of team meetings.
Hold team members accountable for staying up to date.
Ask targeted questions to elicit thinking and questions
surrounding the meeting goal.
Create a safe environment in which all ideas are considered and
met with positive encouragement.
Convey with words and actions that active participation is
expected and require input from all team members present.
Ensure that every meeting is productive by gaining input,
determining next steps, and assigning accountability.
After the Meeting
There are two important steps to be taken:
Send post-meeting information. After the meeting, send the meeting
minutes to all participants. If team members were not needed at the meeting,
send them this information so they will understand the decisions that were
made. Include a summary for everyone.
Follow-up with individuals assigned tasks. Make sure they remain on track
and offer to lend assistance if needed.
Leading Teleconference Participants
Before the Call
Send the appropriate invitation and agenda to all participants, including those
attending by telephone. Be sure to provide all printed materials (agenda,
background information, etc.) to participants in advance. It is important that
participants come prepared to every meeting, so define what you expect of them and
provide some ideas on how they can do this.
With teleconferenced meetings, it's imperative that all attendees are on the
phone and ready to begin at the set start time. Also, it is essential that
telephone participants dedicate the time for full attention to the meeting. If the
meeting has been properly planned, it is well worth every participant’s time to
attend and participate fully. Highlight the importance of this when you email
the meeting information to them.
During the Call
Always take roll call first. This lets everyone know exactly who's in the room. If
some of the meeting participants haven't met previously, take some time to let each
participant introduce himself and explain why he or she is attending the meeting.
Next, outline the agenda and highlight the objective of this meeting. It's probably a
good idea to define the meeting ground rules and expected behavior during the
meeting. For example, ask participants to speak naturally, identify themselves when
speaking, pause for others to comment and spell unusual terms, names, and
numbers. Basically, you should explain the importance of communicating as clearly
as possible to avoid confusion.
During the meeting, try to direct questions and comments to specific individuals or
locations. This way you can avoid having several people talking at once.
Being a Good Meeting Participant
It is as important to be a good meeting participant as it is to be a good meeting
leader. Here are some checkpoints to consider before you attend your next meeting:
Keep your Calendar on Outlook updated at all times. This allows a
meeting planner to view the up to date schedule of all participants and choose
a time that will work for all participants.
Accept or decline the invitation in a timely manner. If you must decline, let
the meeting planner know why. If you will not be in-person for the meeting,
provide a telephone number where you can be reached.
If you feel that your attendance at this meeting is not necessary, discuss
this with the meeting’s leader.
Review the agenda and any materials provided prior to the meeting. Bring
copies of everything provided to the meeting.
If you are a topic leader, be prepared. Know what you want to accomplish
during your section in accordance with the meeting’s goal. If you have
materials that need to be reviewed prior to the meeting, email them to the
meeting planner for distribution. If you are bringing materials, make ample
copies for all participants. Do not forget those participants who will be on the
Arrive on time. If you are participating by telephone, be available several
minutes before the meeting is scheduled to be placed on the conference call.
It is important that the meeting begin on time.
Participate fully in the meeting, especially on the phone.
Listen to the discussion actively, ask relevant questions, and always keep
the meeting goal in mind.
Be courteous to all other participants, allowing them the opportunity to
voice opinions and share ideas.
Be prepared to come to agreement with the group as decisions are made.
Compromise when you can. Hold your ground in a relevant way when
Stay on topic and keep your discussions within the agenda topic and the
Be aware of the time limitations for each topic and keep remarks within
Let the leader lead. If the time limit for a topic was not adequate, it is the
leader’s decision to table the discussion for a later time, or continue it at that
time. Respect this decision.
At the end of the meeting, be sure you understand any actions you are
required to accomplish and the deadlines for completion. Agree with the
team on these deadlines before you leave the meeting.
Complete any required actions on time. Report your findings or activities to
the group when completed.
Business people write everyday. It may be a performance review, a proposal or an
update to a project, or an email. But effective writing is part of the daily routine of
The way you write provides a perception of you to the reader. Well-written
documents that have been thoroughly proofread are without errors that may send the
wrong impression of the writer.
Business writing is fundamentally defined as being persuasive, so knowing the
audience is crucial to its success. At its most basic level, business writing seeks to
convince that reader that what is being said is true. It may try to persuade the reader
to take an action or think about something in a certain way. It is difficult to persuade
people if you do not take their feelings, perspectives, and needs into account.
Sometimes you will know your audience personally and other times you will not know
the audience or may need to write to more than one person. You will need to use
different strategies. For example, when writing to a group, there is no single
perspective to consider. More people, with different perspectives will read the
There are two kinds of readers: skimmers and skeptics.
Skimmers are typically very busy people. They use the technique of
skimming to understand how much attention must be given to the document.
To prepare a document for skimmers:
o State the main point clearly at the beginning of the document. If you
can put it in the first sentence, the skimmer will probably read it.
o Place the most important information at the beginning of each
paragraph and highlight key dates and figures. This draws the
skimmer’s attention to what is important in the document.
Skeptics are people who are doubtful or cautious. Skeptics will read a
document carefully, word for word, and will doubt its veracity as it is read. To
prepare a document for skeptics:
o Make sure your document is well organized and all your figures, facts,
and dates are correct.
o Proofread carefully. Once a skeptic sees a mistake, the veracity of
entire document is at stake.
Readers from a different culture will often have a different set of expectations. Be
sensitive to these when required. For example, readers from a different culture may
want a polite introduction to the document prior to getting to the point. Here are
some universal strategies for this type of writing:
Maintain formality by using titles and family names to convey an attitude of
Avoid slang, jargon and other figures of speech, such as user-friendly, zero
Be specific and illustrate your points with concrete examples.
Provide a summary at the end of the document.
The goal of content is always to include enough information to make the point, but
not too much to waste the reader’s time or obscure your main point. Knowing your
audience requires understanding HOW MUCH information is too much. Sometimes
we tend to over explain in an attempt to convince the reader of our point of view.
This is true with oral communication also. As you dig through the message, continue
to answer the question “WHY” until you reach the exact level of information required.
You will be able to write most persuasively if you organize your message to meet the
needs of the reader.
How to Begin Written Communication
It is important to get organized prior to writing a business letter, memo, or email that
will effectively present the intended message. Without this organization, the writing is
often ineffective. Here are some tips to get started:
Start with an outline. Use a traditional outline or mind maps.
Give yourself enough time to complete several drafts.
Do not begin to rewrite until you have completed the entire first draft.
Do not try to impress by using big words or long sentences. Keep the
Use spell check carefully and fully.
Edit and rewrite, repeatedly, until you are satisfied with the result.
Have another person read and comment on the content and style. Ask
them to discern your message. Ask them to proofread it for you.
If possible, put the document away for a day, and then read it again with
fresh eyes. Make changes, if needed.
Proofreading is Essential
As we saw in the email exercise, poorly proofread documents leave a bad impression
of the writer. Whether in a written document or an email, proofreading is a skill that
all business people must use daily.
Effective Proofreading Tips
Proofread backwards. Begin at the end and work back through the paper paragraph
by paragraph or even line by line. This will force you to look at the surface elements
rather than the meaning of the paper.
Place a ruler under each line as you read it. This will give your eyes a manageable
amount of text to read.
Know your own typical mistakes. Look over items you have written in the past.
Make a list of the errors you make repeatedly.
Proofread for one type of error at a time. If commas are your most frequent
problem, go through the paper checking just that one problem. Then proofread again
for the next most frequent problem. Read through your writing several times, once
looking just at spelling, another time looking just at punctuation, and so on. Again,
this can help you focus so you'll do a better job.
Try to take a break between writing and proofreading. Set the writing aside for at
least twenty minutes.
Proofread once aloud. This will slow you down and you will hear the difference
between what you meant to write and what you actually wrote.
Ask someone else to read over your writing and help you find sentences that
aren't clear, places where you're being wordy, and any errors. If you need help, ask
for it. If you're not sure if you need that comma or whether to use "affect" or "effect”,
look it up in a writing handbook, or ask your coworker for help.
Use the spell-check on your computer, but use it carefully. Do your own spell
checking. Computer spell-checkers often make errors - they might suggest a word
that isn't what you want at all, and they don't know the difference between there,
their, and they're, for example.
Turn on Grammar Check. This Word tool will designate items in your writing that
are not grammatically correct. Use it. Go to Tools/Options. Click the Spelling and
Grammar Tab. Place a check in the boxes next to Check grammar as you type and
Check grammar with spelling. Click OK.
Remember that proofreading isn't just about errors. You want to polish your
sentences at this point, making them smooth, interesting, and clear. Watch for
very long sentences, since they may be less clear than shorter, more direct
sentences. Pay attention to the rhythm of your writing; try to use sentences of
varying lengths and patterns. Look for unnecessary phrases, repetition, and
Exercise: Good Written Communication
You are the head of Office Services for your institution. The credit union will replace
all metal door keys with plastic key cards on July 1. Key cards are being used,
because of the efficiency and security they offer: a log of entrance to the building and
use of doors and entrances is kept automatically. Because of ordering difficulties,
keys will arrive on July 1, 2006. Each employee must turn in their current metal key,
if they have one, in exchange for a key card. Those without metal keys will need to
obtain a key card to move throughout the building. The door locks will not be
activated until 75% of all employees have been issued key card, so effective issuing
procedures must be developed.
Write a memo to the staff of the headquarters building. Explain the institution’s
procedure changes and key card responsibilities. Let them know that each employee
must see you on July 1 to exchange metal keys for plastic key cards. Today is June
Use the letter format on the next page to write your letter.
Use this area to outline or mind map your memo:
Did you know that the most common phobia that Americans have is public speaking?
Seventy-five percent of all Americans report having a fear of public speaking, which
is more than the fear of spiders, fear of the dark and even fear of death!
To overcome that fear, most people avoid the task. But as a manager at Justice
Federal Credit Union there are many times that you may need to speak in public: for
business development, manager’s meetings, staff meetings, etc.
Public Speaking: the art of effective
communication with an audience.
The key to public speaking, and overcoming any fears you may have, is good
preparation. There are three steps to creating an effective speech:
1. Know your audience.
2. Write your speech.
Know Your Audience
You will be speaking to a specific group of people. It is important to assess that
group before beginning to organize and write your speech. Here are some things to
think about as you decide how to create an effective presentation:
Research the audience, if necessary. Know who will be attending. What is
the average age of the attendees? How much do they know about the
subject? Think this step through, ask questions of those organizing the event,
and get to know who will attend.
Use appropriate words and body language to meet the needs of the audience.
A presentation for career day at a school is not the place to use words like
“software development”. It is important that your audience understands the
words being used. If you underestimate your audience and use words that are
too simple, they will be bored.
Think about the image you wish to convey. Based on the audience, think
carefully about your message.
o Treat the audience as a single entity. If you pretend that the audience
is one person, there is more of a personal connection during your
o Make eye contact. Look around the room and hold the eyes of
individual audience members. Doing this makes a connection and that
is the goal of public speaking.
o Consider audience participation. This is a technique which encourages
them to pay attention. You can include a show of hands, giving them
Write Your Speech
There are three main components to a well-written speech:
1. A Strong Opening
This is a very important portion of any speech. You need to grab the attention of the
audience from the very beginning. If you come up with something clever, shocking,
or interesting at the beginning, you will be off to a good start. Here are some
techniques to use:
Be dramatic. “I am about to reveal a plan that will drastically alter the face of
humanity” when the presentation is about a new brand of facial soap. Drama
Tell a joke. Getting people to laugh will loosen them up and make them
inclined to like you and hear what you have to say. Do not use this technique
if your joke telling skills are tenuous, and people groan after your jokes are
told. Also, be careful about the kind of joke you tell.
Tell a story. Keep it short and keep it relevant to the purpose of the speech.
Lead your audience with the story.
Pose a question. Asking a good question is an excellent way to begin. Make
it relevant and thought provoking and it will grab your audience because they
want to know the answer.
2. A Purposeful Body
Here is where you place the information you want to deliver to the audience.
Everything you want to say should be said here in an organized and untrivialized
fashion. There are two useful techniques to organize the body of the speech:
Outline your thoughts. Use a standard outlining procedure to list the topics
you need to cover and the information about each topic. Putting it on paper
will help you get to the purpose of the speech and provide an outline of
information to use while speaking.
Mind Map Your Thoughts. Mind Mapping is a less formal way to outline the
body of your speech. Write the main topic of the speech in the center of a
piece of paper. Then branch out to the supporting ideas. This is a
brainstorming technique; you will still need to outline the speech.
Remember that the body of your speech must make the point and be well organized
with supporting information.
3. A Memorable Conclusion
This is where you tie everything together and help the audience walk away from your
speech with the objective firmly in their minds. Sum everything up in a few concise
sentences and leave them with a clear and memorable thought.
You may use the outline two ways. You may use it write the speech, as most
politicians do. Writing the speech means you must be able to read it, while
interacting with the audience or memorize it. You may also just create the outline
and practice and build your speech based on it. Whatever you plan to do, here are
some pointers to follow when putting together the final speech:
Vary your word choice. Use interesting and different words and phrases to
keep things new. A thesaurus is a good tool to use.
Keep your words conversational. Even in a technical speech, your audience
will stay attentive if you are conversing. Being too formal will be a barrier to
the needed connection with the audience.
Most effective public speakers practice the speech before presenting it to the
audience. Practice is very helpful in overcoming the fear of public speaking, because
you will be comfortable with the words and the effective delivery of those words. This
builds your confidence and makes the presentation easier.
Here are some practice tips:
Read the speech aloud several times. Watch the flow of your words and how
comfortable you are with those words. Make changes, if needed.
Stand in front of a mirror and read the speech. Watch your body language as
you speak. Make improvements where needed.
Read the speech aloud to a coworker or family member and ask for their
comments. Use those comments to refine your presentation.
Recite the speech in your mind or out loud as often as possible. Driving to
work is a great place to practice.
Remember the old adage: PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT!
Exercise: Preparing and Presenting a Speech
The purpose of this exercise is to improve your public speaking skills and allow you
to practice the effective process of developing and presenting a speech.
In class tomorrow, you will give short speech to the other L.E.A.D. participants. Use
the following worksheets to plan your speech, then practice. During your speech,
other participants will listen to your presentation and provide a comment sheet to aid
This will be an introductory speech and the purpose is to introduce yourself to the
audience. This is not meant to be an oral resume, but a way to help us learn more
about you and who you are. You can tell about a hobby, an interest, or a vacation,
as long as the content allows us to get to know you better.
The speech is to be three minutes long and will be timed. A green card will be
displayed as you begin. The yellow card will be displayed when you have 1 minute
left. The red card will be displayed at the end of the three-minute limit and you will
need to conclude within 10 seconds.
Know Your Audience
1. Who is the audience?
2. What type of words and body language will convey the purpose of your speech
most effectively to this audience?
3. What image would you like to convey?
Write Your Speech
Below either outline or mind map your presentation. Remember that you will need a
strong opening, a purposeful body and a memorable conclusion. Refer to the
information above as you organize your thoughts.
Now, PRACTICE! You will be prepared for tomorrow’s presentation!
1. Was the speech completed
successfully within the time limit? Why or
2. Did the organization of the speech
keep your attention? Why or why not?
3. Was the opening strong? Why or why
4. Was the body of the speech
purposeful? Why or why not?
5. Was the conclusion memorable? Why
or why not?
6. Did the speaker use appropriate
words and body language? Why or why
7. Was the speaker comfortable? Why
or why not?
Focus on Management
Your newest teller, Jill, has been with you for several months. Somehow, when she
started, she misunderstood that she could use PTO that was not yet earned. As a
result, Jill has rented a beach house for a week and needs to take 5 days of PTO,
although she only has 3 days earned. This problem is the result of a
misunderstanding on her part, or inaccurate information provided during the hiring
process. You do not know which.
The branch is fully staffed, and if she had accrued the time, you would gladly grant
her request for PTO. Jill has spent a lot of money on this rental and will lose it all, if
she cannot have the time off.
What is the best course of action?
During this section of L.E.A.D., we will discuss the management of employees, which
is a critical part of your role. It is your responsibility to set goals and motivate your
staff to be successful as a team. This also includes clear communication and
imparting of information at all times.
Before we start these discussions, let’s look carefully at employees. It is important to
understand what motivates people before you set about to motivate and coach them.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
According to Abraham Maslow’s theory, people work to satisfy the needs that
motivate them. People place this motivation in a hierarchy, with the most basic
needs at the bottom (the need for food, air, and water) to the higher level needs at
the top (the need for creativity and development). He contends that no one can
move up this hierarchy until the previous need has been met.
As a manager of
When you manage human beings, it is important to consider the needs of your
employees. As basic needs are met, Maslow contends that human beings will set
out to satisfy higher-level needs in the specific succession shown above. If a need
beneath the current level of achievement is lost, the individual will return to that
previous level, fill that need again, and begin to climb up.
Focus on Management
Kathryn has been a member of the branch staff for several years. Her performance
has always been outstanding and she has continually been recognized by you and
the senior team for her outstanding efforts. But lately, her performance has
deteriorated to a point where you must address the problem.
When you meet with Kathryn, you learn that her husband of many years has moved
out of the house to live with a younger woman. Kathyrn is unable to make the
mortgage payment on her own, and is in danger of losing her home.
What has happened to her performance, based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
What can you do to help return her performance to its previous level?
Motivation: the willingness to exert effort in the pursuit of
Your responsibility as a manager is to effectively motivate your employees toward
branch, department, and organizational goals. The more you understand about
motivation, the more likely you will be able to influence the behavior of your
employees. Managers can use numerous ways to create an environment where
employees will be motivated to improve. The key is to discover what motivates your
employees. Listen to him or her, learn what is valued, and create an environment
where every employee can reach his or her potential.
Fair and Equitable Treatment
Motivation is directly related to morale, which is defined as the attitude of individuals
and groups towards their work and the organization. One of the most important
things a manager can do to motivate employees is to create a work environment
characterized by trust and openness. A little fun never hurts either. One way to
create this climate is to treat employees equitably. If managers communicate,
delegate, recognize, or deal with certain employees in a different way than the rest of
the staff, the inequities will undoubtedly be picked up by employees.
Being perceived as a “fair” manager is not as easy as it sounds. Difficulties arise
from the fact that one employee’s perception of what is fair differs from another’s. If
an employee requests time off and is denied due to the business needs of the
department or branch, that employee will feel he has been treated unfairly by
management. However, other staff members will recognize the business need and
think you made a fair decision. You have to manage how you are perceived. Be fair
and look fair.
Become a “Fair” Manager
Show each employee that he or she is important to you and the organization
by taking the time to get to know each of them and their career goals. Use the
Individual Development Plans as a guide.
Apply organizational, department, and branch policies consistently.
Authorize an exception with the understanding that you have set a new
Model the behaviors you expect others to demonstrate.
Praise and counsel all employees who deserve it.
Delegate pleasant and unpleasant tasks equally.
Encourage and value the opinions and comments of everyone.
Provide information, training, and support to everyone.
Give credit to employees for their ideas and suggestions.
Suggest additional practices:
There are many ways to recognize good performance. Promotions and raises are
two ways, but these are obviously used infrequently. Some ways to recognize good
Words of encouragement
Recognition among and in front of peers
Assignment of greater responsibility
Excellent performance reviews
Recognition on Intramation
Posting of results
A sincere Thank You
Pizza, donuts, or other food for a team effort
Telling an employee he or she is doing a good job sounds easy. Why then is praise
given out so stingily? Probably because most of us are not practiced at giving praise.
Ever since we were children, we have heard more about what we do wrong than
what we do right. As a result, for many of us, no news is good news.
Never underestimate the value of praise. Imagine how you would feel if your boss
“Thanks for staying late so we could meet our deadline.”
“Thanks for caring enough to do it right.”
“You are doing a terrific job and I truly appreciate your contribution.”
“You did an incredible job of calming Mr. Moss today. He actually left the branch with
a smile on his face!”
“I watched you sell MemberLink to that member. You did a great job. Would you
mind talking about your technique to the staff this week?”
“I really appreciated your coming in on Saturday to complete that project. I know how
much you enjoy the movies, so here are some Bonus Bucks. You can use them to
buy some movie tickets for your family.”
Remember: To get more of a desired behavior, recognize and reward.
Two-Factor Theory of Motivation (Frederick Kerzberg)
This theory of motivation is useful to many managers. Herzberg looks as two
aspects of the job: motivators and demotivators:
The aspects of people’s jobs that provide satisfaction are intrinsic to the job itself and
The work itself
These motivators are necessary for substantial improvement in performance. When
they are present, people work harder and feel better about the job. When they are
absent, people are neutral and just “do what they must”.
Employees feel dissatisfied with the jobs due to conditions that surround their jobs,
rather than the job itself. Herzberg calls these hygiene factors and they cause
intense dissatisfactions and easily demotivate workers:
It is important to remember that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite ends
of the same continuum; rather, they are entirely separate factors that must be dealt
with in different ways. Removing negative hygiene demotivators does not
automatically increased motivation. It does, however, clear the way for positive
motivators to have a positive effect.
The manager’s role is to remove demotivators and then use motivators to meet
high-level needs and move employees toward greater achievement and
satisfaction. This has positive effects in the department:
Turnover is reduced when employees find satisfaction at work.
The skills of the staff continue to increase.
Better relationships can be built among the team.
Skilled employees can be promoted to new responsibilities.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs/ Motivation
As we discussed earlier, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs says that people are
motivated by needs they want to satisfy. He grouped these needs into five types:
physical, security, social, ego (esteem), and self-actualization. As we know, these
are hierarchical or arranged in the sequence in which the needs must be satisfied.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Motivators and Demotivators
Needs Motivators Demotivators
Physical Make sure working conditions are Ignore employee complaints
Air comfortable and safe Change work area without
Salary is equitable anticipating reactions
Freedom from disease
Security Provide information about what is Not telling employees about
Safety taking place in the organization events or changes planned that
Ensure that employees have the will effect them
training and equipment to do the job Make promises about raises or
Stability effectively promotions that you cannot
Communicate your expectations deliver
Social Ensure that new employees feel Allow cliques to form
Being loved welcome; assign a buddy Promote competition that inhibits
Be friendly, pleasant and positive cooperation among the staff
Create group cohesiveness by holding
Inclusion regular meetings and activities
Ego Treat employees with respect Discriminate
Self-esteem Solicit employee opinions Be intolerant of different values
Communicate the contributions each and cultures
employee makes to the success of the Criticize personality traits
Recognition department and the credit union Criticize in front of others
Prestige Reprimand in private Get too involved with employees’
Get to know your employees, value personal problems
their differences Rely extensively on one
Recognize and reward employees employee over the team
Delegate meaningful tasks
Self Actualization Be flexible and open to new ideas Discount employee ideas or
Development Help employees set challenging goals suggestions
Encourage career planning Hold back promotions for your
Monitor continuously due to lack
Allow as much independence as of trust
Assign only mindless, unpleasant
Give credit for employee contributions tasks
Train employees for advancement Play favorites
Implement changes without
Delay training opportunities
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
The “needs theory” does not explain why there are differences in individual
employees or why people behave in certain ways. Expectancy Theory is based on
what the employee believes about his or her behavior and what is important or has
value. Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform
work and receive desired rewards. Employees ask themselves several importance
questions. How managers respond to these questions defines the motivational
The key concept of Expectancy Theory is that motivation depends on how an
employee answers these three questions:
1. What are the chances that if I try to achieve high performance, I can do it?
2. If I try, what are the chances I will be rewarded?
3. Do the rewards mean anything to me?
If the employee believes:
The effort to achieve high performance will be successful.
An individual must believe that with hard work he or she can be successful.
With low expectancy to be successful, motivation to success will be low.
Ask employees about their estimate of success
Help remove obstacles to performance
Demonstrate that high performance is possible
Give positive feedback to improve employees’ self esteem
Performance will be rewarded.
The expectancy that successful performance of a task will lead to a desired
Link performance to rewards
Give rewards for desired behaviors only
The specific outcome will answer a perceived value for the employee.
The value or attraction an individual has for an outcome. If outcomes are not
valued by the employee, motivation will be low.
Periodically assess what employees want for rewards
The ABCs of Performance Behavior
Activator Behavior Consequences
What a manager does Performance What a manager does
before performance after performance
Training Sells services Praise
Directions Follows policy Reprimand
Goals Does not provide great Counseling
Performance Standards member service Redirect
Clear expectations Makes mistakes No response
Translating Motivation Theory into Managerial Skills
1. Interact with employees in ways that build their self-esteem and encourage good
2. Set challenging goals, provide a plan of action, and be supportive.
3. Respect employees’ feelings, needs, and ideas. Request, acknowledge, and use
4. Focus on behaviors—not personalities—when addressing problems and future
5. Coach employees in order to achieve the performance you desire.
6. Use reinforcement techniques to define, encourage, and maintain desired
Exercise: What motivates employees?
Rank the following ten rewards in terms of their importance or
motivational value to your employees, using 1 for the highest and 10 for
the lowest. Place your ranking in the left column. After completion, the
results of the study may be written in the right column for comparison:
Full appreciation of work done
Feeling of being in on things
Sympathetic help with personal problems
Promotion and growth in the organization
Personal loyalty to employees
Good working conditions
If a manager misinterprets what is important to the employees, they will
choose methods of motivation that do not work. This practice can change
a motivator to a demotivator.
Focus on Management
Rovane had it all figured out. This time her branch was going to reach the floating
goal for eStatements. They may not win the campaign, but she would not be
embarrassed again. She had a plan. The branch goal was 50 eStatements over a
two-month period. She has five employees and divided the quota by the number of
employees. Each is expected each to sell ten eStatements during the campaign.
She would sell two additional, putting the branch over the goal. Rovane designed a
motivational strategy that she thought would be most effective: if an employee had
not sold five eStatements by the end of the first month, she would stay--after hours
without pay--to contact members by phone until the goal had been reached.
Dalilla was determined to once again win the floating goal campaign for
eStatements. The branch goal was 50 over a two-month period. She had 4
employees and thought her strategy was a sure winner. Each employee, including
herself, needed to sell 10 eStatements: five per month. But to ensure success, she
decided to provide quotas that would surpass the goal and asked each employee to
sell 10 each week during the campaign. That would result in a branch total of 400
When she introduced the contest to her staff, she wanted them to spend some time
planning what they would do with the prize: $200 cash. They could have a big
party, buy something for the branch—whatever motivated them to succeed. Each
morning she planned to hold a meeting to announce the results of the previous days’
sales efforts and offer some tips to the group, based on her observations of
performance. This would work for sure!
Jay had just been promoted to a new branch. According to his regional manager,
the previous manager had never instigated a sales culture at the branch. Jay was
great at sales and the employees at his previous branch did a great job meeting
He had a plan for the eStatement campaign. The quota was 50 over a two-month
period and he had 3 employees. His strategy was simple: if each employee sold 10
eStatements over the two-months, he would sell the additional 25 needed to exceed
the goal. He planned to spend time on the teller line and opening accounts for new
members so the staff could observe his sales technique.
Which manager’s technique will be effective?
Setting Goals in Your Department or Branch
Sometimes it is hard to clearly put goals into words, let alone communicate them
successfully to employees. The process of setting goals is more complicated than it
may look, but the payoff is worth the effort. Employees need to know two very
important things about goals:
What are his or her individual goals?
How do these goals coincide with the goals of the department or branch?
Goal: desired future state that an individual or
organization attempts to realize.
Characteristics of Effective Goals:
1. Goals are specific.
2. Goals are realistic: challenging, but never impossible.
3. Goals are measurable and key indicators of progress are specified.
4. Goals have a target date.
5. Goals have a specific plan of action steps to be taken.
Goal Setting Steps
1. Decide on an objective.
2. State the goal of that objective.
3. Outline the action steps describing how the goal
will be attained. Involve employees to establish
ownership of goals.
4. Ensure that the rewards are motivational to the
5. Provide feedback on the progress toward
attaining the goal.
Exercise: Goal Setting
Maya is a department manager in Consumer Lending. She has been with the credit
union for 2 years and was recently promoted into her position. She spends the
majority of her time overseeing her staff, approving loans, and working on projects for
the credit union and her department. She is often in meetings or out of the office
Malcolm is a loan processor and he has been in that position for over ten years, and
with the credit union for fourteen. He began in the Call Center and learned good
member service skills in that position. With his experience in the department, Maya
feels that Malcolm should take a larger role in the department, although she is not
able to offer a promotion at this time. Maya feels that if Malcolm could improve his
performance, she might be able to convince her senior manager to create a new
position for Malcolm, but first, he must overcome some issues that have been
bothering Maya and the staff.
There have been problems with the loans Malcolm has processed over the
last few months. Documentation has been missing on some, entries into
TAPS were incomplete, and two loans were charged off as a result of his
errors. Although the percentage of mistakes is small based on the number of
loans he processes monthly, his experience says to Maya that he should be
making few or no mistakes.
Maya has received several complaints lately from members and other Justice
FCU employees about Malcolm’s service skills. He tends to be rude on the
phone, does not complete tasks he has promised to complete, and is slow
about providing needed information.
Last week, Malcolm sent loan paperwork to a very important member. The
loan paperwork did not arrive on time, because the address was incorrect, and
two important documents were missing, When the signed paperwork was
returned, it was obvious that Malcolm had not taken the time to mark where
the member was to sign, as many signatures were missing or in the wrong
Maya asked Malcolm to help train the new title clerk, as this function was
being taken from his job duties and transferred to hers. Malcolm was relieved
to no longer have that responsibility, but made no substantial efforts to assist
the new employee. Maya continually coached Malcolm to improve his training,
but finally got feed up with his lack of effort, and took over the training effort.
Malcolm seemed to be relieved.
If you were Maya, what goal would you set for Malcolm? There are several to
choose from, but what would help Malcolm improve the most? Use the Goal Setting
Format on the next page to set his goals.
Goal Setting Format
State the Goal
Action Plan Steps
Focus on Management
James worked at the headquarters of Justice FCU and had a cubicle that was off the
beaten track. James had been having some problems getting to work on time in the
last few weeks and his manager had already spoken to him about being on time,
Tuesday morning James really over slept. He was in a panic about what to do: call
his manager and explain that he would be late or just try to sneak into his cubicle.
He could easily sneak in, but when he clocked in to ezLabor, his manager would
know he was late. Then he had a thought: He could log in at home before he left
James logged onto his home computer and clocked in to ezLabor. Then he began
his commute to Chantilly. When he arrived, he carefully went into his cubicle,
undetected he thought, and began to work. During the day, no one said anything
about his lateness, so he figured the plan had worked.
The next Friday, his manager asked him to step into her office. She closed the door
and James knew something was up. She asked him what time he had arrived at
work on Tuesday and he replied it was his usual time. His manager said that she
had been looking for James to answer a question once she saw he was clocked in
on ezLabor, but had been unable to find him. None of his coworkers had seen him
during this time period, either, not even his friend Ken. It was obvious to her that he
had not been in the building, but how had he clocked in?
James tried to convince her that he was in the building—didn’t his ezLabor record
prove he was here? But she was certain he was not at work and demanded to know
how he had clocked in. Finally James explained what he had done and presented
what he thought was a good explanation for his actions.
As his manager, what would be your course of action?
Business ethics is the study of what constitutes right and wrong, good and bad
conduct in the workplace. These types of concerns do not necessarily involve giant
Wall Street firms that have been in the news. The majority of cases involve
mundane, ordinary moral challenges that working people face daily.
Ethics: the code of moral principles and values that
govern the behaviors of a person or group with respect to
what is right or wrong.
Some people believe that because business is primarily concerned with making
money, it cannot be overly concerned about ethics. Even though we serve our
members, there is also money that needs to be made to provide computers, facilities,
and salaries to our employees. Business prospers because it has dramatically
improved the quality of life for everyone. Business ethics begins with the freedom an
individual has to take part in business with the hope of bettering one’s self through
hard work and effort. It is our jobs, as business people, to defend the goals of
prosperity, freedom, and fairness of opportunity.
The topic of business ethics involves the very large Enron types of issues, as well as
the smaller problems we face daily. Consider these questions:
Is a credit report a justifiable way to determine the hiring qualifications of an
How should a business respond to employees who have AIDS?
At what point does acceptable exaggeration about a product become lying?
Must businesses fight racism and sexism?
Is the use of privileged information immoral?
These questions typify business issues with moral significance within organizations
and the communities they serve. The answers we give are determined largely by our
moral standards, principles, and values. The relationship between business and
personal ethics cannot be separated.
Ethics and Organizations
An organization is a group of people working together to achieve a common purpose.
The purpose may be to offer a product or service primarily for profit, as in business.
But the purpose may be public safety and order, such as law enforcement, or
education and so on. Organizations offer their employees many benefits: jobs,
status, money, friendship, and personal fulfillment. In return for these benefits,
employees of the organization agree to follow organizational rules. For the most part,
organizational rules stem from organizational goals.
Below is a list of things that can happen at work to make it tempting to compromise
your character and act unethically:
Falsifying reports or other documents
Accepting gifts from members
Revealing or accepting proprietary information
Using organizational property
Using organizational time
Using organizational equipment
To be an ethical business person, you must also understand that you have social
responsibility. This is an easy concept to understand: It means distinguishing right
from wrong and doing what is right. It means being a good corporate citizen.
Social Responsibility: obligation of organizational management to make
decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interest of society as
well as the organization.
The Three C’s of Business Ethics
Basically, this means that we must be compliant with the rules of the organization, as
well as the rules of society. It means being fully aware of what you are doing in terms
of the Three C’s of Business Ethics:
Compliance with the rules
Rules of morality
Policies of the organization
Contributions to society
Through the value and quality of products and services
By the jobs provided
By the benefits to employees
Consequences of business activity
Inside the organization
Outside the organization
Ten Checkpoints for Ethical Decision-Making
I. Recognize that there is a moral issue. This step is important because it requires
us to identify issues that need attention, rather than ignore them.
II. Determine the actor. If this is a moral issue, whose is it? Is it mine? The
distinction here is not whether or not I am involved. In matters of ethics, we are all
involved. The question is whether or not I am morally obligated to do anything.
III. Gather the relevant facts. Good decision-making requires good fact-finding and
IV. Test for right versus wrong issues. Does the situation involve wrong doing? Is
lawbreaking involved? If so, the choice is a legal rather than a moral matter.
If the answer to the legal test is “no”, three other tests are useful:
The STENCH test: rely on moral intuition on a gut level. Will this course of
action go against the grain of your moral principles, even if you cannot put
your finger on the problem? For many people this is a common and
surprisingly reliable test.
The FRONT PAGE test: How would you feel if what you are about to do
show up tomorrow morning on the front page headline of the Washington
Post? What would be your response if what you took to be a private matter
were suddenly to become entirely public? If such a consequence makes you
uncomfortable, you should not do it.
The MOM test: Would I be proud if my mother knew what I did?
If an issue fails these tests, there is no point going on to the following steps. Since
you are dealing with a right-versus-wrong issue, any further deliberation will
probably amount to little more that an effort to justify an unconscionable act.
V. Test for right-versus-right paradigm. What sort of dilemma is this: truth versus
loyalty, self versus community, short-term versus long-term, or justice versus
mercy? The point is not to simply classify the issue but to bring into focus that it is
a genuine dilemma, in that it pits two deeply held core values against each other.
VI. Apply the resolution principles.
Ends-Based Thinking: Is the resolution of this dilemma for the greatest
good for the greatest number of people?
Rule-Based Thinking: Would you accept the resolution of this dilemma as
a universal law that others ought to believe?
Care-Based Thinking: Is the resolution of this dilemma something that
others would like you to do?
VII. Investigate the trilemma options. Is there a third way to resolve this dilemma?
Sometimes the middle ground will be the result of a compromise between the two
rights and result in a creative course of action.
VIII. Ask the opinion of others. Others who are knowledgeable on the subject and
would be objective are an excellent resource. Use them.
IX. Make the decision. At this point in the process, there is little to do but decide.
This sometimes requires moral courage.
X. Reflect on the decision. Once the decision is made, go back over the decision
making process and reflect on it. Learn from the process.
Exercise: What Would You Do?
A colleague, with whom you have worked for the past three years, asks you to cover
for him for an hour or two after work.
In particular, he asks that if his wife should telephone to speak with him, you should tell
her that he is caught up in a meeting and that you will pass the message on to him
when he is free.
Instructions: In your group, use the ten checkpoints to explore this dilemma.
Document in the space provided the thought process for later discussion. Based on
the steps 1-8, make the decision on your own. Once everyone has made a decision,
we will complete step 10.
I. Recognize that there is a moral issue.
II. Determine the actor.
III. Gather the relevant facts.
IV. Test for right versus wrong issues.
V. Test for right-versus-right paradigm.
VI. Apply the resolution principles.
VII. Investigate the trilemma options.
VIII. Ask the opinion of others.
IX. Make the decision.
X. Reflect on the decision.
Focus on Management
Helene happened to walk into the office to pick up some documents. None of the
employees present seemed to notice she was there. What appeared to be a casual
conversation was taking place among the four men and one woman. Helene could
not help but notice that a few of the comments were blatantly racist. She was
acquainted with the African American woman in the group who seemed unaffected
by the racist remarks. Helene looked around for the supervisor, but he was in his
office, deeply involved in a phone conversation. Helene picked up the papers and
What happened here?
The ability to relate well to all types of people in the workplace is an essential
management skill. The trend toward a more diverse workplace is shown in the
U.S. Labor Force
Percentage Percentage Percentage
1995 2005 2020
Whites, Non 76% 73% 68%
Women 46% 48% 50%
Hispanic 9% 11% 14%
African 11% 11% 11%
Asian 4% 5% 6%
Source: Workforce 2020, Hudson Institute
Managing diversity requires considerable knowledge, sensitivity, patience, flexibility,
and training. Valuing diversity is an approach that enhances acceptance, tolerance,
and understanding of differences. The broad view of diversity, and the one we will
use, recognizes diversity in all its forms. Differences exist between people of
different ages, backgrounds, experiences, and so on, in addition to more obvious
differences between races, cultures, and religions.
Diversity Goal: to create an environment in which
everyone feels included, appreciated, and valued.
Challenges for Managers:
To communicate effectively with employees from diverse backgrounds.
To coach and develop people who are diverse along many dimensions,
including age, education, ethnicity, gender, physical ability, race, etc.
To provide effective performance feedback that is based on substance rather
To create an organizational climate that utilizes the array of talents and
perspectives that diversity can offer.
Benefits of Valuing Diversity
Develop employee and organizational potential.
o Employee moral improves because people feel valued.
o Relationships at work improve.
Attract and recruit the best people.
Meet the needs of our diverse membership base.
Enhance creativity and problem solving.
Create a climate of fairness and equality for all employees.
Five Techniques to Value Diversity
1. Promote tolerance. Work toward openness and acceptance of others. Respect
the different beliefs and viewpoints, lifestyles and business images, work styles
2. Be a role model of respect and appreciation. Be willing to listen and to learn
about diverse people and groups, to examine your own needs, beliefs, and
viewpoints that block your ability to respect and appreciate others. Be willing to
change false beliefs.
3. Encourage collaboration. Encourage employees to work toward common goals
for the good of the department and the organization.
4. Provide quality treatment to all employees.
Believe in each employee and communicate that belief.
Explicitly communicate high standards and high expectations.
Promote a respect for diversity.
Show each person that he or she is important to you and to the organization.
Provide support for all employees.
Teach people the basis for success in an organization, including the
unwritten rules. Be an effective mentor.
5. Get to know the individual. Take time to get to know each employee, as well as
his or her cultural group. The more you learn about each person, the better you
will be able to collaborate with that person as an individual and part of the team.
What you do not know may prevent you from doing your own job effectively.
The Changing Workplace
The diversity of the American worker is changing, as we have seen. But another
important change is also taking place. It concerns the age of workers and a dramatic
change in job perceptions.
The baby boomers are beginning to retire (those born after World War II from 1946-
1964), and as they leave, the drain on the knowledge of organizations is dramatic.
Baby boomers have historically remained workcentric. They look at a job as a
life-long commitment and remain in various positions in a company that
employs them for many years.
With this longevity comes knowledge. As they have grown in responsibility,
they have carried knowledge with them. When they leave, in many cases, the
knowledge is gone.
The growth of the workforce is slowing. From 1950-2000, the workforce grew
at a rate of 1.6% per year. Over the next decade, this growth rate is projected
to drop by one-third to 1.1 % per year, due in part to the retirement of baby
The workers from Gen X (23 to 37 years old) and Gen Y (18 to 22 years old) tend to
have very different attitudes about work.
These employees tend to be familycentric or dualcentric and see a job as a
means to an end. Employees in these groups place equal importance on
activities outside the workplace, such as personal interests, children, and
Fewer workers in this group want jobs with more responsibilities—52% in 2002
versus 68% in 1992. They are not interested in the trade-offs.
More than half of these workers who do want more responsibility plan to do so
in new organizations. The only group where this is not true is low wage
earners who desire more responsibilities to earn higher wages.
However, research shows that these workers actually work more hours per
week in 2002 (an average of 45.6) than workers of comparable ages in 1977
The differences in attitudes do not require a judgment of right or wrong; they just are.
As a manager of a diverse workforce of different ages, it is important to know what is
important to each group. It will help you understand the needs and priorities of each
Focus on Management
Henri arrived at his desk at 6:00 a.m. He wanted to use the extra time to clear work
off his overcrowded desk. He began by going through his mail. He came across a
journal article and became deeply engrossed in it. Suddenly it was two hours later
and other workers were beginning to arrive. He needed to focus.
As he pulled out the project file that was due tomorrow (he still had two days worth
of work to do on it), some colleagues stopped by the invite him for coffee. Since he
had been there so long, he decided he needed a break and it would only be a few
minutes. Thirty minutes later, he returned to his desk to “buckle down” on this
As he walked in, the phone was ringing. His manager asked if he could sit in on a
10:00 meeting for him. How could Henri say no? So he attended the meeting,
which lasted until noon. He had a quick lunch and vowed to spend the entire
afternoon working on his project.
But things did not go as planned. Coworkers stopped to ask questions, a crisis
needed immediate action, and his email inbox was flooded. He never had a minute
to work on the project that was due tomorrow. As he stuffed work in his briefcase to
take home, he wondered how other employees were able to enjoy evenings with
What problems do you see with Henri’s time management skills?
Time management is planning and using time wisely. The key to successful time
management is planning the use of your time, and then protecting the planned time.
People who say they have no time do not plan the use of their time or do not protect
their planned time. To do this successfully, you will need to do the following things:
Take time to plan your days, weeks, etc. Planning time is wisely spent and will
help you free time for other activities.
You will need to condition or recondition your environment to work within your
plan. If you are always available for interruptions, you will need to condition
staff and coworkers to end or limit the interruptions.
People who put demands upon you will also need to be diplomatically
conditioned to meet your plan. Diplomacy is the key.
You must commit to making this change.
Time Management Ideas
Manage your email; do not let it manage you.
Email is the biggest time waster out there. If you are a slave to your email,
particularly if your pc is set up to notify you immediately when a new email arrives,
making a small change can facilitate a marked improvement in the time available to
you each day.
Check your email at designated times each day: first thing in the morning, at lunch,
and one hour before you leave for the day. You must decide when to view and
respond to email, not the people sending emails. You are in charge of your time.
Turn off the email notification function:
In Outlook in the Mail function, click on Options.
Click on the Preference Tab.
Click on the Email Options push button.
Click on Advanced Email Options.
Turn off Display a New Desktop Alert.
Be prepared to change
You will undertake drastic changes. Be creative to find and introduce different ways
of doing things. Challenge and question your habits, routines, and the way you
defend your time when others dictate how you should use it.
A tidy desk equals a tidy mind
Organize your workspace. Create a filing system in your office and on your computer
that allows you to find, retrieve, and save information quickly and easily. Tidy up your
workspace and keep all papers filed away unless you are working on them. Keep a
clean desk and organized systems. Review your workspace, its layout, and set it up
Delegate 25 % of your work
Examine the work you do each day and delegate 25% of it to an employee reporting
to you, if possible. This serves two purposes: the work is no longer your
responsibility and your employee grows, learns, and becomes more valuable.
When delegating, you must train the employee accepting a new responsibility how to
complete the assignment to ensure the employee’s success. This will take some
time at the beginning, but will eventually free your time from that task.
Well-planned meetings that are held regularly cut down dramatically the interruptions
you deal with daily. Schedule and hold staff meetings, as needed. Encourage your
employees to hold any questions they can until the meeting. This prevents
interruptions, but other employees may have the same questions, which prevents
When you really need to work or concentrate, find a way to do it: close your door, put
an “Interrupt Only in Case of Emergency” sign on your cubicle, etc.
Make Decisions Quickly
You may need to sharpen your decision-making skills to do this. You may need to
consult with someone or get more information, but don’t just sit there. Remember the
acronym JDI (just do it!) People who can’t make decisions waste their time and that
Say NO politely
Be polite and be constructive, but learn to say “no”. Say things like “I understand this
is urgent for you, but I have other priorities I must deal with first for the good of the
credit union. I would rather agree on a realistic deadline with you then one I can’t
meet.” Be realistic when making and accepting deadlines, based on your schedule.
Don’t take on too much: you will complete a lot of work poorly, in lieu of quality work
you can finish successfully.
Align your goals and activities
Review your activities in terms of your Vision Statement, and prioritize your activities
accordingly. Especially, plan preparation and creative thinking time daily for the long-
term jobs, because they need it. If you don't plan for the preparation you'll never do
it, and all the work will get left to the last minute. The short-term urgent tasks will
always use up all your time unless you plan to spend it otherwise.
Procrastinating is a universal problem. Often, the image of a procrastinator is one of
laziness or not being “one of the team”. It also leads to a lot of guilt.
But think carefully about what YOU do when procrastinating. Do you put off tasks
you enjoy? Or do you procrastinate doing things you really dislike.
Do you put off providing negative feedback to an employee?
Do you procrastinate time spent with your family?
Do you put aside paying bills until the last minute?
Do you do the laundry or cook a meal with a smile on your face?
M A M
Motivation creates Action which creates Motivation
A M A
Action creates Motivation which creates Action
FUN Time Management Ideas (to get started)
Lesser of 2
Think of two things you need to complete, both of which you are not excited
about completing. Then choose the least offensive of the two items and
complete it. You have created Action, which will create Motivation to complete
the other task.
Break the tasks you need to complete in small pieces. All you need to do is
complete once piece, then you may stop. You will find that once you begin the
action, you will be motivated to complete.
Close the door for just ten minutes and spend it plotting the task. Write for 10
minutes, jot notes, or talk to yourself about how to get started. This action
may motivate you to dig in and complete the task.
“If I do this, I get this.” Simple idea. Put a note on a piece of candy that says
what you need to complete in order to eat the candy. OR use pleasant tasks
as a reward for completing the one you do not want to do.
Time Planning Matrix
You need to judge whether activities are urgent, important, both or neither, to plan
your time critically. Most of us plan our activities based on who shouted last or
The following time matrix can assist as you plan the use of your time. People who
are poor time managers spend most of their time in boxes 1 and 3. Spare time is
usually spent in box 4. Most people spend the least amount of time in box 2, which is
the most critical area for success, development, and proactive self-determination.
Urgent Not Urgent
1-DO NOW 2-PLAN TO DO
Emergencies, complaints and Planning, preparation,
critical issues scheduling
Demands from superiors and Research, investigation,
members designing, testing
Planned tasks or projects due Networking, relationship building
now Thinking, creating, modeling,
Meetings and appointments designing
Important Reports and other submissions Systems and process
Staff issues or needs development
Problem resolution, firefighting, Anticipation and prevention
fixes, etc. Developing change, direction,
Subject to confirming the importance or
urgency of these tasks, do these now. Critical to success: planning, strategic
Prioritize based on the urgency of each thinking, deciding direction and aim.
task. Plan time slots for these tasks.
3-REJECT AND EXPLAIN 4-RESIST AND CEASE
Trivial requests from others “Comfort” activities, such as
Apparent emergencies personal phone calls, net surfing,
Ad-hoc interruptions and excessive breaks
distractions Chat, gossip, social
Misunderstandings appearing communications
Not as complaints Daydreaming, doodling
Important Pointless routine or activities Reading non-relevant materials
Accumulated, unresolved trivia Embellishment and over-
Boss’s whims production
Scrutinize and probe demands. Help Habitual “comforters” are not true tasks.
originators reassess. Whenever These activities are non-productive and
possible, reject and avoid these tasks de-motivational. Minimize or cease
sensitively and immediately. these activities altogether. Plan to avoid
them in the future.
Use Good Planning Tools
Take time to plan your work. There are some simple things you can do to make the
time you spend planning, the most important time of each day.
Here are some planning tips and ideas:
Have a good planning tool. There are several available.
o Microsoft Outlook has a tasks function which allows you to create a “To
Do” list with deadline that will provide a pop-up reminder. Once a task
is completed, check it off for a real feeling of completion and success.
Outlook also allows you to delegate duties to others.
Begin by entering the Tasks function in Microsoft Outlook. The Tasks screen is
Enter a new
To create a task, click on Click here to create a new Task.
On this screen, you can enter the Task you need to complete, the date it is due, and
whether you want a reminder for the task. You can also assign the task, must like
creating a meeting, through this screen. You can track the progress of the task, its
completion percentage, etc., whether you are the owner, or it has been assigned to
Use the Outlook Calendar to plan your time and keep your self on track with
meetings, projects, etc.
Franklin Covey offers a complete planning calendar, available at
franklincovey.com or a local Franklin Covey store. If you like paper, these are
great tools. These calendars have several effective functions:
o A monthly planning calendar
o A daily notes page, to keep track of phone calls, hotel reservations, etc.
o An appointment schedule to list daily appointments
o A prioritized Daily Task List where you can list tasks, mark them as
completed, delegated, etc.
Chapman, Alan. Time Management Techniques and Systems. Internet: www.businessballs.com.
March 9, 2005.
Covey, Stephen R. 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Simon & Shuster, Inc. 1989.
Haynes, Marion E. Practical Time Management. Crisp Publications, Inc. 1991.
Schumucker, Lee Weaver. Fundamentals of Management. Kendall Hunt Publishing. 1992.
Focus on Management
Marilee was recently hired as a call center manager at Justice FCU. In her position,
she oversees six operational employees.
One of her employees, Candice, was highly regarded by the last manager. Marilee
had been told what a great job Candice did every day. She was very good on the
phone with members, taking time to answer their questions and provide the correct
answers. She was a good salesperson and cross-sold products and services
regularly that met the members’ needs. Just before Marilee’s arrival, Candice had
been promoted to the role of Team Leader.
Candice seemed very reluctant to assume her new duties. She preferred to spend
her time on the phones. She was dragging her feet at the moment on an
assignment given to her: train the other call center employees to sell Web BillPay.
She seemed unable to get started and unsure of her ability to do this task.
Marilee felt that this was due to insecurity on Candice’s part. Marilee began
assisting her with some of the new tasks to build confidence. Candice did great, as
Marilee had expected. She provided positive reinforcement, which was really well
deserved: “You have done a great job reducing call time.” “You are my resident
expert in cross-selling.” “The staff really respects your expertise.”
The end result was worth the effort. Candice delivered the Web BillPay training and
it was fantastic. She began to step up and assume more of the responsibilities of
her role as a Team Leader. Candice had been a good employee, but now she was
a great employee. Marilee was convinced: by showing her confidence in Candice’s
abilities, Candice began to believe in herself.
Are you a successful coach?
Coaching is an ongoing process designed to help gain greater competence and
overcome barriers to improve performance. The goal of coaching is to change
behavior, to move employees from where they are to where they should be. A good
coach knows how to bring out the best in others and has a desire to actively
participate in each employee’s development. They know that coaching is ongoing
and a primary responsibility of their role as a manager. Coaching doesn’t just
happen—it takes planning and preparation.
Coaching: the process by which managers can help employees
achieve established performance levels by explaining, demonstrating,
practicing, assisting, and then giving feedback.
Coaching is never a quick fix. Changing another person’s behavior takes time and
patience. As you gain more experience as a coach, you will find it works miracles
with one employee and may not work at all with another. Sometimes you need to try
numerous approaches before your find the right method for the right employee.
The Role of a Coach
Think back to a coach or mentor you have encountered. This may be someone who
coached your high school swim team, your first boss, your child’s little league coach.
Was he or she a good coach or a bad coach? Most of us have experienced both! A
good coach is not necessarily someone who is the best athlete or supervisor.
Rather, it is someone who was able to encourage you to do your best. As a coach,
you have the opportunity to encourage your employees to do their best. To do so,
you need to inspire, encourage, and challenge your team to meet their goals.
Have a game plan! Identify expected performance by having a clear vision of
success. Include your team in creating that vision.
Teach your team the plays! Show each individual how to meet your
Measure and Observe
Watch them during the game! Observe individuals
in action; don’t rely on someone else’s report.
Get in the Game! Provide coaching on a frequent
and consistent basis. Set the standard! You can’t
coach attitude, you can only demonstrate it.
Reward and Recognize
Review the game film with your team! Provide
specific feedback on performances.
As a coach, it is vital to recognize achievement. Though progress may be slow, your
praise will encourage an employee to strive to succeed.
Feedback is an opportunity for the manager to share information with an employee
that will improve the employee’s performance. As you work with employees, you
notice aspects of their work that they may not be aware of: Are they too abrupt? Is
their sales approach too rote? Are they alienating coworkers or members
unknowingly? The only way an employee can improve is if someone (YOU!)
describes what has been observed. Feedback also is positive, so it is appropriate
(and important) to share an observed behavior that you really like and want to
continue. Everyone appreciates being recognized.
Think about different kinds of feedback you have received. What kinds of feedback
made you feel good? What kinds made you wish the person had said nothing at all?
Did someone ever say anything that helped you recognize where you could improve?
There are two types of feedback:
Positive Feedback: Praise given to reinforce good behavior.
Developmental Feedback: Information provided to help an employee do a
Choose the correct timing.
Praise is most effective when given immediately. It helps increase the
chances of the behavior happening again. Developmental feedback should
take place before the behavior occurs again.
The timing is critical, so remember this mantra:
Praise in public.
Criticize in private
Ask for a self-assessment.
Begin feedback by involving the employee. Asking the employee’s opinion will
create a more open atmosphere. Employees are usually aware of their
strengths and weaknesses. Self-assessment helps the employee take more
Concentrate on observable behaviors, not attitudes.
By discussing observable behaviors, the manager takes the criticism out of the
personal realm. An employee will be more willing and able to change a
specific behavior than a general attitude. Instead of saying “You don’t seem to
be happy here”, try “Your last report had several errors and I wasn’t able to
Both positive and developmental feedback needs to be specific to be effective.
Focus on behaviors that can be changed.
Ask yourself if the employee is actually responsible. Ask them to change an
observable behavior and not an attitude.
Praise more than correct.
Praise and encouragement do a great deal to improve performance.
Verify that your message is understood.
At the end of the coaching session, ask the employee for a recap. This helps
you make sure the message was understood.
Axioms of the Practical Coach
1. Never let great work go unnoticed. When you see it, say it!
2. Never let poor work go unnoticed. Make it private and
3. Never let an employee go down a dead end road.
Use the TWO-MINUTE CHALLENGE
1. State what you observed.
2. Wait for a response.
3. Remind them of the goal.
4. Ask for a specific solution.
5. Agree together.
Six Deadly Sins of Reprimanding
1. Failure to get facts. Know the facts before leaping to conclusions. Do not
accept hearsay evidence or go on general impressions.
2. Acting while angry. Never a good idea. Be calm in your own mind and as
objective as possible before you decide to reprimand. Ask yourself: Is it possibly
my fault that this error or violation occurred?
3. Let the employee be unclear of the offense. Let the person know what you
observed and the specific details that were at fault. Do not allude to general
4. Not getting the employee’s side of the story. Make sure the employee has an
opportunity to explain the reason something was done, while avoiding the
sidetrack. There may be mitigating circumstances, unclear directions, or
conflicting orders that were at fault.
5. Failing to keep records. When formal communication is required, it is important
that you document conversations and incidents involving the performance
problem. Keep a diary of informal communication for future reference.
6. Harboring a grudge. Once the reprimand has occurred, do not harbor a grudge.
The person deserved the feedback and received it. Now, give the employee an
opportunity to improve.
Instructions: The purpose of this activity is to help you learn what you need to be
successful as a coach and to help you create an action plan for self-improvement.
Write an X in one of the boxes to the right of each competency, depending on how
you see yourself right now. Obviously, you need to be honest with yourself on this.
No one will see your ratings unless you voluntarily share them.
Strength OK Improve
Showing the person you are coaching how to
accomplish the task and clarifying when, where,
how much, and to what standard it should be
Setting Performance Goals
Collaborating with others to establish short- and long-
term goals for performance on particular tasks.
Carefully observing performance on individual tasks
and sharing these observations in a nonthreatening
Using a variety of means to provide positive
reinforcement to others for making progress on the
accomplishment of important tasks.
Dealing with Failure
Working with others to encourage them when they do
not meet expectations.
Working with Personal Issues
Listening empathically and without judgment, and
offering emotional support for nonwork difficulties.
Confronting Difficult Situations
Raising uncomfortable topics that are affecting task
Responding to Requests
Consulting with others on an as-needed basis.
Responding to requests in a timely manner.
Keeping your commitments. Monitoring outcomes of
the coaching process and providing additional
assistance when necessary.
Listening for Understanding
Demonstrating attention to and conveying
understanding of others.
Encouraging others to achieve desired results.
Creating enthusiasm and commitment in others.
Assessing Strengths and Weaknesses
Identifying root causes of individual performance.
Probing beneath the surface of problems. Keenly
observing people and events. Defining and
articulating issues effectively.
Building Rapport and Trust
Showing respect for others. Acting with integrity and
honesty. Easily building bonds with others. Making
others feel their concerns and contributions are
Why These Competencies Are Important
The 13 competencies that make up this assessment are of particular importance for
those with a coaching role. They represent areas in which you need to excel in order
to fulfill your coaching role successfully.
Communicating Instructions. Showing the person you are coaching how to
accomplish the task and clarifying when, where, how much, and to what
standard it should be done.
The role of coach often involves teaching a skill or procedure to another person.
The ability to break down a task into easy-to-understand steps that you can
articulate to another is vital to being an effective coach.
Setting Performance Goals. Collaborating with others to establish short- and
long-term goals for performance on particular tasks.
Effective coaching sometimes starts with pointing someone in the right direction.
First, you work with the person to set broad goals; then you become very specific
in agreeing on desired outcomes and how they will be measured.
Providing Feedback. Carefully observing performance on individual tasks
and sharing these observations in a nonthreatening manner.
Giving others feedback on their task performance is critical to improving their
performance. In order to do this effectively, you have to observe the person
performing the task, noting what the person is doing well and what can be
improved. Then you work with the individual to ensure he or she understands your
feedback and uses it developmentally.
Rewarding Improvement. Using a variety of means to provide positive
reinforcement to others for making progress on the accomplishment of
Timing of rewards is important. Don’t wait until you see either perfection or failure
on the task. Look for growth in task accomplishment and reward that soon after
you observe it. Although coaches don’t always control formal rewards (pay, perks,
or promotions), they can make frequent and effective use of informal (“pat on the
back” or other nonmonetary recognition) ones.
Dealing with Failure. Working with others to encourage them when they do
not meet expectations.
When an individual demonstrates an inability or unwillingness to perform a task
according to expectations and standards, you need to be able to deal with the
result. This can mean encouraging, reprimanding, redirecting, retraining, or
otherwise affecting his or her ability or willingness. Patience can be a virtue or an
enabler of more failure. Use it wisely.
Working with Personal Issues. Listening empathically and without judgment
and offering emotional support for nonwork difficulties.
In general, coaches are not expected to function as counselors or
psychotherapists. Few are qualified to carry out such responsibilities, and the
context of the organizational relationship might preclude this type of interaction.
Faced with an individual whose personal situation is interfering with his or her
performance, however, you need to be able to intervene. A good rule of thumb is
that whenever you feel “in over your head,” you are. Be prepared to refer the
person to appropriate sources of professional assistance and adjust the coaching
process to support getting through the situation humanely.
Confronting Difficult Situations. Raising uncomfortable topics that are
affecting task accomplishment.
Coaching often involves situations in which performance has not met
expectations. Unmet expectations often lead to finger pointing, denial of personal
responsibility, and other dysfunctional behaviors. Talking about these issues can
make people uncomfortable. Good coaching requires the ability and willingness to
confront difficult and uncomfortable situations head-on, but with tact and
diplomacy. When the best interests of all concerned are at heart, the honesty and
courage to confront difficult situations are welcomed.
Responding to Requests. Consulting with others on an as-needed basis.
Responding to requests in a timely manner.
Timely response to requests is a tangible indicator of respect. To build and
maintain a healthy coaching relationship, make sure your responsiveness reflects
a high level of priority.
Following Through. Keeping your commitments. Monitoring outcomes of the
coaching process and providing additional assistance when necessary.
Trust is a critical component of any coaching relationship. Keeping your
commitments helps build and maintain trust. Showing an ongoing commitment to
the long-term success of the person you are coaching also builds a strong
Listening for Understanding. Demonstrating attention to and conveying
understanding of others.
Listening is another indicator of respect. It requires keeping your mind open to
what others say, attending well to both the content of what they say and the
feelings they may be expressing (sometimes unconsciously). Listening effectively
almost invariably involves checking your understanding of others’ messages by
reflecting what you hear, using such phrases as, “What I hear you saying is...”
and, “You seem to be concerned about....”
Motivating Others. Encouraging others to achieve desired results. Creating
enthusiasm and commitment in others.
The right button to push to help motivate another person differs widely. There are
no hard-and-fast rules to what motivates anyone. You can be effective by knowing
what motivates the person you are coaching and tying his or her desires and
goals to the task at hand. This requires continual assessment and reassessment
of the person and situation. “Reading” the person can be inaccurate. It’s better to
ask what is important to him or her and how the task at hand relates.
Assessing Strengths and Weaknesses. Identifying root causes of individual
performance. Probing beneath the surface of problems. Keenly observing
people and events. Defining and articulating issues effectively.
Properly identifying the abilities and interests of the person you are coaching
directs your coaching efforts to the most critical areas. This involves keen
observation and attention to detail. It also means distinguishing between
symptoms and root causes of problems. Without accurate assessment, your
coaching efforts might all be spent on addressing the wrong problem or a
Building Rapport and Trust. Showing respect for others. Acting with integrity
and honesty. Easily building bonds with others.
Making others feel their concerns and contributions are important. Rapport
and trust are the cornerstones of an effective coaching relationship. The person
you are coaching needs to trust that you have his or her best interests at heart so
he or she can be honest with you regarding shortcomings. There also needs to be
a bond of mutual respect so the advice, teaching, and counseling of the coach will
be more readily accepted.
Focus on Behavior
Rewrite the following sentences so they focus on behavior, not attitude.
1. Jacquelyn just isn’t
2. Sue doesn’t care about her
3. Charisse is
4. Andrew is
5. Michelle is rude to
Each manager should select an employee whose performance you would like to
improve through coaching.
Describe the performance goal:
What behaviors would increase the employee’s skills?
What additional knowledge and training would increase the employee’s skills?
What training and knowledge should you provide to support the employee’s effort to
What types of incentives, if any, would increase the employee’s desire to improve?
List some ways you can observe the employee’s progress and provide feedback.
Get together with your group and discuss your individual plan to improve an
employee’s performance. Present your plan and listen to the feedback and ideas of
the group. Change your plan where needed.
Remember that n this group activity, you will be providing coaching to a fellow
manager. Demonstrate your coaching skills during each discussion.
Focus on Management
Scheduling training sessions is one of the most time-consuming tasks for trainers. It
requires the arrangement of locations, times, and participants. To make this easier,
a credit union designated an employee committee from the branches to fulfill this
role. The committee was to determine the best location, based on the trainer’s
needs, schedule the appropriate dates to meet the business needs of the
departments and branches, and schedule employees to attend. Melanie was chosen
as the primary contact and scheduler for this training.
This committee had been trained to meet this need. In the process of delegating
this procedure, the trainers had spent time explaining scheduling, locations, meals,
budgets, etc. All the necessary information was relayed to Melanie nearly two
months prior to the training dates.
According to Melanie, the IRA training would be held at the Credit Union House in
the local town. The first session that day was at 9:00 and dates and numbers of
participants were provided to Paul. The weather was really bad, but it was IRA
season, so Paul hazarded the trip and arrived in time to set up the room and
At 9:30 no employees had arrived for the training. Thinking the weather was a
factor, Paul called Melanie to find out if anyone had contacted her. Melanie was
silent on the phone. Then she said, “Oh, no. I completely forgot to schedule the
employees to attend IRA training.”
Can you determine what steps of delegation were missing from Melanie’s
Management is defined as “achieving organization goals by working through others.”
Delegation means giving people things to do. It is easy to see that these two
definitions are intertwined. And it is obvious that managers who are not delegating
are not managing effectively.
Delegation: the process of assigning
responsibility along with the related authority.
Delegating is another way to get things done, but the ultimate responsibility remains
with the manager who made the assignment. Delegating does not pass on the
ultimate responsibility for the success or failure of a job or project.
Important Reasons to Delegate
Managers who are unwilling or unable to delegate are limited in their success by the
amount of work they alone are able to complete. By delegating tasks, managers are
able to accomplish tasks that are more challenging and extend their own capabilities,
while extending the capabilities of the staff. Delegation develops skills in employees
by allowing them to test the water, try new things, and grow. By delegating duties,
the manager shows trust and confidence in the employees’ abilities, which is a
motivator. As a result of this trust and confidence, an employee may work harder to
justify it. Delegation will also help morale when you expect positive results from
Good delegation results from the S.M.A.R.T. technique:
1. Assign a SPECIFIC task.
2. Provide MEASURES of accomplishment for the task.
3. AGREE to the task and its measures.
4. Are the task and its measures REALISTIC?
5. TIMING requires a start date and an expected finish date.
The Steps of Good Delegation
1. SPECIFIC: The manager must provide specific instructions on a specific task.
Never just say “do this” without direction and training or the assigned employee
will most definitely fail the assignment.
2. MEASURES: Provide specific items that say the job is completed and completed
correctly. If the delegated duty is to prepare documents and close a home equity
loan, the measures would include the appropriate use of TAPS, completion of all
required forms, correct disbursal of the loan proceeds, and submission to
Consumer Lending. All these requirements are measurable.
3. AGREE: This important step means that the employee agrees to attempt the task
and live up to the measures. The manager must provide guidance during the
process, especially the first time, to ensure that the employee is on the right track.
If the employee does not agree to the assignment, further growth may be needed
prior to delegation.
4. REALSITIC: Always make sure, and revisit throughout the delegation, if the task
is at the employee’s level and can be completed successfully. Delegating work
that is not realistic is a disaster for you and the employee.
5. TIMING: It is your job in delegation to check in with the employee. Are they on
track, do they have questions, is the task overwhelming? Provide guidance and
assistance where needed, but avoid the overwhelming urge to take control. If
your delegation is S.M.A.R.T., you will have a better employee when the task is
This exercise is designed to give you experience in delegating tasks. You will practice the
skills you have learned in this course. The worksheets will be used to guide you through
You are the head teller for a credit union branch. As the head teller, you are the
supervisor of the fully staffed teller line, which consists of four tellers:
She has worked at the branch and the credit union for three years and is a very competent
teller. She balances everyday and is willing to help out with tasks when asked. She does
not sell to members at the teller line, and has told you that she hates to sell. Her sales
numbers are very low as a result and you have spoken to her several times about the
need to improve her sales. Her attention to detail in her teller work is without fault and her
understanding of the teller line functions has become second nature to her. She has no
supervisory experience, but you have noticed that she is the person your tellers go to, if
they need transaction or settlement help. In her Individual Development Plan, Melanie
stated that she has a short-term goal to become a head teller.
He is a new employee and has been on the teller line staff for about three months. His
teller skills are adequate, but his transaction speed is slow and he continues to have
balancing issues. His sales and member service skills are the best you have ever seen
and his sales numbers tops even the FSR numbers. Members love him and many are
slowly gravitating to his window whenever possible. He is young, has no supervisory
skills, and has a tendency to be late or call in sick more than you would prefer. His
Individual Development Plan stated that he would like to become a FSR at some point in
the future. He plans to continue his education.
She has been with you for one year and is an adequate teller. Her teller skills are good,
but she seems afraid to try new things and learn new skills. It takes her repeated
explanations to gain a new skill. She is shy, and a bit afraid to ask members to try new
products and services. Angry members throw her into a complete shambles. She has two
children in day care, but is always on time and at the job when needed. She works hard
and is a good team player. Her Individual Development Plan states that she is happy
where she is and is not interested in additional training or responsibilities.
She is an employee who is willing to do and try anything. She will work hard to figure out
an answer on her own, before asking for help. She has only been on the teller line for six
months, but came out of training with the knowledge and skills needed to be excellent.
Her balancing skills are adequate, and she works hard on her own to discover where she
made errors. Her sales skills are middle of the road, but you can tell she is working hard
to overcome her fear of this process. She offers to help at the drop of the hat and is easy
to teach new skills. All the tellers admire her can do attitude, which is infectious. Her
Individual Development Plan states that she would like to become a loan processor some
The branch manager wants to cross train employees for the upcoming vacation season.
Because the branch is fully staffed at this time, she sees this cross training effort as a
chance to improve the skills of her employees and the productivity of the branch. She has
asked you to cross train as an FSR. You will attend a two-week FSR school, and work for
at least one week as an FSR in your branch. Your manager will serve as your coach
during training and you are very excited at this new challenge.
However, you have never trained your tellers to fill your job function. Generally, when you
are away, your manager completes the head teller job duties. The manager’s efforts to
cross train are now including your job functions. You must have your staff complete your
job for three weeks and there is very little time for training prior to your training date.
Your training class will be local, and you will be able to communicate with the branch via
email or telephone during breaks and lunch. You end training early on Wednesday, and
will return to the branch on those afternoons.
You must decide how to delegate your work. There are several choices:
You can designate one teller to assume your job functions.
You can divide your job functions between all or some of your staff.
The job functions that must be completed while you are away are:
Balancing and cataloguing of all official checks, traveler’s checks, etc, sold in the
Daily balancing of the branch.
Teller line schedules.
Buying and selling teller money.
Ordering money shipments.
Using the worksheets that follow, complete the delegation process, working with your
assigned group. You will need to complete all the worksheets, except the Evaluation
Worksheet at the end. Once everyone has completed theses, we will do role-plays of the
Communications Worksheet, so be prepared.
1. Assess your priorities.
2. Put a “yes” next to each of the above priorities that, when completed, will bring you and
your department closer to credit union or department goals.
3. Put a “D” next to each of the above priorities that can be delegated (completely or
4. List the priorities you will delegate.
5. Complete an Employee Interest Record to determine employee’s career interest as
well as the knowledge and skills needed.
6. Complete a Delegation Assignment Worksheet to determine which employees are the
best candidates for the delegation assignments. Select a delegate for each of your
7. For each project, answer the following questions:
What results do I want from this project?
What authority level am I prepared to give?
What resources do I need to provide?
What deadlines must be met?
How will I monitor the project?
Employee Interest Record
Employee Career/Job Interests Knowledge/Experience/Skills
Delegation Assignment Worksheet
Assignments to be Knowledge/Skills Employee
Delegated Needed Who has the Who would like to
knowledge/skills? develop the skill?
Note: use this sheet as a guide when you delegate the project.
1. Consider the employee to whom you are about to delegate this assignment. What will
be important to this person? What specifically will you do to create a positive climate?
2. Is the location adequate? Check the following:
___ Is the climate relaxed?
___ Is coffee or soda available?
___ Did you arrange for equal seating?
___ Is the phone set to not disturb the conversation?
___ Did you instruct for no interruptions?
___ Are all materials needed available?
3. Write your opening sentence. Practice the sentence to commit it to memory. Will it put
the employee at ease?
4. How do you plan to gain initial acceptance of the assignment? Write a strategy or two.
5. How will you explain the delegation assignment? Use the Preparation Worksheet to
guide you, but work through the key issues with your delegate.
What vision will you communicate?
What results do you expect from the project?
What is the scope of the delegate’s responsibility?
What resources are available to the delegates (money, supplies, equipment,
What level of authority will the delegate have?
How much instruction does the delegate need?
6. Use an Action Plan Worksheet to mutually develop a plan with your delegate. Be
___ Incremental steps
___ Coaching required
___ Resources needed
___ Due dates
7. Give the delegate a copy of the Action Plan Worksheet.
Action Plan Worksheet
Activity Coaching Needed Checkpoint/Expected Due Date
to Do Job Outcome
Note: Use the Communication Worksheet and the Action Plan Worksheet to guide you
through this worksheet.
1. What did you and your delegate agree you would monitor? What outputs and
behaviors will you be observing?
2. How will you monitor the project? Will you be receiving specific materials? Reports?
Memos? Other data? Will you simply confirm that deadlines are being met?
3. How will you monitor behavior? Will you observe the delegate in action? Will you
request evaluations from people who work with the delegate?
4. Do you need to take steps to pave the political path for your delegate? If so, what will
5. What problems do you anticipate? What can you do to prevent them?
Use this worksheet to plan your evaluation meeting with the delegate. Both the delegator
and the delegate should complete this exercise prior to meeting.
1. How successfully was the project completed?
Were the objectives met?
Were the expectations met?
Were the deadlines met?
Did the project stay within budget?
Were positive relationships built with others?
2. Did the delegation meet the employee’s developmental goals?
Identify acquired knowledge.
Identify learned skills.
What further development is needed?
What needs to be discussed?
3. How well was the delegation cycle followed?
How thoroughly was the delegation cycle prepared?
Was the communication meeting positive?
Discuss the level of involvement for both of you.
Were the expectations clear?
Were you accessible to the delegate?
Did the delegate have freedom to act?
Was follow-up completed at appropriate monitoring points?
4. How effective was the relationship between you and the delegate?
How well did you communicate with one another?
Did you both listen well?
Were you both able to constructively disagree?
5. What rewards and recognition are appropriate?
L.E.A.D. for Managers Evaluation Questions
Please take some time to provide thoughtful answers to the evaluation questions
below. Your ideas and responses will help make L.E.A.D. for Managers an improved
course in the future.
Question Your Response
1. List three things you
enjoyed about L.E.A.D., in
2. List three things you did
not enjoy about L.E.A.D.,
in descending order.
3. Explain why you feel that
you learned what you
needed to in L.E.A.D.
4. List information that was
not included in L.E.A.D.
that you wanted to learn.
5. List new ideas you have
gotten from participation in
6. List which topic you felt
was the most beneficial to
you and explain why.
7. List which topic was least
beneficial to you and
8. Were the written materials
and handouts provided
helpful to you? Why?
9. Which activities were
helpful? Which were not
10. Do you feel that
participation in L.E.A.D.
will approve your
effectiveness and results
as a manager at Justice
FCU? Why or why not?
11. How should L.E.A.D. be
improved for future
The information contained in this manual is proprietary to Justice Federal Credit Union