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					      2007
Undergraduate
 Research and
  Scholarship
Undergraduate Research Experience

An undergraduate research experience is widely regarded as a key element in science
education. The report from the National Research Council recommends that “all students be
encouraged to pursue independent research as early as is practical in their education.”(1)

The benefits of undergraduate research to the student have been variously described as:
increased confidence and ability to “do science,” gains in critical thinking, acquisition of
specific technical and communication skills, clarification of major and career path,
development of close relationships with faculty, and increased understanding of the nature of
scientific knowledge. Benefits are also expected to accrue for the mentor in terms of
collegiality and productivity.

We trust that you will witness some of these characteristics while we celebrate the
achievements of our students during this week.
(1)
 National Research Council (2003) BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for
Future Research Biologists, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.




The word “Muskingum” on the front cover is a product of the work of Dr. David Craft,
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Muskingum College. While you read the
name, be aware of the symmetry in that the word can be read in either direction.




                                              ii
                Dr. Homer A. Anderson
Dr. Homer A. Anderson was a Muskingum College graduate of the Class of
1935 and a 1943 graduate of The Ohio
State University Medical School. A
New Concord native, Dr. Anderson
served the Columbus area as a
pediatrician in private practice for 46
years until his retirement in 1993. His
commitment to medicine and the
community is demonstrated through
the many organizations he served over
the years including Chief of Staff at
Children‟s Hospital, President of the
Central Ohio Pediatric Society,
President of the Academy of Medicine
for Columbus and Franklin County and
Chairman of the Ohio Chapter of the
American Academy of Pediatrics. In
1978, Dr. Anderson was presented the
Distinguished Service Award, a
symbol of outstanding service to
humanity by the Muskingum College Alumni Association and in 1998 he was
named to the Distinguished Alumni Hall of Fame of New Concord High School.

Dr. Anderson endowed the College‟s first distinguished professorship in the
natural sciences. Named the Homer A. Anderson Distinguished Professorship in
the Natural Sciences, the gift recognizes the importance of excellence in
teaching. It also honors the life and memory of Mabel Warren Anderson, Class
of 1935, Dr. Anderson‟s wife, who died in 1993 and their son, Dr. Craig
Anderson, Class of 1973 and his wife, Debbie Hart Anderson, Class of 1974.
His granddaughter, Ashley Anderson, is a member of the class of 2009.

The Dr. Homer A. Anderson Lecture Series in the Sciences is dedicated to Dr.
Anderson‟s lifelong pursuit of knowledge and healing and the value of the
teaching and learning process.




                                      iii
           Dr. and Mrs. Glenn Hodges
Dr. Glenn Hodges, an alumnus of Muskingum College, received
his BA in Chemistry in 1963, and earned his MD at the University
of Chicago in 1967. While at Muskingum, Dr. Hodges was active
in Phi Kappa Tau and Alpha Epsilon Delta. Carolyn Hodges
received her BS in education in 1964. He and Carolyn were
married between his freshman and sophomore years of medical
school. They have four daughters, two of which are chemists, one
majored in geology and physical sciences, and one has a
bachelor‟s and a master‟s in accounting.

Until he retired in 1999, Dr. Hodges had been an infectious
diseases specialist on the faculty of the University of Kansas
Medical School, with a practice based at the Kansas City VA
hospital for thirteen years; then he was chief of staff at the Kansas
City VA hospital for nine years.

The Hodge‟s have provided an endowment which supports the
research fund, The Carolyn and Glenn Hodges Student Research
Fund. Students must write a proposal to be evaluated for
allocation of funds. They have also provided funds for awards for
student presentations and posters through The Carolyn and Glenn
Hodges Student Research Awards Fund. Awards are determined
by faculty evaluation of the presentations and posters.




                                  iv
                         Anderson Lecturer
                                      April 19, 2007

                               Dr. Danny J. Ingold
Danny J. Ingold, Ph.D., is the inaugural recipient of the Homer A. Anderson Distinguished
Professorship of Natural Sciences. He earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in biology
from Texas A&M University and his Ph.D. in Zoology from Mississippi State University.

A respected teacher and scholar, Dr. Ingold shares his deep expertise and affinity for the
natural world with his students. His research on habitat behaviors and nesting fidelity of
grassland birds is published extensively in leading journals such as the Wilson Bulletin,
Journal of Field Ornithology, Ohio Journal of Science and others.

His colleagues elected him to the guiding Council of the Wilson Ornithological Society and to
membership in the prestigious American Ornithologists' Union. He is frequently a featured
presenter at the scientific meetings of those organizations and others including the Cooper
Ornithological Society, the Association of Field Ornithologists, and the Ohio Academy
of Science.

Since 1999, he has been a Research Associate at The Wilds, a 10,000-acre private
conservation, education, and research center for endangered species on reclaimed strip-mine
lands in Muskingum County. Through Dr. Ingold's guidance, Muskingum students have had
unique opportunities to participate in the scientific agendas of The Wilds, studying a variety
of grassland bird species.

Dr. Ingold has helped ensure the exellence of Muskingum's science programs with his service
to the College, through his work as Chair of the Biology Department, Coordinator of the
Environmental Studies Program, and faculty advisor to the Beta Beta Beta Biological
Honorary Society.

In the Southeastern Ohio community, Dr. Ingold currently serves as a member of the Board of
Directors of Eastside Community Ministry in Zanesville, Ohio, and is a prior Board Member
of the Ohio Alliance for the Environment. His commitment to science education extends to
elementary, middle, and high school settings, where he often judges student science fairs.

Dr. Ingold resides in Cambridge, Ohio, with his wife, Robin, and their son, Donny.




                                               v
                        Anderson Lecture
                                  April 19, 2007

                            Dr. Danny J. Ingold
   "Restoration Ecology at the Wilds: Unique Opportunities for
                   Student/Faculty Research"
The academic and scholarly relationship between Muskingum College and the
Wilds has grown considerably during the past decade. With it have come new
opportunities for collaborative research efforts involving Muskingum College
students and faculty, as well as Wilds staff, largely in the field of restoration
ecology and natural history. This talk will focus on a few of the research efforts
that have been undertaken at the Wilds in the past decade, with a particular
emphasis on long-term studies of grassland birds living within restored habitats.

Grassland birds are a particularly good barometer of the health of a recovering
grassland ecosystem since such birds are dependent on adequate plant structure,
patch size, and food supply. In 1997-1998 we studied the reproductive success of
several grassland bird species at the Wilds, and from 2000-2006 we color-banded
over 500 grassland birds of four species to monitor their propensity to return to
prior nest sites from year to year. In 2000-2006, we found that 33% of Savannah
Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis; 38/117) returned to nest in the same plot, or
area between plots, during one or more years following their banding. Twenty
three percent of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum; 62/268)
returned during one or more subsequent years, while 22% of Bobolinks (9/41) and
12% of Henslow‟s sparrows (A. henslowii; 12/100) returned. These data suggest
that this recovering, and in some cases restored, surface mine landscape, is
providing suitable reproductive habitat for native bird populations.

But efforts to estimate the overall health and resilience of a disturbed, recovering,
or restored habitat, such as the Wilds, ultimately require a broad array of
investigations. Recently, a number of other student/faculty collaborative
investigations have been initiated with the aim of assessing the suitability of this
habitat to support and sustain a number of other taxa. To date, the results from
such investigations have generally supported the notion that this grassland
landscape represents a functioning but highly altered ecosystem.




                                          vi
     2007 James Bradford Colloquium Award Recipients
    The James Bradford Colloquium is a presentation of senior research from the biology,
 chemistry, geology, physics, mathematics, computer science, & psychology departments as
well as interdisciplinary programs in molecular biology, environmental science, neuroscience,
                                  and conservation science.

           Awards are determined by faculty evaluation and are funded through the
              The Carolyn and Glenn Hodges Student Research Awards Fund.



1st Place:
Lopa Paul, Department of Chemistry

PREPARATION AND BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL ANALOGUES OF
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE”

The study explored methods to synthesize analogues of methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin), a
mild central nervous system stimulant, used in the treatment of >attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD). The objective is to determine how the structural modifications of the drug will
affect its binding affinity to the receptor site, dopamine transporter (DAT), and thereby affect
behavioral expressions.

2rd Place
Margot Kossmann, Neuroscience Program

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEROTONIN AND EATING BEHAVIOR IN RATS:
IMPLICATIONS IN EATING DISORDERS

Along with genetic vulnerability, serotonin imbalances are likely responsible for the symptoms of
anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. Animal models were developed to support this theory. Serotonin
levels were found to correlate negatively with food consumption, suggesting that increased serotonin
and serotonin turnover could be responsible for the symptoms of anorexia.

3nd Place:
Jason Esselburn, Department of Geology

OSTRACODES AS INDICATORS OF HYDROCHEMISTRY AT A RECLAIMED SURFACE
MINE, THE WILDS, SOUTHEASTERN OHIO

Since 2005, an ongoing survey of the ostracode species in certain lakes and streams at The Wilds has
indicated a trend with respect to water quality (specifically solute composition, pH, and total dissolved
solids). This study investigates both the ostracodes‟ hydrochemical preferences and the trends in
surface water quality as a result of the sequential reclamation of the surface mine that is now
The Wilds.




                                                   vii
                                              Table of Contents
                       Ordered alphabetically by last name of primary author.

1.   BURYING BEETLE SURVEYS FOR THE POTENTIAL REINTRODUCTION OF THE
     AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE (NICROPHORUS AMERICANUS) AT THE WILDS, OHIO
     Ryan L. Bechtel, Adam Davis, and Dr. James L. Dooley Jr, Conservation Science Program. ........1

2.   COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-MADE AND PROVIDED ACRONYMS
     AND ACROSTICS
     Tiffany Bender, Department of Psychology .........................................................................................1

3.   EVALUATION OF COMPARTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS IN COCAINE PLACE PREFERENCE
     Ryan Burkhart, Neuroscience Program ...............................................................................................2

4.   LOCALIZATION OF A DYSTROGLYCAN COMPLEX IN EPIDERMIS
     Ashley R. Carpenter and Dr. Amy Santas, Department of Biology ...................................................2

5.   THE EFFECTS OF COLOR ON MEMORY IN ADVERTISEMENTS
     Jacob L. Chrismer, Department of Psychology ...................................................................................3

6.   THE IMPACT OF VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION ON GRASSLAND
     BIRD SPECIES DENSITY ON A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
     Adam E. Cirone and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology ...................................................3

7.   FRIENDSHIP SATISFACTION BETWEEN SAME SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND DIFFERENT
     SEXUAL ORIENTATION DYADS
     Stefani Cvetkovska, Department of Psychology ..................................................................................4

8.   SYNTHESIS OF BIO-DEGRADABLE POLYMER FROM LIGNIN
     Mai Dang, Department of Chemistry………………………………………………………………………………………….4

9.   COGNITIVE APPRAISAL OF SENIOR SEMINAR STRESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE
     STUDENTS AT MUSKINGUM COLLEGE
     Dan Duskey, Department of Psychology ..............................................................................................5

10. OSTRACODES AS INDICATORS OF HYDROCHEMISTRY AT A RECLAIMED
    SURFACE MINE, THE WILDS, SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
    Jason Esselburn and Dr. Stephen Van Horn, Department of Geology ..............................................5

11. THE EFFECTS OF SIBLING BIRTH ORDER ON CREATIVITY, INTELLIGENCE, AND
    PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
    Jessica Gromes, Department of Psychology .........................................................................................6

12. WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) POPULATION ESTIMATION
    AT THE WILDS TO IMPLEMENT A MANAGEMENT PLAN
    Matt Hatfield, Conservation Science Program ....................................................................................6

13. HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND AMBIGUITY? IMMEDIACY OF INTERPRETATION
    AND ITS FACTORS
    Johnathan Hiett, Department of Psychology .......................................................................................7

14. AN ACOUSTICAL STUDY OF A ROAD CONE AND THE SOPRANO SAXOPHONE:
    TESTING THE ON-AXIS PRESSURE AND PHASE DEPENDENCES
    Stephen Johnson, Department of Physics and Engineering ................................................................7



                                                               viii
15. CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEROTONIN AND EATING BEHAVIOR IN RATS:
    IMPLICATIONS IN EATING DISORDERS
    Margot Kossmann, Neuroscience Program..........................................................................................7

16. EXTERNAL INFLUENCE ON BODY IMAGE DSYPHORIA IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN AND
    MEN: A STUDY OF MEDIA EFFECTS
    Kara Kotarsky, Department of Psychology .........................................................................................8

17. ATTITUDES TOWARD SEEKING PROFESSIONAL HELP IN UNDERGRADUATE
    COLLEGE STUDENTS
    Emily Lauer, Department of Psychology..............................................................................................8

18. EFFECTS OF REPEATED LONG DURATION STIMULATION ON THE
    DOPAMINE SYSTEM
    Lacey Ledoux and Dr. Brian Bergstrom, Neuroscience Program .....................................................8

19. THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF GASTROPODS INFECTED WITH
    PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS AT THE WILDS, OHIO
    Ashleigh Lemon and Rachel Hollis, Conservation Science Program .................................................9

20. STUDYING AND MAPPING POTENTIAL HABITAT COMPOSTION FOR WOOD FROGS
    (RANA SYLVATICA) AT THE WILDS
    Amos Ludwig, Conservation Science Program ....................................................................................9

21. WOODY PLANT SPECIES COMPOSITION ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH GRADIENT ON A
    RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
    G. Bradford McBride and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology ........................................10

22. MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY TYPES IN HOME SCHOOL AND
    PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATORS
    Jami McDonald, Department of Psychology ......................................................................................10

23. RESTORATION OF VACUUM SYSTEM FOR DEPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC
    MATERIALS
    Charles Miller, Department of Physic and Engineering ...................................................................11

24. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS AND MUSIC PREFERENCE
    James L. Miller, Department of Psychology ......................................................................................11

25. EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS OF DOPAMINE ARE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY
    IN THE STRIATUM DUE TO HIGH FREQUENCY STIMULATION FOLLOWING
    ADMINISTRATION OF ASPARTAME
    Caroline Padro and Dr. Brian Bergstrom, Neuroscience Program .................................................12

26. PREPARATION AND BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL ANALOGUES OF
    METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE
    Lopa Mudra Paul, Departments of Chemistry and Psychology .......................................................12

27. DETERMINATION OF PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS INFECTION AT THE WILDS BY
    DNA ANALYSIS
    Eliza Porter, Dr. Tiffany Wolf, Dr. Barb Wolfe, & Dr. Amy Santas, Department of Biology ......13

28. EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO CREATIVE LITERATURE ON MEASURABLE
    STUDENT CREATIVITY
    Lisa Reavis, Department of Psychology..............................................................................................13

29. MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES ON MOTOR LEARNING IN CHILDREN
    Jessica Shipe, Department of Psychology ...........................................................................................14

                                                                ix
30. THE EFFECT OF PLANT OILS AND EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS
    AUREUS AND METHICILLIN RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA)
    Elizabeth Sickler, Department of Biology ..........................................................................................14

31. USING AQUEOUS SUZUKI COUPLING REACTION TO MODIFY AND
    CROSS-LINK LIGNIN
    Jewel H. Songo and Dr. Eric J. Schurter, Department of Chemistry ..............................................15

32. EFFECTIVENESS OF FORCED-USED THERAPY ON LEARNING USING MANIPULATIVE
    DEXTERITY TASKS
    Angela Soos, Department of Psychology ............................................................................................15

33. CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN (IODP EXPEDITION 306, SITE
    U1314)
    AT CA.1.5 MA
    Jennifer Sorrell and Dr. Shelley A Judge, Department of Geology .................................................16

34. COLORONOMICS – THE MYSTERIES OF HUE, SATURATION AND CHROME
    Atul Todi, Department of Psychology .................................................................................................17

35. SALAMANDER SPECIES DIVERSITY ON DISTURBED AND UNDISTURBED PORTIONS
    OF A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
    John M. Treasure and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology ..............................................17

36. GENDER AND AGGRESSION DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY TO RECALL
    EMOTIONAL WORDS
    Lisa Wayt, Department of Psychology................................................................................................18

37. MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN STRUCTURE TO AID CROSSLINKING PROCESS USING
    SUZUKI COUPLING
    Brittany Weaver, Department of Chemistry ......................................................................................18

38. EXPLORING THE CAUSE OF ADOLESCENT TOBACCO USE THROUGH THE THEORY
    OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AND CONSIDERATION OF FUTURE CONSEQUENCES SCALE
    Courtney M. Wenzel, Department of Psychology ..............................................................................19

39. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATE SELECTION, AND HOW THEY DIFFER FROM
    SHORT-TERM TO LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIP
    LaRinda Wickes, Department of Psychology .....................................................................................19




                                                                  x
                                                 Abstracts by Department
                    Ordered alphabetically within department by last name of primary author.

                                                       Department of Biology
LOCALIZATION OF A DYSTROGLYCAN COMPLEX IN EPIDERMIS
Ashley R. Carpenter and Dr. Amy Santas, Department of Biology .................................................................2

THE IMPACT OF VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION ON GRASSLAND
BIRD SPECIES DENSITY ON A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
Adam E. Cirone and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology ..................................................................3

WOODY PLANT SPECIES COMPOSITION ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH GRADIENT ON A
RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
G. Bradford McBride and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology ......................................................10

DETERMINATION OF PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS INFECTION AT THE WILDS BY
DNA ANALYSIS
Eliza Porter, Dr. Tiffany Wolf, Dr. Barb Wolfe, & Dr. Amy Santas, Department of Biology .....................13

THE EFFECT OF PLANT OILS AND EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
AND METHICILLIN RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA)
Elizabeth Sickler, Department of Biology.........................................................................................................14

SALAMANDER SPECIES DIVERSITY ON DISTURBED AND UNDISTURBED PORTIONS
OF A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
John M. Treasure and Dr. Danny J. Ingold, Department of Biology .............................................................17


                                                     Department of Chemistry
SYNTHESIS OF BIO-DEGRADABLE POLYMER FROM LIGNIN
Mai Dang, Department of Chemistry ..................................................................................................................4

PREPARATION AND BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL ANALOGUES OF
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE
Lopa Mudra Paul, Departments of Chemistry and Psychology .....................................................................12

USING AQUEOUS SUZUKI COUPLING REACTION TO MODIFY AND
CROSS-LINK LIGNIN
Jewel H. Songo and Dr. Eric J. Schurter, Department of Chemistry ............................................................15

MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN STRUCTURE TO AID CROSSLINKING PROCESS USING
SUZUKI COUPLING
Brittany Weaver, Department of Chemistry ....................................................................................................18


                                                Conservation Science Program
BURYING BEETLE SURVEYS FOR THE POTENTIAL REINTRODUCTION OF THE
AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE (NICROPHORUS AMERICANUS) AT THE WILDS, OHIO
Ryan L. Bechtel, Adam Davis, and Dr. James L. Dooley Jr, Conservation Science Program. ......................1

WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) POPULATION ESTIMATION
AT THE WILDS TO IMPLEMENT A MANAGEMENT PLAN
Matt Hatfield, Conservation Science Program ..................................................................................................6

                                                                         xi
THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF GASTROPODS INFECTED WITH
PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS AT THE WILDS, OHIO
Ashleigh Lemon and Rachel Hollis, Conservation Science Program ...............................................................9

STUDYING AND MAPPING POTENTIAL HABITAT COMPOSTION FOR WOOD FROGS
(RANA SYLVATICA) AT THE WILDS
Amos Ludwig, Conservation Science Program ..................................................................................................9


                                                      Department of Geology

OSTRACODES AS INDICATORS OF HYDROCHEMISTRY AT A RECLAIMED
SURFACE MINE, THE WILDS, SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
Jason Esselburn and Dr. Stephen Van Horn, Department of Geology ............................................................5

CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN (IODP EXPEDITION 306, SITE U1314)
AT CA.1.5 MA
Jennifer Sorrell and Dr. Shelley A Judge, Department of Geology................................................................16


                                                      Neuroscience Program
EVALUATION OF COMPARTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS IN COCAINE PLACE PREFERENCE
Ryan Burkhart, Neuroscience Program .............................................................................................................2

CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEROTONIN AND EATING BEHAVIOR IN RATS:
IMPLICATIONS IN EATING DISORDERS
Margot Kossmann, Neuroscience Program ........................................................................................................7

EFFECTS OF REPEATED LONG DURATION STIMULATION ON THE
DOPAMINE SYSTEM
Lacey Ledoux and Dr. Brian Bergstrom, Neuroscience Program ....................................................................8

EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS OF DOPAMINE ARE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY
IN THE STRIATUM DUE TO HIGH FREQUENCY STIMULATION FOLLOWING
ADMINISTRATION OF ASPARTAME
Caroline Padro and Dr. Brian Bergstrom, Neuroscience Program................................................................12


                                        Department of Physics and Engineering
AN ACOUSTICAL STUDY OF A ROAD CONE AND THE SOPRANO SAXOPHONE:
TESTING THE ON-AXIS PRESSURE AND PHASE DEPENDENCES
Stephen Johnson, Department of Physics and Engineering ..............................................................................7

RESTORATION OF VACUUM SYSTEM FOR DEPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Charles Miller, Department of Physic and Engineering .................................................................................11

                                                   Department of Psychology
COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-MADE AND PROVIDED ACRONYMS
AND ACROSTICS
Tiffany Bender, Department of Psychology .......................................................................................................1

THE EFFECTS OF COLOR ON MEMORY IN ADVERTISEMENTS
Jacob L. Chrismer, Department of Psychology .................................................................................................3


                                                                       xii
FRIENDSHIP SATISFACTION BETWEEN SAME SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND DIFFERENT
SEXUAL ORIENTATION DYADS
Stefani Cvetkovska, Department of Psychology .................................................................................................4

COGNITIVE APPRAISAL OF SENIOR SEMINAR STRESS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE
STUDENTS AT MUSKINGUM COLLEGE
Dan Duskey, Department of Psychology .............................................................................................................5

THE EFFECTS OF SIBLING BIRTH ORDER ON CREATIVITY, INTELLIGENCE, AND
PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
Jessica Gromes, Department of Psychology .......................................................................................................6

HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND AMBIGUITY? IMMEDIACY OF INTERPRETATION
AND ITS FACTORS
Johnathan Hiett, Department of Psychology ......................................................................................................7

EXTERNAL INFLUENCE ON BODY IMAGE DSYPHORIA IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN AND MEN: A
STUDY OF MEDIA EFFECTS
Kara Kotarsky, Department of Psychology ........................................................................................................8

ATTITUDES TOWARD SEEKING PROFESSIONAL HELP IN UNDERGRADUATE
COLLEGE STUDENTS
Emily Lauer, Department of Psychology ............................................................................................................8

MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY TYPES IN HOME SCHOOL AND
PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATORS
Jami McDonald, Department of Psychology ....................................................................................................10

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS AND MUSIC PREFERENCE
James L. Miller, Department of Psychology.....................................................................................................11

EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO CREATIVE LITERATURE ON MEASURABLE
STUDENT CREATIVITY
Lisa Reavis, Department of Psychology ............................................................................................................13

MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES ON MOTOR LEARNING IN CHILDREN
Jessica Shipe, Department of Psychology .........................................................................................................14

EFFECTIVENESS OF FORCED-USED THERAPY ON LEARNING USING MANIPULATIVE
DEXTERITY TASKS
Angela Soos, Department of Psychology ...........................................................................................................15

COLORONOMICS – THE MYSTERIES OF HUE, SATURATION AND CHROME
Atul Todi, Department of Psychology ...............................................................................................................17

GENDER AND AGGRESSION DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY TO RECALL
EMOTIONAL WORDS
Lisa Wayt, Department of Psychology ..............................................................................................................18

EXPLORING THE CAUSE OF ADOLESCENT TOBACCO USE THROUGH THE THEORY
OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AND CONSIDERATION OF FUTURE CONSEQUENCES SCALE
Courtney M. Wenzel, Department of Psychology ............................................................................................19

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATE SELECTION, AND HOW THEY DIFFER FROM
SHORT-TERM TO LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIP
LaRinda Wickes, Department of Psychology ...................................................................................................19



                                                                        xiii
                                     ABSTRACTS – 2007

BURYING BEETLE SURVEYS FOR THE POTENTIAL REINTRODUCTION OF THE
AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE (Nicrophorus americanus) AT THE WILDS, OHIO
Ryan L. Bechtel, Adam Davis, and Dr. James L. Dooley Jr.
Conservation Science Program

Insects constitute approximately three percent (3%) of currently listed endangered species in the
United States. The American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus, was listed as an
endangered species in July of 1989. American burying beetles are known to be key contributors
to ecosystem function and are considered to be habitat generalists. The dramatic decrease in their
population is puzzling to entomologists, and reintroduction efforts have been undertaken. The
objectives of this research were to survey a number of habitats within the Wilds ecosystem to
document species richness and the relative abundance of related burying beetle species. The
Wilds is a 10,000 acre conservation research and education institution located in southeastern
Ohio. Locations deemed to contain sufficient resources to support related species may be further
evaluated for use as release sites for Nicrophorus americanus. Baited pit fall traps were set up
along 200 meter transects at 20 meter increments. All traps were checked between 6:30 A.M. and
10:00 A.M. to reduce beetle mortality. Burying beetles found in the traps were identified in the
field (using a beetle identification book), and then released. Analysis of the data suggests that a
number of sites within the Wilds‟ property appear to support robust numbers of congener burying
beetle species (orbicollis and tomentosus) and therefore may hold potential as release sites for the
endangered Nicrophorus americanus.


COMPARING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-MADE AND PROVIDED ACRONYMS
AND ACROSTICS
Tiffany Bender
Department of Psychology

Previous research has shown that using mnemonics can be very effective in aiding memory recall
because it groups information together making it easier to recall. Creating mnemonics is more
effective then using those provided because the cues can be more personal to the participant. In
this study, two mnemonics, acrostics and acronyms, are compared to see which is more effective
as well as if it is more effective if they are provided or created. Each of four lists of 12 words were
presented, two lists were used for acrostics and two for acronyms. For each of the two, one was
created and one was provided. On the first day, participants followed instructions on which
mnemonic to use and whether to use the ones provided or to create their own. Immediate recall
tests were given after each list of words. On the second day the participants were given a delayed
recall test. Two-way within subject ANOVAs were run comparing the two types of mnemonics
and whether they were created or provided for day one and day two and no results were
significant. This may have been because of a ceiling effect in which many participants
remembered all of the words on day one and floor effect where some participants remembered no
words on day two. This may have occurred because of a low number of words in the lists.
Because of these results the effect is difficult to interpret. This can be avoided in future research
by increasing the number of words in each list.


                                                  1
EVALUATION OF COMPARTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS IN COCAINE
PLACE PREFERENCE
Ryan Burkhart
Neuroscience Program

Place preference studies are thought to be an accurate measure of drug reward. Using
Pavlovian conditioning, rats learned to associate certain visual and tactile stimuli in different
compartments with the effects of cocaine. The results of this study showed that
environmental factors (i.e. attractiveness of the compartment) plays a large role in the
measure of cocaine reward. A black compartment with a wire mesh floor and a white
compartment with a wooden floor composed the two compartments. Two attempts were
performed to create a cocaine preference. Apparent unequal compartment attractiveness in
favor of the black compartment created a compartment preference. Only on the third attempt,
after wood chips were introduced to the white compartment could we see a drug preference
take effect.


LOCALIZATION OF A DYSTROGLYCAN COMPLEX IN EPIDERMIS
Ashley R. Carpenter and. Dr. Amy Santas
Department of Biology

The dystroglycan (DG) protein is derived from a single gene (DAG1) in vertebrates. It
consists of two components: the outermost, extracellular α-DG subunit, and transmembranous
β-DG. Cleavage of the dystroglycan protein separates it into two equally important
components. Together the components connect the extracellular matrix to the actin
cytoskeleton.
After a cut, skin is forced to regenerate its lost tissue. Preliminary data reveals that
dystroglycan was removed from a wound site (Santas, AJ) It is necessary to determine the
location of the subunits, and other proteins with which dystroglycan may be complexed in
normal and wounded conditions. This information could potentially serve as a model for
cancer. To do this, frozen tissue is sectioned, fixed and subjected to immunohistochemistry.
The advantage of immunohistochemistry is that it allows us to localize proteins in a cell or
tissue sample. This method exploits the use of antibodies that are connected to enzymes. An
aqueous diaminobenzadine substrate is later introduced to react with the enzyme which
catalyzes the formation of a purple precipitate product. This can be monitored and analyzed
by light microscopy.
Staining for the location of α-DG has revealed a dark, continuous stain along the basement
membrane, and cell to cell borders. Staining for β-DG reveals extensive basement membrane
zone staining. From the results collected, dystroglycan appears to be complexed with
utrophin, syntrophin, and α-dystrobrevin. In the future it will be necessary to determine the
composition and localization of proteins in wound tissue in comparison to normal tissue
conditions.




                                                2
THE EFFECTS OF COLOR ON MEMORY IN ADVERTISEMENTS
Jacob L. Chrismer
Department of Psychology

In this study it was looked at to see if color in advertisements had an effect on a person‟s
memory. It was hypothesized was that subjects that saw the advertisements in color would
remember the advertisements better due to greeter depth of processing and those who saw the
advertisements would spend more time looking at theadvertisements. This was tested by
giving two groups of subjects one group viewing the advertisements in color and the other
group viewing the advertisements in black and white. Those two groups where also divided in
half by viewing times, half had as much times as they needed to view the advertisements
while the others had only five minutes. I also looked to see if there would be a gender
difference, but not enough males showed up to the testing to compare their memory to
females. The process was the subjects would view ten advertisements then take a filler task
finally a test to see how much they remembered. About trends found marginal significance in
the color group in regard to general accuracy of memory and marginal significance in the
color group for remembering specific aspects of the advertisements. There was no significant
difference in how much time the two groups spent on looking at the advertisements.


THE IMPACT OF VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION ON GRASSLAND
BIRD SPECIES DENSITY ON A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
Adam E. Cirone and Dr. Danny J. Ingold,
Department of Biology

Reclaimed strip-mines have been shown to provide suitable nesting habitat for a variety of
grassland bird species. The extent to which grasslands dominated by exotic grass species
benefit grassland birds versus native grasslands as well as exotic grasslands encroached upon
by exotic woody species (e.g., autumn olive, Elaeagnus multiflora) is still in question. From
mid-May through July 2006, the number of males of several bird species along 250 m
transects in ten 250 x 100 m plots (5 on exotic grasslands, 3 on encroached grasslands, and 2
on native grasslands) in the Wilds was quantified (by song and visual observations with a
range finder). The Wilds is a reclaimed strip-mine located at the intersection of Guernsey,
Muskingum and Noble counties in southeastern Ohio. One-way ANOVAs were used to
analyze these data, which detected no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the density of
Henslow‟s sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii), savannah sparrows (Passerculus
sandwichensis), bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) or red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius
phoeniceus) among these three habitat types. A significant difference was detected in
grasshopper sparrow (A. savannarum) density in the grassland plots (both exotic and native)
lacking woody vegetation versus those with woody encroachment (F = 8.89, DF = 2, P <
0.05). A significantly greater density of common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) was
detected in plots with woody vegetation versus those (both exotic and native) lacking woody
encroachment (F = 78.55, DF = 2, P < 0.001). These data suggest that grassland plots lacking
woody encroachment (whether dominated by exotic or native grass species) were beneficial to
nesting grassland birds, while plots with woody encroachment were less attractive.




                                             3
FRIENDSHIP SATISFACTION BETWEEN SAME SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND
DIFFERENT SEXUAL ORIENTATION DYADS
Stefani Cvetkovska
Department of Psychology

Examining the fundamental ways in which close friendships are established and maintained is
important in learning how humans interact. This research concentrates on investigating the
differences between friendship dyads composed of same sexual orientation and different
sexual orientation individuals. The purpose of this is to look at the underlying issues of these
differences and examine the roles of sexuality, stigmatization, and compatibility. In this
experiment 193 participants were given a questionnaire consisting of multiple surveys that
were adapted specifically for use in determining factors associated with friendship satisfaction
and sexual orientation of same-sex friends. Overall, it was shown that heterosexuals have
more intimate friendships with homosexuals, while homosexuals prefer the intimate
friendship of heterosexuals. This data was unanticipated in regards to the initial hypotheses
and the finding is contrary to other research illustrating that individuals significantly prefer
interaction with friends of the same orientation. There was also a trend regarding
stereotypical views of homosexuals. Male homosexuals regard homosexual‟s as being more
feminine compared to heterosexual males and their view. Homosexual females also rated
homosexual females as more masculine than heterosexual females rated them. These trends
seem to show perceptions of more femininity in gay men and more masculinity in lesbian
women compared to heterosexual individuals.


SYNTHESIS OF BIO-DEGRADABLE POLYMER FROM LIGNIN
Mai Dang
Department of Chemistry

A method of producing polymer capable of degrading biologically is studied. The main
material is lignin, a natural inexpensive compound extracted from wood. Further, the
polymerization uses a synthetic methodology that does not produce many environmentally
hazardous by-products. The synthetic process includes methylation, bromination, and the
Suzuki coupling reaction.
This research is focusing on the first two reactions: methylation and bromination of lignin.
Methylating lignin involves cleaving off the proton from the hydroxyl group and attaching the
methyl group in exchange. Then the methylated lignin is allowed to react with liquid bromine.
The product after this step should be the bromine attached to the aromatic rings of each
monomer subunit, providing the substrate for the Suzuki coupling reaction.
FTIR analysis shows that the lignin was successfully brominated. FTIR spectra of brominated
lignin show new peaks that are expected. F




                                               4
COGNITIVE APPRAISAL OF SENIOR SEMINAR STRESS AMONG
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AT MUSKINGUM COLLEGE
Dan Duskey
Department of Psychology

Stress involves tension that everyone experiences due to conflict between an environmental
event and the individual‟s ability to cope with the event. Cognitive appraisal involves an
individual‟s evaluation of the extent to which their stress will affect them, along with their
ability to manage that stress. The present study was conducted to explore and examine
students‟ cognitive appraisal of stress as it pertains to work on their senior seminar. Thirty-
two participants completed a packet of surveys on their problem solving methods, state and
trait anxiety, coping methods, personality characteristics, and cognitive appraisal of stress.
Previous research has shown relationships between state anxiety, primary appraisal, and
coping methods. Additionally, studies have demonstrated relationships between personality
characteristics and the ways in which individuals appraise and cope with stress. Results from
this study will be used to further understand the relationships among cognitive appraisals,
coping methods, personality characteristics, and anxiety.


OSTRACODES AS INDICATORS OF HYDROCHEMISTRY AT A RECLAIMED
SURFACE MINE, THE WILDS, SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
Jason Esselburn and Dr. Stephen Van Horn
Department of Geology

Ostracode species distribution at The Wilds reflects the chronology of the reclamation that
took place there between 1974 and 1984. The reclamation proceeded from north to south, and
surface water parameters are indicative. During reclamation approximately 40 lakes were
constructed. Today surface water, exclusive of springs, can be divided into three geographic
regions based on characteristic levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). The northern region
typically has TDS values between 1200 to 1400 mg/L. TDS values in the central region range
between 800 to 1100 mg/L and in the southern region range between 100 to 500 mg/L. The
pH values of surface water at The Wilds vary between 6.5 and 9.0 and appear to be primarily
controlled by the limestone-rich spoil. High TDS values of the lakes of the northern and
central regions of The Wilds can be attributed to the fact that they are fed by a combination of
groundwater, springs, and surface runoff. Most of the southern region lakes, however, are fed
exclusively by surface water runoff, have small drainage basins and are not flow-through
lakes. Southern region lakes based on TDS values appear to be above the groundwater table.
Since 2005, an ongoing survey of the ostracode species in certain lakes and streams at The
Wilds has indicated a trend with respect to solute composition. A near linear trend that has
emerged is Mg2+ concentration vs. Carbonate alkalinity/Ca ratio. The only outlier is from the
northernmost of the sampled lakes. The only ostracode found there was Physocypria globula,
which is known to have the highest amplitude of solute composition tolerance out of the three
assemblages found at The Wilds (Physocypria globula, Darwinula stevensoni, and Candona
elliptica). Further investigation will determine whether the tolerance amplitude is the reason
for the breakdown of this trend.




                                               5
THE EFFECTS OF SIBLING BIRTH ORDER ON CREATIVITY, INTELLIGENCE, AND
PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
Jessica Gromes
Department of Psychology

The effects of birth order on personality traits and characteristics has been a much pondered
controversial issue. Multiple studies suggest it has pronounced influence on creativity,
intelligence, and personality patterns, while comparable amounts of research contradict even the
most minute effects. In order to further test these ideas and analyze the statistical outcome,
twenty-four Muskingum College students were asked to complete a two-section survey in which
their creativity level and intelligence levels and personality traits. according to the Big Five
Inventory, were tested. They were also asked to answer the questions pertaining to their siblings
and their siblings‟ personalities, in order to compare within each family. Hypotheses suggested
that older siblings tend to be more conscientious, extraverted, and intelligent, while younger
siblings rate higher in openness, agreeableness, and creativity categories. The data for each of the
four Big Five Inventory traits for each subject was compared to the other subjects‟ scores to detect
any correlation with sibling order. Results showed among the characteristics tested, extraversion,
agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness; there was no significant difference related to
birth order in any trait. Furthermore, only extraversion appeared show a trend in the means. As
birth order increased from an only child to four to six siblings, so did extraversion. GPA and
creativity levels were also tested with a birth order pattern in mind. Again, each resulted with no
significant effect for birth order, suggesting that there is a high variability range among subjects.


WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) POPULATION ESTIMATION
AT THE WILDS TO IMPLEMENT A MANAGEMENT PLAN
Matt Hatfield
Conservation Science Program

Accurate estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations are critical to
developing effective management decisions. White-tailed deer management has been of interest to
wildlife managers due to increases in deer abundance and the recognition of the status of deer as
keystone herbivores. Being able to accurately estimate white-tailed deer population size has been
difficult, because deer are large, mobile mammals. Distance sampling offers a relatively effective
and efficient alternative to traditional capture/recapture approaches in population estimation.
Sampling procedures and estimation routines developed by the program Distance were used to
sample white-tailed deer abundance across the property of the Wilds in September 2006. The
Wilds is a 10,000 acre conservation research and education institution located in southeastern
Ohio. Backcountry roads traversing the Wilds property were used as sampling transects. Along
each transect an off-road vehicle was driven and a laser range finder was used to determine the
linear distance from the transect to the clusters of deer. Estimates of white-tailed deer abundance
were developed across the property with the aim of developing accurate estimates of relative
abundance. Data was collected on eight different occasions, resulting in 253 observations over
88.4 total kilometers traveled. After analyzing the data with the program Distance, a Hazard Rate
Key model was fit to the data using a quantitative method, Aikake Information Criterion, for
model selection. Using the detection function derived from the model, its was calculated that the
overall density of white-tailed deer at the Wilds was approximately 45.71 deer per square
kilometer.

                                                 6
HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND AMBIGUITY? IMMEDIACY OF INTERPRETATION
AND ITS FACTORS
Johnathan Hiett
Department of Psychology

Using techniques from Just & Carpenter (1980) Sereno, O‟Donnell, & Rayner, a study was
designed to view the effects of Immediacy of Interpretation on the comprehension of ambiguity.
Forty-two college students participated in the study. A computer program was designed to present
the participants with sentences that ranged in length and level of ambiguity. The terms of sentence
length were defined as small (1-5 words), medium (6-7 words), and long (8-10 words). The
sentences could also be one of three types of ambiguity: Non-ambiguous, resolved ambiguity, or an
ambiguous sentence. The study‟s results showed that sentence length and sentence ambiguity
played a significant factor in the reaction times and the response accuracy of the participants.


AN ACOUSTICAL STUDY OF A ROAD CONE AND THE SOPRANO SAXOPHONE:
TESTING THE ON-AXIS PRESSURE AND PHASE DEPENDENCES
Stephen Johnson
Department of Physics and Engineering

This paper studied and tested the on-axis pressure and phase dependence of sound waves as the
propagated through a road cone and soprano saxophone. I began by wiring a single condenser
microphone to a circuit and took measurements down the center of the cone using a LabView
program I wrote. I then calibrated four microphones to take simultaneous measurements so that I
could look at the phase of the sound waves as they propagated through my cone. I finished by
stringing my array of microphones down a soprano saxophone to see if the predictions I made with
the road cone are accurate.


CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEROTONIN AND EATING BEHAVIOR
IN RATS: IMPLICATIONS IN EATING DISORDERS
Margot Kossmann
Neuroscience Program

In a world full of an increasing number of stick-thin models and fad diets, eating disorders are
becoming an epidemic. Previously thought to be purely psychological, these disorders are now
known to have physiological components. Along with genetic vulnerability, serotonin imbalances
are likely responsible for the symptoms of anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating. In order to support
this theory, animal models were developed using the following treatments: one group of animals
received injections of 5HTP (5-hydroxytryphan), a serotonin precursor, to raise serotonin levels;
another group received injections of PCPA (para-chlora phenylalanine), an inhibitor of serotonin
synthesis, to lower serotonin levels; and the final group received injections of DMSO (dimethyl
sulfoxide), a solvent, as a control. Food intake and weight for each rat was recorded daily for seven
days. Each rat‟s brain was then analyzed using HPLC to determine levels of serotonin and 5HIAA
(5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), a serotonin metabolite, in the raphe nucleus, ventral medial caudate
putamen, and ventral tegmental area. These serotonin levels were then found to correlate negatively
with food consumption. This suggests that increased serotonin and serotonin turnover could be
responsible for the symptoms of anorexia.

                                                  7
EXTERNAL INFLUENCE ON BODY IMAGE DSYPHORIA IN ADOLESCENT WOMEN
AND MEN: A STUDY OF MEDIA EFFECTS
Kara Kotarsky
Department of Psychology

This study explored adolescent females and males appearance satisfaction in response to social
comparisons with idealized media images. It focused on exposing undergraduate female and
male students to ideal media images compared to neutral media images and how it affects their
own body image. Each individual rated his/her body image using the Contour Drawing Rating
Scale of images where the participants would describe what society views as the ideal body type
and how they view themselves on their own body type. Participants also completed a survey on
how media affects their self-esteem, weight and risk factors they engage in in order to meet
society‟s standards. Females mean was higher in both images versus neutral images compared to
males because they preferred to be in better physical shape after watching these music videos with
women/men who had excellent physique. This gender difference was statistically significant, F
(1, 46) = 7.53, p = .009. There was a correlation between the participant‟s current size today and
the experimenter rating. Furthermore, male participants rated their ideal body image differently
depending on if they viewed an ideal body image or neutral image. The distinctions between
ideal body image versus neutral image, and between males and females, are considered in the
discussion.


ATTITUDES TOWARD SEEKING PROFESSIONAL HELP IN UNDERGRADUATE
COLLEGE STUDENTS
Emily Lauer
Department of Psychology

Counseling is a service that could benefit many people; however the majority of people do not
take advantage of these services. Research has found that gender appears to be one of the primary
deciding factors which govern whether or not a person will seek out professional help. This
experiment aims to discover whether people with a certain type of personality, mainly people with
more feminine personality traits, are more likely to attend therapy. In this study the participants
filled out a questionnaire packet which helped to determine their gender-type, concerns about
counseling, and attitudes toward seeking professional help.


EFFECTS OF REPEATED LONG DURATION STIMULATION ON THE
DOPAMINE SYSTEM
Lacey Ledoux and Dr. Brian Bergstrom
Neuroscience Program

The sole purpose of this investigation was to test the affects of repeated long duration stimulation
on the dopamine system, using electrically evoked dopamine. Five stimulations were completed
every 5 minutes at 1 second, 2 seconds, 5 seconds, 10 seconds, and 20 seconds. After recording
extracellular dopamine through fast-scan cyclic voltametry 1mL of distilled water was injected
(IP) to represent a similar condition to when a drug is injected. A one hour period elapsed and the
previously mentioned condition repeated. The repeated long duration stimulation produced no
significant affects or drops in the dopamine levels indicating these stimulation parameters do not
alter dopamine tone.
                                                 8
THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF GASTROPODS INFECTED WITH
PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS AT THE WILDS, OHIO.
Ashleigh Lemon and Rachel Hollis
Conservation Science Program

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is a species of meningeal worm that has been identifies as an
important threat to non-native ungulates in North America captive management programs.
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are the definitive host of P. tenuis, carrying the
first stage larva (L1). Many terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) serve as intermediate
hosts, acquiring larvae at the L1 stage which then develop into second and third stage larvae
(L2 & L3). Consumption of infected gastropods by ungulates then completes the life cycle. A
number of non-native ungulate species suffer neural degeneration and even death when
exposed to P. tenuis. This study was conducted at the Wilds which is a nonprofit conservation
research and education institution located in southeastern Ohio. The specific objectives of this
study were to: 1.) determine which species of gastropods carry Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
and to 2.) assess which grazing pastures of exotic ungulates and sub-habitats within those
pastures have a greater abundance of gastropods infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.
Squares of plywood were used for collection of gastropods. After field sampling, a digestion
process of an acidic solution revealed whether the gastropods were infected. Our analyses
have yielded no indication of infection of gastropods in exotic ungulate pastures. However
new cases of P. tenuis jumping species has occurred at The Wilds since our collections.


STUDYING AND MAPPING POTENTIAL HABITAT COMPOSITION FOR WOOD
FROGS (RANA SYLVATICA) AT THE WILDS
Amos Ludwig
Conservation Science Program

Surface mining practices have extensively altered anuran habitats in southeastern Ohio. In
spite of reclamation efforts, anurans such as the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), have suffered
widespread population declines. The Wilds is a non-profit conservation research and
education institution located in southeastern Ohio on land that is a reclaimed surface mine.
Wood frog population declines at the Wilds suggest habitat alteration and/or environmental
pollution. The objective of this study is to survey and characterize potential wood frog
habitats at the Wilds. Wood frog terrestrial and aquatic habitats were assessed based on
factors described in the literature as significant in influencing survivorship and reproductive
success. The significant terrestrial factors include canopy cover, soil saturation, debris for
overwintering and buffer distance to breeding habitat. The aquatic factors include pool depth
and area, absence of fish, branches for oviposition, neutral pH and absence of toxic metals.
GPS coordinates of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats were gathered and put onto an aerial
photograph of the Wilds using GIS. These data will be analyzed with the aim of ranking
suitable sites for either additional restoration or potential release of wood frogs.




                                               9
WOODY PLANT SPECIES COMPOSITION ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH GRADIENT
ON A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
G. Bradford McBride and Dr. Danny J. Ingold
Department of Biology

Strip-mining in the eastern United States has lead to the transformation of large tracts of
forests and agricultural land to artificial grasslands dominated by exotic grasses and usually
only a few woody plant species. However, in the wake of strip-mining, small patches of
undisturbed forests, not readily accessible to mining efforts, were occasionally left behind. In
this study woody tree species density, frequency, coverage and importance values were
quantified on 40 circular plots (50 m2) across a north-south gradient at the Wilds in
Muskingum County, Ohio. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences
occur in woody plant species composition in disturbed (presence of mine spoils) versus
remnant forest patches in north, central and southern plots. Reclamation at the Wilds
occurred earliest on the northern sites (1940s and 50s) and most recently on the southern sites
(1970s and early 80s), with scattered woodlots left behind. Although both disturbed and
remnant forest patches were found on all three areas, randomly chosen plots on the north and
central locations had a greater frequency of disturbance (north = 60%, central = 60%, south =
20%). Importance values (relative density + relative frequency + relative coverage) from
each region indicated that sugar maples (Acer saccharum) and silver maples (A. saccharinum)
were the dominant species on northern plots, while tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) was
the dominant species on central plots. On southern plots where disturbance was less frequent,
sugar maples, American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and tulip poplars (Lireodendron tulipifera)
were the dominant species. These data suggest that the woody plant species composition and
importance on a reclaimed strip-mine differ not only between forest patches that were
previously disturbed versus “islands” of land that were left un-mined, but also across a north-
south temporal gradient of disturbance.


MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY TYPES IN HOME SCHOOL AND PUBLIC
SCHOOL EDUCATORS
Jami McDonald
Department of Psychology

Home schooling has been a rapidly growing trend in America in the past decade. This
research compared 15 home school educators to 35 public school teachers on motivational
style (Problems in School Questionnaire (PIS)), control (FIRO-B) and personality style
(MBTI). Home school educators were significantly more controlling in their motivational
style than public school teachers. However, both home school and public school educators
with more years of experience tended to identify more with an autonomy-supportive
approach. Lastly, most educators fell into the SFJ personality type which replicates previous
MBTI research.




                                              10
RESTORATION OF VACUUM SYSTEM FOR DEPOSITION OF
FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS
Charles Miller
Department of Physics and Engineering

The deposition of thin film ferromagnetic materials can be achieved through several methods,
including chemical and physical vapor deposition. These methods require a high vacuum
environment for proper results. This environment is usually achieved through a combination
of mechanical pumping, gas diffusion pumping, and cryogenic sweeping. This project
involved the diagnosis, restoration, and refurbishment of a Veeco high vacuum system for the
purposes of chemical or evaporative deposition of ferromagnetic films. Restoration involved
troubleshooting and component replacement in the system's mechanical and diffusion sub-
systems, as well as leak testing and implementation of a chilled-water recirculator for
diffusion pump cooling.


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS AND MUSIC PREFERENCE
James Miller
Department of Psychology

Previous research conducted has found some relationships between sex, different elements
and characteristics of music, and some personality traits. Results have found between sexes.
Females tended to prefer typically more “mainstream” or “popular” forms of music, while
males enjoyed “harder” forms of music (Christenson and Peterson, 1988). “Metagenre”
research as also found likings for similar types of music (Christenson & Peterson, 1988). For
personality characteristics, most results have been found with personality areas of
Extraversion and Openness to Experience. Those high in Extraversion enjoyed “arousing”
types of music and those high in Openness to Experience tended to enjoy many types of
music (Dollinger, 1993) and (Rawling and Ciancarelli, 1997). Research for this current study
was conducted to see if there was a relationship between personality traits and music
preference, mainly specific genres. Participants completed two surveys – a shortened version
of the IPIP-NEO, a personality inventory, and a music preference survey. The IPIP-NEO
gives five main factors of personality traits, as well as, thirty subdomain facets of personality.
Significant results were found among sex, music characteristics, music genres and personality
traits. For example, Extraversion was correlated with a liking for heavy, fast music and with
music genres that were typically of that nature, such as Rap and Heavy Metal. Openness to
Experience was positively correlated with a liking for slow, softer forms of music and with
music genres that were typically of this nature, such as Folk and Classical.




                                               11
EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS OF DOPAMINE ARE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY IN
THE STRIATUM DUE TO HIGH FREQUENCY STIMULATION FOLLOWING
ADMINISTRATION OF ASPARTAME
Caroline Padro and Dr. Brian Bergstrom
Neuroscience Program

Aspartame, or L-aspartyl-L-phenylanine methyl ester, is a commonly used food additive used
increasingly in many foods to replace sugar. Since one of the metabolites of aspartame in the
body is phenylalanine, there has been concern that this large neutral amino acid will interfere
with transport of tyrosine, which is dopamine‟s precursor, across the blood brain barrier due
to the high affinity, low capacity transporter of these amino acids. The purpose of these
experiments was to determine how varying stimulation frequency in the striatum would affect
extracellular levels of dopamine following the administration of aspartame. It was found that
there was a significant effect when stimulating at 50 Hz and 60 Hz using in vivo voltammetry.
These frequencies led to a significant decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum
and suggest that the ability to release dopamine is diminished..


PREPARATION AND BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL ANALOGUES OF
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE
Lopa Mudra Paul
Departments of Chemistry and Psychology

With approximately 4-9% of the American population diagnosed with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and over half of them being prescribed methylphenidate
hydrochloride (MPH), marketed as Ritalin, a thorough study of the behavioral modifications
of this drug has become essential. Studies done on rats have shown that play fighting is
profoundly depressed by „moderate‟ doses of MPH. Similar studies suggest that while
producing increased levels of focus and attention, the medication often deprives children of
their natural playfulness. The objective of the research was to determine if changes made in
the drug‟s structure would affect its binding affinity to the receptor site, dopamine transporter
(DAT), and accomplish the desirable effects while possibly resulting in fewer side effects.
Therefore, based on the predominantly nonpolar receptor site in DAT attempts have been
made to introduce two different nonpolar groups into the aromatic ring of MPH. Molecular
modeling studies were conducted to recognize the interactions between the analogues and
DAT. Simultaneously, behavioral studies using MPH were conducted on 10 female juvenile
rats to observe play behavior. Low doses of 1 mg/kg showed a significant increase in play,
while at higher doses there was a rapid decline. Play solicitation did not show any changes
across the varying dose levels. Follow up studies using the novel analogues is intended to
verify if the structural modifications lead to changes in play.




                                               12
DETERMINATION OF PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS INFECTION AT THE
WILDS BY DNA ANALYSIS
Eliza Porter, Dr. Tiffany Wolf, Dr. Barb Wolfe and Dr. Amy Santas
Department of Biology

The meningeal worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis can cause severe symptoms and death in
many species of exotic ungulates. This poses a threat to conservation efforts to preserve
endangered ungulate species at facilities such as the Wilds in Cumberland, Ohio. As this
organism and many closely related parasites are morphologically similar, DNA analysis is the
most accurate form of identification. In this experiment, fecal samples were collected from
ungulates at the Wilds and analyzed for P. tenuis larvae using the Baermann technique.
Potential P. tenuis larvae were analyzed using DNA polymerase chain reaction. The use of
this DNA analysis allows a distinction between P. tenuis and other similar parasites including
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni and Elaphostrongylus cervi based on the size of the fragments
obtained from the PCR. These techniques may help identify the infection in asymptomatic
ungulates at the Wilds. Proper detection of such carriers will be an important step in
preventing them from transmitting the parasite to ungulates which may develop symptoms
leading to death.


EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO CREATIVE LITERATURE ON MEASURABLE
STUDENT CREATIVITY
Lisa Reavis
Department of Psychology

The effect of reading a piece of creative literature on creativity was investigated. Twenty-two
English majors and 28 Physical Education majors participated. Approximately half of the
participants in each major read a story. The other half read a newspaper article. Participants
were given Form A of the Unusual Uses task of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking
(TTCT) prior to reading the literature and Form B of the Unusual Uses task after reading it.
Data were analyzed using a Repeated Measures ANOVA to test for differences between
English and P.E. majors, story and article groups, and the interaction. There was a main
effect of major on Unusual Uses scores, but no effect of literature and only a marginal
interaction.




                                              13
MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES ON MOTOR LEARNING IN CHILDREN
Jessica Shipe
Department of Psychology

Research has shown that children and adults alike use many different types of motivational
processes to work through tasks. The goal of the present research was to define different
types of motivation and recognize these types of motivation in children within an
experimental setting. The results of such work may be utilized to further understand which
motivators are prevalent in children and which of them could be increased in order to help a
child become more devoted to his or her tasks. The participants in this study were allowed to
perform a simple motor learning task, after which they filled out a questionnaire. After
boredom was reported to criterion, the participants were given another questionnaire measure
through which the experimenter was able to assess the different types of physical and
psychological motivators that were at work during a novel motor learning task. When in
group situations, participants were apt to rely on extrinsic stimuli to maintain interest in the
motor learning task. However, this exploitation of extrinsic stimuli did not increase the
number of days that participants remained interested in the task.


THE EFFECT OF PLANT OILS AND EXTRACTS ON THE GROWTH OF
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND METHICILLIN RESISTANT S.
AUREUS (MRSA)
Elizabeth Sickler
Department of Biology

Due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to emerge and
spread at an alarming rate. If this trend continues, some of the once treatable bacterial
infections may soon be untreatable with antibiotics. It is important for the medical community
to reverse this trend and search for new drugs for the treatment of bacterial infections. In this
study, the antibacterial effects of four plant oils/extracts: vetiver oil, garlic extract, thyme oil,
and Aloe vera gel, as well as colloidal silver were tested against Staphylococcus aureus (a
common cause of hospital-acquired infections), methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and
Lactobacillus plantarum (a normal flora in humans). A modified Kirby Bauer disk diffusion
method was used to determine whether these organisms are susceptible to different
concentrations of plant oils/extracts. A clear zone around a disc saturated with a plant
oil/extract, reflected the degree of bacterial susceptibility to each oil/extract. The results of
this experiment showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5-10% for thyme oil
and 0.5%-5% for Aloe vera gel for all organisms. The inhibitory action of vetiver was
inconclusive. Garlic extract and colloidal silver were ineffective against all three organisms.
Thyme was the only plant oil/extract that worked effectively using the micro atmosphere
method. All tests were performed in triplicates and each experiment was replicated, except
for testing involving L. plantarum.




                                                 14
USING AQUEOUS SUZUKI COUPLING REACTION TO MODIFY AND
CROSS-LINK LIGNIN
Jewel H. Songo and Dr. Eric J. Schurter
Department of Chemistry

Lignin has many advantages as a phenolic polymer that gives woody cell wall its strength and
rigidity. It is a renewable resource and unlike plastics is readily degraded by microorganisms
such as Polyporus versicolor, Poria monticola, and other fungi [1]. The methods used in
polymerizing lignin posses‟ minimal environmental hazards and can be an alternative less
environmentally toxic methods used in other polymeric materials. The chemical modification
of lignin involves methylation to remove hydroxyl groups so that when lignin is subject to
Suzuki coupling there will be a reduction in possible side reaction with the hydroxyl groups.
The methylation of 0.200 g lignin was accomplished by suspending lignin in 4.0 mL
dioxane/methanol, and then reacting within ether solution of diazomethane. An FTIR
spectrum using the miracle ATR accessory showed that the methylation of lignin was
successful based on the disappearances of the hydroxyl peak at 3365.71 cm-1, and a slight
increase in the methylated lignin‟s mass. The bromination of methylated lignin involves
addition of bromine to aryl groups in each monomer unit of the lignin. This provides the
functional group necessary for Suzuki coupling of the lignin molecules. The bromination of
lignin was achieved by suspending 0.200 g methylated lignin in 2 mL methanol, and reacting
with liquid bromine. FTIR spectrum showed significant shifting of the finger print region
consistent with bromination of lignin.


EFFECTIVENESS OF FORCED-USED THERAPY ON LEARNING USING
MANIPULATIVE DEXTERITY TASKS
Angela Soos
Department of Psychology

The ability to learn manipulative dexterity tasks was examined. Fifty-five participants (22
Males and 34 females) completed three trials of the Purdue Pegboard using their dominant,
non-dominant, or both hands, and three trials of the Grooved Pegboard using either dominant
or non-dominant hand. Overall, females performed significantly better over the three trials
than the males did. But looking at individual trials men had a more significant different
between their first and last trial indicating a greater learning curve. Different factors could
play a role in the results, such as hand and finger size.




                                              15
CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN (IODP EXPEDITION 306,
SITE U1314) AT CA. 1.5 MA
Jennifer Sorrell and Dr. Shelley A. Judge
Department of Geology

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 306 examined the climatic and
paleoceanographic history of the North Atlantic Ocean. The North Atlantic Ocean is well
known for its sensitivity to climatic fluctuations through time. This study focuses on
Pleistocene sediment samples from cores recovered from Site U1314. Site U1314 is located
southeast of Greenland and south of Iceland on the southern part of the Gardar Drift, just
north of the classic IRD (ice-rafted debris) belt. Some of the recovered sediment from U1314
was the product of IRD, which is sand- to gravel-sized sediment that was transported by
icebergs as they floated across the North Atlantic Ocean. The purpose of this study is to
record information collected from this Pleistocene IRD and then obtain a glacial climate
history for the North Atlantic Ocean approximately 1.5 million years ago.
Samples used in this study were obtained from the IODP Bremen Core Repository.
Approximately 10 cc of sediment was collected for each sample at a resolution of one sample
every 1500-2000 years. In order to extract the IRD from the sediment, each sample was
initially dried, weighed, and wet-sieved at both 150 μm and 2 mm. This >150 μm size-
fraction defines the IRD for this study. Samples were then dried and weighed once more.
Sieve data was analyzed descriptively through graphical representation. Preliminary results
suggest that the sediment from U1314 records intervals of more intense IRD accumulation
and other intervals dominated solely by biogenic components in the >150 μm size-fraction.
The IRD has been examined using a binocular microscope in order to identify the
composition of the lithic grains, and a variety of compositions have been noted, including the
presence of basalt, quartz (including rose quartz), obsidian, sandstone, and schist. By
extracting the IRD from U1314 sediment, we can reconstruct climate histories in the region,
determine provenance regions, and calculate the rate at which the IRD was deposited on the
Gardar Drift.




                                              16
COLORONOMICS – THE MYSTERIES OF HUE, SATURATION AND CHROME
Atul Todi
Department of Psychology

Color research is pertinent in this globalizing and multi-cultural world, where people associate
different emotions and feelings with different colors. But, effect of color involves more than
just hues. Color value (brightness) and chrome (saturation) influences the way people
perceive visual stimulus. This study was an online test presented over the internet, where
people associated pleasure and arousal words (PAD scales) with four generic objects shown in
four different saturation and brightness levels. The study found that difference between hues
for the way people perceive different emotions is not as significant as the way people perceive
and relate to different levels of saturation and brightness. And this difference varies
significantly between males and females. People associate pleasure (happy, satisfied) with a
higher level of brightness, and arousal (aroused, excited) with a high level of saturation. This
implies that a product – car, shoe, shirt, lipstick, drink, etc. can be made arousing without
using an arousing, exciting color (shades of red) and the same goes for making associations
with pleasure.


SALAMANDER SPECIES DIVERSITY ON DISTURBED AND UNDISTURBED
PORTIONS OF A RECLAIMED STRIP-MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
John M. Treasure and Dr. Danny J. Ingold
Department of Biology

Data on salamander species diversity and habitat preference on reclaimed strip-mines is
generally lacking. In particular, little has been reported on the diversity and abundance of
salamander species on undisturbed remnant forest patches surrounded by larger reclaimed
forests and grasslands. From late July through October 2006, 18 circular plots (each ~ 75
square m in size) were searched for salamanders on the Wilds, a reclaimed strip-mine in
Muskingum County, Ohio. Eight plots were located in forested areas that had been
previously strip-mined, while the other 10 were in undisturbed patches of forest surround by
reclaimed lands. Seven species of salamanders were found on undisturbed plots while only
two species were detected on previously-mined forest plots. More salamanders of all species
combined were found on undisturbed versus disturbed plots (N = 60 vs. 7 respectively). Red-
backed and mountain dusky salamanders (Plethedon cinereus and Desmognathus
ochrophaeus respectively) were the most abundant species (both in terms of numbers and
density) on the undisturbed plots. Red-backed salamanders and red-spotted newts
(Notophthalmus viridescens) were the only species found on the disturbed plots. The
abundance of both red-backed and mountain dusky salamanders were greater on undisturbed
vs. disturbed plots (N = 24 vs. 4 and N = 20 vs. 0 respectively). These findings suggest that
forest patches growing on areas that were previously strip-mined provide less desirable
habitat for salamanders when compared to remnant forest patches surround by reclaimed
lands.




                                              17
GENDER AND AGGRESSION DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY TO RECALL
EMOTIONAL WORDS
Lisa Wayt
Department of Psychology

Various studies have established that individuals have a greater ability to remember emotional
words versus neutral words. Whether or not females or males perform better in their recall
abilities of emotional words is still undetermined. Some research gives evidence that females
have a higher memory for emotional words. However, other studies showed how males
perform better on tasks that include sexual or violent contexts. Aggression is another variable
that could affect a person‟s ability to recall emotional words better than neutral words. One
study in particular has revealed that males showed a higher memory for aggressive words than
females did. In this study, I presented participants with three different trials of two words lists
containing both emotional and neutral words. After each trial the participants were asked to
recall as many words as possible. Then they completed an aggression questionnaire.
However, the experiment did not reveal any gender or aggression differences. It did show
that bathroom words produced a greater response when compared to the sexual and violent
emotional word groups. These results may reflect a shift in our society where the gap
between gender differences is decreasing and our shock value towards emotional words is not
what it was 30 years ago. Attitudes towards sexual and violent words have changed.
Participant‟s inability to recall as many sexual and violent words as bathroom words in this
experiment suggests that circumstances in our society have affected our tendency to be
shocked by words that used to be considered shocking.


MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN STRUCTURE TO AID CROSSLINKING PROCESS USING
SUZUKI COUPLING
Brittany Weaver
Department of Chemistry

Crosslinking could allow for the manufacturing of a biodegradable polymer that is cost
effective and environmentally conscious. The polymer could be broken down by white-rot
fungi, a process which produces minimal wastes (Have & Teunissen). In this experiment the
numbers of alcohol groups within the lignin compound were decreased through the process of
methylation. Removal of alcohol groups is necessary to enable Suzuki coupling reactions.
Methylation was conducted using an ether solution of diazomethane added to a suspension of
lignin in dioxane/methanol. The process leaves an ester in the place of the alcohol group.
Once this process was completed, the methylated lignin was brominated at the aromatic
functional groups within the monomer. The bromine group is added to the structure to
provide the functionality necessary for Suzuki coupling. Bromination was carried out through
creating a suspension of methylated lignin in methanol and adding liquid bromine. Analysis
by FTIR spectroscopy showed that the numbers of alcohol groups were greatly reduced
through the methylation process. This conclusion was made by observing a significant
decrease in the absorption at ~3300 cm-1. Successful bromination was also indicated by
significant absorption changes in the region of ~1200-1000 cm-1. The absorptions become
more distinct.



                                                18
EXPLORING THE CAUSE OF ADOLESCENT TOBACCO USE THROUGH THE
THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AND CONSIDERATION OF FUTURE
CONSEQUENCES SCALE
Courtney M. Wenzel
Department of Psychology

The current study investigated several factors to assess the causes of adolescent tobacco use.
Fifty-seven college students were administered the Theory of Planned Behavior questionnaire
and the Consideration of Future Consequence scale, which measured behavioral, normative
and control beliefs of using tobacco, as well as the degree to which someone weighs their
behavioral decisions on the consequences they may pose in the present or future. Smokers
showed less consideration of future consequences than did non-smokers. Males also showed
less consideration of future consequences than did females. Whether the parents of the
subjects smoked and whether they had friends who also smoked were important variables
related to smoking.


GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MATE SELECTION, AND HOW THEY DIFFER FROM
SHORT-TERM TO LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIPS
LaRinda Wickes
Department Of Psychology

Men and women have different views when it comes to mate selection. Other studies have
shown that men tend to look for a mate that has some form of physical attractiveness, whereas
the women look for a man that is of high social dominance. 98 participants (35 males, 63
females) volunteered to participate in this study. The data were analyzed using a sex by
relationship status analysis of variance. My hypothesis was supported by the results; women
will look for a man that can provide financially for them when they are in a short-term and in
a long-term relationship, and view mate poaching (having an affair) as an over benefit;
however all other hypotheses were not supported by the results.




                                              19
              Earth Day is Sunday, April 22
                There are no passengers on spaceship earth. We are all crew.
                                                             Marshall McLuhan

                       2007 Calendar of Events in Ohio
April 21, 2007: Blue Rock Station, OH Earth Day (Philo, OH, USA)
Come spend Earthday with us at Blue Rock Station. Aside from touring the station - we
will (weather permitting) set up areas where you and your kids can try many of the
techniques used in building sustainable shelters.

April 28, 2007: Bruckner, OH Run Wild 5k Earth Day Celebration (Troy, OH, USA)
Come celebrate Earth Day with a challenging 5K run/walk along Brukner Nature Center's
beautiful woodland trails. Preregistration is $15 by April 12. Late and same day
registration is $20. All participants receive a T-shirt, wildlife show, awards and
doorprizes! All proceeds benefit the wildlife programs at Brukner Nature Center.



                2007 Calendar of Events Across the U.S.A.

April   20-21, 2007:     Minnesota Earth Day Half Marathon (St. Cloud, MN)
April   21, 2007:        Blue Rock Station, OH Earth Day (Philo, OH)
April   21-22, 2007:     Celebrate Earth Day in Prospect Park! (Brooklyn, NY)
April   21, 2007:        Chicago Parks and Preserves Clean Up (Chicago, IL)
April   21, 2007:        Dana Point Neighborhood Clean Up (Dan Point,CA,)
April   21, 2007:        Earth Day Pensacola (Pensacola, FL)
April   21, 2007:        Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge
                         Community Tree Planting (Oceanville, NJ)
April 21, 2007:          Paso Robles Earth Day
                         Food and Wine Festival (Paso Robles, CA)
April 21, 2007:          Redondo Beach Earth Day 2007 (Redondo Beach,, CA)
April 21, 2007:          Riverside Nature Center
                         Earth Day Celebration (Kerrville, TX)
April 21, 2007:          Washington Township,
                         NJ Earth Day Celebration (NJ)
April 21, 2007:          West Virginia Earth Day Festival (Princeton, WV)
April 22, 2007:          Common Ground for Conservation (Miami, FL)
April 22, 2007:          Join Inkwell Surf's 2nd Annual
                         Earth Day Event!!! (Santa Monica, CA)
April 22, 2007:          Our Places in Urban Spaces (Portland, ME)
April 22, 2007:          Rye Nature Center Earth Day Celebration(Rye, NY)
April 22, 2007:          Schlitz Audubon Nature Center
                         Earth Day 2007 Celebration (Milwaukee, WI)
April 28, 2007:          Bruckner, OH Run Wild 5k Earth Day Celebration (Troy, OH)
April 28, 2007:          Oak Knoll 5th Annual Earth Day Celebration (Attleboro, MA)
April 28, 2007:          Volunteer Work Day at Oak Knoll
                         Wildlife Sanctuary (Attleboro, MA)




                                           1
"The greatest discoveries of science have always been those that forced us to rethink our
beliefs about the universe and our place in it.”
- Robert L. Park, in The New York Times, 7 December 1999."

“I don't know what you could say about a day in which you have seen four
beautiful sunsets.”
- John Glenn

“Only one thing is certain--that is, nothing is certain. If this statement is true, it is
also false.”
- Ancient paradox

“It is through science that we prove, but through intuition that we discover.”
- Poincaré, Jules Henrin

“A man ceases to be a beginner in any given science and becomes a master in that
science when he has learned that he is going to be a beginner all his life.”
- Collingwood, Robin

“To know the history of science is to recognize the mortality of any claim to
universal truth.”
- Evelyn Fox Keller, Reflections on Gender and Science, 1995

“The proof of a high education is the ability to speak about complex matters as simply
as possible.”
- R.W. Emerson

"To swear off making mistakes is very easy. All you have to do is swear off
 having ideas."
- Leo Burnett

"Who never walks save where he sees men's tracks makes no discoveries."
- J.G. Holland

“Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn't do than
by the ones you did. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the
trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.”
- This quote has been attributed to Mark Twain, but the attribution cannot be verified. The
quote should not be regarded as authentic.


"I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work."
- Thomas Edison



                                               2

				
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