WARM UP 5/24
1. What is the epiglottis?
2. What is the frenulum?
3. What is bolus?
4. What are 2 main functions of the liver?
5. What is the main thing the pancreas
6. Where does all digestion finish?
7. What two substances digest fats?
8. Name 3 things you learned from the
ditto Friday on digestive disorders.
Ch 21 NOTES 5/24
Large in diameter,
About 5 feet long
2 ½ inches wide
Goes up and
around outside of
produces mucus so
easy to move
NO villi present
Peristalsis to move
1. Absorbs water
(some minerals too)
Ileum of the small intestine enters the
cecum of the large intestine at the
APPENDIX – small
the small and large
inflammation of the
1. CECUM – 1st 2 feet
3. RECTUM – last 7-8
Bacteria are everywhere. We swallow them with
our food, drink them with water, they are in the
air we breathe, on our skin, in our mouths,
digestive tract, sinuses and other areas of our
In so far as health is concerned, some of them
are harmful, some neutral and some are very
beneficial. Some are extremely valuable for good
health as they work harmoniously with our
immune system. In a healthy colon, there are
literally billions of beneficial or "friendly"
Under favorable conditions, they multiply at a
fast enough rate to keep pace with the large
numbers that are lost during elimination.
Bacteria is also referred to as micro-organisms.
When they are located in the intestinal tract,
they are referred to as "intestinal flora,"
"micro-flora", "good bacteria",
"friendly/beneficial bacteria" or sometimes
These friendly bacteria synthesize many
important vitamins in the digestive tract
including Vitamin K and some of the B
A very important function they perform is
helping the colon maintain a proper pH or acid-
base balance. It is necessary for the pH to stay
in the correct range in order for other health
supporting bacteria to exist. It is also
important to keep levels of antagonistic micro-
organisms under control.
Makes odor of
feces and “gas”
Plant cell walls are hardest for our body
to break down. Bacteria in the large
intestine try to break it down – work
Make more of their waste product,
methane, so we have more gas
Bacteria also make
Help the body to
Solid waste product of food
Consists of undigested food, mucus,
bacteria, and some water
When walls in the rectum stretch
due to feces entering, it sends a
message to the brain and walls of
rectum start to contract.
Called a “bowel movement”
Anal canal – last
inches of the rectum
End of the rectum has
2 sphincters – one
you can control
Defecation – the
elimination of feces
Enlarged veins of the anal canal
The branch of medicine
that deals with the
diagnosis and treatment
of disorders affecting the
colon, rectum, and anus.
FIBER in the diet
softens stool for
DIARRHEA – watery stools
- food wastes are rushed through
the large intestine before it has time
to absorb water
- usually caused by bacteria
PROBLEM – causes dehydration
CONSTIPATION – feces hard to
- food wastes remains too long in
the body, stools hard
Caused by lack of fiber or “holding it”
1. Sublingual 11. Ascending colon
2. Submandibular 12. Small intestine
3. Gallbladder (ileum)
4. Liver 13. Ileocecal valve
5. Hepatic duct 14. Ceucum
6. Cystic duct 15. Appendix
7. Common bile duct 16. Parotid
8. Duodenum 17. Pharynx
9. Large intestine 18. Esophagus
10. Small intestine 19. Cardiac sphincter
(jejunem) 20. stomach
21. Pyloric sphincter
23. Transverse colon
24. Descending colon
27. Anal canal
28. Anal sphincter5
1. Are you a current or former smoker?
Yes. I am familiar with smoking.
No. I have never smoked.
2. Do you work or socialize around
Yes. I have friends who smoke.
No. I try to keep away from smokers.
3. Do you eat much meat?
Yes. I eat meat at least 3 times per week.
No. I don't eat much meat. I have no desire for it.
4. Do you rarely eat dairy products?
Yes. I try to keep away from dairy products.
No. I eat milks or cheeses every day.
5. Less than one bowel movement per
Yes. I'm around one per day. Sometimes even less.
No. I usually have more then one BM per day.
6. Are you presently on heavy medications or
drugs (legal or illegal)?
Yes. I am.
No. No drugs for me, chemical and/or recreational.
7. Do you lack exercising regularly?
Yes. I do not get much exercise
No. I an physically active.
8. Are you more than 20 pounds overweight?
Yes. I am overweight and don't like it.
No. Weight seems not be a problem for me.
9. Do you drive in congested traffic, or live near air
Yes. I'm in the traffic and/or the pollution.
No. I keep out of the traffic and/or live in nature.
10. Drinking less than three glasses of water daily?
Yes. I hardly ever drink water. I prefer other drinks.
No. I make a conscious effort to drink lots of water.
11. Do you eat less than one serving of fresh
fruit and/or less then one serving of fresh
vegetables (salad, steamed vegetables, sprouts,
etc.) per day?
Yes. I don't eat much fresh greens, or fresh fruit.
No. I eat a lot of fruit and salads, almost daily.
12. Do you work in an industrial environment with
a lot of chemicals?
Yes. That's where I work.
No. For all the money in the world. No way.
13. Do you take laxatives?
Yes. Sometimes occasionally, sometimes frequently.
No. I hardly ever need them.
14. Does your family have a history of a short life
Yes. That seems to be in our lot.
No. We are graced by relatively long life.
15. Do you have mucus problems? (stuffy nose, sinus
congestion, watery eyes, abundant sweat, etc..)
Yes. I do. It bothers me sometimes.
No. No chronic mucus problems.
16. Do you have bad body odor when not using
Yes. My body odor needs masking.
No. I naturally smell OK, even if I don't shower.
17. Do you have "bad breath"?
Yes. Mouthwash & dentist visits haven't really helped.
No. I don't mask my breath. No need for mouthwash.
18. Do you get sick easily?
Yes. I seem to always get something in winter.
No. Last time I was sick was years ago.
19. Do you have any major illness?
Yes. I do.
No. I am consistently and basically in good health.
13 + score: toxins are accumulating in your body at an
excessive & accelerated pace.
12 - 9 score: you are leading a lifestyle that does not lead to
good stable health.
8-6 score: you're doing OK, but you need to watch out for
5 or below score: you are aware, conscious and mindful of
the fact that your health AND your life is your responsibility.
You are a hamburger. Explain all that you
see and what happens to you as you
move through the digestive system. Be
specific and descriptive, using the first
person to write.
Must be every other line, single sided, AT
LEAST 2 ½ pages
*bun = carb and starch *mayo = fat
* Meat = protein