America Claims an Empire America Claims an

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					America Claims an Empire

   America Goes Imperialistic
          Chapter 10
     America Pushes Outward
• #1Manifest Destiny- “our right to expand” – we
  took over Indian territory sea to sea
• #2 Social Darwinism- whites were superior- we
  “owed” it to inferior peoples to help them
• #3Alfred Mahan- need strong navy to
  demonstrate power, get ahead economics
• #4Overproduced- need new markets, avoid
  unemployment, possible depression
• #5- “Yellow Journalism” Hearst vs Pulitzer
     Take Alaska and Hawaii
• Buy Alaska- Seward’s IceBox/Folly from
  Russians for $7.2MM or 2 cents/acre-1867
• Hawaii-”annexed” 1898-”haoles” want
  better trade terms for sugar, build base at
  Pearl Harbor. W/help from Marines,
  overtake govt from Queen Liliuokalani-
  New govt by Sanford Dole. Annexed w/o
  consent of Hawaiians
Strategic Assets to US
       Spanish American War
• A war for independence in Cuba turns into a war
  between US and Spain (who “owned” Cuba)
• Strategically located 90 miles from FLA
• Most sugar plantations owned by US
• Jose Marti-Cuban exile in NY-Cuba Libre
• Spanish Gen Weyler –concentration camps to
  stop insurrection, control Cubans
• Sensational stories of the Butcher by yellow
  journalists fuels the sympathy for Cuba Libre
• DeLome letter scandal adds fuel
Remember the Maine!
  War Begins- 2 Fronts Cuba and
• Attack Philippines first-all Navy
• Commodore George Dewey in place to
  attack Philippines-steamed into Manila
• Blew up all Spanish Fleet
• Landed –with help of Filipino rebel Emilio
  Aguinaldo- captured islands by in 2
    Cuba Proved More Difficult
• Navy set up blockades around the island-
  prevented reinforcements from Spain
• US-volunteer army –launched from Tampa
• Rough Riders – led by Theodore Roosevelt,
  Leonard Wood
• Buffalo Soldiers- African American troops
• Kettle Hill cleared way for San Juan hill
• US invades Puerto Rico next
• John Hay – Sectry State “Splendid Little War”
                War “Booty”
• Already had Alaska and Hawaii
• Philippines-for $20 million-annexation-justifies to
  “Christianize” them-Rebels revolt-3 yrs for US to
  put down, $400 million
• Guam
• Cuba-military occupation-recognized
  independence, Platt Amendment added to
  Constitution, became a protectorate
• Puerto Rico-Foraker Act ended military rule,
  have US citizenship, no vote, today a
China . . . U.S. is Late to the Game
• US is late to the “China party” –other imperialist
  countries got there first- Spheres of Influence, eg
  Hong Kong
• John Hay – Secty State- issue “open door
  policy”- no one can have a monopoly on trade in
• Resentment grows in China- escalates to Boxer
  Rebellion, multi-lateral troops to squash uprising
• Defines U.S. trade policy: #1economy depends
  on exports, #2US has right to keep markets
  open, #3Closing area off to US a threat to
  survival –Open Door Policy
         TR and US Triumph
• TR- President due to assassination of McKinley,
  youngest at 42 in 1901
• 1906 Nobel Peace prize for negotiating between
  Russia and Japan a settlement
• Canal needed to shorten route both
  commercially and militarily between Atlantic and
• U.S. buys rights to land in Panama from French
• U.S. supports Panama revolution for independ
  from Colombia- gets permission from Panama to
  build, pays Colombia $25 million
     US Latin American Policy
• TR – The World’s Constable-issues “Roosevelt
  Corollary” – we will intervene to protect our
  economic interests in Latin America

• Taft- Dollar Diplomacy-prop up economies in
  Latin America by guaranteeing loans made by
  US businesses

• Wilson- Missionary Diplomacy-adds morality to
  foreign affairs and only recognize govts that
  were democratic and cordial, not oppressive
Speak Softly, but carry a Big Stick
      The Mexican Revolution
• Porfirio Diaz, dictator of Mexico for 30 yrs, friend
  to US business, encouraged investment in RR,
  ranches, mines, oil
• Francisco Madero and peasants overthrew
• Madero can’t to make democratic reforms
• Overthrown by Gen Huerta, kills Madero
• Wilson calls it “government of butchers”
• Group US sailors arrested in Tampico, Wilson
  retaliates, occupies port of Veracruz, many die
• Brink of war, but Huerta govt collapse, Carranza
  takes over Mexico, asks for Constitution
    Mexican Rebellion and US
• Mexican rebels still want US out of affairs
• Pancho Villa and Zapata want land reforms,
  business returned to Mexicans
• American engineers headed to run mines taken
  off train and shot by Villa
• US retaliates-Gen John Pershing & 15,000
  soldiers sent to Mexico to capture Villa “dead or
  alive”, then 150,000 Guardsmen sent to border-
  seen as “act of war”-some killed
• Finally, 1917 – US troops sent home

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